Article

Cost of corrosion in oil production and refining

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Abstract

In 2003, Saudi Aramco initiated a study to define the cost of corrosion throughout core operations, focusing plant, engineering, and research investment in corrosion control to the areas that had the largest economic impact on corporate performance. For Saudi Aramcos five domestic refineries, 36% of maintenance budget was due to corrosion, 25% for gas sweetening plants, and 17% for gas fractionation plants. For production operations onshore, corrosion was responsible for 28% of maintenance costs. Offshore, corrosion accounted for 60-70% of maintenance costs. The total cost of corrosion including deferred production costs for gas fractionation plants was five times the direct corrosion maintenance costs. The need for a life- cycle costing approach to corrosion control in project design was established.

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... It is a worldwide problem that costs approximately USD 2.5 trillion annually or 3.4% of the GDP (Figure 1b) [3]. Now and then, developed countries around the globe conduct studies to determine the direct costs of corrosion; however, these figures do not account for indirect losses including negative environmental consequences and associated safety risks [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. The details of economic loss due to corrosion around the world have been provided in Figure 1(b) [14]. ...
... Regarding Fe-based MGCs, Miura et al. [64] synthesized FeNiPB-based glassy coatings on different substrates by flame spraying as early as in 1984, however, the deposited coatings had inadequate bond strength with the substrates (Cu: <10 MPa and Steel: [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. In years between 1996 and 2000, Kishitake et al. [65,66] developed FeCrPCMo-based MGCs via different thermal spraying processes and observed that the completely amorphous coating exhibited superior corrosion properties compared to 316L SS in both H 2 SO 4 and HCl solutions. ...
... Moreover, this mechanism of protection by Fe 73. 13 Si 11.12 B 10.79-Cr 2.24 C 2.72 MG composite coating was also observed by Mahata et al. [387]. ...
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... A survey in 1993 estimated that corrosion caused 60 % of all maintenance costs incurred in the North Sea oil and gas production platforms (Steinsmo and Heggelung, 1993). One of the world's leading oil and gas company had announced an annual corrosion cost of $900 million in a 2003 survey (Tems and Al Zahrani, 2006). Another survey in 2006 showed that the United States incurred up to $1.372 billion as the annual cost of corrosion in its oil and gas industry (Simmons, 2008). ...
... The application of protective coatings is by far the most generic way to protect metallic infrastructures against corrosion and fouling. As an example, and among the various known corrosion control technologies, the use of coatings was the dominant technology to control corrosion in the upstream oil operations sector of ARMACO company in Saudi Arabia during the period 1998 to 2001 (Figure 4.3) [5]. Protective anticorrosive coatings can be classified as per the mechanism by which they protect the metal surface against corrosion, i.e. barrier, sacrificial and inhibitive protection effects [6]. ...
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... In Australia, the record was put at USD $ 698.8 million in 1972 [13] and USD $ 1.6 billion in 1983 [14]. For China and Saudi Arabia, the direct corrosion cost was ∼USD $ 310 billion in 2015 [3] and USD $ 900 million in 2003 [15] respectively. As the world is witnessing technological advancement, this cost is expected to increase. ...
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... Korosi adalah kerusakan akibat reaksi kimia antara logam atau paduan logam dengan lingkungannya [1] . Pada tahun 2003, Saudi Aramco melakukan studi untuk mengetahui biaya akibat korosi terhadap produksi minyak dan pemurniannya [2] . Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa 25% biaya perawatan plant gassweetening dikeluarkan untuk pengendalian korosi, 17% biaya perawatan plant gas fractionation untuk korosi, 28% biaya perawatan operasi produksi onshore, sedangkan untuk offshore dibutuhkan 60-70% biaya perawatan untuk korosi. ...
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There are two major problems associated with calculating the cost of corrosion, how can it be calculated and why is it so large? This paper describes by means of a mathematical model of the national economy how the effects of corrosion on this economy can be estimated. The results suggest that the cost to Australia of corrosion which could be avoided by the application of currently available knowledge was over 6 billion dollars in 1992. Some suggestions are then made to explain the market imperfections which remove the financial incentive to seek to make a profit from the potential savings available.