Article

Citizen Participation in Governance

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Abstract

The existence of an effective means of citizen participation within public service decision-making forums will be one of the biggest challenges for public mangers in 2010. The establishment of systems which bring citizen representatives into the polity can provide unique opportunities for citizen inputs - one such system is the school governing body, made up of citizen, professional and political representatives. This article reports on an investigation into citizen participation within the governance of schools. It finds that while governing bodies provide the opportunity for citizen participation, citizens are not actively involved in school governance. A number of measures are recommended which may assist in enhancing the citizen governance role.

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... Esta extensão dos direitos políticos de cidadania foi ameaçada pelas propostas do New Public Management de maior autonomia da gestão administrativa e iniciativas como o outsourcing. A promoção de mecanismos de mercado implicava que o único grau de participação do cidadão na actividade administrativa se resumia a decidir adquirir, ou não, o serviço, como qualquer cliente face a uma empresa (Farrel, 2000). Esta visão reduzia o cidadão ao estatuto de cliente, cujo interesse na acção do Estado era guiado apenas por interesses puramente egoístas em vez de valores de natureza colectiva e consensual (Frederickson, 1996). ...
... Fontes: Denhard e Denhadt, 2003;Farrel, 2000;Majone, 1997;Moro, 2003;Mozzicafreddo, 2000a;Mozzicafreddo, 2001b;OECD, 2001. ...
... Esta percepção pode ser agravada pelo facto de os cidadãos, muitas vezes, só tomarem consciência de actividades e serviços fornecidos pelo Estado quando algum problema acontece. As experiência negativas com a administração tendem a ter um maior impacto na percepção do cidadão do que as experiências positivas, que são consideradas um direito adquirido e por isso exigidas como algo que é devido (Berman, 1997 (Farrel, 2000). Só valorizando as contribuições dos cidadãos se pode esperar deles empenho, motivação e até orgulho pelo seu envolvimento nas actividades da administração. ...
... Failure to involve relevant stakeholders in decision-making processes can lead to formidable obstacles to realizing the goal of sustainable development (Inskeep, 1991; Ioannides, 1995). Different goals and forms of public participation have been suggested in the literature (see Arnstein, 1971; Painter, 1992; Pearce et al., 1996; Syme, 1992, Tosun, 2000 for details on participation forms). In essence, these different forms of participation mean that participation may range from a feeling of participation without its substance to the genuine exercise of power to determine outcomes (Painter, 1992 ...
... Different goals and forms of public participation have been suggested in the literature (see Arnstein, 1971; Painter, 1992; Pearce et al., 1996; Syme, 1992, Tosun, 2000 for details on participation forms). In essence, these different forms of participation mean that participation may range from a feeling of participation without its substance to the genuine exercise of power to determine outcomes (Painter, 1992 ...
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Provision of public participation in the process of tourism planning and implementation has been imperatively suggested. To date, however, facilitators and inhibitors of public participation have not been adequately addressed in tourism planning literature. This article proposes that in addition to varied structural and cultural factors, residents' perceptions of the intensity of clientelist relations engaged in by the local authority (e.g., municipality) may alienate active public participation in developmental issues. Structural equation modeling is used to test the hypothesized links between perceived intensity of clientelism, residents' assessment of public services, and their participation intentions toward municipality-run projects. Statistically significant inverse relationships between perceived intensity of clientelism and residents' assessment of public services are identified. The results show that an increase in perceived clientelism would result in a decrease in residents'public service assessment and thus reduce their intentions to participate in tourism-related projects. Suggestions for further research are included. © 2008 International Council on Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Education.
... Second, it is important that there is appropriate engagement in each planning and governance phase. This is reflected in research on participation which has shifted from static typologies describing levels of participation, to more fluid and ad hoc models that recognize the various efforts that can be employed at each step of the policy making process, from agenda-setting through to evaluation and monitoring (Bishop and Davis, 2002; Painter, 1992; Shand and Arnberg, 1996; Thomas, 1990 ). Third, participants must be able to engage equally in governance processes (Ryfe, 2005). In cases where there is a strong power differential, equal participation may in fact require privileging some perspectives over others. ...
... Most regional forums created an environment where there was appropriate engagement of Aboriginal community/organisations in each phase of planning and governance and where participants were able to engage equally in governance processes. These are critical features that support meaningful participation in governance processes (Bishop and Davis, 2002; Painter, 1992; Shand and Arnberg, 1996; Thomas, 1990) . Aboriginal community members and organisations remained a minority on forums; however, they were privileged through the processes involved in planning and governance. ...
... Veugelers illustrates, then, that citizenship education should focus on values development. Values development has been traditionally seen as critical to citizenship; a citizen must think about others, rather than pursue his/her self interest, and, in this sense, citizenship is not consumerism (Farrell, 2000). Veugelers contends, however, that today much more emphasis be placed on values development than before; it is because how to balance tolerance and diversity is a crucial problem in contemporary multicultural society. ...
Nowadays strong emphasis has been placed on “governance” and “citizen participation”; citizens are expected to be ever more involved in the policy process and to ever more actively govern society. The promotion of citizen participation, however, should entail thorough consideration on citizenship or citizens’ qualifications and capabilities. This paper theoretically examines the notion of citizen in the era of governance and highlights active citizenship as necessary for citizen participation; any participant must be an active citizen.This paper avers that education for active citizenship significantly contribute to individuals being active. Given that values, knowledge and skills — both basic and practical/applied — need to be developed for political participation, education for active citizenship should be provided for not only young people, but also adults who are participating or will soon participate in the policy process; in this sense, both child/youth education and adult/social education are important. Due to the heterogeneity and diversity of individuals, and given that a wide range of knowledge is necessary for active citizen participation, moreover, education for active citizenship should be provided by various agencies in various ways. An educational system for active citizenship, consequently, needs to be designed on the basis of the recognition that the system should contain child, youth, postgraduate and adult/social education programs; and that the system should utilize characteristics of diverse agencies such as elementary and secondary schools, colleges and universities, graduate schools, NPOs and citizen’s colleges. Without such a citizen development system, active citizen participation would be hardly possible to be successfully promoted.Designing a citizen participation mechanism accompanied with citizen development programs (educational programs for active citizenship) is an arduous task. This task involves not only new participants in the policy process, viz., so-called ordinary citizens. Policymakers also have to adapt to the changing political process. Scholars in various study fields, as well, are required to academically and practically contribute to designing and facilitating citizen participation. Citizen participation in the policy process, nevertheless, sounds nice to many people and thus might be promoted without careful consideration. This paper is intended to warn against such promotion and to be a starting point for defining “citizen in the era of governance” and for establishing an effective citizen participation mechanism accompanied with an educational system.
... It is assumed that dialogue with interest groups is an important communitarian accountability mechanism for understanding and responding to their needs (Behn 1998;Farrell 2000;Roberts 2002;Shearer 2002). Open and transparent public debate leading to better management and service performance and allocation of resources is regarded as one way of achieving better VFM from public monies. ...
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There is an implicit assumption in the UK Treasury’s publications on public-private partnerships (PPP)—also more commonly known in the United Kingdom as private finance initiative (PFI)—that accountability and value for money (VFM) are related concepts. While recent academic studies on PPP/PFI (from now on as PFI) have focused on VFM, there is a notable absence of studies exploring the ‘presumed’ relationships between accountability and VFM. Drawing on Dubnick’s (Dubnick and Romzek in American public administration, politics and the management of expectations. Macmillan, New York, 1991, Research in public administration. JAI, Greenwich, 1993; Dubnick in Public service ethics and the cultures of blame, 1996, Public sector ethics: finding and implementing values. Routledge, London, 1998, Int J Org Theory Behav 6(3):405–441, 2003, Public Perform Manage Rev 28(3):376–417, 2005; Dubnick and Justice in But can you trust them to be ethical, 2002) framework for accountability and PFI literature, we develop a research framework for exploring potential relationships between accountability and VFM in PFI projects by proposing alternative accountability cultures, processes and mechanisms for PFI. The PFI accountability model is then exposed to four criteria—warrantability, tractability, measurability and feasibility. Our preliminary interviews provide us guidance in identifying some of the cultures, processes and mechanisms indicated in our model which should enable future researchers to test not only the UK Government’s claimed relationships between accountability and VFM using more specific PFI empirical data, but also a potential relationship between accountability and performance in general. KeywordsAccountability–Performance–New public management–Value for money–Private finance initiative
... Although participation is though to be a space for political transformation towards a more egalitarian and coresponsible society, it is not always clear the extent to which procedures can be conducted in ways that make it just a way of legitimating decisions already taken behind closed doors. Citizen participation has evolve in many specific projects such as youth participation as a value acquiring activity (Camino & Shepherd, 2002;Kerr, 1999) or participation in the government of schools (Farrell, 2000;Gittell, 1977;MacKinnon, 2000;Ranson, Arnott, McKeown, Martin & Smith, 2005) to mention a few. ...
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Nowadays, participation has become a common subject in many organizational settings, despite of the fact that there is a huge variety of approaches and practices attached to the label. This variety results problematic mainly because it exposes the different and often contradictory meanings, aims and procedures the word 'participation' seems to stand for, depending on the kind of context in which the phenomenon is located and on the social position of actors involved. By means of an exhaustive literature review, including reports, working papers, conference procedures and journal articles published during the last twenty years in fields such as industrial relations and organizational psychology, the purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of existing approaches to participation and, in doing so, identify and analyse the roles these approaches play when used as managerial tools in public, private and third sector organizations. Results include some neglected issues such as the major role tacit assumptions play when trying to put participation into practice and the effects of any systematic attempt in terms of regulation and control. A case is made for the inclusion of power relations as a key analytical dimension in further research on participation.
... Effective and meaningful participation can be liberating, empowering and sometimes lead to tangible positive outcomes, but generally requires more time and effort by government and an active engagement with citizens. It involves not only consultation, but co-decision-making at all stages of the process, so that 'participants' experience ownership, autonomy and efficacy (Farrell 2000). ...
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Worldwide reports of an obesity ‘epidemic’ prompted the Irish government to appoint a multidisciplinary Taskforce, whose report was published in May 2005. This paper critically analyses the report and its recommendations for reducing health risks among families, children and young people. Using a Foucauldian perspective, we question the report's individualizing focus and support for a strategy which responsibilises schools, families and young people and relies on individuals to do ‘the right thing’. Specifically, we examine the Taskforce recommendations for the education sector, and identify their dependence upon a discourse of governmentality, under categories of individualization, responsibilization and freedom of choice, participation and techniques for management of the self. We conclude that the report fails to address the multi-faceted and complex nature of obesity, and obscures the social, economic and material realities of the lives of pupils and schools.
... Evers, 2006) are trying to find new ways for the provision and governance of public services, for example by involving citizens as co-producers of the services needed (Moedlhammer, 2009;Pestoff, 2009). Concepts like communitarianism (Farrell, 2000) or participationalism (Pestoff, 2009;Evers, 2006) highlight the importance of citizen participation in both the political and the production process of public service provision. In line with Spear and colleagues, we focus within this article on "public sector spin-offs" as a type of social enterprise which takes over the administration of services previously provided by public authorities (Spear, Cornforth & Aiken, 2009). ...
Chapter
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