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Promoting creativity through feedback

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... leadership characteristics Noe 2010, Shalley andZhou 2008); organisational structure, Andriopoulus 2001, Cook 2002, Zdunczyk and Blekinsopp 2007); organisational culture (Vu and Zhu 2012; Tohidinia and Mosakhani 2010; Wang and Noe 2010; Sh.-Sh. Chen, Chuang, P.-Y. ...
... Chen, Chuang, P.-Y. Chen 2012; Kumaraswamy and Chitale 2012, Andriopoulus 2001, Zdunczyk and Blekinsopp 2007); resources (Wickramasinghe and Widyaratne 2012, Kumaraswamy and Chitale 2012, Andriopoulus 2001).According to scientific literature, leadership as a factor that promotes creativity and knowledge sharing is described by the following characteristics: ability to formulate and communicate organisational vision clearly(Tierney 2008); empowerment of employees to define personal tasks to themselves(Tierney 2008); empowerment of employees for creative activity and improvement(Zhou 2008); continous and clear feedback(Obolenskyj 2010;Tierney 2008;Zhou 2008). Various organisational incentives are also included in this feedback.Organisational structure that promotes knowledge sharing and creativity should be flexible (Andriopoulus 2001), organic(De Toni et al. 2012) and based on networks, Fathi et al. 2011, Wang et al. 2009). ...
... Chen, Chuang, P.-Y. Chen 2012; Kumaraswamy and Chitale 2012, Andriopoulus 2001, Zdunczyk and Blekinsopp 2007); resources (Wickramasinghe and Widyaratne 2012, Kumaraswamy and Chitale 2012, Andriopoulus 2001).According to scientific literature, leadership as a factor that promotes creativity and knowledge sharing is described by the following characteristics: ability to formulate and communicate organisational vision clearly(Tierney 2008); empowerment of employees to define personal tasks to themselves(Tierney 2008); empowerment of employees for creative activity and improvement(Zhou 2008); continous and clear feedback(Obolenskyj 2010;Tierney 2008;Zhou 2008). Various organisational incentives are also included in this feedback.Organisational structure that promotes knowledge sharing and creativity should be flexible (Andriopoulus 2001), organic(De Toni et al. 2012) and based on networks, Fathi et al. 2011, Wang et al. 2009). ...
Conference Paper
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Abstract: This conceptual paper advances the customer experiential knowledge management approach (CEKM) as an attempt to contribute to the marketing management theory. Hence, the challenge of this approach is to connect the customer knowledge management theory to that of customer service experience. First, we assert that the externalized customer experiential knowledge can be used in order to innovate in terms of an experiential strategy implementation. In this case, we focus on the innovation by experience offer creation which fits into the experiential marketing paradigm. Second, the current research relates the customer tacit knowledge theory and that of customer experience in order to deduce the customer experiential knowledge aspects. Third, a preliminary exploratory research regarding the well‐being tourism field is presented in order to substantiate the research problem. A progressive literature review highlights respectively the managerial and theoretical gaps which support the proposition of a new concept labelled CEKMC (customer experiential knowledge management competence) by drawing upon the competence management theory. Finally, the CEKMC is integrated in a conceptual research framework that highlights its relationships with the absorptive capacity of organization and the experience innovation performance. Keywords: the customer experience, the experiential marketing, customer knowledge management (CKM), the tacit knowledge (TK), the well‐being touri
... In this study, we attempt to build a theory of feedback interactions in creative work by addressing two issues. First, both generic models of feedback (Smither, London, & Reilly, 2005) and models of feedback specific to creative work (Zhou, 2008) typically depict the "content of feedback" as the primary factor that needs to be considered in order to understand the effects of feedback. In other words, what feedback providers say may be a critical factor in understanding the consequences that can emerge from feedback. ...
... Not surprisingly, additional dimensions of the content of feedback have been theorized for creative work. In concert with traditional models, Zhou's (2008) review of the creative feedback literature also suggests that the content of feedback is the first predictor of the effects of feedback, but she proposes that "feedback style" is a critical component of feedback. Feedback style is the "manner in which feedback is delivered" (Zhou, 2008: 130) and is classified as either informative or controlling. ...
... Research shows that nurturing creativity at work often occurs in fleeting, unplanned interactions (Hargadon & Bechky, 2006;Zhou, 2008). Given the fleeting nature of creativity, organizations need to take advantage of planned interactions, such as feedback meetings during creative projects, that offer the chance of enhancing creative ideas. ...
Article
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While there is a large amount of literature on feedback, it is unclear how well traditional prescriptions for feedback apply during creative projects, since creativity often relies on nonlinear and ambiguous work patterns. We conducted an inductive study of feedback meetings in creative projects in two contexts - modern dance and product design - to understand how feedback might influence the development of creative prototypes. Our emergent findings reframe current theorizing on feedback by revealing its interactive nature: feedback providers and creative workers co-construct a problem space that provides openings for changing prototypes. Our analysis revealed sets of moves that feedback providers (personalizing, puzzling, measuring, and prescribing) and creative workers (backgrounding, forecasting, and opening) use to interact. We also found evidence that patterns among these moves helped guide one of two responses: (1) excavations, when feedback spurs comprehensive changes by prompting creative workers to return to old ideas, and (2) adjustments, when feedback spurs incremental refinements to the prototype. We integrate these findings into a process model that describes how feedback influences creative projects over time.
... Perry-Smith & Shalley, 2003), empirical work shows that employees who are connected to a diverse set of individuals (Perry-Smith, 2006) are more creative, because they are more likely to receive and share new input. In addition, research has shown that giving feedback to employees can be used as a tool to promote and nurture creativity in organizations (Zhou, 2008). With the exchange of system-level feedback being somewhat constrained in many organizations, however, organizations that value creative output may need to rely on employees' self-regulation efforts to acquire such feedback . ...
... As noted by Zhou (2008), however, studies investigating the role of feedback in the creative process have tended to focus on dyadic feedback exchanges that occur within the immediate work context of the employee (e.g., supervisor feedback), without considering the multiple sources from whom individuals receive feedback, both within and beyond their immediate job context (e.g., clients, peers in other organizations). In addition, the majority of creativity research has conceived feedback as a context factor, i.e., as information that is in essence available or not available to employees (e.g., Shalley, Zhou, & Oldham, 2004;Zhou, 1998;. ...
... For example, research shows that individuals who tend to be more flexible in absorbing information (McCrae & Costa, 1997), prefer to solve problems in innovative ways (Kirton, 1976(Kirton, , 1994, and are more open to new experiences (Feist, 1998), exhibit more creativity. Regarding the contextual factors affecting employee creativity, the key finding is that managers and organizations can build work environments that support employee creativity by setting creativity work goals, making creativity a job requirement, providing developmental feedback on creative goal progress, and rewarding employees when they achieve creative outcomes (Amabile & Mueller, 2008;Paulus, 2008;Shalley, 2008;Shalley & Liu, 2007;Tierney, 2008;West & Richter, 2008;Zhou, 2008). ...
... Feedback occurs within the social, organizational contexts that create the basis of the evaluation standards. Employees try to meet the standards, and evaluators rate employee creativity by considering the gap between demonstrated creativity and the standards (De Stobbeleir, Ashford, & Buyens, 2011;Zhou, 2008). As a result, in a study of feedback, it is necessary for researchers to specify the social and organizational contexts, including the identities of the feedback sender(s) and recipient(s) (Zhou, 2008). ...
... Employees try to meet the standards, and evaluators rate employee creativity by considering the gap between demonstrated creativity and the standards (De Stobbeleir, Ashford, & Buyens, 2011;Zhou, 2008). As a result, in a study of feedback, it is necessary for researchers to specify the social and organizational contexts, including the identities of the feedback sender(s) and recipient(s) (Zhou, 2008). By introducing a novel concept -the direction of feedback flow -the current research specifies the social and organizational context within which negative feedback flows and examines its influences on the relationship between negative feedback and recipient creativity. ...
... Past research has examined negative feedback and recipient creativity with little understanding of how the social contexts surrounding this relationship play a role. Zhou (2008) noted the limitation of the extant feedback research by arguing that "how effectively we can use feedback in promoting creativity depends on the nature and components of the feedback itself, on the characteristics of the feedback recipient, and on the characteristics of the feedback giver" (p. 130). ...
Article
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Negative feedback alerts recipients to a creativity-standard gap and thus may offer an opportunity to improve creativity. However, the existing theories and empirical evidence about the relationship between negative feedback and recipient creativity are contradictory. The literature contains evidence of positive, negative, and null relationships. Our research aims to resolve this inconsistency by investigating the role of the direction of feedback flows, which include bottom-up, top-down, and lateral flows. Across two studies – one quasi-field experiment and one laboratory experiment – we found that the direction of feedback flow determined the nature of the relationship between negative feedback and recipient creativity via two distinct mechanisms: task-processes and meta-processes. Negative feedback increased recipient creativity in the bottom-up feedback flow (from followers to supervisors) because it heightened recipients’ focus on task-processes, whereby recipients focus on the generation of better task strategies to close the creativity-standard gap. In contrast, in the top-down (from supervisors to followers) or lateral (between peers) feedback flows, negative feedback heightened recipients’ focus on meta-processes – which refer to the psychological state in which recipients feel threatened by negative feedback – and thus hindered recipient creativity.
... Among many variables influencing creativity, feedback, which is a key part of the creative idea evaluation cycle (Zhou, 1998;Zhou & George, 2003), has consistently been found to be a significant predictor of creativity through the effects of feedback valence (Hoever, Zhou, & Knippenberg, 2018;Lu, Qiao, & Hao, 2019;Zhou, 1998), feedback style (Ryan, 1982;Zhou, 1998Zhou, , 2003, feedback contents (He, Yao, Wang, & Caughron, 2016;Shealy, Gero, Milovanovic, & Hu, 2020), and feedback sources (Mavri, Ioannou, & Loizides, 2020;Sijbom, Anseel, Crommelinck, de Beuckelaer, & De Stobbeleir, 2015). Many studies have supported the positive relationship between feedback and creativity (Fodor, 1990;Lee, 2019;Lu et al., 2019;Svensson, 2015;Zhou, 1998Zhou, , 2008, whereas other studies have demonstrated different or more complex relationships between the two variables (Andrews & Farris, 1967;Basadur, Runco, & Vega, 2000;Fodor & Carver, 2000;Hoever et al., 2018;Watts et al., 2017). Yet, it remains unclear what cognitive process is involved in the relationship and leads to the differences in the results. ...
... Feedback valence was defined as "the positive or negative outcome of the comparison between an individual's creative performance and situational criteria (Herold & Greller, 1977;Karniol & Ross, 1977;Pretty & Seligman, 1984;Sansone, Sachau, & Weir, 1989)" (Zhou, 1998, p. 262). It is considered the most fundamental dimension of feedback and has been studied the most widely in creativity research (Hoever et al., 2018;Zhou, 2008). Previous studies have found that positive feedback leads to higher creative performance than negative feedback (Amabile & Gryskiewicz, 1989;Fodor, 1990;Lee, 2019;Svensson, 2015;Zhou, 1998Zhou, , 2008. ...
... It is considered the most fundamental dimension of feedback and has been studied the most widely in creativity research (Hoever et al., 2018;Zhou, 2008). Previous studies have found that positive feedback leads to higher creative performance than negative feedback (Amabile & Gryskiewicz, 1989;Fodor, 1990;Lee, 2019;Svensson, 2015;Zhou, 1998Zhou, , 2008. For instance, Zhou (1998) showed that, compared to participants who received negative feedback, those who received positive feedback exhibited higher creativity in a management task. ...
Article
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As two important aspects in creativity, creative performance and evaluation are influenced by many individual and contextual factors. One of such factors is feedback. Past research has also found that perspective taking increases creative performance and interpersonal creative evaluation. Although different forms of feedback, such as feedback valence, style, contents, have shown significant effects on creativity, feedback that incorporates perspective taking and its effect on creative performance and evaluations have not been examined in the literature. To fill these gaps, we examined how perspective-taking feedback affects creative performance and interpersonal and intrapersonal creative evaluations among participants who were friends in this study. We found that, compared with participants in the objective focus feedback group, those in the perspective-taking (PT) feedback group had a significantly smaller decrease of fluency between before and after experiment. Although no significant difference was found in interpersonal creative evaluation between two feedback conditions, participants in PT group had a significantly larger increase in intrapersonal creative evaluation between before and after experiment. Results and the implications were discussed under the context of creativity research.
... A criatividade, em contexto organizacional, tem sido definida enquanto a produção de ideias originais, úteis e apropriadas (Zhou & Su, 2010) e constitui um passo necessário para a inovação (Amabile, 1988). No entanto, existem questões sobre as condições convenientes que estimulam a criatividade que não estão esclarecidas (Mumford, Hester & Robledo, 2012), nomeadamente o impacto de recompensas extrínsecas (Oldham & Baer, 2012) e o impacto do feedback negativo (Zhou, 2008). O presente estudo examina o efeito destes dois fatores anteriores na geração de ideias criativas. ...
... Creativity in the organizational context: the impact of extrinsic rewards and negative feedback in creative performance: In the organizational context, creativity has been defined as the production of original, useful and appropriate ideas (Zhou & Su, 2010) and it constitutes to be a necessary step for innovation (Amabile, 1988). However, some questions about the convenient conditions that stimulate creativity are not clearly answered (Mumford et al., 2012), namely the impact of extrinsic rewards (Oldham & Baer, 2012) and the impact of negative feedback (Zhou, 2008). The present study examines the effect of extrinsic rewards and negative feedback. ...
... O feedback refere-se à informação recebida por um indivíduo relativamente a um comportamento que o mesmo desempenhou, providenciada por outro indivíduo que está numa posição que permite avaliar tal comportamento. Este tipo de informação permite clarificar que desempenho é esperado do indivíduo, tendo em conta objetivos estabelecidos (Ilgen, Fisher & Taylor, 1979), pelo que o feedback é uma ferramenta útil para a modificação de comportamentos, aprendizagem e desenvolvimento (Hattie & Timperley, 2007), além de poder também ser utilizado como estratégia motivacional, se responder a necessidades de autoestima, competência, desenvolvimento e autorrealização (Ilgen et al., 1979;Ryan & Deci, 2000;Zhou, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the organizational context, creativity has been defined as the production of original, useful and appropriate ideas (Zhou & Su, 2010) and it constitutes to be a necessary step for innovation (Amabile, 1988). However, some questions about the convenient conditions that stimulate creativity are not clearly answered (Mumford et al., 2012), namely the impact of extrinsic rewards (Oldham & Baer, 2012) and the impact of negative feedback (Zhou, 2008). The present study examines the effect of extrinsic rewards and negative feedback. We conducted an experimental study with four conditions (2x2 between) with 80 nurses from a central hospital. This research contributes to gain more insights regarding the right conditions for creativity and innovation to flourish in organizations.
... Feedback occurs within the social, organizational contexts that create the basis of the evaluation standards. Employees try to meet the standards, and evaluators rate employee creativity by considering the gap between demonstrated creativity and the standards (De Stobbeleir, Ashford, & Buyens, 2011;Zhou, 2008). As a result, in a study of feedback, it is necessary for researchers to specify the social and organizational contexts, including the identities of the feedback sender(s) and recipient(s) (Zhou, 2008). ...
... Employees try to meet the standards, and evaluators rate employee creativity by considering the gap between demonstrated creativity and the standards (De Stobbeleir, Ashford, & Buyens, 2011;Zhou, 2008). As a result, in a study of feedback, it is necessary for researchers to specify the social and organizational contexts, including the identities of the feedback sender(s) and recipient(s) (Zhou, 2008). By introducing a novel concept -the direction of feedback flow -the current research specifies the social and organizational context within which negative feedback flows and examines its influences on the relationship between negative feedback and recipient creativity. ...
... Past research has examined negative feedback and recipient creativity with little understanding of how the social contexts surrounding this relationship play a role. Zhou (2008) noted the limitation of the extant feedback research by arguing that "how effectively we can use feedback in promoting creativity depends on the nature and components of the feedback itself, on the characteristics of the feedback recipient, and on the characteristics of the feedback giver" (p. 130). ...
... Researchers continue to examine new individual differences (e.g., "growth needs strength" [Shalley, Gilson, & Blum, 2009] and "learning orientation" [Gong, Huang, & Farh, 2009]). This literature also suggests that managers and organizations can build work environments that support employee creativity by setting creativity work goals, making creativity a job requirement, providing developmental feedback on creative goal progress, leading in a "transformational" manner, and rewarding employees when they achieve creative outcomes (Amabile & Mueller, 2008;Gong et al., 2009;Paulus, 2008;Shalley, 2008;Shalley & Liu, 2007;Shin & Zhou, 2003;Tierney, 2008;West & Richter, 2008;Zhou, 2008). ...
... Feedback-seeking behavior may be central to the creative process for two reasons. First, research has shown that managers can use feedback to promote and nurture the creative performance of employees (Zhou, 2008). However, in today's dynamic world of work, where creativity and innovation have become a source of competitive advantage (Shalley et al., 2009;Zhou, 1998), organizations may not always be able to systematically predefine and prespecify the goals that employees need to achieve (Ashford, George, & Blatt, 2007). ...
... Our focus, however, is on the importance of performance information, which is also called "feedback," in enhancing creative performance. As Zhou (2008) highlighted, feedback may be particularly conducive to creative performance, because feedback reduces some of the uncertainty associated with the changing nature of work and because it helps performers to set creative standards. Feedback may suggest new paths to consider for pushing work forward and stimulate new ideas for improving processes. ...
Article
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Using 456 supervisor-employee dyads from four organizations, this study examined how employees use one proactive behavior, feedback seeking, as a strategy to enhance their creative performance. As hypothesized, employees' cognitive style and perceived organizational support for creativity affected two patterns of feedback seeking: the propensity to inquire for feedback and the propensity to monitor the environment for indirect feedback. Feedback inquiry related to supervisor ratings of employee creative performance. These results highlight the importance of employees' self-regulatory behaviors in the creative process and show that feedback seeking is not only a strategy that facilitates individual adaptation, but also a resource for achieving creative outcomes.
... Recently, a growing number of scholars have paid attention to the role of feedback, which is defined as information regarding one's task performance (De Stobbeleir, Ashford, & Buyens, 2011;Zhou, 2003). As regards the relationship of feedback and employee creativity, researchers have asserted that feedback provides useful guidance for enhancing and nurturing employee creativity by reducing uncertainty and setting creative standards (Zhou, 2008). That is, informative feedback helps employees have a clear picture of how others see their work and ideas, thereby facilitating subsequent adjustment and further creation of new ideas. ...
... Empirical research has shown that the source of the feedback significantly influences the extent to which individuals accept the feedback and, thereby, improve their performance (Anseel & Lievens, 2006;Brett & Atwater, 2001;Ilgen et al., 1979). In particular, several studies on creativity have shown that receiving feedback is positively related to employee creativity (Carson & Carson, 1993;Zhou, 2008). In this regard, when employees perceive their leaders as credible and reliable, they are more likely to accept feedback from those leaders, which in turn enables them to generate more creative ideas. ...
... RMSEA = .05). Furthermore, given the positive relationship between feedback quality and employee creativity (Zhou, 2008), paths were added from feedback quality to creativity (alternative Model 3: χ 2 [202] = 300.25, CFI = .97; ...
Article
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In this study, we endeavor to explain comprehensively how a feedback receiver’s perception of feedback sources (i.e., leaders) encourages employee feedback acceptance and enhances their creativity through a mediating and moderating mechanism. A total of 190 employees and 53 leaders from 8 different organizations in South Korea were included in the final analysis. Using structural equation modeling, this study found that a feedback receiver’s perception of the feedback sources’ learning-goal orientation was positively related to their credibility through the high-quality feedback. Furthermore, the feedback acceptance was found to play a mediating role in the relationship between source credibility and employee creativity. Moreover, the results showed that the relationship between feedback acceptance and employee creativity was stronger when employees perceived their organizations as having a high-level learning organization culture. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are also addressed.
... Especially for creative performance, which is essential in the context of idea competitions, feedback can be particularly beneficial to learning, as it reduces uncertainties that occur in a creative environment in the context of constantly changing conditions (Zhou 2008). If an individual receives a lot of different feedback, this further increases the creativity processes through the higher variety of information provided (Madjar, Oldham, and Pratt 2002;Zhu et al. 2018). ...
... A meta-analysis covering 40 psychology studies revealed the importance of feedback for effective learning (Bangert-Drowns et al. 1991). Likewise, there is already evidence that feedback stimulates the receiving individual's creative performance (Zhou 2008). In particular, feedback has the strongest effect when it originates directly from a person, thus being instructional (Johnson and Johnson 1993). ...
Conference Paper
Companies attempt to counter the increasing pressure to innovate by increasingly promoting their own employees’ innovative skills through ideation contests which aim to get the most comprehensive overview possible of all their employees' ideas, while maximizing the quality of the ideas submitted. This study addresses these seemingly antagonistic goals of quality and quantity with the help of social learning theory. We use a unique data set of an R&D intensive ideation contest, which we merged with ideators’ survey data we collected before announcing the contest’s results. Data of 576 ideas submitted by 269 ideators show that learning by exchange is important, but ideators should focus on their own ideas. Learning by feedback increases the quality and quantity of ideas, however, the more ideators focus on other ideas (learning by example), the worse the submission quality will be. Workshops can motivate employees to submit more ideas and reinforce the effect of learning by feedback on both submission quality and quantity.
... this means that the entrepreneur's personal episode of imagination represents socially conditioned, co-constructed and negotiated phenomena. In parallel, dividing the space between Ebt and the radical non-equilibrium interpretations, the interactionist approach for studying entrepreneurship has also emerged [10] . this third approach is concerned with a reality where both personal and contextual factors interact in illustrating and motivating entrepreneurial behaviour such as the imaginative envisioning of opportunity [2,10,11] . ...
... In parallel, dividing the space between Ebt and the radical non-equilibrium interpretations, the interactionist approach for studying entrepreneurship has also emerged [10] . this third approach is concerned with a reality where both personal and contextual factors interact in illustrating and motivating entrepreneurial behaviour such as the imaginative envisioning of opportunity [2,10,11] . A similar stance characterizes the critical realist approach found in schumpeterian economics research on entrepreneurship. ...
Article
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Entrepreneur's imagination has crucial implication on business success and management. Despite its espoused importance, imagination is still undervalued and deserves more academic attention. The current article aims to provide a novel perspective on imagination informed by Heidegger (1889-1976; widely acknowledged to be one of the most original philosophers of the 20th century). Specifically, the article has clarified the definition of imagination in entrepreneurship and risen constructs align with the proposed conception. Under the microscope of Heidegger’s theory, entrepreneur’s imagination co-operates ventures successfully by incorporating notions of webs of significance, authenticity, spontaneity, heroes and moods, which guide opportunity identification and exploration in markets. The article has offered new insights to the knowledge of entrepreneur's imagination. From a pragmatic viewpoint, inferential leaps are possible because entrepreneurs practice against a background of webs of significance they own - which they relationally, linguistically and pragmatically - share across institutional frames. Implications of the findings on management are discussed.
... Emotionally competent employees can achieve a precise understanding of feedback from others by accurately capturing the emotions of interacting partners. Furthermore, employees can also increase the benefits of feedback by effectively gleaning informational input to modify their task behaviour and ideas (Zhou, 2008). Thus, employees with emotional competence frequently seek feedback from diverse sources, including their supervisor, teammates, and colleagues from other departments, to maximize the value of new resources generated by FSB. ...
... Emotional competence also allows people to feel comfortable about FSB and seek feedback whenever they need information and comments on their ideas and current task behaviours (O'Boyle et al., 2011). Such frequent feedback should reveal the deficiencies of the extant practices and further suggest ways to address shortcomings by modifying the current task procedures (Zhou, 2008). Therefore, frequent feedback seeking can provide cognitive and social resources that are beneficial for finding new applications of existing methods and improving current practices for timely adjustment to new demands. ...
Article
This study examined how employees’ emotional competence predicts feedback-seeking behaviour (FSB) and consequently incremental and radical creativity on the basis of conservation of resource (COR) theory. We posit that emotional competence enhances the two types of creativity by generating resource caravans through distinct patterns of FSB. Our analysis based on the data collected from 206 employees from 85 work teams revealed that emotional competence has a significant indirect effect on the incremental creativity of team members, as rated by leaders, through frequent feedback seeking. Emotional competence also exhibited a considerable direct effect on radical creativity. In addition, emotional competence predicted source variety, namely, feedback-seeking breadth, which in turn contributed to radical creativity. This study offers new and useful theoretical and practical insights regarding the different types of creativity in the workplace by employing COR theory and the resource caravan perspective.
... Over the past decade, scholars increasingly have recognized that the production of new ideas is no longer the domain of the "lone genius" but is boosted when people work together in the creative process (e.g., Wuchty, Jones, & Uzzi, 2007). Given the interpersonal nature of the creative process (e.g., Baer, 2010;Perry-Smith & Shalley, 2003), scholars and practitioners alike have highlighted the importance of certain behaviors, such as soliciting and offering feedback, to foster creativity in the workplace (e.g., Zhou, 2008). Indeed, de Stobbeleir, Ashford, and Buyens (2011) suggested that feedback seeking-individuals' proactive attempts to obtain information regarding the accuracy or adequacy of their responses (Ashford & Cummings, 1983;Ilgen, Fisher, & Taylor, 1979)-is a key self-regulatory tactic that people can use to stimulate their creativity. ...
... Indeed, de Stobbeleir, Ashford, and Buyens (2011) suggested that feedback seeking-individuals' proactive attempts to obtain information regarding the accuracy or adequacy of their responses (Ashford & Cummings, 1983;Ilgen, Fisher, & Taylor, 1979)-is a key self-regulatory tactic that people can use to stimulate their creativity. Feedback can reduce uncertainty and suggest new ideas and insights (Ashford & Cummings, 1983), both of which may be critical to the creative process (Zhou, 2008)-a process which is fraught with uncertainty and paved with obstacles. Previous research supports this logic. ...
Article
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Territorial marking allows people to communicate that a territory has been claimed. Across 2 studies, we examine the impact of territorial marking of one's ideas on others' invited creativity when asked to provide feedback. Integrating research on territoriality and self-construal, we examine the effect of control-oriented marking on invited creativity (Study 1), and the extent to which an independent versus interdependent self-construal moderates this effect (Study 2). Results of Study 1 demonstrate that the use of control-oriented marking to communicate a territorial claim over one's ideas inhibits invited creativity, and this effect is mediated by intrinsic motivation. Also consistent with our hypotheses, the results of Study 2 show that self-construal moderates the effect of control-oriented marking on others' intrinsic motivation and creativity. Marking diminishes invited creativity among people with an independent self-construal but serves to enhance the creativity of those with an interdependent self-construal. Consistent with Study 1, intrinsic motivation mediates this moderated effect. Our results highlight the important but heretofore understudied role of territoriality in affecting others' creativity as well as the role of independent versus interdependent self-construal in shaping this effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
... When feedback source variety increases, employees have increasingly more possibilities to combine and integrate information, knowledge, and viewpoints, which, under the right work environmental conditions, is likely to lead to a nonlinear increase in creativity (Nijstad, De Dreu, Rietzschel, & Baas, 2010;Zhou, 2008). ...
... The idea that creativity is a social process that occurs within the entire organization, and sometimes even exceeding the organization's boundaries, has also sparked research into the main drivers of employee creativity. One central driver of employee creativity identified in previous research is seeking feedback from a variety of sources, which has been shown to yield exposure to divergent views, knowledge, and information (Zhou, 2008). Rather than seeking feedback from the same source, proactively seeking feedback from different sources may provide more unique information, which is likely to be an important source of creativity (De Stobbeleir et al., 2011;Perry-Smith, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
We explore how the impact of seeking feedback from different sources (i.e., feedback source variety) on employee creativity is shaped by perceptions of the work environment. Specifically, we argue that two contextual factors, namely, performance dynamism (Study 1) and creative time pressure (Study 2), moderate the relationship between feedback source variety and creativity such that under conditions of high performance dynamism and low creative time pressure, individuals benefit from diverse feedback information. In Study 1 (N = 1,031), the results showed that under conditions of high performance dynamism, the relationship between feedback source variety and self-reported creativity was nonlinear, with employee creativity exponentially increasing as a function of feedback source variety. Similarly, in Study 2 (N = 181), we found that under conditions of low creative time pressure, the relationship between feedback source variety and employee creativity was nonlinear, with supervisor-rated creative performance exponentially increasing at higher levels of feedback source variety. Such results highlight that the relationship between feedback source variety and creative performance is affected by the perceptions of the work environment in which feedback is sought.
... Researchers across the disciplines have thus extensively examined the factors that foster workplace creativity, ranging from individual-to contextual-and organizational-level factors (see Zhou & Shalley, 2003, for a review). Although prior research (Zhou et al., 2008) has highlighted the importance of internal communication systems, few empirical studies have examined whether and how organizations' internal communication efforts can increase employee creativity. ...
... Notably, research has emphasized the importance of feedback in the creative process (Zhou et al., 2008) because individuals' active efforts to seek feedback eventually contribute to their creative performance (De Stobbeleir et al., 2011). Specifically, scholars have suggested that direct feedback enables employees to clearly see how others view their work and ideas, allowing them to subsequently adjust and improve their ideas (De Stobbeleir et al., 2011). ...
Article
Using a survey of 405 full-time employees, this study examined how organizations' internal communication influenced by leadership communication at the supervisory-and senior-levels impacts employee creativity and how employees' feedback-seeking behaviors mediate these relationships. The results suggest that leadership communication at the supervisory and senior levels positively influence symmetrical internal communication system. The analysis also shows that symmetrical internal communication and leadership communication cause employees to seek more feedback from different interpersonal sources including supervisors, coworkers, and peers in other departments, which in turn enhances creativity. This paper concludes with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for public relations and internal communication.
... De acordo com Zhou (2008), a pesquisa contemporânea no cenário organizacional mostrou que o feedback pode ter um impacto poderoso no desempenho criativo dos indivíduos. A partir disso, ressaltamos que o feedback também pode estar relacionado com a promoção da criatividade em sala de aula: ao receber um retorno de suas aprendizagens, os alunos podem desenvolver a autopercepção de sua capacidade criativa e se sentirem estimulados a apresentarem seus conceitos espontâneos e algoritmos alternativos, o que também contribui para o desenvolvimento do seu potencial criativo. ...
... Como foi sinalizado, outra finalidade do feedback criativo é promover a autopercepção da capacidade criativa e impulsionar ou manter a motivação intrínseca. Notamos que os processos comunicacionais ocorridos durante a atividade mobilizaram os estudantes para a realização da tarefa, intensificando a motivação intrínseca (Zhou, 2008), o que ficou marcado na produção do estudante C, que, se comparado aos demais estudantes, surpreendeu pela quantidade de respostas. Na conversa em grupo, o estudante C revelou que se sentiu instigado a produzir muitas soluções, numa perspectiva de superação individual, de avanço em relação aos próprios limites. ...
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Background: Given the importance of stimulating the creative potential of students in the classroom, it is relevant to investigate how the assessment of learning, especially the use of feedbacks, can contribute to this issue. Objectives: This article aims to discuss what characterises creative feedback in the mathematics field and illustrates this characterisation by reporting a pedagogical practice carried out with students attending the last year of high school in a Brazilian public school. Design: Qualitative analysis of reports of students who participated in a pedagogical activity. Settings and participants: Four students enrolled in the 3rd grade of high school integrated with professional education in a public educational institution in the Brazilian capital. The students participated voluntarily after an invitation to the institution. Data collection and analysis: The data was collected from recordings of video calls through Google Meet platform and students' written production through WhatsApp instant messaging application. Results: The messages exchanged between the teacher and the students revealed that the feedback focused on developing creativity enabled them to create different and innovative ideas. Conclusions: Creative feedback proved to be an important concept to stimulate students' mathematical creativity. We suggest research on critical thinking development through creative feedback and creative peer feedback for further investigations.
... De acordo com Zhou (2008), a pesquisa contemporânea no cenário organizacional mostrou que o feedback pode ter um impacto poderoso no desempenho criativo dos indivíduos. A partir disso, ressaltamos que o feedback também pode estar relacionado com a promoção da criatividade em sala de aula: ao receber um retorno de suas aprendizagens, os alunos podem desenvolver a autopercepção de sua capacidade criativa e se sentirem estimulados a apresentarem seus conceitos espontâneos e algoritmos alternativos, o que também contribui para o desenvolvimento do seu potencial criativo. ...
... Como foi sinalizado, outra finalidade do feedback criativo é promover a autopercepção da capacidade criativa e impulsionar ou manter a motivação intrínseca. Notamos que os processos comunicacionais ocorridos durante a atividade mobilizaram os estudantes para a realização da tarefa, intensificando a motivação intrínseca (Zhou, 2008), o que ficou marcado na produção do estudante C, que, se comparado aos demais estudantes, surpreendeu pela quantidade de respostas. Na conversa em grupo, o estudante C revelou que se sentiu instigado a produzir muitas soluções, numa perspectiva de superação individual, de avanço em relação aos próprios limites. ...
Article
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RESUMO Contexto: Dada a importância de se estimular o potencial criativo dos estudantes em sala de aula, é relevante investigar de que maneira a avaliação da aprendizagem, em particular, a utilização de feedbacks, pode contribuir para essa questão. Objetivos: O objetivo do presente artigo é fazer uma discussão acerca do que caracteriza um feedback criativo no campo da matemática e ilustrar essa caracterização por meio do relato de uma prática pedagógica realizada com estudantes do último ano do ensino médio de uma escola pública brasileira. Design: Análise qualitativa de relatos de estudantes que participaram da de uma atividade pedagógica. Ambiente e participantes: Quatro estudantes, todos matriculados no 3º ano do ensino médio integrado com uma formação técnica, em uma instituição pública de ensino da capital brasileira. A participação dos estudantes foi voluntária, a partir de um convite realizado à instituição. Coleta e análise de dados: A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio da gravação de videochamadas, por meio do uso da plataforma Google Meet, e do registro escrito da produção dos estudantes, por meio do aplicativo de troca de mensagens instantâneas WhatsApp Resultados: A partir das mensagens trocadas entre professor e alunos, ficou evidente que o feedback voltado para o desenvolvimento da criatividade possibilitou aos alunos a criação de ideias diferentes e inovadoras. Conclusões: O feedback criativo mostrou ser um conceito importante para estimular a criatividade matemática dos estudantes. Para futuras investigações, propõe-se a investigação do desenvolvimento do pensamento crítico por meio dos feedbacks criativos, bem como do feedback criativo entre pares. Palavras-chave: Criatividade em matemática; Avaliação formativa; Feedback criativo; Resolução de problemas. ABSTRACT Background: Given the importance of stimulating the creative potential of students in the classroom, it is relevant to investigate how the learning assessment, in particular, the use of feedbacks, can contribute to this issue. Objectives: The purpose of this article is to discuss what characterizes creative feedback in the field of mathematics and illustrate this characterization through the report of a pedagogical practice carried out with students of the last year of high school in a Brazilian public school. Design: Qualitative analysis of reports from students who participated in a pedagogical activity. Setting and Participants: Four students, all enrolled in the 3rd year of high school integrated with technical training, in a public educational institution in the Brazilian capital. Student participation was voluntary, based on an invitation made to the institution. Data collection and analysis: Data collection was performed through the recording of video calls, using the Google Meet platform, and the written record of the students' production, using the WhatsApp instant messaging application. Results: From the messages exchanged between teacher and students, it was evident that the feedback focused on the development of creativity enabled students to create different and innovative ideas. Conclusions: Creative feedback proves to be an important concept for stimulating students' mathematical creativity. For future investigations, an investigation of the development of critical thinking through creative feedbacks, as well as creative feedback among peers is proposed.
... Research on organizational environments that promote creativity (see, for example, Edmondson & Mogelof, 2006), indicates that psychological safety is critical to promoting creativity, as creative behavior often involves risk-taking, experimentation, and failure. In addition, Zhou (2008) stresses that providing feedback that enhances learning and development can also nurture creativity. Other studies of organizational creativity suggest that a work environment that has clear overall goals supports creativity . ...
Article
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Symphony orchestra musicians have characterized their careers as stressful, boring, and lacking in artistic integrity. In addition, they typically do not score high on job satisfaction inventories. This study describes how symphony orchestra members seek professional fulfillment through participating in school-based programs. Forty-seven musicians from two US orchestras who were participating in their orchestra’s education program were interviewed and observed in schools working with children. The interview transcriptions and classroom observation field notes and summaries were analyzed and coded for emergent themes. The results indicated that the musicians valued four major outcomes of their work in classrooms: the opportunity to express their creativity that the development of their presentations provided, the relationships forged with schools and children, the impact they could have on individual students’ lives, and the opportunity to serve the community. Orchestra musicians’ perspectives of their career paths appear to be enhanced by providing opportunities for them to work closely with students, particularly in under-resourced schools in their communities.
... For example, social comparison feedback about one's performance on idea-generation tasks relative to others encourages efforts to improve performance (e.g. Jung, Schneider, & Valacich, 2010;Michinov & Primois, 2005;Paulus, Larey, Putman, Leggett, & Roland, 1996;Roy, Gauvin, & Limayem, 1996;Zhou, 2007). In the education field, research has demonstrated a positive impact of upward social comparison on academic performance among primary school children when they were asked to compare themselves to a slightly better child in their class (e.g. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to examine howsocial or temporal-self comparison feedback, delivered in real-time in a web-based training environment, could influence the academic performance of students in a statistics examination. First-year psychology students were given the opportunity to train for a statistics examination during a semester by doing online exercises in a web-based training environment. Once connected, students received in real-time either social comparison feedback (their score was compared to the mean score of all first-year students) or temporal-self comparison feedback (their score was compared, week by week, with their own previous score). The fact that students were free to connect to the webbased training environment heightened self regulation differences such as academic procrastination, which was considered as a moderating variable in this study. Because academic performance was measured, the students’ background in mathematics and statistics was also controlled. Irrespective of the students’ background, the results reveal a positive influence of social comparison feedback on statistics exam performance, but only among students who did not delay doing exercises in the web-based training environment. By contrast, temporal-self comparison feedback did not have any effect on performance. Some recommendations for optimizing the efficacy of web-based training environments can be proposed, taking into account both social comparison feedback and academic procrastination.
... Creativity refers specifically to idea generation, while innovation refers to idea generation and implementation (Anderson et al., 2014;Hulsheger, Anderson, & Salgado, 2009). While the role of creativity 135 and innovation as determinants of organizational performance is most immediately relevant in organizations that introduce innovative products into the marketplace, the importance of creativity and innovation spans across jobs and organizations (Zhou, 2008). Indeed, across work 140 environments, developing or altering products, processes, or procedures has the potential to improve efficiencies, reduce waste, enhance operational outcomes, and impact the bottom line. ...
Article
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Many studies have examined creative and innovative performance (CIP)–task performance, CIP–organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB), and CIP–counterproductive work behaviour (CWB) relationships in order to differentiate CIP from these established job performance dimensions. However, the overlap between CIP and these performance dimensions is still not clear due to mixed findings evident in the literature. To address this issue, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analytic review of empirical research into CIP–task performance, CIP–OCB, and CIP–CWB relationships derived from 39 studies and 40 independent samples. Overall, CIP was positively related to task performance (ρ = .55) and OCB (ρ = .56) and negatively related to CWB (ρ = −.23). We did not observe evidence suggesting that CIP measurement, rating source, OCB target, or CWB type moderated these relationships. Implications of our findings and directions for future research are discussed.
... To answer the question whether creativity is domain-specific, it must first be defined what is meant by the term creativity (Plucker and Beghetto, 2004;Plucker, 2005). Following established opinion, creativity is defined in this paper as the generation of a product that is accepted by a group at a specific point of time as new and valuable (Stein, 1953;MacKinnon, 1962;Amabile, 1996;Zhou and George, 2003;Shin et al., 2012), whereby creativity and creative performance are to be regarded as synonyms (Zhou, 2008). Following this definition, creativity refers both to a creative product and, through the aspect of generation, to a creative process that a creative person runs through and whose result is the product (Barron, 1988;Simonton, 1999). ...
Working Paper
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In creativity research, there is a discussion whether creativity is a universal phenomenon, or whether the skills, aptitudes, traits, propensities and motivations that underlie a creative performance achievement must be differentiated as to domains. There are different ways to empirically explore the question of the domain-specificity of creativity, whereby essentially two approaches can be identified: measuring the creative person and product. This paper aims to give a compact overview of the methods and findings of empirical research approaching the question if and how distinct domains of creativity have to be distinguished and discussed methodological issues. As a result, a three-factor model of creativity appears to be most appropriate, although further work is needed to reach clarification here.
... Researchers have therefore sought to identify those factors that spur or thwart employee creativity (Amabile, 1983;George, 2007;Zhou and Shalley, 2008). One such factor may be creative failure-the rejection of employees' ideas because they are insufficiently novel or useful (Amabile et al., 2005;Zhou, 2008). Because of the risky and uncertain nature of creativity (Weick, 1995a;Simonton, 1999;Fleming, 2001;Kelley and Littman, 2001;Sutton, 2001;March, 2010), creative failure is common and relevant for employees who seek to be creative. ...
... Logic has been used in several applications for different purposes, typically in control[Lin, 2009],[Zimmermann, 2001]and some other research areas such as pattern recognition[Bailador and Treviño, 2010], case-based reasoning[Díaz et al., 2006],[Fdez-Riverola et al., 2005], image processing[Bigand and ...
... Depuis cette étude pionnière, l'effet de la comparaison sociale sur la performance en général a été largement examiné sur les tâches cognitives, par exemple dans les domaines des tâches de production d'idées. Un feedback de comparaison sociale montrant la performance d'une personne en comparaison à la performance des autres améliore la performance à une tâche de production d'idées (Paulus, Larey, Putman, Leggett & Roland, 1996 ;Roy, Gauvin & Limayem, 1996 ;Zhou, 2008 Si les études citées précédemment concernent plutôt le monde du travail, la performance a bien sûr été abordée dans le contexte scolaire ou plus généralement académique, où elle est prédominante (Marsh & Hau, 2003 ;Marsh & Parker, 1984). ...
Article
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The aim of this thesis is to find ways of improving psychology students’ statistics performance, by examining the influence of social or temporal comparison feedback delivered in a web-based training environment. This aim is based on three observations. Firstly, immediate feedback has been shown as a central characteristic of web-based learning environments for statistics, but studies rarely interrogate which kind of feedback is delivered. Secondly, studies generally focus on taskoriented feedback rather than on psychosocial processes such as social and temporalcomparison. Thirdly, these two comparisons have rarely been examined at the same time, a fortiori in web-based training environments. The research program is divided in two sets of studies. The first three studies examine theinfluence of social or temporal comparison feedback on statistics performance. In the last two studies, interventions in class were implemented to encourage students to use the web-based training environments. Overall, results do not show a robust effect of comparison feedbacks but confirm the crucial influence of procrastination and initial knowledge on students’ performance. The implications are discussed considering thenaturalistic nature of this research.
... As designers of the work environment, leaders make decisions regarding the allocation of resources, organizational structure, coordination mechanisms, business processes, and intangible contextual factors in creative tasks [33], as well as the culture of an organization [49]. The performance of creative individuals, accordingly, depends on the degree to which creativity is encouraged, tolerance for failure, resource allocation, goal setting [50], feedback, and motivation [51,52]. ...
Article
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Creative organizations have shifted their daily communication to the virtual environment in response to COVID-19. This study examines how media use affects the communication effectiveness between creative leaders and followers from a psychological perspective by reviewing the comprehensive literature on creative leadership, media use, and psychological distance. A mixed-method methodology is employed to investigate ten common media configurations. The findings indicate that configured digital communication tools create certain levels of psychological distance between leaders and followers. Thus, it is crucial for creative leaders to match the psychological distance of different media and construal orientations of creative tasks to cultivate followers’ creativity. Using reflective interviews with creative professionals, we determined the impact of psychological distance on creative leadership from three aspects: task performance, member feelings perception and technology selection. We also identified several situations that might hinder creativity. To conclude, this study proposes a “Cognitive Model of Media Use Strategy in Creative Leadership”, which aims to bridge the gap between creative leadership theory and media use theory from the organizational psychology perspective. This study confirms that psychological distance exists in the digital environment, thus expanding the application scenarios of “Construal Level Theory” as well as providing practical implications for media selection in creative leading processes.
... For example, a meta-analysis by Rose and Lin (1984) reveals an overall positive correlation between creative thinking and creativity training. Similarly, evidence suggests that feedback stimulates the recipient's creative performance (Zhou 2008). Another meta-analysis covering 40 psychology studies shows that feedback leads to effective learning, especially if the feedback is instructional (Bangert-Drowns et al. 1991;Johnson and Johnson 1993) After the participants have successfully imparted knowledge and values, they must be motivated to carry this knowledge and values into their departments and spread both accordingly. ...
Book
Companies in a wide range of industries increasingly build corporate incubators to meet the growing challenge of exploration and innovation while remaining efficient and productive on existing products. Particularly important for these incubators is ensuring and maintaining the relationship with the hosting company without compromising the incubator’s exploration capabilities, which is a particular challenge, owing to the structural separation of the two entities. As a result, incubators try not only to achieve the highest possible benefit for the hosting company through a wide variety of objectives and strategies, but also through a combination of different activities, which has led to a myriad of different incubation concepts. In addition to the promotion of business model innovations and the maximization of revenues, the activities mainly serve the exchange of knowledge and values, as well as the promotion of innovation behavior and the hosting company’s innovation culture and climate. All these activities are of the greatest relevance for the success of corporate incubators, but they involve many risks, causing a large number of corporate incubators to shut down or restructure continuously. In particular, researchers have, thus far, hardly investigated the activities directly aimed at the hosting company, such as knowledge and value exchange, the stimulation of innovation behavior, and the improvement of the innovation culture and climate. Especially lacking is a comprehensive classification of corporate incubators according to their different goals and strategies, such that scholars can compare them from a research perspective. It is not clear how incubators can find and promote ideas and select those with the most potential. In this context, there has been insufficient research into innovation platforms in particular how to stimulate innovation behavior. Moreover, it is not clear how a cultural change in the hosting company could materialize if its supervisors do not support it. This dissertation contributes to close these research gaps by analyzing corporate incubators’ most essential activities from a postpositivist perspective. Using three different data sets on individual, group, and incubator level including platform, longitudinal, multi-level, as well as quantitative and qualitative data, this dissertation contributes to the understanding of, first, what constitutes corporate incubators and their performance, second, how corporate incubators affect employees’ motivational processes and their subsequent innovative behavior, third, how corporate incubators can support idea generation and reflective idea selection processes, and fourth, how corporate incubators contribute to a behavioral change of innovation climate. This dissertation’s overall findings, moreover, lead to a generic model of centralized incubation. Its effects on various other research areas with similar incubation processes are discussed.
... Feedback. Zhou (2008) suggested that leader feedback fosters employee creativity by strengthening employees' intrinsic motivation; by providing employees with standards for evaluating their own work; and by facilitating the acquisition of creative skills and strategies. In a laboratory study, Zhou (1998) found that individuals who received positive feedback delivered in an informational style were more creative than those who received negative feedback delivered in a controlling style. ...
... Inspiring quotes, such as Albert Einstein's "If at first, the idea is not absurd, then there is no hope for it" are used to encourage the participants to search for crazy and absurd ideas. Meanwhile, team members are trained to respect, support, and encourage each other (Amabile and Kramer, 2011) and to give creativity-conducive feedback (Zhou, 2008) to each other, which will make it easier for teams to take risks. ...
Conference Paper
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The world we are living in is changing and developing at an unprecedented speed. The fast development of modern technology, the huge impact of knowledge and technology on everyday life and business, and the increasingly dependent global markets have posed more and more challenges to organizations, which cannot be solved by individuals alone. In such a world, the importance of team and team creativity cannot be stressed enough. The current speech focuses on team creativity and how to foster it. It starts with the definitions and distinctions between teams and groups as well as creativity and innovation. Secondly, it reviews the literature of diversity and creativity/innovation, stressing the tactful trade-off of the double-edge effect of diversity on creativity/innovation in designing and implementing creative projects using teams composed of members of diverse backgrounds. Thirdly, it reviews and summarizes the interdisciplinary and intercultural approach that the University of Applied Management (UAM), Germany, applies over the years in its research and training practice aiming at fostering creativity at the team level. In this part, concrete examples of curriculum design, teaching activities, learning processes, measures of project management & quality assurance, and the results of evaluation studies (qualitative and quantitative; follow-up studies) will be reported. The whole speech is structured around a VICTORY model, which focuses on team (T) and synthesizes motivational (O), attitudinal/emotional (Y), cognitive (V, I, C) and sociocultural elements (R).
... We assume that those ideas that are picked up in agile meetings are novel -because the very aim of agile meetings is to produce innovation (Rigby et al., 2016). We do not look at the considerably more comprehensive level of the content of feedback or the manner in which feedback is delivered (e.g., Harrison & Rouse, 2015;Zhou, 2008). Instead, our focus is on small verbal moves, intensive turn-taking and overlapping speech, which responds to the call for research into the "interactional turn" (Cooren, 2007, p. xii) and aligns with the shift from survey-based proxies to actual measurements of behavior in organizational settings (Lehmann-Willenbrock & Allen, 2018). ...
... A well-established taxonomy of the individual components of creativity recognizes domain-relevant skills, creativity-relevant processes and task motivation (Amabile, 1983(Amabile, , 1988Amabile & Pratt, 2016). (Tesluk et al., 1997), also steering the extent and direction of creative efforts through managerial levers like feedbacks (Zhou, 2008) and goals (Litchfield, 2008 The portion of the latter space actually explored by the individual is determined by his or her creativity-relevant processes and task motivation. Finally, domain-relevant skills, creativity-relevant processes and task motivation intervene conjointly in the process of exploiting the explored combinations of building blocks toward creative accomplishments. ...
Article
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Technology is generally assumed to complement workers performing creative tasks by enhancing their ability to gather, store, share and transform knowledge. We advance an alternative view by conceptualizing how technology complements workers also by extending the domain, namely the set of symbolic and material elements underlying a given creative task. We elucidate the ways in which a domain extension complements workers' individual components of creativity, namely, domain-relevant skills, creativity-relevant processes and task motivation. Furthermore, we underline the importance of renewing heuristics to reap the creativity-enhancing potential of the domain extension, as well as the role of the organizational context in this regard. Finally, we provide an illustrative example of our framework, referring to the adoption of additive manufacturing in Luxottica.
... Task-related feedback accompanied by improvement suggestions has been isolated as a favorable social interaction stimulating creativity (Ashford et al., 2016). Particularly, verbal feedback obtained through direct inquiries should reveal the deficiencies of current practices and further suggest ways to address such shortcomings (Zhou, 2008). This ideal scenario probably explains why studies on the FSB-creativity relationship have focused on different aspects of inquiry strategy, such as frequency and source variety (Sijbom et al., 2018;Sung et al., 2020). ...
Article
This study advances the literature by elaborating on how disparate tradeoffs between cost and value perceptions targeted at FSB lead to distinct feedback‐seeking strategies. Specifically, the cost–value framework is employed to explain the emergence of two forms of feedback‐seeking behavior (FSB), namely, inquiry and monitoring. An interplay between the two FSB strategies is also proposed to predict employee creativity. Data collected from 194 individuals across 76 work teams reveal that high cost–low value perceptions are negatively and low cost–high value perceptions are positively related to inquiry strategy. Such incongruence between cost and value perceptions shows no significant effect on monitoring strategy. Instead, employees adopt a monitoring strategy when they perceive congruence or ambiguous tradeoffs related to FSB (high cost–high value, low cost–low value). Analysis indicates the interplay between the two FSB strategies in which the highest level of creativity is observed when employees use both inquiry and monitoring strategies at high levels. This study complements and enriches the feedback literature by theorizing and empirically validating comparative effects of cost and value perceptions toward FSB as well as the interplay between the two FSB strategies in predicting employee creativity.
... Menurut Zhou (2008) umpan balik sangat kondusif untuk kinerja kreatif, karena umpan balik mengurangi beberapa ketidakpastian yang terkait dengan perubahan sifat pekerjaan dan membantu pemain untuk menetapkan standar yang kreatif. Perilaku mencari umpan balik mungkin sebagai cara baru yang dipertimbangkan untuk mendorong kinerja ke depan dan merangsang ide-ide baru untuk meningkatkan proses yang lebih kreatif. ...
... This does not mean that negative feedback is always bad for creativity-pointing out flaws and weaknesses in others' ideas may facilitate improvement (Harrison & Dossinger, 2017). But it is unlikely that focusing primarily on negative feedback would be conducive to creativity (Zhou, 2003(Zhou, , 2008. Indeed, recent research suggests that trying to anticipate both the positive and negative outcomes of new ideas fosters more accurate evaluations (McIntosh, Mulhearn, & Mumford, 2019). ...
Chapter
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This chapter drills down on a less known paper published by Teresa— “Brilliant but Cruel”—a paper that showed that those who gave negative reviews were perceived to be more intelligent than those who gave positive reviews. He proposes and provides initial evidence to support a fascinating idea: Rather than being critical, being optimistic and benevolent may actually contribute to more accurate evaluations of creative ideas.
... Inspiring quotes, such as Albert Einstein's "If at first, the idea is not absurd, then there is no hope for it" are used to encourage the participants to search for crazy and absurd ideas. Meanwhile, team members are trained to respect, support, and encourage each other (Amabile and Kramer, 2011) and to give creativity-conducive feedback (Zhou, 2008) to each other, which will make it easier for teams to take risks. ...
Article
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Teams are pervasive in the history of mankind. Particularly in our fast-growing modern society, teams composed of members from different cultures and disciplines are quite often used at the workplace. Though widely used, the effectiveness of teams is inconsistent. Meta-analyses report a double-edged effect of diversity on creativity and innovation, suggesting that diversity needs to be tactfully managed if we want to leverage the creative potential of teams. The current paper strives to meet this challenge and makes recommendations on how to foster creativity in intercultural and interdisciplinary teams. It discusses the concepts of teams vs. groups and creativity vs. innovation. Drawing upon sociocultural theories of creativity and innovation, particularly literature reviews and meta-analyses, this paper attempts to identify non-cognitive, cognitive and environmental enablers of team creativity. The VICTORY model offers a summary of these enablers, as it focuses on team (T) and synthesizes both non-cognitive (Vision, Openness, Risk-taking, Yes-I-Can Mindset) and cognitive (Ideation, Combination) antecedents of team creativity. Yet it is only through the combination and integration of environmental factors (including communication, collaboration, and support, among others) that the effect of these antecedents can be fully realized.
... For example, a meta-analysis by Rose and Lin (1984) reveals an overall positive correlation between creative thinking and creativity training. Similarly, evidence suggests that feedback stimulates the recipient's creative performance (Zhou 2008). Another meta-analysis covering 40 psychology studies shows that feedback leads to effective learning, especially if it is instructional (Bangert-Drowns et al. 1991;Johnson and Johnson 1993) After the participants have successfully imparted knowledge and values, they need to be motivated to carry this knowledge and values into their departments and spread both accordingly. ...
Conference Paper
The organizations' innovation climate is an indispensable means to promote innovation, as it can suppress any innovation or directly promote even the weakest ideas. This paper examines the influence of employees' behavioral changes on their department's innovation climate by participating in centralized innovation activities of corporate venture units. As a theoretical basis we use social realist theory, which-unlike the often invoked Lewinian Theory-assumes that employees and social systems can be analyzed separately with the help of analytical dualism. First and foremost, however, this theoretical rationale makes it possible to investigate the employees' impact on the innovation climate in a way that has not yet been analyzed before. We hypothesize that corporate venture units affect the participating individuals' knowledge and values by means of centralized activities such as workshops, trainings, and talks which indirectly affect the overall innovation climate of their department. To test our hypothesis, we use a longitudinal two-stage control function approach with 248 participants nested in 97 organizational units of a large, international science and technology company with several instrument variables to avoid selection-bias. Results show that the activities are capable of affecting the department's innovation climate by means of employees' behavior. This way, we contribute to the still unexplored field of climate and incubator research especially on innovation climate change through employee behavior. In addition, we contribute to broadening the perspective of social realist theory and expand research on corporate venture units by investigating further effects to influence the hosting company's innovativeness.
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The first purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effect of feedback seeking behavior in the process of openness to experience and perceived organizational support for creativity on creative performance. The second purpose was to examine whether self-efficacy moderates the effects of openness to experience and perceived organizational support for creativity on feedback seeking behavior. An online survey was conducted on employees from domestic companies and a total of 284 data were analyzed. The structural equation modeling and multiple regression analysis results are as follows. First, the effects of openness to experience and perceived organizational support for creativity on creative performance was statistically significant. Second, the mediating effect of feedback-seeking behavior was significant in the openness to experience and perceived organizational support for creativity on creative performance. Third, the moderating effect of self-efficacy was significant in the relationship between perceived organizational support for creativity and feedback-seeking behavior. Specifically, the positive relationship between perceived organizational support for creativity and feedback-seeking behavior was stronger when the self-efficacy was high rather than low. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed.
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Interest in consumer co-creation in the fuzzy front-end of the new product development (NPD) process has increased in recent years. It is generally acknowledged that integrating consumers into collaborative idea generation leverages the potential of social interactions, knowledge sharing and collective creativity, and it may improve the success of NPD. Despite extensive literature on value co-creation, little is known about how creativity can be enhanced and encouraged in this process. Based on a thorough literature review, the author develops an organising framework and six propositions on how creativity can be stimulated at the fuzzy front-end of the innovation process. By exploring the relevant literature, this study extends the understanding of the role that creativity plays in co-creation for NPD and provides some guidelines that may help boost the creative output and interest in co-creation activities during the development stage of an idea.
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Emerging economies necessitate innovative new products to be developed using limited resources. This encourages scholars to explore factors that enhance innovative outcomes in environments with different levels of resource constraints. Extending the theory of feedback at workplaces to the context of innovation and new product development, in this article, we explore the effects of supportive and constructive feedback on innovative outcomes during new product development. We examine the moderating effect of resource-constrained environments on the relationship between feedback and innovative outcomes. To test our hypotheses, we conducted two studies to collect data from 191 executives in the first study and 92 engineers in the second study as they create innovative outcomes within low and high levels of resource-constrained environments along with different levels of supportive and constructive feedback. Both studies highlight that supportive and constructive feedback was valuable in enhancing innovative outcomes. Furthermore, our findings suggest that resource-constrained environment moderates these relationships. Our study adds to the existing literature by highlighting ways by which innovative outcomes in new product development could be enhanced in resource-constrained environments in emerging economies.
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Interest has burgeoned, in recent years, in how social networks influence individual creativity and innovation. From both the theoretical and empirical points of view, this increased attention has generated many inconsistencies. In this article we propose that a conceptualization of the idea journey encompassing phases that the literature has so far overlooked can help solve existing tensions. We conceptualize four phases of the journey of an idea, from conception to completion: idea generation, idea elaboration, idea championing, and idea implementation. We propose that a creator has distinct primary needs in each phase: cognitive flexibility, support, influence, and shared vision, respectively. Individual creators successfully move through a phase when the relational and structural elements of their networks match the distinct needs of the phase. The relational and structural elements that are beneficial for one phase, however, are detrimental for another. We propose that in order to solve this seeming contradiction and the associated paradoxes, individual creators have to change interpretations and frames throughout the different phases. This, in turn, allows them to activate different network characteristics at the appropriate moment and successfully complete the idea journey from novel concept to a tangible outcome that changes the field.
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This paper presents empirical results that show how an instructional and learning model might influence the underlying social network of discussion and generation of new ideas and, therefore, knowledge building. This study has been conducted on higher education students taking the third-year program development models course unit, as part of an accredited degree in informatics engineering. A moderately constructivist model with a blended learning approach was implemented in this course unit over the last few years. This combination has improved the academic outcomes achieved by students. In order to analyse what caused this favourable effect, we have analysed the evolution of the underlying social network of generation and discussion of new ideas among students throughout the course unit. We found that some key relationships in this underlying social network change, which suggests that there is a positive impact on knowledge building, learning and, ultimately, student educational achievement.
Conference Paper
Idea generation platforms are increasingly striving to become truly collaborative. Prior research suggests that people are inspired when being exposed to ideas of others. While most platforms defer judgment and separate it from the idea generation phase, we hypothesized that asking participants to rate ideas in the idea generation phase, the increased exposure to other people's ideas would serve as a source of inspiration and motivation and would therefore be preferred to a separate feedback phase. In an explorative study with 26 participants we found that preference on immediate versus deferred judgment of ideas very much diverged. The results of our study suggest that participants that feel already motivated and able are distracted by the integration of feedback, while to others it is highly beneficial in terms of facilitating their idea generation and motivating them further.
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In this study we examined relationship between individual creativity of subordinates and Leader Member Exchange (LMX) at organizations. Using multisource data gathering technique we collected data from 40 teams with 293 employees working at different controlling offices of a private software house operates in Pakistan. We integrated creativity, trust and Leader Member Exchange (LMX) literature to understand social side of creativity at organizations. We found that individual creativity is positively related with Leader Member Exchange (LMX) and provided support to creativity literature that creativity as a unique resource of individuals is predictor of quality relationship with formal leaders at organizations. We also provided support to Leader Member Exchange (LMX) literature that individual creativity as a unique competency of subordinates precede Leader Member Exchange (LMX) at organizations. Using interpersonal trust literature we also tested two contingencies: challenging voice and supportive voice on relationship building between individual creativity and Leader Member Exchange (LMX) at organizations. We found that behaviors which promote interpersonal trust also strengthen the relationship between individual creativity and Leader Member Exchange (LMX) at organizations and behaviors which impede interpersonal trust also weaken the relationship between individual creativity and Leader Member Exchange (LMX) at organizations. Implications of the findings and future research directions also discussed.
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In the series of Hungarian economic science research studies, the examination of the scope of innovation has a podium place. However, in the EU's 2013 Innovation Ranking, Hungary only got into the third quarter, in 21st position (Hollanders, EsSadki 2013). A vast number of studies set the possible and quantifiable series of reasons into their focus. This research study is also connected to innovation, but the author was mainly interested about the preceding and establishing step: creativity. Following the phase theory, can be assumed that creativity is a necessary (but not indispensable) precondition of innovation. If creativity (as the competence which is expected and necessary for innovation) is given, then why is that the Hungarians are only in the 21st position? The reasons have to be found in organizational characteristics. In this way the focus of this paper will be directed on the examination of organizational creativity and on its Hungarian characteristics.
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Auf gesellschaftlicher Ebene ist Kreativität ein wesentlicher Faktor für wirtschaftliches Wachstum und soziale Entwicklung (Florida 2004; Schumpeter 1939). Kreativität ist ferner auf den Ebenen von Individuen, Teams und Organisationen ein Schlüsselfaktor für Leistung, Unternehmertum, Wachstum und Wettbewerb (Amabile 1996; Oldham und Cummings 1996; Shalley 1991; Woodman et al. 1993; Zhou 1998; Zhou und Shalley 2008a).
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