Article

Giftedness: Predicting the speed of expertise acquisition by intellectual ability and metacognitive skillfulness of novices

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Abstract

This chapter addresses the relation between two key factors that affect the speed of novices' knowledge acquisition. Both intellectual and metacognitive skills appear to be profound predictors of learning outcomes. It remains unclear, however, whether metacognitive skills are part of intelligence or to what extent they have their own virtue in novice learning. Over the past two decades we have conducted a number of studies in which participants of different age and from different educational backgrounds performed a variety of tasks in several school domains. Metacognitive activities, such as planning, monitoring, and reflection, were assessed by analyzing thinking-aloud protocols. Although correlated to intelligence, metacognitive skills appear to have a robust additional value for the prediction of novice learning on top of intelligence. Apparently, being gifted not only implies a high intelligence level, but also requires a well-developed repertoire of metacognitive skills that may help you to cope with new, unfamiliar learning tasks. Implications for the development of metacognitive skills over age and for the instruction of those skills are being discussed.

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... Metacognition is a profound predictor of learning outcomes (Veenman, 2008;Wang, Haertel, & Walberg, 1990). Often knowledge of cognition is distinguished from regulation of cognition (Brown, 1987;Schraw & Dennison, 1994;Veenman, Van Hout-Wolters, & Afflerbach, 2006). ...
... Metacognitive skills directly shape learning behavior and, consequently, they affect learning outcomes. Veenman (2008) estimated that metacognitive skillfulness accounts for about 40% of variance in learning outcomes for a broad range of tasks. ...
... The significant main effect of Class particularly emphasized the improved learning performance of all fourth-class participants. First, it should be acknowledged that learning performance is not exclusively moderated by metacognitive skills (Veenman, 2008). Moreover, the reliability of the MC questionnaire was relatively low, which suppressed correlations with MC Learning performance (cf. ...
Article
Metacognitive skills regulate and control learning processes. A developmental study (Van der Stel & Veenman, 2014) revealed that metacognitive growth is interrupted at the age of 14-15 years, while metacognitive skills are generalized over tasks and domains at the same time. The present study seeks to confirm this pause or decline in metacognitive growth, however, with a gender-age interaction. Females are expected to run one year ahead of males in metacognitive development. Additionally, the usefulness of computer-logfile analysis as an unobtrusive method for assessing metacognitive development is investigated. A hundred and nineteen secondary-school students (66 male; 53 female) at the age of 13 to 16 years performed a computerized inductive-learning task. Traces of learner activities were stored in logfiles and automatically scored on metacognitive skills. Afterwards, participants completed a learning posttest. Results substantiate the expected gender-age interaction in the metacognition data. Females started low at 14 years, recovered at 15 years, and peaked at 16 years, whereas males started positive at 14 years, declined at 15 years, and recovered at 16 years. Posttest data show a significant effect of age with improved learning performance at 16 years. Implications for the study of metacognitive development are discussed.
... In other words, it is important to consider processes that support teachers in how to learn, so that they can make sense about what is suitable for their context and capabilities at any particular time. Veenman (2008) illustrated that learning strategies can be more important than raw smarts when it comes to gaining expertise. So, considering how teachers learn is critical, it is a notion that is often underexplored in the research literature on teacher professional learning. ...
... When it comes to learning something new, people who closely monitor and evaluate their thinking will outscore those who have high IQ levels (Veenman, 2008). Leaders need to help teachers become fluent in improvement techniques (peer coaching, learning walks, lesson study, etc.) while, at the same time, cultivating evaluative competencies to develop their expertise. ...
Book
This book offers practical applications of the research literature to articulate principles and practices that we have seen support the development of teaching expertise. We explore how specific design and leadership approaches can be integrated to form a useful framework for leading teacher professional learning. We account for the increasingly complex educational environments school leaders are experiencing and highlight ways to navigate this uncertainty.
... A promising approach to reduce the challenges with regard to all three dimensions would be the promotion of students' metacognitive skills through the application of metacognitive strategies and methods in the geography classroom. Metacognition is understood as the bringing to awareness of the declarative (content-related) knowledge, the so-called metaknowledge or metamemory, as well as the awareness of the procedural, i.e., strategic knowledge, or so-called metastrategies [18][19][20][21][22][23]. In the following, metacognitive strategies are understood as methods for their application in the geography classroom. ...
... An individual content-related assessment of the quality of the target accomplishment/problem solution; 2. Self-evaluation of contentment with oneʹs own results; 3. Reflection on the applied strategies leading to the problemʹs solution; 4. Formulation of targets and steps to improve future handling of tasks [92]. The intervention reflection aims at identifying and elaborating the effectivity and efficiency of the problem-solving heuristics applied and thus support the development of metacognitive competences (i.a., [23] (p. 5), [75] (pp. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the impact of applied metacognition on the development of geographical causal structures by students in the geography classroom. For that, three different metacognitive strategies were designed: a. action plan, activating meta-knowledge prior to problem-solving and simultaneously visualizing action steps for dealing with the task (A); b. circular thinking (C), a loop-like, question-guided procedure applied during the problem-solving process that supports and controls content-related and linguistic cognition processes; c. reflexion (R), aiming at evaluating the effectivity and efficiency of applied problem-solving heuristics after the problem-solving process and developing strategies for dealing with future tasks. These strategies were statistically tested and assessed as to their effectiveness on the development of complex geographical causal structures via a quasi-experimental pre-posttest design. It can be shown that metacognitive strategies strongly affect students' creation of causal structures, which depict a multitude of elements and relations at a high degree of interconnectedness, thus enabling a contentually and linguistically coherent representation of system-specific properties of the human-environment system. On the basis of the discussion of the results, it will be demonstrated that metacognitive strategies can provide a significant contribution to initiating systemic thinking-competences and what the implications might be on planning and teaching geography lessons.
... Helms-Lorenz & Jacobse, 2008; Kaune, 2006;Veenman. Kok & Blöte, 2005;Veenman, 2008). Metakognitive Aktivitäten, teils auch als metakognitive Strategien bezeichnet (Baker, 2013), umfassen .. planning, monitoring, reflection" (u.a. ...
... Beck, 1996;Kaune, 2006. Veenman el al., 2005Veenman, 2008). ...
... Metacognitive skills, or regulation (Mok, Tai, & Pang, 2007) (e.g goal setting, planning, monitoring and evaluation) are procedural knowledge which translates into monitoring, control and regulation of cognitive processes in learning behaviour (Nelson & Narens, 1990;Veenman, 2011). According to Veenman (2008), metacognitive skillfulness accounts for about 40% of variance in learning outcomes. Most of the models of selfregulated learning assume that the processes of monitoring, controlling and regulating are related to metacognitive knowledge about the self and cognition (Garcia & Pintrich, 1994), and metacognitive skills as the practical knowledge of regulating one's learning behaviour. ...
... Metacognitive skills manifest through skillful use of metacognitive learning strategies, which with the use of cognitive strategies is related to learning outcomes, and learning success (Veenman, 2008). However, these relations are not purely linear which makes understanding their effect on learning outcomes more complicated. ...
Chapter
Learners' use of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies is of utmost importance being related to the development of their self-regulation skills and learning success. Even if these skills do not get specific attention at school, it could be assumed that they develop with general learning experience and age. This cross-sectional study intends to determine the developmental trends of self-regulation skills and academic motivation among adolescents in relation to gender and age. A sample of 2,349 Estonian students aged eleven to nineteen completed an online MSLQ questionnaire adapted for schoolchildren. The age and gender-specific comparison revealed interesting, albeit somewhat unexpected trends in * Corresponding Author Email: katrin.saks@ut.ee. Katrin Saks and Äli Leijen 2 motivation and strategy use among adolescents. The results of the correlation analysis indicate strong relations between all learning strategies and moderate relations between learning strategies and academic motivation dimensions. The possible explanations and justifications are presented in the discussion part of the paper.
... Several competing models have been proposed to tackle this issue, and there exists some occasional evidence both for the notion that metacognitive abilities are essentially just one facet of general intelligence (Elshout & Veenman, 1992) and for the approach that sees intelligence and metacognition as two separate abilities, completely independent of one another (Allon et al., 1994). However, on the strength of many studies summed up by Veenman (2008), it seems that the relation between intelligence and metacognition is best approached by so called mixed model. This model concedes that intelligence and metacognition share some amount of common variance and it assumes that these faculties are somehow interrelated (though it is not a "theory" in terms of providing some neurological or other causal explanation for this fact). ...
... This model concedes that intelligence and metacognition share some amount of common variance and it assumes that these faculties are somehow interrelated (though it is not a "theory" in terms of providing some neurological or other causal explanation for this fact). The strength of this connection is, however, relatively week, and this fact manifests itself by way of low or medium correlations between the measures of both faculties (Helms-Lorenz & Jacobse, 2008;Veenman, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we inquire into possible differences between children with exceptionally high intellectual abilities and their average peers as regards metacognitive monitoring and related metacognitive strategies. The question whether gifted children surpass their typically developing peers not only in the intellectual abilities, but also in their level of metacognitive skills, has not been convincingly answered so far. We sought to examine the indicators of metacognitive behavior by means of eye-tracking technology and to compare these findings with the participants’ subjective confidence ratings. Eye-movement data of gifted and average students attending final grades of primary school (4th and 5th grades) were recorded while they dealt with a deductive reasoning task, and four metrics supposed to bear on metacognitive skills, namely the overall trial duration, mean fixation duration, number of regressions and normalized gaze transition entropy, were analyzed. No significant differences between gifted and average children were found in the normalized gaze transition entropy, in mean fixation duration, nor - after controlling for the trial duration – in number of regressions. Both groups of children differed in the time devoted to solving the task. Both groups significantly differed in the association between time devoted to the task and the participants’ subjective confidence rating, where only the gifted children tended to devote more time when they felt less confident. Several implications of these findings are discussed.
... Metacognitive skillfulness is the most important predictor of learning performance, outweighing intelligence, motivation, and social-economic background, among other predictors (veenman, 2008;Wang, haertel, & Walberg, 1990). Moreover, metacognitive skills can be effectively instructed and trained, resulting in enhanced learning performance. ...
Article
Metacognitive skills refers to individual abilities for regulating and controlling learning behavior. Orientation, goal setting, planning, monitoring, and evaluation are manifestations of those skills. Given that metacognitive skills directly affect learning behavior, they are a strong predictor of learning performance. Students display a huge variation in metacognitive skillfulness, dependent on age and experience. In this article, metacognitive skills are considered to be an acquired program of self-instructions, that is, an orderly series of condition-action rules that contain conditional knowledge about when to apply which skill, and operational instructions for how to implement a particular skill. This notion has implications for effective metacognitive instruction in deficient students. Prior to instruction, on-line assessments of metacognitive skillfulness during actual task performance are indispensable for the identification of deficient students and for tailoring metacognitive instruction to the individual needs of students. Instruction should subsequently address what skill to perform when, why, and how (WWW&H), embedded within the context of a given task. Moreover, instruction should explicitly inform students about the benefits of applying metacognitive skills to make them exert the required effort. Finally, teachers may act as role model to students by including explicit metacognitive instruction in their lessons.
... Ces compétences comportent notamment la planification et le suivi (ou monitoring) de ses propres activités, mais aussi l'implémentation de stratégies d'apprentissage, ainsi que la régulation d'aspects « clés » de la cognition, du comportement, de la motivation et des affects. C'est d'abord la capacité à réguler sa propre activité qui est une compétence incontournable lorsque l'on parle d'habileté d'apprentissage (capacité à acquérir de nouvelles compétences facilement) et de capacité à résoudre des problèmes (Kruger & Dunning, 2008;Ehrlinger et al., 2008;Brown, 1987;Veenman, 2008). Par ailleurs, ce qui caractérise les apprenants performants est la capacité à transférer les connaissances et compétences métacognitives d'une situation à une autre (Panaoura, Philippou & Christou, 2003). ...
Article
Résumé Dans les universités françaises, seulement un étudiant sur deux passe la première année avec succès. Les changements dans le rythme de travail et l’importance de l’apprentissage autorégulé (qui s’appuie sur la métacognition) explique en grande partie ces chiffres. Dans cette étude, nous avons proposé une méthode permettant d’entraîner les étudiants au suivi de leurs propres activités. Cette version simplifiée d’une remédiation issue de travaux antérieurs donne des résultats prometteurs sur les performances des étudiants, tout en étant extrêmement simple et facile à mettre en place. Nous proposons donc de généraliser ce type d’approche et de les compléter avec des interventions s’intéressant de manière plus globale à la métacognition.
... Metacognitive awareness of some students seemed to be factors that contributed to differences in why a number of students scored the highest critical analytical results in their post-intervention essays. This is not an unsurprising outcome because Veenman (2008) estimated that metacognitive skillfulness accounted for 40% of variance in learning outcomes. A theme from the study that identified students who scored high critical analytical results were those students who were able to articulate the difference between a normal group discussion and a dialogical discussion. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was carried out in three secondary schools of varying socioeconomic levels within the usual framework of tasks completed by students while studying towards a national assessment. The study examined the change in the nature of the interactions between students in group conversations, in the context of a film unit and a geography unit using Quality Talk. Quality Talk is an interventional approach promoting text comprehension via a critical-reflective thinking approach. The study also sought to determine whether there was a positive intervention effect from the use of Quality Talk, on the students' ability to write from a critical analytical (CA) stance. Differences in the pre- and post-treatment writing achievement of seven intervention and one comparison class were assessed. Analysis revealed a large intervention effect within the intervention classes with marked improvements in students' abilities to talk and write with a CA stance (d = 0.92). The change in behaviour for the students in the intervention classes appeared to be associated with their increased use of authentic questions, uptake questions and high-level questions, which appeared to foster higher levels of dialogic spells, supporting the development of higher levels of CA talk and writing.
... More recently several authors have continued the search for connections between metacognition and giftedness (Carr & Taasoobshirazi, 2008;Cornoldi, 2010;Shore, 2000;Snyder, Nietfeld & Linnenbrink-Garcia, 2011;Veenman, 2008). A recurring issue is the measuring of metacognition and the need for 'calibration accuracy' (Snyder et al., 2011, p. 193). ...
Article
The research field of metacognition sees a community lacking in rigour, continuity and shared understandings (Schraw, 2009; Shaughnessy, Veenman & Kleyn-Kennedy, 2008). The publication of Pina Tarricone’s conceptual framework and taxonomy of metacognition in 2011 offered a ‘comprehensive and systematic overview of the literature on metacognition’ (Moshman, 2010, cited in Tarricone, 2011, p. xv), finally giving some necessary synthesis to the field. This paper will briefly introduce some of the difficulties that continue to attribute to the inconsistency of metacognition as a concept and will overview Pina Tarricone’s taxonomy of metacognition.
... However, research findings only partially confirm these assumptions (for overviews cf. Hoh, 2008;Veenman, 2008). ...
Article
We examined if highly intelligent and high-achieving students benefit from training in self-regulated learning conducted in regular classrooms as much as their peers of average intelligence and with average scholastic achievement. Fourth-graders participating in a training program of self-regulated learning (SRL, n = 123) were compared with fourth-graders receiving regular classroominstruction (REG, n=199) in a pretest, posttest, follow-up design. Students in the SRL group practiced self-regulated learningwhileworking on identifying main ideas in expository texts. The training was effective for highly intelligent and high-achieving students as well as for their peers of average intelligence and with average scholastic achievement. Highly intelligent students benefited in their preference for self-regulated learning only in the long run; for high achievers, we found immediate and long-term effects. Both highly intelligent students and high achievers identified more main ideas correctly in the course of the training. We recommend this program for use by classroom teachers in heterogeneous classrooms.
... These skills directly affect learning behavior and, consequently, learning outcomes. Veenman ( 2008 ) estimated that metacognitive skillfulness account for about 40% of variance in learning outcomes for a broad range of tasks. Metacognitive skillfulness is regarded here as an aptitude, which is a relatively stable disposition for how the individual interacts with learning environments (Snow, 1989 ) . ...
Chapter
In this chapter, metacognitive skills are considered to be an organized set of metacognitive self-instructions for the monitoring of and control over cognitive activity. These self-instructions can be represented as a production system of condition-action rules. For the assessment of metacognitive skills, however, these covert rules have to be inferred from overt learner behavior during task performance. In computerized learning tasks, on-line traces of learner activities can be unobtrusively stored in logfiles. Prerequisite to logfile assessment is the selection of relevant indicators of metacognitive learning activities on the basis of a rational task analysis, which indicators have to be validated against other on-line measures obtained with, for instance, thinking-aloud protocols. Such analyses of logfiles will allow for the assessment of metacognitive skills as an aptitude, that is, as a relatively stable repertoire of self-instructions. In order to further capture the dynamic change in metacognitive processes over time, progressive patterns of metacognitive activity can be identified in logged traces through time-series analysis. It is argued that the aptitude and dynamic approaches to assessing metacognitive skills are complementary to one another, rather than excluding each other.
... The concurrent verbalization method is reported to create a snapshot of the learners" natural problem solving behaviors (Stillman & Galbraith, 1998). A further benefit of the think aloud protocol is that the researcher may be able to distinguish between shallow and deep metacognitive processes (Veenman, 2008). A challenge to researchers using think aloud protocols is the difficulty they may experience in interpreting the verbal evidence of students" metacognition. ...
... Metacognitive skills directly affect leaning behavior and, as a consequence, learning outcomes. Veenman (2008) estimated that metacognitive skillfulness accounts for about 40% of variance in learning performance for a broad range of tasks, including mathematics performance (Veenman 2006). Moreover, the causal relation of metacognitive skillfulness with learning performance has been corroborated by training studies, showing that metacognitive training results in both improved metacognitive behavior as well as enhanced learning outcomes (Azevedo et al. 2007;Dignath and Büttner 2008;Pressley and Gaskins 2006;Veenman et al. 1994). ...
Article
Various instruments for assessing metacognitive skills and strategy use exist. Off-line self-reports are questionnaires and interviews administered either before or after task performance, while on-line measures are gathered during task performance through thinking aloud or observation. Multi-method studies in reading have shown that off-line methods suffer from serious validity problems, whereas the validity of on-line methods is adequate. Little is known, however, about the validity of methods for assessing metacognition in mathematics. Five instruments were administered to 30 secondary-school students: two prospective questionnaires (MSLQ and ILS) before a mathematics task, two on-line methods (observation and thinking aloud) concurrent to the mathematics task, and a task-specific retrospective questionnaire after the mathematics task. Mathematics performance was assessed by a posttest and GPA. Results confirm that prospective questionnaires have poor convergent and predictive validity in mathematics. Although the retrospective questionnaire does slightly better than prospective questionnaires, the validity of both on-line methods stands out. It is concluded that on-line instruments should be preferred over off-line instruments for the assessment of metacognitive skillfulness in mathematics.
... These various aspects are undoubtedly involved when one is writing a master's dissertation, and play a central part in its progress and finalization. Incidentally, the ability to regulate one's own activity is strongly linked to learning and problemsolving skills (Brown, 1987;Ehrlinger, Johnson, Banner, Dunning, & Kruger, 2008;Kruger & Dunning, 1999;Veenman, 2008). Moreover, accomplished learners are able to transfer their knowledge and skills from one situation to another on account of their efficient self-regulation (Panaoura, Philippou, & Christou, 2003). ...
Book
The book “Global Perspectives on University Students” was an initiative of the publishing program of Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Nova Science Publishers were looking for an international perspective on University Students and, accordingly, invited researchers from around the world to contribute their perspectives and empirical research. Fortunately, investigators from Argentina, Colombia, Croatia, France, Japan, New Zealand, Portugal, Spain, and the United States found the book theme interesting and decided to contribute their research. From those contributions comes the present book. The book presents chapters that cover some of the many topics relevant to University students. Specifically, chapters related to mental health, depressive symptoms and personal autonomy are complemented by other chapters focusing on the influence of family or culture on students’ behavior. Issues related to healthy lifestyle are also considered, like physical activity level and chemical dependences. More broadly, the book includes a chapter that focuses on the entrepreneurial intention of college students, considering college educations as a main influencer to economic development. Finally, the book also includes a chapter that investigates the variables that influence the process of writing a thesis, something the editors of the current book can all identify with.
... Metacognitive monitoring is a process to regulate all mental processes to get control on one's own learning behavior and ultimately positively effect on better attainment of the tasks. Metacognitive skill may contribute in 40% progression consequences in a variety of learning activities (Veenman, 2008). In short, metacognitive knowledge and regulation are indicators of the presence of metacognition. ...
Article
Current study was planned to measure the metacognition of grade 8 students and to find its relationship with their mathematical achievement. The study was quantitative by nature and correlational method was used to explore relationship between students’ metacognition and mathematical achievement. A standardized tool Junior Metacognitive Inventory (Jr. MAI) was used to explore metacognition of 90 students of grade 8 in a public school. A pilot study helped to find the validity of the tool in Pakistani context. Data was collected through getting mathematics marks of the students in their last school examination held according to the format given by the Punjab Examination Commission. Data collected was analyzed through descriptive statistics and relation was studied by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results showed a positive correlation exists between metacognition of the students and academic achievement in Mathematics of grade 8 students. Experimental studies are being suggested to explore effective strategies to develop metacognition among students to enhance Mathematical achievement. Key words: Metacognition, Junior Metacognitive Inventory, Mathematics achievement
... Recent guidance from the Center for Curriculum Redesign suggests that teachers should focus as much on skills for self-regulated learning (SRL) as on foundational knowledge such as mathematics, literacy, and science (Bialik and Fadel, 2015). Not only is SRL consistently demonstrated by the highest achievers and found to be the most important predictor of learning performance in school (Zimmerman andMartinez-Pons, 1986, 1998;Purdie and Hattie, 1996;Pintrich, 2000;Nota et al., 2004;Schraw et al., 2006;Zimmerman, 2008), it is increasingly considered a survival skill for children who will graduate into the complex and rapidly changing twenty first century context (Wang et al., 1990;Veenman, 2008). Self-regulated learning skills explain over half of all variation in school performance (Visu-Petra et al., 2011) and predict academic functioning beyond indexes of language or intellectual ability (Espy et al., 2004;Duckworth and Seligman, 2005;Blair and Razza, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Resourcefulness and adaptability are essential to success in the modern economy; the motivation, metacognition, and cognitive skills required for self-regulated learning (SRL) have never been more important. Unfortunately, teacher-led SRL interventions rarely survive implementation, and teachers' general practices rarely reflect their intention to promote SRL. After discussing the shortcomings of virtual or modularized SRL education, this study explores the drivers of a human-led, communal, pedagogical approach. Data was collected over 3 months and three timepoints from 81 kindergarten to Grade 8 teachers who were genuinely dissatisfied by their status quo practices, ready for change, and largely eager to implement the novel teaching approach presented to them. Building on established theories of planned change implementation, this research shows a minimal effect of teachers' approval of the intervention on implementation. Rather, specific drivers to the implementation of complex, communal pedagogical interventions included the support of high-status supervisors and peers, while identified constraints to implementation included fears regarding management of student behavior.
... Au sujet de l'aspect pratique de ce concept, notons que le lien entre métacognition, habileté d'apprentissage (capacité d'acquérir de nouvelles compétences facilement) et capacité à résoudre des problèmes (qui implique l'acquisition de connaissances, mais concerne des domaines très précis comparativement à l'apprentissage, plus général) a été démontré (Kruger & Dunning, 1999 ;Ehrlinger, Johnson, Banner, Dunning & Kruger, 2008 ;Brown, 1987 ;Veenman, 2008). Il reste pourtant difficile d'améliorer les connaissances et les compétences métacognitives par le biais d'entraînements (Romainville, 2000). ...
Article
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In a changing society where adaptation and introspection become a frequent necessity, the concept of metacognition is becoming a research field of growing interest. Its use in isolation seems limited, however, learning and adaptating involve many other aspects that we must also take into account in order to understand how the human mind works and suggest appropriate interventions for most people. In this paper, we address the emotions, the motivations and their links with metacognition. This work represents a step towards the establishment of theories and practices that are more integrated and fitted to the complex situations of adaptation which we all face. This work is in line with a phenomenological and holistic perspective of the human being, which seems, from our point of view, inevitable nowadays. (available online : http://www.fiuc.org/PIPER/006/)
... The ability to easily acquire new skills and solve complex problems is strongly dependent on the capacity of regulating one's own activity (Kruger & Dunning, 2008;Ehrlinger, Johnson, Banner, Dunning et al., 2008;Brown, 1987;Veenman, 2008). Moreover, accomplished learners are able to transfer their knowledge and skills from one situation to another thanks to their efficient self-regulation (Panaoura, Philippou & Christou, 2003). ...
Article
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In French universities, only one out of two students is successful in his/her first year. The drastic changes in the organization of work and the greater emphasis put on self-regulated learning (relying on metacognition) can explain these low success rates largely. In this regard, techniques have been developed to help students improve monitoring their learning activities. Our goal is to test a general and adjustable intervention on metacognition that could be used with ease by any teacher in any course. In order to achieve this, we adapted and simplified a method tested in previous research. We hypothesized that students benefiting from this intervention (over the entire semester or starting only halfway through) would get better grades than students in standard teaching conditions. The results of this study showed such positive effects on students' performance. Hence, this approach would benefit undergraduates if generalized, especially when the time frame and content of courses are somewhat rigid and non-negotiable. Moreover, it is easy to implement in university classes for any course. Yet, this work does not rule out any other intervention, and could be complemented by techniques focused on more global aspects of metacognition. EARLY ONLINE ACCESS (free eprints) : http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/QNWwQ4ysBRgXnszUR87G/full
Article
Metacognitive skills regulate and control learning processes. For assessing metacognitive skills in learners, on-line assessment is required during actual task performance. An unobtrusive on-line method is the analysis of learner activities that are registered in logfiles of computerized tasks. As logfiles cannot reflect the learner's metacognitive considerations for enacting specific activities, logfile analysis should be validated against other on-line methods. Also, external validity of logfile measures needs to be established with related measures, such as learning performance. Fifty-two second-year students (13 years) from pre-academic education performed a computerized inductive-learning task. Traces of learner activities were stored in logfiles and automatically scored on indicators of metacognitive skills. Afterwards, participants completed learning-performance posttests. Results show high convergent validity between logfile indicators and human judgments of traced learner activities. Moreover, external validity was obtained for logfile measures in relation to learning performance (but not regarding participants' IQ scores). Implications for logfile analysis are discussed.
Article
Think-aloud and self-report data from 85 undergraduates were used to examine the relationship between motivation constructs and metacognition during hypermedia learning. Participants used hypermedia for 30 min to learn about the circulatory system. Think-aloud data were collected during this 30-min learning task to determine the extent to which participants used metacognitive processes related to monitoring: their understanding, the environment, and goals. Additionally, participants completed a self-report questionnaire, which measured various motivation constructs. Results from stepwise regressions indicated that self-efficacy significantly predicted the extent to which participants monitored emerging understanding and relevancy of content in the environment. Additionally, results indicated that extrinsic motivation significantly predicted the extent to which participants monitored their learning task goals with hypermedia. Lastly, results indicated a significant, positive relationship between self-efficacy and prior domain knowledge.
Chapter
Much of what is currently understood about talented readers is based, unfortunately, on anecdotal evidence, with very little empirical research focusing on this group of students. Too many teachers believe that their focus in Reading class should be on struggling students, unaware that failing to continue to challenge our talented readers can lead to these students being put ‘at risk’, which can lead to plateauing, a decline in their reading skills and the development of poor work habits (Reis, 2008). Failing to advance the reading skills of these students in primary school often results in them being ill prepared for the demands of their secondary education. The research study that is the basis of this chapter not only added to the limited empirical evidence regarding young talented readers in Australia but also confirmed that Australian critical literacy (ACL) offers a pedagogical approach that provides high cognitive opportunities for both talented and older typical readers. Critical literacy can provide young talented readers with the challenge they crave and enable their continued development of important reading skills in preparation for secondary school. The study also highlighted important connections between critical literacy, metacognition and higher cognitive function for both talented and typical readers, allowing educators to prepare their students to develop these important twenty-first-century skills.
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The Stories We Tell Ourselves: Mentalizing Tales of Dating and Marriage is about the dynamics of intimate interpersonal relationships (dating and marriage) - how and why human pairings occur, what helps them function optimally and how therapists can intervene when they don't. J. Mark Thompson and Richard Tuch employ a multidimensional perspective that provides a variety of "lenses" through which intimate relationships can be viewed. The authors also offer a new model of couples therapy based on the mentalization model of treatment developed by Peter Fonagy and his colleagues.
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Persebaran kemampuan akademik saat ini kurang merata. Kenyataan tersebut diakibatkan sistem penerimaan siswa baru yang menggunakan passing grade. Akibatnya, pada suatu wilayah terdapat SMA yang berkualifikasi akademik tinggi (AT) dan rendah (AR). SMA berkualifikasi AR kurang dapat meningkatkan prestasi akademik siswanya. Prestasi akademik dapat dipengaruhi oleh tiga aspek, yaitu keterampilan metakognitif, hasil belajar, dan retensi. Namun, kecenderungan di sekolah saat ini, termasuk sekolah berkualifikasi AR adalah hanya melatih siswa untuk siap mengerjakan tes. Kondisi tersebut menyebabkan keterampilan metakognitif dan retensi siswa kurang diberdayakan. Permasalahan tersebut dapat diatasi dengan penerapan strategi pembelajaran cooperative script (CS). CS merupakan strategi yang mampu memberdayakan keterampilan metakognitif, hasil belajar, dan retensi siswa. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui:1) gambaran peningkatan keterampilan metakognitif siswa AR dalam perbandingannya dengan siswa AT pada pembelajaran biologi dengan penerapan strategi pembelajaran CS; 2) pengaruh kemampuan akademik terhadap peningkatan keterampilan metakognitif siswa kelas X; 3) gambaran peningkatan hasil belajar kognitif siswa AR dalam perbandingannya dengan siswa AT pada pembelajaran biologi dengan penerapan strategi pembelajaran CS; 4) pengaruh kemampuan akademik terhadap peningkatan hasil belajar biologi siswa kelas X; 5) gambaran retensi keterampilan metakognitif siswa AR dalam perbandingannya dengan siswa AT pada pembelajaran biologi dengan penerapan strategi pembelajaran CS; 6) pengaruh kemampuan akademik terhadap retensi keterampilan metakognitif siswa kelas X; 7). gambaran retensi hasil belajar biologi siswa AR dalam perbandingannya dengan siswa AT pada pembelajaran biologi dengan penerapan strategi pembelajaran CS; dan 8) pengaruh kemampuan akademik terhadap retensi hasil belajar biologi siswa kelas X. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan ialah quasi eksperimen dengan pretest posttest non equivalent group design. Variabel bebas adalah kemampuan akademik. Variabel terikat adalah keterampilan metakognitif, hasil belajar kognitif, dan retensi siswa. Populasi penelitian ialah tujuh SMA AR dan tujuh SMA AT di Kota dan Kabupaten Malang. Sampel penelitian untuk kelas AT adalah siswa kelas X-9 SMAN 1 Tumpang dan sampel untuk kelas AR adalah siswa kelas X SMA Shallahudin. Data diambil pada saat prates, pascates, dan tes retensi. Instrumen tes terlebih dahulu diuji validitas dan reliabilitas. Uji hipotesis menggunakan anakova dengan taraf signifikansi 0,05 (P < 0,05) menggunakan data skor prates, pascates, dan retensi. Uii anava dengan taraf signifikansi 0,05 (P < 0,05) dilakukan menggunakan data selisih pascates dengan prates dan retensi dengan pascates. Sebelum uji hipotesis, dilakukan uji normalitas data dengan uji kormogolov-smirnov dan uji homogenitas data dengan levene tes. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: 1) tidak ada perbedaan peningkatan keterampilan metakognitif siswa AR dengan AT yang telah mengikuti pembelajaran CS; 2) Gain score keterampilan metakognitif siswa AT lebih tinggi daripada AR; 3) tidak ada perbedaan peningkatan hasil belajar biologi siswa AR dengan AT yang telah mengikuti pembelajaran CS; 4) Gain score hasil belajar siswa AT lebih tinggi daripada AR; 5) tidak ada perbedaan tingkat retensi keterampilan metakognitif siswa AR dengan AT yang telah mengikuti pembelajaran CS; 6) Gain score retensi keterampilan metakognitif tidak berbeda signifikan antara siswa AR dengan AT; 7) ada perbedaan tingkat retensi hasil belajar kognitif siswa AR dengan AT yang telah mengikuti pembelajaran CS; dan 8) Gain score retensi hasil belajar siswa AT lebih tinggi daripada AR. Model pembelajaran CS terbukti dapat meningkatkan keterampilan metakognitif dan memberdayakan retensi hasil belajar kognitif siswa baik pada kelas berkemampuan akademik tinggi maupun rendah. Penulis menyarankan pada penelitian selanjutnya lama satu siklus pembelajaran dikontrol dengan baik dan pelaksanaan tes retensi dilakukan sebelum pekan UAS.
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The objectives of this research were: (1) to know an overview of metacognitive skills enhancement, learning outcomes enhancement, and retention of low ability (LA) students compared with high ability (HA) students in Biology learning applicating cooperative script (CS) strategy; and (2) to know the effects of academic ability on metacognitive skills enhancement, learning outcomes enhancement, and retention of X grade students. The data had been collected by pre test, post test, and retention test. The results of this research showed that there were no differences in metacognitive skills enhacement, learning outcomes enhancement, and metacognitive skills retention, meanwhile there was a significant difference in learning outcomes retention between those of LA those of HA students who studied in CS learning strategy. The gain scores of metacognitive skills, learning outcomes, and learning outcomes retention of HA students were higher than those of LA students. The gain score of metacognitive skills retention weren't significantly different between those of LA and those of HA students. Sistem penerimaan siswa baru (PSB) yang diterapakan oleh SMA-SMA saat ini perlu dijadikan perhatian. Sistem PSB yang dimaksud adalah sistem passing grade. Secara umum, sistem passing grade akan memilih calon siswa baru dari NUN tertinggi dan diikuti dengan NUN yang lebih rendah hingga kapasitas kuota siswa baru terpenuhi. Calon siswa tidak dapat memasuki SMA yang memiliki passing grade di atas NUN yang mereka miliki. Pada umumnya, siswa dengan NUN SMP tinggi lebih memilih untuk masuk SMA favorit di daerahnya. SMA-SMA favorit akan mendapatkan calon-calon siswa baru yang memiliki NUN SMP tinggi hingga kuota SMA tersebut terpenuhi. Calon siswa yang tidak diterima di SMA-SMA favorit tersebut akan terbuang ke SMA yang berkualifikasi sedang. Calon siswa yang NUN SMPnya berada di bawah passing grade SMA berkualifikasi sedang terpaksa akan masuk SMA berkualifikasi rendah. Dengan demikian, setiap SMA dihuni oleh siswa dengan NUN SMP yang hampir homogen, namun antara satu SMA dengan SMA lain memiliki siswa dengan rata-rata NUN masuk yang berbeda. PP No. 19 Tahun 2005 menjelaskan bahwa UN merupakan alat evaluasi hasil belajar, maka dapat dikatakan NUN SMP merupakan gambaran pencapaian akademik siswa SMP. Lebih lanjut, dapat disimpulkan bahwa NUN SMP siswa merupakan indikator kemampuan akademik siswa tersebut. Dengan demikian, sistem PSB yang diterapkan saat ini menyebabkan pemisahan siswa berkemampuan akademik tinggi, sedang, dan rendah. Kenyataan tersebut diperkiraan akan terus berlangsung lama. Fakta di lapangan memperlihatkan bahwa keterampilan metakognitif dan retensi siswa kurang diberdayaan, baik di
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This dissertation examines elementary school students’ self-regulated learning (SRL), with a particular focus on self-regulated learning by highly-intelligent students. The studies are described in four articles and summarized in a framework paper. In the study described in article 1 we investigated if fourth-grade students preferred SRL over other forms of learning and if and how the preference for SRL changed over the course of the fourth school year. We thereby focused particularly on potential differences between highly-intelligent students and their peers of average intelligence. Analyses of questionnaire data (N = 368) showed that, in the absence of systematic training, fourth-graders did not prefer SRL over other forms of learning and that the preference for SRL did not increase significantly over the course of the school year. We found no relationship between intelligence and the preference for SRL learning. On the basis of these results, we implemented a teacher-led SRL training program in German and basic science lessons in fourth-grade German elementary school classrooms. Over the course of this training program, students practiced SRL while working on expository science texts. During the seven-week program students were first introduced to a model of SRL and to three cognitive text reduction strategies and then practiced all the steps of SRL while identifying main ideas in science texts. In the study described in article 2 we evaluated the effectiveness of this SRL training program with N = 763 students from 33 classrooms. Comparing the SRL training program with a training program that only fostered text strategies and with regular classroom instruction, we found that the SRL training program proved most beneficial. Students participating in the SRL training program showed a higher preference for SRL than students in both other conditions directly after the program had ended, as well as eleven weeks later. In addition, the increase of correctly-identified main ideas was greater among students participating in the SRL training program than among students participating in the training program that only fostered text strategies. In the study described in article 3 we examined the question of whether highly-intelligent and high-achieving students also benefited from the SRL training program in classroom instruction in heterogeneous classrooms. To this end, we analyzed a subsample from the study reported in article 2. Analyses showed that highly-intelligent students increased their preference for SRL in the long term and that their performance in the training task improved throughout the whole course of the training. High-achieving students increased their preference for SRL both in the short and in the long run. Their performance in the training task improved mainly during the first three weeks of the practice period and remained stable thereafter. Despite the existence of effective SRL training programs, surprisingly little is known about the reasons as to why elementary school students do not adequately self-regulate their learning processes. Such knowledge could, however, be used to improve the effectiveness of existing SRL training programs. In the study reported in article 4 we therefore examined potential age-specific reasons for the suboptimal implementation of two SRL sub-processes: self-assessment and goal-setting. In particular, we examined if and how inaccurate self-assessment and unrealistic goal-setting are related to memory deficits and wishful thinking. Analyzing data from learning diaries and one-on-one interviews with N = 24 fourth-graders, we found that students accurately remembered their previous performances in similar tasks, and we found no relationship between memory deficits on the one hand and unrealistic self-assessment and unrealistic goal-setting on the other. Although wishful thinking was a rare occurrence, our analyses showed that wishful thinking was related to unrealistically high goal-setting. In the framework paper the studies are described in a larger context. After an overview of the common theoretical and empirical background and a summary of each of the four articles, the central findings of this dissertation are discussed. Conclusions for educational practice are drawn and perspectives for future research are presented.
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Investigated whether metacognition is a separate factor from cognition by measuring the effects of metacognitive factors in problem solving while attempting to hold relevant cognitive factors constant. 24 2nd–6th graders who were disabled in mathematics were matched to 24 regular students on the basis of both Ss' performance on the same set of 10 mathematics problems and their achievement test scores in mathematics. The 2 groups also did not significantly differ on IQ scores. Results show that the learning disabled Ss were less skilled in 2 forms of metacognition with respect to the set of problems: (a) knowledge about cognition, or in this case knowledge about their problem-solving skills; and (b) regulation of cognition, or in this case the ability to monitor their problem-solving performance. Implications of the results and the adequacy of the matching methodology are discussed. (34 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated the extent to which thinking aloud during the performance of a learning task interferes with metacognitive or regulatory processes and learning performances. 40 1st-yr psychology students performed a discovery learning task in a computer simulated heat lab while thinking aloud or working silently. 28 Ss from the M. V. Veenman et al (1993) experiment served as the reference group. Ss' activities in the heat lab were registered in logfiles and analyzed on performance parameters relevant to regulatory processes. Two posttests were administered to obtain measures of learning. Results show that thinking-aloud Ss did not differ from control Ss with regard to logfile measures of regulatory processes and measures of learning. A significant difference between thinking-aloud and control Ss was found for time on task. Thinking aloud appeared to slow down performance on the learning task, without altering the ongoing processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated the relation between metacognition and analogical reasoning in 19 mildly mentally retarded (MR), 20 learning disabled (LD), 20 normal (N) achieving, and 19 gifted (G) children (aged 12–14 yrs). Results show that (1) residual differences occur among ability groups in analogical reasoning and metacognition, even when IQ is partialed out in the analysis; (2) significant intercorrelations between IQ, analogical reasoning, and metacognition are isolated to low-aptitude groups; and (3) qualitatively different intercorrelational patterns occur between MR and LD groups (the 2 low-aptitude groups). Results suggest that MR children's performance reflects a central-processing deficiency across processes, whereas LD children's performance reflects specific-processing deficiencies related to components of metacognition. G children's performance was characterized as a power driven strategy that operates independent of metacognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study explored the relationship between metacognition and intelligence in a group of normal adolescents. The relationship has strong theoretical support in current conceptions of intelligence. For the purposes of this study metacognition was assessed across three different cognitive problem sets. Correlational analyses indicated a nonsignificant relationship between intelligence and metacognition. These results suggest that tests of metacognition and intelligence may tap unrelated aspects of cognition and that additional research will be required to understand the relationship between these two constructs.
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What differences may be found in the way gifted pupils, as compared with average pupils from the second form of lower secondary education, process information while solving mathematical problems? Gifted pupils apparently solved the problems better, faster and needed less assistance than average pupils. A global distinction of the subprocesses orientation, execution and evaluation also allows for the conclusion that in most cases the gifted pupils processed information in a different fashion. The yield of this line of research should be the improvement of education in two respects. For one, the results may induce teachers to adapt their teaching to gifted pupils. Secondly they may try to teach average pupils to process information like gifted pupils typically would.
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This article investigates a complex Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI), of intelligence and metacognitive skill as aptitudes with structuredness of learning environment as treatment. A more structured learning environment is usually regarded as beneficial to learning in low intelligence students, whereas it may not affect or may even interfere with learning in high intelligence students. The overall analyses of four studies are presented, including a total of 99 subjects. High and low intelligence novices passed through either structured or unstructured simulation environments in the domains of heat theory, electricity, or statistics. Thinking-aloud protocols were analyzed in order to assess the metacognitive skillfulness of subjects. Several learning tests were administered, assessing both declarative and procedural domain knowledge. The results show that structuredness of learning environment did not affect learning in high intelligence subjects, irrespective of their level of metacognitive skillfulness. However, the structured learning environment yielded enhanced learning performances in low intelligence subjects with a low level of metacognitive skillfulness, while it interfered with learning in low intelligence subjects with a relatively high level of metacognitive skillfulness.
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This study investigated the additive, beneficial effect of regulatory activities on top of verbal, numerical, and diagrammatic intelligence in the prediction of academic performance. About 500 freshmen of different study domains participated in this research. The findings supported both the mixed and the independency model of the relationship between intelligence and metacognitive skills. Analyses of variance revealed significant main effects of verbal and numerical (crystallised) intelligence, and of cognitive regulatory activities on academic performance. The effect of diagrammatic (fluid) intelligence on academic performance was just short of being significant. Implications for further research and for educational practice are being discussed.
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A first objective of this study was to clarify the relation between intellectual ability and working method as predictors of novice learning. A second objective was to determine whether instructional aid instead of unguided learning by discovery, might compensate for lack of ability. High and low intelligent students worked in either a structured or unstructured simulation environment for learning correlational principles. Analyses of thinking-aloud protocols showed that high intelligent subjects exhibited a better working method than low intelligent subjects. Working method also appeared to be a strong predictor of learning, independent of intellectual ability. No learning effects due to structuredness of learning environment could be detected.
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To determine if cognition among persons with learning disabilities (LD) and mild mental retardation (MMR) is similar, we compared metacomponential functioning and knowledge acquisition across groups of incarcerated adults with LD and high IQ (HIQLD), with LD and low IQ (LIQLD), with normal achievement (NA), and with MMR. The Slosson Intelligence Test Computer Report (Nicholson, 1984) formula established criteria for group inclusion. Metacomponential functioning among 77 males and 26 females was measured by a confidence test (Echternacht, Boldt, & Sellman, 1971) designed for the general knowledge subtest of the SRA Achievement Battery (Naslund, Thorpe, & Lefever, 1982). Knowledge base and group membership were significantly related to metacomponential ability (R2 = .84). Persons with HIQLD and LIQLD performed better than those with MMR on both measures. The HIQLD, however, did not outperform their peers with NA. Results show that (a) knowledge base is the best predictor of metacomponential skill, (b) metacomponential orchestration differentiates persons with HIQLD from those with LIQLD and both groups from persons with MMR, and (c) IQ mediates metacognition, but does not explain it. Education should emphasize knowledge acquisition for people with HIQLD; people with LIQLD and MMR require more attention to metacognition.