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Comparative analysis of antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts from fresh green tea and black tea on pathogens

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Abstract

Medicinal plants have been a major source of therapeutic agents for alleviation and cure diseases. In the present investigation comparative analysis of antimicrobial activity of green tea Camellia sinensis fresh leaves, commercial green tea leaves and dust tea against enteropathogens and specific fungi were carried out. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts of Camellia sinensis was analyzed by using well diffusion method paper disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration. Synergistic activity of green tea and commercial antibiotic chlorophenicol was analyzed. The allopathic antibacterial drugs are said to be costlier and have more side effects. Moreover multiple drug resistant strains are on the raise in this era and thus complicating treatment. On the other hand herbal preparations are comparatively cheaper and have lesser side effects. So, herbal preparations can supplement other systems of medicine for the treatment of diseases caused by bacteria and fungi.

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... 3 Many studies have reported its antibiotic, anti inflammatory, anti oxidative, antifungal, anti diabetic, anti viral, anti mutagenic properties. [5][6][7][8][9][10][11] The limited literature suggests that green tea interferes with caries formation at every step and inhibit the process. 11 Similarly, Alstonia scholaris has also reported potent anti microbial activity in ancient era. ...
... [18][19][20][21] Camellia sinensis and Alstonia scholaris plants were known for their medicinal properties since centuries. 10 Lack of sufficient literature evaluating antimicrobial efficacy of these plant extracts on dental caries bacteria led us to undertake this in vitro study which assessed anti oxidant and antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Alstonia scholaris extracts on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. ...
... 11 Plant is said to contain anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity due to the presence of polyphenols and catechins. 10 Similarly, some studies have reported anti-microbial, phyto chemical and antioxidative property of different parts viz. leaves flowers, bark, root and latex of Alstonia scholaris. ...
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Context Dental caries is showing an upward trend in India and there is a need to explore innovative strategies to prevent the disease. Literature evaluating antibacterial activity of Camellia sinensis and Alstonia scholaris plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus is practically non-existent. Objectives - To assess the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antimicrobial efficacy of Camellia sinensis and Alstonia scholaris on S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Materials and method: This was an in vitro study carried over a period of three months. The leaves of Camellia sinensis and Alstonia scholaris were collected, and crushed to obtain coarse powder. Plant extraction was performed using Soxhelet appartus. Anti- oxidant assay was performed for both the plant extracts against DPPH radical using Spectrophotometer at 517nm. Inhibition percentage was calculated through absorbance value measured from spectrophotometer. Anti- microbial activity of both the plant extracts against Microbial Type Culture Collection strains of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus was assessed using Agar well diffusion method. 0.2% Chlorhexidine was used as positive control and ethanol as negative control. The experiment was performed in triplicates. Mean inhibition zone in each set of experiment was computed using three readings after accounting for well diameter. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Tukey’s post hoc test and independent sample‘t’ test were performed to compare the mean inhibition zone. Results: The plant extracts were effective against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Camellia sinensis at 4% concentration produced a mean inhibition zone of 30.3± 3.9 mm against Streptococcus mutans and 23.8± 2.2 mm against Lactobacillus acidophilus. Alstonia scholaris at 10% concentration produced a mean inhibition zone of 21.6± 2.8 mm against Streptococcus mutans and 24.1± 1.6 mm against Lactobacillus acidophilus. Conclusion: Camellia sinensis and Alstonia scholaris have significant anti- oxidant and anti- microbial property against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus.
... The previous studies reporting the antifungal activity were performed using somehow purified compounds; however, other works also report such activity using crude extracts. Archana and Abraham in 2011 [79] did a comparative analysis of the antifungal activity of leaf extracts from fresh green tea, commercial green tea and black tea on Fusarium, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and C. albicans. The fresh green tea methanolic extract was found to have higher activity. ...
... All extracts exhibited antifungal activity against two aflatoxigenic moulds Aspergillus parasiticus with a positive correlation with the extract concentration. The results obtained by Orak and colleagues were in agreement with those obtained by Archana and Abraham in 2011 [79] being the green tea extracts the ones presenting the higher inhibitory rates. ...
Article
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Medicinal plants have been used since antiquity to cure illnesses and injuries. In the last few decades, natural compounds extracted from plants have garnered the attention of scientists and the Camellia species are no exception. Several species and cultivars are widespread in Asia, namely in China, Japan, Vietnam and India, being also identified in western countries like Portugal. Tea and oil are the most valuable and appreciated Camellia subproducts extracted from Camellia sinensis and Camellia oleifera, respectively. The economic impact of these species has boosted the search for additional information about the Camellia genus. Many studies can be found in the literature reporting the health benefits of several Camellia species, namely C. sinensis, C. oleifera and Camellia japonica. These species have been highlighted as possessing antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral) and antitumoral activity and as being a huge source of polyphenols such as the catechins. Particularly, epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and specially epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenols of green tea. This paper presents a detailed review of Camellia species’ antioxidant properties and biological activity.
... Chalcones are considered important secondary metabolites and precursors of flavonoids and isoflavonoids in plants [152] that produce their antimicrobial activities through NorA efflux pump inhibition [153]. Chalcone (15) and dihydrochalcone (16) isolated from the ethanolic root extract of Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. ...
... 4′,6′-Dihydroxy-3′,5′-dimethyl-2′methoxychalcone from Dalea versicolor Zucc. was found to enhance erythromycin activity by reducing MIC from 0.4-0.1 μg/mL in another study [153]. ...
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Microbial resistance has progressed rapidly and is becoming the leading cause of death globally. The spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms has been a significant threat to the successful therapy against microbial infections. Scientists have become more concerned about the possibility of a return to the pre-antibiotic era. Thus, searching for alternatives to fight microorganisms has become a necessity. Some bacteria are naturally resistant to antibiotics, while others acquire resistance mainly by the misuse of antibiotics and the emergence of new resistant variants through mutation. Since ancient times, plants represent the leading source of drugs and alternative medicine for fighting against diseases. Plants are rich sources of valuable secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, quinones, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids, and polyphenols. Many studies focus on plant secondary metabolites as a potential source for antibiotic discovery. They have the required structural properties and can act by different mechanisms. This review analyses the antibiotic resistance strategies produced by multidrug-resistant bacteria and explores the phytochemicals from different classes with documented antimicrobial action against resistant bacteria, either alone or in combination with traditional antibiotics.
... The inhibitory effect of R. officinalis L. started at 0.04% against B. cereus, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes, followed by 0.08% against S. Enteritidis and 0.16% against E. coli (Table 2), while C. sinensis L. and citric acid suppressed the growth of these bacterial pathogens at a concentration of approximately 0.3%. These results indicate that Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to antibacterial agents than Gram-negative bacteria, which is consistent with the results of other studies [16,[35][36][37]. According to Archana and Abraham et al. [16], the MIC values of a methanolic C. sinensis L. extract were 0.8 mg/mL against E. coli, 0.8 mg/mL against S. aureus, and 1.2 mg/mL against Salmonella Typhi. ...
... These results indicate that Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to antibacterial agents than Gram-negative bacteria, which is consistent with the results of other studies [16,[35][36][37]. According to Archana and Abraham et al. [16], the MIC values of a methanolic C. sinensis L. extract were 0.8 mg/mL against E. coli, 0.8 mg/mL against S. aureus, and 1.2 mg/mL against Salmonella Typhi. An ethanolic extract of C. sinensis L. leaves generated a larger inhibition zone against E. coli (13 mm) than against S. aureus (12 mm) [1]. ...
Article
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Chemical antibacterials are widely used to control microbial growth but have raised concerns about health risks. It is necessary to find alternative, non-toxic antibacterial agents for the inhibition of pathogens in foods or food contact surfaces. To develop a non-toxic and “green” food-grade alternative to chemical sanitizers, we formulated a multicomponent antibacterial mixture containing Rosmarinus officinalis L., Camellia sinensis L., citric acid, and ε-polylysine and evaluated its bactericidal efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes on food contact surfaces. A combination of the agents allowed their use at levels lower than were effective when tested individually. At a concentration of 0.25%, the multicomponent mixture reduced viable cell count by more than 5 log CFU/area, with complete inactivation 24 h after treatment. The inhibitory efficacy of the chemical antibacterial agent (sodium hypochlorite, 200 ppm) and the multicomponent antibacterial mixture (0.25%) on utensil surfaces against S. aureus, E. coli, S. Enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes were similar, but the multicomponent system was more effective against B. cereus than sodium hypochlorite, with an immediate 99.999% reduction on knife and plastic basket surfaces, respectively, and within 2 h on cutting board surfaces after treatment. A combination of these food-grade antibacterials could be a useful strategy for inhibition of bacteria on food contact surfaces while allowing use of lower concentrations of its components than are effective individually. This multicomponent food-grade antibacterial mixture may be a suitable “green” alternative to chemical sanitizers.
... In a study done by Aghazadeh et al., 6 only negligible amount of inhibition was noted on clinical isolates among Candida albicans which is similar to the results of the present study. These results are comparable with the results of Archana and Abraham, 7 and Giriraju and Yunus. 8 Also similar result was reported by Yassien. ...
... The inhibitory effect of Tea extract was more in contrast to the cold extract. The result obtained in our study was similar to the result of Archana and Abraham (2011). ...
Article
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Kahwa or the Kashmiri Green tea is a staple beverage consumed in Kashmir in all seasons, but especially winter. Kahwa is traditionally a mix of green tea extract and other spices such as saffron, cardamom and is occasionally supplemented with pepper or cinnamon and almond pieces. Having several health benefits, Kahwa is popular in other regions of northern India as well. In the present study, the method for preparing a Kahwa concentrate is described. Double-boiling method was used for reducing the aqueous Kahwa extract, followed by testing of the concentrate for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The extract showed a zone of inhibition ranging from 0.75cm to 1.1 cm against E. coli cells and showed an antioxidant activity at 40.68%. The extract was also evaluated for suitability of taste using the 9-point Hedonic Scale and was found to be acceptable with a good score.
... These our results were found to be similar with the results of earlier researches, Archana and Abraham, (2011), who exhibited the green tea extract have greater antimicrobial activity than black ones. And Othman et al., (2019), found that green tea extract have high antimicrobial activity and the least activity was found in black tea extract. ...
Research
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this work is about the antibacterial effect of green and black tea extracts: we found that hot extract has greater effect than cold extracts of both types of tea . we also found that black tea has greater ability to recover tissue damages than green tea,
... In this context, researchers' attention turned to the study of the actions of vegetable decoctions, which have been used since ancient times in both traditional Eastern and Western medicine for their anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects [36]. Recently, plants with healing properties have come to symbolize safety, as opposed to drugs made by chemical synthesis, which are now considered unsafe for both patients and the environment [45]. Increasing the use of medicinal plants in medicine offers an important economic advantage in treating various diseases [46]. ...
Article
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Among esthetic procedures, teeth whitening is a common and often used treatment for patients who seek good teeth appearance. We developed an experimental green tea extract and an experimental green tea gel for enamel restoring treatment after bleaching. We also tested the antibacterial and antifungal effect of the experimental extract against specific endodontic and cariogenic microorganisms. The green tea extract antibacterial action was determined by the disk-diffusion method using Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (ATCC27337), Corynebacterium xerosis (ATCC 373), Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) strains. Enamel microstructure was investigated by SEM analysis, and surface details were revealed by AFM. The inhibition zones around the wells showed evident antimicrobial activity of the experimental extract. In the presence of Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), the extract showed no antifungal activity. The enamel’s surface roughness and hydroxyapatite prism aspects were the parameters followed throughout the study. The experimental green tea extract is efficient against some microorganisms commonly found in the oral cavity. However, the studied extract had no antifungal effect. The results show that after bleaching with the experimental gel, we obtained the best surface parameters, similar to healthy enamel.
... Therefore, leaf extracts have the potential to effectively inhibit the growth of microorganisms. So far, most studies have focused on tea leaf extracts [13], as well as some herbs and spices [14,15]. The antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts from fruit trees and shrubs has not been studied extensively. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the composition of leaf extracts from Aronia melanocarpa, Chaenomeles superba, and Cornus mas, and their antimicrobial activity against typical spoilage-causing and pathogenic bacteria found in meat and meat products. The highest total phenolic content (TPC) was detected in C. superba extract, followed by C. mas and A. melanocarpa extracts. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was measured by DPPH and ABTS assays. The lowest IC50 values were found for C. superba extract, followed by C. mas and A. melanocarpa extracts. LC-MS and HPLC analysis revealed that A. melanocarpa and C. superba extracts contained hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids (mainly flavonols). Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were detected in the C. mas extract, as well as flavonols, ellagitannins, and iridoids. The antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was tested against Gram-negative bacteria (Moraxella osloensis, Pseudomonas fragi, Acinetobacter baumanii, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella enterica) and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Lactobacillus sakei, Listeria monocytogenes) using the microculture method. The extracts acted as bacteriostatic agents, decreasing the growth rate (µmax) and extending the lag phase (tlag). C. mas showed most potent antibacterial activity, as confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA).
... C. sinensis also proved its antibacterial and antibiofilm activity at all studied concentrations. It has shown highest zone of inhibition ( 27 has shown zone of inhibition of 16mm, 12mm against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively at different concentrations ranging from 20-100µl. These results were in concordance to our study. ...
Article
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Antimicrobial resistance to the pathogenic microorganism has been characterized as a public health emergency both in the community and in hospitals. That is why; we need to find alternatives, which could be used as antibacterial agents. Therefore aim of this study is to determine the antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of 4 plant extracts Clove (Syzygium aromaticum), Tea (Camellia sinensis), Garlic (Allium sativum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum).Antibacterial properties of plant extracts at different concentrations (50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 mg/mL) were tested against Multi Drug Resistance biofilm producing Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus using the agar well diffusion method.Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and antibiofilm properties of the plant extracts were determined using the tube dilution method and modified crystal violet assay, respectively. Total of 180 clinical isolates were screened for their MDR Pattern. Out of these, 72 were MDR isolates. These MDR isolates were categorized into weak, moderate and strong biofilm producers. Fourteen, Forty nine and nine were weak, moderate and strong biofilm producers, respectively. Out of the 4 plant extracts, Syzygium aromaticum and Camellia sinensis were found to be more effective with maximum zone of inhibition (20 – 25 mm), MBC 6.25 mg/ml and biofilm reduction of more than 50% compared to Allium sativum and Coriandrum sativum. All medicinal plant extracts were effective at different concentrations against the biofilm producing MDR isolates but Syzygium aromaticum and Camellia sinensis showed maximum antibacterial and antibiofilm activity.
... Catechins in natural products have been shown to be efficient in the reduction of these processes [19][20]. Catechins in green tea account for about 30 % of the dry weight of fresh tea leaves, and the extracts from these leaves have also been shown to have antibacterial and antifungal activities [21]. C. papaya root extract has been reported to have good antibacterial and antifungal activities [22][23]. ...
Article
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Phytochemicals in the ethanolic extract from the root of Carica papaya Linn partitioned in chloroform-water system were identified and quantified using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The identified constituents were catechin, sapogenin, sparteine, quinine, naringenin, naringin, anthocyanidine and flavone with concentration 77.14 µg/g, 25.84 µg/g, 15.12 µg/g, 13.36 µg/g, 8.10 µg/g, 6.20 µg/g, 3.78 µg/g and 0.06 µg/g respectively. The reported diuretic, arbotifacient, antifungal, antityphoid and antimalarial properties of the root extract of this plant could be attributed to the presence of sparteine, catechin, flavone and quinine components. The presence of naringin, sparteine and catechin suggested that the extract could serve as an anti-inflammatory agent and also be used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
... This was the minimum concentration at which green tea extract inhibited the pathogen. In another study, the antibacterial effects of tea polyphenols (TPP) extracted from Korean green tea (Camellia sinensis) have been found against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Archana and Abraham, 2011). In present study, green tea extract showed MBC at 500 μg/mL against MDR S. aureus but no MBC was found against MDR E. coli. ...
Article
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Plant extracts and their purified compounds were examined for synergistic antimicrobial activity using selectedmulti-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. The study aims to investigate the antibacterial activity of green tea(Camellia sinensis) and its purified compound epigallocatechingallate (EGCG). The synergistic relation of thecompound with antibiotic was detected against selected potential Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens.Staphylococcus aureusandEscherichia coliwere used as test pathogens which were resistant to different groups ofantibiotics. After collection of fresh green tea leaves, samples were washed and air dried. EGCG is one of thebioactive compounds and was separated from tea plant. Antibacterial activity of EGCG and crude extracts of greentea were done by microdilution method (minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concen-tration). The synergistic effect of EGCG and gentamicin was determined. MIC value of green tea extract was foundat 125μg/mL in case of MDRE. coli, MDRS. aureusand their reference strains and MBC at 500μg/mL againstS. aureus. No MBC value was found againstE. coli. EGCG showed better activity on Gram positive pathogencompared to that of Gram negative. MBC value of this compound was 1250μg/mL forE. coliwhere 625μg/mL forS. aureus. Strong synergistic relation (FICI 0.325) was found against pathogens in the combination of EGCG withgentamycin. The purified EGCG compound of green tea has great synergistic effect against MDR pathogens. Moreinvestigation is needed to know the inhibitory effect of these plant extracts and their components. (PDF) Antibacterial activities of green tea crude extracts and synergistic effects of epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) with gentamicin against MDR pathogens. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337472100_Antibacterial_activities_of_green_tea_crude_extracts_and_synergistic_effects_of_epigallocatechingallate_EGCG_with_gentamicin_against_MDR_pathogens .
... This is particularly true with certain types of cancer, such as ovarian cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and bladder cancer. Some studies also show that black tea may help prevent stomach cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer and oral cancers (especially for those who use tobacco products) [25][26][27][28]. ...
Chapter
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Tea, next to water, is the beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea is great for joining and collecting family members and public communities since ancient times. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years, and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Anti-ageing, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This review describes the evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and inhibits pathogenic bacteria and general health promotion associated with tea consumption.
... EGCG is the most abundant chemical component in tea extract and the actively powerful in biological activity. The concentration of polyphenols in fresh tea leaves remains approximately 30% of the dry weight (Archana and Abraham, 2011). A large number of pharmacological studies and epidemiological studies show that green tea has potent antioxidant effects (Chan et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Green tea is a un-fermented product of Camellia species. Leaves of Camellia sinensis and Camellia assamica are used for the production of green tea but C. assamica is widely used for black tea. It contain many active compounds such as theaflavins, tea polyphenols, epigalloctocatenin (EGCG), epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), gallocatechingallate (GCG) and tea catechins. Tea possesses antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, MRSA, Clostridium perfringes, Vibro parahaemolyticus and Heliobacter pylori. It also bears antioxidant, immunomodalatory and anti-cancerous properties. It also works LDL oxidation and hypoglycemic action of tea polyphenols. Therefore, both the species of Camellia can be useful to protect human beings from various ailments.
... This was the minimum concentration at which green tea extract inhibited the pathogen. In another study, the antibacterial effects of tea polyphenols (TPP) extracted from Korean green tea (Camellia sinensis) have been found against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Archana and Abraham, 2011). In present study, green tea extract showed MBC at 500 μg/mL against MDR S. aureus but no MBC was found against MDR E. coli. ...
Article
Full-text available
Plant extracts and their purified compounds were examined for synergistic antimicrobial activity using selected multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. The study aims to investigate the antibacterial activity of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and its purified compound epigallocatechingallate (EGCG). The synergistic relation of the compound with antibiotic was detected against selected potential Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were used as test pathogens which were resistant to different groups of antibiotics. After collection of fresh green tea leaves, samples were washed and air dried. EGCG is one of the bioactive compounds and was separated from tea plant. Antibacterial activity of EGCG and crude extracts of green tea were done by microdilution method (minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration). The synergistic effect of EGCG and gentamicin was determined. MIC value of green tea extract was found at 125 μg/mL in case of MDR E. coli, MDR S. aureus and their reference strains and MBC at 500 μg/mL against S. aureus. No MBC value was found against E. coli. EGCG showed better activity on Gram positive pathogen compared to that of Gram negative. MBC value of this compound was 1250 μg/mL for E. coli where 625 μg/mL for S. aureus. Strong synergistic relation (FICI 0.325) was found against pathogens in the combination of EGCG with gentamycin. The purified EGCG compound of green tea has great synergistic effect against MDR pathogens. More investigation is needed to know the inhibitory effect of these plant extracts and their components.
... EGCG is the most abundant chemical component in tea extract and the actively powerful in biological activity. The concentration of polyphenols in fresh tea leaves remains approximately 30% of the dry weight (Archana and Abraham, 2011). A large number of pharmacological studies and epidemiological studies show that green tea has potent antioxidant effects (Chan et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Medicinal plants are the prominent source of therapeutic agents used to prevent the human pathogenic bacteria. In the present investigation, comparative analysis on antibacterial activity of Camellia sinensis and Camellia assamica was done against human pathogenic bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi. The extraction of plant leaves in different solvents like petroleum ether, chloroform and acetone were done by using soxhlet apparatus and their antibacterial activity were analyzed by well and disc diffusion method against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The acetone soluble extract resulted in the highest zone of inhibition against the test pathogens. The chloroform and acetone soluble extracts of C. assamica possessed the potential antibacterial activity as compared with C. sinensis. The acetone soluble extract posed the highest inhibitory effect on the growth of six bacterial species viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi. Tannins, saponins, terpenoids, alkaloids, steroids, reducing sugars, flavonoids and cardiac glycoside were present in different solvent-soluble extracts in two different species. Leaf based herbal preparations are cheaper and has no side-effects on human health. Therefore, herbal preparation should be used as medicine to cure the diseases caused by pathogenic and multi-drug resistance bacteria.
... Then the extract was soaking for 2 day, filtered from the leaves by filtered using Whatman filter paper No1. [11] The filtrate was then centrifuged at the highest speed (3000 rpm for 5 min). [12] This process was repeated three times. ...
Article
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Treating ailments is one important aspect of alternative medicine by used herbal medicines/drugs; plant extracts may be used for the preservation of processed foods as well as pharmaceutical and natural therapies for the treatment of infectious diseases in humans. From various skin bacterial infections, we selected 10 isolates For each of the Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in ultimately the total becomes 30 isolates Equally, that associated the common infections in hospitalized patients & the out patients. This study tested in vitro activity of flowers of Calendula officinalis, the roots of Cichorium Intybus and leaves Portulaca Oleracea. The antibacterial assay results showed for these plants were effective against all 30 clinical bacterial isolates tested. The extract of Cichorium Intybus was the most active against all Gram positive & negative bacteria From the other two extracts. Based on our results, it is concluded that plant extracts have great potential as antimicrobial compounds against microorganisms and they can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by resistant microorganisms.
... The bacterial cells were suspended according to the McFarland protocol in 2ml from normal saline, they were stricken by cotton swab on Muller Hinton, and left about 15 minutes to dry, then the synthesized compound disk was put on it, then incubated at 37 o C for 22 hrs.. In case of fungi don't differ from the bacteria, in only the activation period and temperature , which lasted 72 hours at 25 o C [13][14][15][16]. ...
Research
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According to the domino reaction method, 5-benzyl-5-(4-benzyl-4-methylpiperazin-4-ium-l-yl)-1,3,5-dithiazinan-5-ium has prepared. The structure of the synthesized compound has been characterized by several techniques such as, Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1 H-NMR Spectroscopy, Elemental analysis (CHNS), and Mass spectroscopy. Finally, the synthesized compound has been tested as anti corrosion for carbon steel, antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and antifungal activity against Candida albicans (Human Pathogens) at concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 µg/ml. The tests have been checked as antibacterial and antifungal according to the disk diffusion method, and it has been checked as anticorrosion by weight loss method in 15% HCl as corrosive medium at 3 hours. The mechanism of corrosion inhibition has been studied, and the adsorption of heterocyclic compound on the carbon steel surface has been studied which follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. On the other hand, the temperature affect on the corrosion rate has been studied. The results have shown that heterocyclic compound is a very effective to anticorrosion and moderate for antibiotic(antifungal and antibacterial).
... The beneficial medicinal effect of plant materials typically result from the combination of secondary products present in the plant. The medicinal action of plants are unique to particular plant species or a related group [10,11,12,13,14]. This concept is consistent with the fact that the combinations of secondary products in a particular plant are often taxonomically distinct. ...
Article
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In the genesis of using plants for treatment of diseases, Garlic and lemon grass were some of the earliest plants that have proven effective. In this study the antimicrobial effect of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) and Allium sativum (garlic) extracts on clinical isolate of Salmonella typhi was examined. Water, ethanol and methanol were used as extraction solvent. Antimicrobial effects of conventional antibiotics was assayed using disc diffusion method while antimicrobial activity of lemon grass and garlic extracts were carried out using agar well diffusion method and the zones of inhibition was measured in millimeter (mm). Comparatively, the highest percentage yield of extract was observed in water extract of garlic (21.83%) and lemon grass (6.67%). Ciprofloxacin and Perfloxacin have the highest zones of inhibition of 19.73±0.24mm and 14.47±0.31mm respectively against the clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi . Two out of the twelve clinical isolate of Salmonella typhi used were multi drug resistant. Lemon grass extracts did not show any antimicrobial effects on the clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi while garlic extracts showed antimicrobial effect at the concentration of 800 mg/ml, water extract of garlic has the highest zone of inhibition (14.00 mm) against the tested isolates. Therefore garlic extract could be used for the formulation of drug and treatment of Salmonella typhi infection.
... Extraction with methanol was done twice, with the first condition remaining the same as that of the other two solvents' extraction, followed by the second one at 60-80 C for 7 days. Methanolic extracts of tea-leaf powder, derived from leaves plucked in two different seasons, were filtered using Whatman filter paper and were concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and controlled temperature below 45 C in a rotary vacuum evaporator (Eyela CCA-1110, Japan) and preserved in a refrigerator at 4 C for further use (15). ...
... Improved cardiac function, reduced diastolic blood pressure, and more favourable cardiovascular risk factors, such as improved endothelial function, reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plasma concentration, and cardiac infarct size have been reported [29,30]. In addition to these health benefits, polyphenols have been associated with improved wound healing [31,32], inhibition of the adhesion of pathogens to host cells [33,34], and antibacterial effects against gastrointestinal and cariogenic pathogens [35,36]. ...
... Improved cardiac function, reduced diastolic blood pressure, and more favourable cardiovascular risk factors, such as improved endothelial function, reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plasma concentration, and cardiac infarct size have been reported [29,30]. In addition to these health benefits, polyphenols have been associated with improved wound healing [31,32], inhibition of the adhesion of pathogens to host cells [33,34], and antibacterial effects against gastrointestinal and cariogenic pathogens [35,36]. ...
Article
Plant-derived polyphenols with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory characteristics appear to provide a variety of oral health benefits. Thus, the aim of the present study was to review the scientific literature to identify these effects of polyphenols on periodontal pathogens and inflammation. A MEDLINE search from 1st January 2013 to 18th January 2018 was performed to identify studies reporting polyphenol-containing plant extracts. Reports regarding pure compounds and essential oils, as well as effects on bacteria that are not defined as periodontal pathogens, were excluded. Thirty-eight studies matched the selection criteria. Studies on immunomodulatory effects included in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo studies (n = 23), whereas studies reporting antibacterial effects against periodontal pathogens included only in vitro studies (n = 18). Three studies were included in both groups. The antibacterial effects were characterised by inhibition of bacterial growth, adhesion to oral cells, and enzymatic activity. Decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory and increased secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines were demonstrated. Higher attachment levels, lower inflammation, and bone loss were reported by in vivo studies. Due to the high heterogeneity, it is difficult to draw clear conclusions for applicability; nevertheless, polyphenols have great potential as antimicrobial and immunomodulatory substances in the treatment and prevention of periodontal disease.
... E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans or Pseudomonas aeruginosa were located in imitation of be sensitive in conformity with fresh inexperienced tea extracts. These may be attributed to compounds like green teacatechin and polyphenols possess antibacterial action (Archana and Jayanth, 2011). Studies revealed that gram-positive bacteria, S. aureus was found to be more sensitive than B. cereus because GT ethanolic extracts were proved to have more activity against this bacteria depend on total polyphenol content in it, thus, antibacterial activity of tea extracts is related mainly to total polyphenol content (Nihal et al., 2009). ...
... The extracts were separated by utilizing filter paper. The filtrates were then focused by utilizing revolving evaporator and store in refrigerated at 40C preceding utilized [20]. ...
... These our results were found to be similar with the results of earlier researches, Archana and Abraham, (2011), who exhibited the green tea extract have greater antimicrobial activity than black ones. And Othman et al., (2019), found that green tea extract have high antimicrobial activity and the least activity was found in black tea extract. ...
Article
The aim of this study is to investigate the antibacterial effect of hot and cold aqueous extracts of green and black tea separately against Klebsiella pneumoniae after infecting the burned rat's skin with it, also to screen the effect of both types of tea on rat's liver and kidney. Sixteen male rats divided into four Groups (4 animals each), Group 1: untreated rat (control). Group 2: burn rats infected with K. pneumoniae (1.5×108 bacteria /ml). Group 3: burn treated by Green tea aqueous extract (1000 µg/ml) for K. pneumoniae bacteria. Group 4: burn treated by black tea extract (2000 µg/ml) for K. pneumoniae bacteria. The tea extracts antimicrobial activity was analyzed by agar diffusion inhibition assay and minimum inhibitory concentration. Results exhibited that K. pneumoniae in particular, have high levels of antimicrobial resistance to widely used agents. In conclusion hot extract from both types of tea have better antibacterial effect than cold extract. Additionally, infected rats showed inflammation and sever hemorrhage in the liver and kidney of rats, but when treated with tea extracts dermally approximately restored kidney normal histological architecture of glomeruli and tubules, also liver became nearly normal in histological structure of hepatic foci and central vein. Black tea extract showed greater effectiveness in tissue recovery than green once.
... The green tea polyphenols hinder the growth and multiplication of various bacterial species including Bacillus sp, Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Helicobacter pylori, Candida albicans, Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Verma et al., 2018), Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, etc. Green tea polyphenols inhibit the increase of pathogenic bacteria in the gut, but does not affect the friendly intestinal bacteria. Green tea acts as prebiotic as it inhibits the growth of pathogenic bacteria and regulating gut-friendly bacteria (known as probiotics) in the intestine (Archana et al., 2011). ...
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The study examines the impact of qualities of board members on the financial performance of listed Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria. The study used secondary data from the annual reports and accounts of a sample of 12 banks for the period of six years from 2012-2017. The study used return on assets (ROA) to measure financial performance and uses multiple regression to examine the impact of board qualities on financial performance. The study found that multiple directorship has a negative and significant relationship with financial performance of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria, while directors’ remuneration has a positive and significant relationship with the financial performance of listed deposit money banks. Based on the findings, the study recommends that regulators should impose restrictions on the number of outside board membership that a director can hold simultaneously to make him more effective. In addition, good and sound corporate governance should be put in place to restrict excessive payments being made to directors and remuneration should be largely determined by the firm’s performance
... Green tea leaf extract has potent antibacterial activity (Nishant et al., 2012). he green tea polyphenols hinder the growth and multiplication of various bacterial species including Bacillus sp, Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Helicobacter pylori, Candida albicans, Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Verma et al., 2018), Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, etc. Green tea polyphenols inhibit the increase of pathogenic bacteria in the gut, but does not afect the friendly intestinal bacteria. Green tea acts as prebiotic as it inhibits the growth of pathogenic bacteria and regulating gut-friendly bacteria (known as probiotics) in the intestine (Archana et al., 2011). ...
... The attention of researchers has increasingly focused on the study of the actions of natural plant extracts, which have been used since ancient times in both traditional Eastern and Western medicine for their anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects [24,[41][42][43][44][45]. ...
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A beautiful smile is an important feature when it comes to a pleasant appearance of the face, and one of the most common situations that drive patients to book a dental appointment is tooth discoloration. Tooth bleaching is the treatment of choice for extrinsic tooth discoloration, as it is a cheap, fast, and minimally invasive procedure. This study aimed to provide comparative information on the perceptions of both patients and dentists regarding different whitening methods and on the factors involved in people’s willingness to recommend and use a bleaching procedure. In addition to this, this study evaluated the degree of satisfaction in relation to the bleaching methods and materials used; it also evaluated the following: negative side effects, economic characteristics and the patients’ perceptions of the aesthetic appearance of their dental arches, especially tooth color. The subjects that participated in the present study were selected based on their background and were then divided into two categories. The first group consisted of 120 patients who had received tooth-bleaching treatments in dental clinics during the study and the second group consisted of 127 dentists. A conventional sampling method was used. The study aimed to define a relationship between multiple aspects of the tooth-bleaching procedure, including the patients’ desires and their general knowledge of this procedure. Tooth color and the way it changes is a very important factor that motivates patients to come to the dentist for whitening procedures. Patients showed the highest levels of satisfaction with the results of in-office bleaching procedures. In the group consisting of dentists, satisfaction levels were higher for the procedure of home bleaching supervised by a dentist. Factors influencing the choice of bleaching materials are appreciated differently by dentists and patients. Furthermore, the rate of patients using OTC (over the counter) products was found to be high. Further research is needed to find more effective and safer alternatives to home tooth-bleaching procedures.
... [113]. Archana and Abraham [134] demonstrated antifungal activity of several tea extracts (green tea, fresh leaves, and black tea) against fungi such as Aspergillus fumigates, Fusarium sp., Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. ...
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Huge epidemiological and clinical studies have confirmed that black tea is a rich source of health-promoting ingredients, such as catechins and theaflavins (TFs). Furthermore, TF derivatives mainly include theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2A), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B), and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3). All of these TFs exhibit extensive usages in pharmaceutics, foods, and traditional medication systems. Various indepth studies reported that how TFs modulates health effects in cellular and molecular mechanisms. The available literature regarding the pharmacological activities of TFs has revealed that TF3 has remarkable anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antiobesity, antiosteoporotic, and antimicrobial properties, thus posing significant effects on human health. The current manuscript summarizes both the chemistry and various pharmacological effects of TFs on human health, lifestyle or aging associated diseases, and populations of gut microbiota. Furthermore, the biological potential of TFs has also been focused to provide a deeper understanding of its mechanism of action.
... Otherwise, increased resistance in microorganisms to the current antimicrobials has motivated the search for and evaluation of other agents. This search for new sources of antimicrobial is undertaken by many research teams throughout the world on various plant species that are used with acceptable therapeutic index in traditional medicine [8][9][10][11][12][13][14] . So far, most efforts have been concentrated on extracts activity and the relationship between this activity and that of conventional drugs. ...
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The present works were conducted to screen and semi-quantify a few secondary metabolites from the stem bark of Erythropleum guineensis (G.Don) on one hand and test the antibacterial and antifungal potential of the crude hydro-alcoholic extract on the other. The investigated chemicals included alkaloids, polyphenols, coumarins, anthocyanes, flavonoids, saponosids, terpenoids, steroids, tannins, anthraquinones, phlobotannins, mucilages and resins. The antimicrobial activity was tested by standard macro-dilution and disk diffusion techniques on twelve microbial types. The parameters investigated were the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) and the diameter of the zone of growth inhibition. About 64 % of the secondary metabolites investigated were detected. Also all germs were susceptible within the range of extract concentrations used (200-0.781 mg/mL). Susceptibility at the MIC was not Gram-type dependent and, close to 67% of the most susceptible at this concentration were ESBL-expressing isolates. In addition in these ESBL-positive isolates the MBC/MIC values were the highest like in C. albicans. The crude extract activity on multiple phenotype-expressing microbes suggested possible action on multiple microbial targets. Overall, this activity on both bacterial Gram types and C. albicans expressing a variety of resistance traits is a special asset that can be used to argue and promote the use of the improved version of the E. guineensis extract in the management of some infectious diseases; consistent with traditional practices, the advocacy of the WHO about the relevance of traditionally improved drugs in healthcare and the necessity to provide basic healthcare for all with available and affordable resources. Optimal use might, therefore, represent an alternative to many conventional drugs including some C 3 G, owing to its activity on ESBL-producing strains; but financial and motivated human resources are required for this goal to be achieved.
... It hydrates the body, provides pain relief, boosts immunity, reduces stress and prevents cancer. It also reduces risk of heart disease, high blood pressure and unhealthy blood sugar [5,12] . Honey is widely used traditional medicine throughout the world. ...
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Green tea is one of the most popular drinks all over the world. It is supposed to have a broad spectrum of biological activities. On the other hand, honey is widely used traditional medicine throughout the world. It is regarded as one of the best versatile natural remedy in the treatment of various health problems. The intention of the proposed work was to investigate antibacterial activity of three commercial green tea (Himalaya, Lipton and TeA Me) and honey (Baidyanath, Dabur and Dhanwantari) samples against some pathogenic bacteria using agar well diffusion method. Green tea extracts and honey showed significant antibacterial activity against all tested pathogens. The results of this study justify the use of honey and green tea as an alternative to or a supplement for antibiotics in treatment of various bacterial diseases.
... Green tea leaves have 30-40 % water-extractable polyphenols comprising catechins, and in particular, EGCG impose antimicrobial activities against a wide range of bacteria and fungi [121]. Zhang and co-workers (2016) studied the antimicrobial activity of catechin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles via ion gelation method. ...
Article
Catechins are polyphenolic compounds which abundantly occur in the plants, especially tea leaves. They are widely used in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations due to their capability of lowering the risk of developing various diseases. Nevertheless, low stability, loss of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities hinder the direct application of catechins in food formulations. To surmount this pervasive challenge, bioactive ingredients should be entrapped in a biopolymeric matrix. Thus, nanoencapsulation technology would be an appropriate strategy to improve the stability of these bioactive compounds and to protect them against degradation. Among different types of nanocarriers, biopolymer-based nanovehicles has captured a lot of attention in both industry and academia due to their safety and biocompatibility. This revision enlarges upon the various types of biopolymeric nanostructures used for accommodation of catechins, namely nanogels, nanotubes, nanofibers, nanoemulsions and nanoparticles. Last but not least, the applications of the entrapped catechins in the food industry are highlighted.
... Extracts also showed good activities against S. dysenteriae, the bacteria responsible for bacillary dysentery. The results reported in this study corroborate earlier literature data on antibacterial assessments of plant extracts(Ajala et al. 2020;Archana & Abraham 2011;Ćetković et al. 2007;Chew, Jessica & Sasidharan 2012;Kumar et al. 2010;Mahesh & Satish 2008;Rafiu et al. 2019;Shihabudeen, Priscilla & Thirumurugan 2010; ...
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Background: Bacteria as etiological agents have been reported to cause many diseases and have increased the rate of mortality globally. Their resistance to conventional medicine has made medicinal plants a credible alternative in the management of diseases caused by bacterial infection. In the recent times many research efforts have been directed towards the exploration of phytoconstituents with antibacterial potentials. Medicinal plants are widely used as antibacterial agents because of their high therapeutic performance, low toxicity, and affordability. Aim: This work was designed to identify secondary metabolites present in root extracts of ethno-medicinally utilised Portulaca oleracea L. and evaluate their antibacterial activities. Setting: The roots of P. oleracea L. were obtained from the Forest Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN), Ibadan, Nigeria and authenticated in the Forest Research Herbarium, where voucher samples were deposited with specimen voucher number FIH-112030. Methods: Phytochemical screening was carried out using standard qualitative tests and the antibacterial activity of extracts was evaluated using agar well diffusion method whilst the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated by micro-dilution method. The screening was assessed against Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae, which are responsible for the transmission of common diseases in Nigeria. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with GraphPad Prism 8.0 and results were expressed as mean ± s.d. Duncan’s New Multiple range test were applied at 0.05 level of significance (p 0.05). Results: Phytochemical screening of P. oleracea L. showed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, and saponins. All extracts showed a high level of minimum inhibition concentration against the pathogens except K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and P. aeruginosa. Generally the antibacterial activity of extracts increased with decrease in polarity as compared with ciprofloxacin. The mean (± s.d.) values were significantly different by Duncan’s multiple range tests with p 0.05. Conclusion: Portulaca oleracea L. has been identified for the first time as a good antibacterial agent, which corroborates the ethno-medicinal uses of the plant.
... The plant material was extracted in aqueous and methanolic solvent by dissolving powdered plant material in distilled water and methanol (1:10 w/v) in sterile flask and placed on orbital shaker for 3 days at 10,000 rpm. After 3 days, the extracts were concentrated by using rotatory evaporator and stored in a refrigerator at 4 ºC for further analysis (Archana andJayanthi, 2011, Tariq andReyaz, 2012). ...
... This was the minimum concentration at which green tea extract inhibited the pathogen. In another study, the antibacterial effects of tea polyphenols (TPP) extracted from Korean green tea (Camellia sinensis) have been found against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Archana and Abraham, 2011). In present study, green tea extract showed MBC at 500 μg/mL against MDR S. aureus but no MBC was found against MDR E. coli. ...
Article
Plant extracts and their purified compounds were examined for synergistic antimicrobial activity using selected multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. The study aims to investigate the antibacterial activity of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and its purified compound epigallocatechingallate (EGCG). The synergistic relation of the compound with antibiotic was detected against selected potential Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were used as test pathogens which were resistant to different groups of antibiotics. After collection of fresh green tea leaves, samples were washed and air dried. EGCG is one of the bioactive compounds and was separated from tea plant. Antibacterial activity of EGCG and crude extracts of green tea were done by microdilution method (minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration). The synergistic effect of EGCG and gentamicin was determined. MIC value of green tea extract was found at 125 μg/mL in case of MDR E. coli, MDR S. aureus and their reference strains and MBC at 500 μg/mL against S. aureus. No MBC value was found against E. coli. EGCG showed better activity on Gram positive pathogen compared to that of Gram negative. MBC value of this compound was 1250 μg/mL for E. coli where 625 μg/mL for S. aureus. Strong synergistic relation (FICI 0.325) was found against pathogens in the combination of EGCG with gentamycin. The purified EGCG compound of green tea has great synergistic effect against MDR pathogens. More investigation is needed to know the inhibitory effect of these plant extracts and their components.
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Teh hijau (Camellia sinensis) mengandung senyawa polifenol utamanya epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epigallatocatechin (EGC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), dan epicatechin (EC) yang dapat berfungsi sebagai antioksidan. Senyawa polifenol tidak stabil pada temperatur, pH dan oksigen, sehingga ditambahkan bahan enkapsulasi maltodextrin dan gom arab untuk mempertahankan kadar polifenol selama masa penyimpanan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbandingan bahan maltodextrin dan gom arab sebagai pengenkapsulasi dalam mempertahankan kadar polifenol dari ekstrak teh hijau selama masa penyimpanan. Ekstraksi dilakukan secara remaserasi menggunakan pelarut etanol 70 % dengan perbandingan 1:5. Enkapsulasi ekstrak teh hijau menggunakan maltodextrin dan gom arab, perbandingan ekstrak teh hijau dengan enkapsulasi yaitu 1:5, 1:1 dan 1:2. Pengujian kadar total polifenol menggunakan metode spektrofotometri UV-Vis dengan larutan standar asam galat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa enkapsulasi ekstrak teh hijau dapat mempengaruhi kadar total polifenol.
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Plant secondary metabolites are high in bioactive chemicals and are employed in the pharmaceutical industry for the manufacture of nutrient-rich food. These bioactive chemicals are administered in both traditional and contemporary ways to cure various ailments and enhance people's health. Present study was undertaken the phytochemical composition and biological potential (antimicrobial, antioxidant, antigenotoxic and antimutagenic) of various extracts obtained by Soxhlet extraction technique from leaves of C. roseus were investigated. Different extracts were accessed for their yield percentage, total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant potential (DPPH-1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), antimicrobial activity, antigenotoxic and antimutagenic potential. Further, acetone extract was also subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis in order to assess the composition of various phytoconstituents. The identified major compounds included 9, 12-octadecasienoic acid (19.5%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (16.5%). Acetone extract showed the best activity towards biological potential (antimicrobial, antioxidant, antigenotoxic and antimutagenic). According to the pharmacological properties of these bioactive components, the plant can be utilized as a crude drug or to build a novel medication and these bioactive chemicals are suggested based on known pharmacological literature.
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catechins ‫اﻷﺧ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺎي‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‬ Camellia sinensis) ‫ﻧﻤ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ (‫ﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺤﻮم‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﮫ‬ ‫أﻣﻜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﺮﯾﺎ‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﯿﺪ‬ ‫رﺷﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺜﺎر‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎع‬ ‫ﻋﻈﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺎرﯾﻤﺎن‬ ‫اﻷﻏﺬﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻮم‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻢ‬-‫اﻟﺰراﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯿﺔ‬-‫اﻟﺒﺼﺮة‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬-‫اﻟﻌﺮاق‬ ‫ﺟﻤﮭﻮرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ:‬ ‫ﺮ)‬ ‫اﻻﺧﻀ‬ ‫ﺎي‬ ‫اﻟﺸ‬ ‫ﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺒ‬ ‫ﺎت‬ ‫واﻟﻜﺎﺗﻜﯿﻨ‬ ‫ﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ‬ ‫دراﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺖ‬ Camelliasinensis (‫ﺎدة‬ ‫ﻛﻤ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺪاﻣﮫ‬ ‫اﺳ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫اﻣﻜﺎﻧﯿ‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﺿ‬. ‫ﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻏﺬﯾ‬ ‫ﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻠ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﺮﯾﺎ‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﺜﺒﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮوق‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫اظﮭﺮت‬. ‫اﻟﻠﺤﻮم‬ ‫اﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬ < 0.05p ‫ﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼ‬ ‫ﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﯾ‬ ‫ﺄﺛﯿﺮا‬ ‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﺗﻜﯿﻨ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﺴ‬ ‫ﺮ‬ ‫اظﮭ‬ ‫إذ‬ ، ‫ﺎت‬ ‫واﻟﻜﺎﺗﻜﯿﻨ‬ ‫ﻮي‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨ‬ ‫ﺮق‬ ‫وﺑﻔ‬ ، 0.05p< ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺘﺮﯾ‬ ‫ﺎه‬ ‫ﺗﺠ‬ Pseudomonas aeruginosa ‫ﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﯾ‬ ‫ﺮوق‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﮭ‬ ‫ﻢ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﻤ‬. ‫ﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺴ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﻧ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺘﺮﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﯿﻦ‬ Salmonella typhi ‫و‬ Staphylococcus aureus ‫ﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴ‬ ‫ﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﺿ‬ ‫ﺪى‬ ‫وﻟ‬ .) ‫ﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺮاﻛﯿ‬ ‫ﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﺗﯿﻜﯿﻨ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫وﻣﺴ‬ ‫ﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ‬ 100 ‫و‬ 300 ‫و‬ 900 ‫(ﺟ‬ ‫ﺮوم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻔ‬ ‫ﺮي‬ ‫أﻟﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺤ‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ‫إﻟ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﻤﻠﯿﻮن‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﺰء‬ ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫ﺑﺪرﺟﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺨﺰن‬ 4 ‫ﻟﻤﺪة‬ ‫م‬ 15 ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫طﻔﯿﻔ‬ ‫ﺎدة‬ ‫زﯾ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫أظﮭﺮت‬ ، ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺮوﻛﺴﯿﺪي‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎس‬ ‫و‬. ‫ﯾﻮﻣﺂ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺰي)‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺮوﻛﺴﯿﺪ‬ ‫رﻗﻢ‬ 300 ‫و‬
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Camellia sinensis of high altitude region possesses wide-range of antimicrobial activity due to the presence of various bioactive components. The qualitative screening of C. sinensis was carried out to detect the presence of various phytocompounds viz., carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, amino acids and steroids. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by agar-well diffusion method and based on the presence of zone of inhibition around the wells, the most potent extract was used for further studies. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of C. sinensis were also determined against all the selected pathogenic microorganisms. Among all extracts, acetone extract of C. sinensis showed the most potent inhibitory activity and therefore, was used for further activities.The lowest MIC (0.23 mg/mL) and MBC (0.48 mg/mL) was observed against Staphylococcus aureus. A total of eight bioactive compounds were determined by GC–MS analysis. Out of eight compounds, Decane, 1-bromo 2-methyl was identified as the major compound having the highest peak area of 24.21%. This compound was subjected to SwissADME to determine the pharmaceutical potential for new drug discovery.
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The present study was conducted to determine the effect of freeze drying (FD), vacuum drying (VD), sun drying (SD) and hot air oven/tray drying (HD) drying on antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity and color of Camellia assamica (two samples) collected from Kokrajhar area, Assam. The objective of this study is to observe effect of different drying methods on antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and color of Camellia assamica. In the experiment, to determine the antioxidant activity DPPH assay was used. Color of the tea samples are measured with Haunter Lab colorimeter and antimicrobial activity is done by disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli. Experimental evidence has shown that freeze drying exhibit rich source of polyphenol content and flavoind content than the vacuum drying, normal drying and hot air oven drying present in tea. The maximum TPC calculated was 194.5 ± 9.72, TFC of 58.7 ± 2.93 (mg of QAE/gm tea extract), with an antioxidant activity of 87.22% amongst both the samples at − 40 °C, 72 h in FD. The color analysis for the FD sample was found to be lighter than other drying method at − 40 °C, 72 h with ΔL* = 41.3 CIE units, ΔE = 47.8 CIE units, ΔC = 25.6 CIE units and ΔH = 70.06° and analytically chlorophyll was found to be Ch-a = 2.23 (mg/gm), Ch-b = 1.88 (mg/gm), in comparison of both the samples. The maximum inhibition zone was formed of 4.3 cm for FD and against 3 cm for VD sample.
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