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Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control

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... As Pintrich and de Groot (1990) reported, students with high self-efficacy tend to persist more toward achieving their goals. In addition, it was reported that self-efficacy is one of the strong predictors of academic performance (Bandura, 1997;Doordinejad & Afshar, 2014;Wigfield, 1994). Some studies supported that students in a learning environment embedded with real-life issues tend to exhibit positive self-efficacy beliefs on curriculum subject (Hampton & Mason, 2003;Jungert et al., 2014). ...
... Students who had confidence when entering college performed significantly better during their first year than students who had less confidence (Chemers et al., 2001;Varon, 2015). Bandura (1997) has argued that self-efficacy leads to set higher goals and achieving higher goals increase the positive effects of self-efficacy by providing an evaluative context to aid selfregulation. In order to pursue deeper learning for students, PjBL has emerged as a comprehensive approach to classroom teaching and learning that is designed to engage students in investigation of authentic problems (Blumenfeld et al., 1991). ...
... The identification of self-efficacy as a personal factor within social cognitive theory is further supported by Bandura's characterization and reference to self-efficacy as "people's judgments of their capabilities" (Bandura, 1986). Bandura (1997) defined four self-efficacy sources for the extension of these beliefs (Pleiss et al., 2012;Sawtelle, 2011): ...
... One of the most recognized theories on self-regulation of learning is the one proposed by Zimmerman (1970). This model is based on (Bandura 1997) cognitive social theory, which describes the use of learning self-regulation strategies in sequential phases to provide feedback in a cyclical way (Zimmerman 2013). ...
... Obtaining moderately high scores in facilitating disposition towards studying is a finding that allows us to infer that the participating teachers' perceptions are consistent with the proposals of Bandura (1997), in relation to the teacher as a model in the teachinglearning process (Bandura 1997;Coll et al. 2008;Zimmerman 2013). Consequently, we can ascertain that the lecturers who participated in this study were aware of the importance of promoting self-regulation, motivation, and disposition towards studying in a highly deregulated context, such as the one lived during 2020-2021, marked by a pandemic that changed the learning environment (Pregowska et al. 2021). ...
... Obtaining moderately high scores in facilitating disposition towards studying is a finding that allows us to infer that the participating teachers' perceptions are consistent with the proposals of Bandura (1997), in relation to the teacher as a model in the teachinglearning process (Bandura 1997;Coll et al. 2008;Zimmerman 2013). Consequently, we can ascertain that the lecturers who participated in this study were aware of the importance of promoting self-regulation, motivation, and disposition towards studying in a highly deregulated context, such as the one lived during 2020-2021, marked by a pandemic that changed the learning environment (Pregowska et al. 2021). ...
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When examining learning at university, especially in a pandemic context, it is important to analyze the actions taken by lecturers to promote students’ disposition towards studying. The objectives of this research project were to analyze the activities lecturers implement in class to promote their students’ disposition towards studying; examine lecturers’ basic psychological needs satisfaction levels; and determine the relationship between feedback, beliefs, and affect for self-regulation and lecturers’ basic psychological needs satisfaction. A quantitative methodological approach, with a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional design was used, with a sample of 97 lecturers from Chilean universities. Data collection took place through a battery of instruments: the promotion of disposition towards studying survey; the feedback scale for self-regulation; the beliefs and affect in self-regulation survey; the satisfaction of basic psychological needs survey; and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The results showed that the promotion of disposition towards studying was a key factor to face social distancing and the loss of self-regulation for learning because of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, a positive correlation was found between beliefs and affect in relation to self-regulation and satisfaction levels of basic psychological needs in the participating lecturers.
... As a key element in social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is an individual's "can do" belief about a future performance outcome (Bandura et al., 1997). In organizational managementrelated research, knowledge sharing self-efficacy is defined as an employee's confidence in his/her ability to provide valuable knowledge to other employees in the organization (Spreitzer, 1995;Nguyen and Malik, 2020). ...
... In organizational managementrelated research, knowledge sharing self-efficacy is defined as an employee's confidence in his/her ability to provide valuable knowledge to other employees in the organization (Spreitzer, 1995;Nguyen and Malik, 2020). As regards the effects of health belief about COVID-19 on self-efficacy, change in the emotional state serves as a critical path (Bandura et al., 1997). Existing studies argued that individuals use feelings such as stress, fatigue, anxiety, and uncertainty as cues to judge self-efficacy (Usher and Pajares, 2006). ...
... Social cognitive theory suggests that an individual's self-efficacy affects his/her behavior in multiple ways (Bandura et al., 1997). As regards knowledge sharing, which is the focus of this study, existing research also showed that self-efficacy can significantly affect employees' knowledge sharing intention and behavior (Chen et al., 2012;Nguyen and Malik, 2020;Wen and Wang, 2021). ...
Article
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While existing studies have explored factors that affect knowledge sharing among employees from different perspectives, there are still research gaps regarding whether health belief affects knowledge sharing among employees, specifically against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic, and how such effects work. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of bank employees’ health beliefs about COVID-19 on knowledge sharing mediated by their self-efficacy. From the perspective of social cognitive theory and the health belief model, this study investigates whether employees’ perception of susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 affects formal as well as informal knowledge sharing through knowledge sharing self-efficacy. A sample of 407 bank employees (200 women and 207 men) in China was used for the study. The formulated hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling and bootstrapping. The results showed that employees’ perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 significantly undermines formal and informal knowledge sharing self-efficacy. However, there was no significant difference in the extent of its indirect effects on formal and informal knowledge sharing. Further, employees’ perceived severity of COVID-19 had no effect on knowledge sharing self-efficacy and on formal and informal knowledge sharing, which could have resulted from the COVID-19 outbreak in China.
... For example, college students are given writing tasks of practical value (such as invitations, notices, etc.) that they can complete independently, thus improving their writing skills and self-efficacy. Bandura (1977) put forward the concept of self-efficacy, which is defined as the individual's confidence and belief in his or her ability to complete a task. In 1986, Bandura (1986) went further and pointed out that self-efficacy is not only a judgment of one's own ability, but also includes expectations of one's own ability. ...
... English writing self-efficacy The concept of English writing self-efficacy is derived from self-efficacy, which was introduced by Bandura (1977), who summarized the influencing results of self-efficacy in four aspects, which are determining the individual's choice and persistence in a certain activity, affecting the individual's attitude toward difficulties, affecting the acquisition and subsequent performance of new behaviors, and affecting the individual's emotion when engaging in a certain activity. Existing research has shown that individuals with this overall confidence are able to make good predictions about the problems they face, and can effectively cope with whatever difficulties they face (Jin et al., 2022). ...
... According to the findings in our study, Chinese college students' English writing self-efficacy level is not high, i.e., they are not confident enough in English writing. Thus, we suggest that college teachers need to pay attention to enhancing college students' self-efficacy in English writing in the teaching process (Bandura, 1977). For example, they should consolidate the basic knowledge of the English language and improve the language foundation of college students. ...
Article
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English writing is not only a cognitive process for college students, it is also influenced by factors related to the emotional or psychological level. With the continuous improvement of the quality of university education cultivation, the pressure faced by college students has increased significantly, which has also given rise to general anxiety among college student groups. In order to investigate the correlation between college students’ English writing self-efficacy and English writing psychological anxiety, we conducted a questionnaire survey on 595 current college students who were not majoring in English at a university in China, and used SPSS 25.0 software to make an empirical analysis of the collected data. The results showed that college students’ English writing self-efficacy was at a moderate level, and they lacked self-confidence in their English writing skills and tended to complete writing tasks; college students generally had a moderate level of psychological anxiety in English writing, among which avoidance behavior was the most significant; college students’ English writing self-efficacy was significantly negatively related to English writing psychological anxiety. English writing self-efficacy can reduce psychological anxiety level by enhancing college students’ English writing motivation. Therefore, we suggest that we should set up English writing courses based on the process teaching method, change college students’ English writing psychology in teaching, set reasonable writing goals, mobilize their enthusiasm and motivation in English writing, reduce college students’ writing anxiety, and enhance their self-confidence in English writing.
... Self-efficacy is well recognized as a robust antecedent of behaviors [14], including those related to the communication between physicians and patients [2,21,23]. Consequently, the present study focused on the communication between doctors and patients by developing an assessment tool for physicians' self-efficacy in building proper communication with patients: the ME-CO Scale. ...
... Consistently with the recommendations of several authors who developed measures of perceived effectiveness from a socio-cognitive perspective [14,16,29,53], a set of 64 items was designed to assess hospital doctors' self-efficacy beliefs about the communication with patients. The 64-item ME-CO version was tested through a pilot study. ...
... In particular, physicians with seniority greater than 20 years expressed greater confidence in their communicative effectiveness than the other groups, especially about providing clear information to the patient, asking questions, and checking the information given and received by patients. This result aligns with the socio-cognitive theoretical framework that identifies the comparison process with the task derived from the experience as one of the primary sources of self-efficacy [14]. ...
Article
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The study presents the validation of a scale measuring physicians’ efficacy beliefs about their ability to manage issues related to communication with patients. Specifically, the tool focused on three fundamental phases of the clinical interview: collecting information, returning information to patients, and creating and maintaining a relationship with them. The research included two studies. Study 1 generated an item pool based on the literature review and developed a self-report questionnaire administered to a pilot sample of 150 physicians (MAge = 49.36; SD = 1.98). The responses were subjected to exploratory analysis. In total, 636 physicians (MAge = 47.99; SD = 8.68) took part in Study 2. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses yielded a final version of the tool consisting of an eight-factor structure with 31 items. Findings provided evidence of the robust psychometric properties of the scale and its usefulness in assessing physicians’ self-efficacy and defining effective interventions aimed at strengthening the doctors’ communication skills. The scale detected different aspects of physicians’ communication self-efficacy (asking questions, active listening, giving information, communicating an inauspicious diagnosis, non-verbal communication, recognition of patient’s clues and suggestions, information checking, and empathy).
... Dans le champ de l'orientation professionnelle et scolaire, les effets du SEP ont aussi été démontrés. Au niveau des choix d'orientation, Bandura (1997) a mis en évidence que les personnes éliminent des classes entières de professions, y compris celles qui leur sont attractives, en fonction de leurs croyances dans leur efficacité . ...
... Par ailleurs, différentes enquêtes (Blanchard, Lallemand & Steinbruckner, 2009 ;O'Brien & M. Heppner, 1996 ;Steinbruckner, 2009 ;Vasil, 1992) (Bandura, 1997(Bandura, , 2003. Les sentiments d'efficacité personnelle jouent le rôle de « schèmes directeurs » (Reuchlin, 1990) et de « régulateurs » (Monteil & Martinot, 1991) de la conduite de l'individu au cours de l'élaboration de ses choix professionnels. ...
... Comment se construisent les sentiments d'efficacité personnelle ? Bandura (1997Bandura ( , 2003 identifie 4 principaux types d'apprentissage permettant d'acquérir et de modifier les SEP, qui s'appliquent aux personnes engagées dans une démarche d'orientation (Betz, 1992(Betz, , 2001) : ...
Thesis
L’objectif général de la thèse vise à examiner les effets d’une pratique de conseil en orientation professionnelle auprès de personnes placées sous main de justice. L’emploi est reconnu comme un levier du processus de désistance, mais les sortants de détention peinent à y accéder. Des dispositifs d’orientation sont déployés en prison afin de favoriser l’insertion professionnelle à l’issue de la peine. Au-delà de la recherche de solutions concrètes, les pratiques actuelles de conseil en orientation ont pour finalité de développer l’autonomie, la construction de soi et la capacité à construire sa vie. Ces perspectives renvoient à l’ambition de favoriser le changement de trajectoire des personnes incarcérées. Une étude est menée auprès de 32 hommes, inscrits sur un dispositif d’orientation, durant leur incarcération. Les changements sont évalués à partir de deux types de données : d’une part, les caractéristiques initiales liées aux parcours et aux connaissances relatives au projet, et d’autre part, les auto-présentations pré et post-bilan sur des dimensions psychologiques liées aux perceptions de soi, soit le sentiment d’efficacité personnelle, l’autodétermination, les attributions causales, l’estime de soi et l’image de soi. Initialement, les présentations de soi des participants ne semblaient pas fonctionnelles pour accéder à l’emploi ou à la formation. Les résultats suggèrent que l’intervention amène à une posture plus réaliste et plus adaptative en vue de la réinsertion future. Au terme de la recherche, des perspectives sont émises afin d’accompagner plus efficacement l’insertion professionnelle de la population carcérale.
... Scientific research has shown consistent evidence on the relationship between self-efficacy and performance and interest in STEM (Cartagena-Beteta, 2008;Grimalt-Álvaro, Ortega-Torres, Couso & Paloma-Romeu, 2021). The selfefficacy defined by Albert Bandura (1997) to explain the belief in one's abilities to perform a specific task, when related to STEM can be called "STEM self-efficacy". Underrepresented students in STEM fields tend to underestimate their own performance in this field. ...
... Session 2: The second session focused on analysing the importance of self-efficacy in science education and in the future students' aspirations. The concept was presented based on the definition of Bandura (1997) and examples of actions in the classroom to improve the perception of self-efficacy were shown based on the works of Zimmerman and Campillo (2003). In this case, the session was different for the primary education group and the secondary Master's group, these differences especially affect the idea of interdisciplinary connections between subjects for the creation and/or management of STEAM projects. ...
Article
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In recent years, the presence of the acronym STEAM has been growing in the educational field. All around the world we are faced with a growing demand for professional STEM skills, however, who has the responsibility to train future STEAM teachers? In this article, we explain the results of an investigation with university students pursuing a degree in primary education and Master’s degree students in secondary education, with technology speciality, participating in a seminar about STEAM projects design in two consecutive academic calendar years (18/19 and 19/20). We analyse the responses to a questionnaire which was specifically designed to discover their knowledge about STEAM and the predisposition towards its extended study with a set of semi-structured interviews to delve into the causes of the responses. Previous knowledge about the meaning of STEM and the predisposition of pre-service teachers towards the future design of projects based on the STEAM disciplines are compared. The results show significant differences between the previous knowledge and the perceptions of the teachers from both specializations: primary and secondary level. The results also confirm the low levels of prior knowledge with a slight tendency towards improvement when two consecutive courses are compared. The findings emphasize the need to integrate STEAM teacher training into official curricula.
... The presented theoretical background is based on the notion that self-efficacy is a product of social learning in the family and institutional education. The primary concept of this paper is based on Bandura's socio-cognitive theory (Bandura, 1997) and positive psychology (Freiberg & Lamb, 2019;Seligman, 2014). ...
... They distinguish the so-called "hard" concepts of identity, anchored in the notion of identity (primary identity in time between persons) and "soft" concepts of identity, which differ significantly from the original meaning of the term: identity varies according to time, place, and circumstances. Bandura (1997) clarified self-efficacy in the unity of professional perceived proficiency of future vocational teachers and beginning teachers in practice. He characterises the construct of personal self-efficacy as a belief in the individual's own ability to organise and perform a certain activity through which the set goal is achieved. ...
Article
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The study presents a survey of perceived teacher self-efficacy on a sample of future and beginning Slovak secondary school teachers in two research approaches. The research aimed to find out the perceived professional proficiency of teacher students and future teachers in didactic readiness in the context of positive psychology. The obtained data from both groups were compared with foreign research results in this area.
... It is argued that observational learning provides a faster and safer approach to learning complicated patterns of behavior than trial and error, making it consistent with and suitable for HPE (7,49). Self-efficacy, defined by an individuals' assessment of their capacity to perform given tasks or activities and achieve specified goals (50), was the most highlighted construct in the included articles. This can be explained by Bandura's argument that self-efficacy is central to social learning because it significantly impacts a wide range of human endeavors, including developmental and health psychology, education, and in the workplace (19). ...
... The findings suggest that the self-efficacy construct is beneficial to the learning outcome, particularly in simulation contexts, as demonstrated in the review conducted by Lavoie et al. (51). This aligns with previous literature about the self-efficacy construct indicating that individuals with stronger self-efficacy for certain tasks are more motivated to execute them (50,52). Furthermore, the self-efficacy construct was used to develop an assessment tool that evaluates students competence and confidence level and advocacy for positive changes as they become professional nursing practitioners (40). ...
Article
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Introduction In health professions education (HPE), acknowledging and understanding the theories behind the learning process is important in optimizing learning environments, enhancing efficiency, and harmonizing the education system. Hence, it is argued that learning theories should influence educational curricula, interventions planning, implementation, and evaluation in health professions education programs (HPEPs). However, learning theories are not regularly and consistently implemented in educational practices, partly due to a paucity of specific in-context examples to help educators consider the relevance of the theories to their teaching setting. This scoping review attempts to provide an overview of the use of social theories of learning (SToLs) in HPEPs. Method A scoping search strategy was designed to identify the relevant articles using two key concepts: SToLs, and HPEPs. Four databases (PubMed, ERIC, ProQuest, and Cochrane) were searched for primary research studies published in English from 2011 to 2020. No study design restrictions were applied. Data analysis involved a descriptive qualitative and quantitative summary according to the SToL identified, context of use, and included discipline. Results Nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Only two SToLs were identified in this review: Bandura's social learning theory ( n = 5) and Lave and Wenger's communities of practice (CoP) theory ( n = 4). A total of five studies used SToLs in nursing programs, one in medicine, one in pharmacy, and two used SToLs in multi-disciplinary programs. SToLs were predominantly used in teaching and learning ( n = 7), with the remaining focusing on assessment ( n = 1) and curriculum design ( n = 1). Conclusions This review illustrated the successful and effective use of SToLs in different HPEPs, which can be used as a guide for educators and researchers on the application of SToLs in other HPEPs. However, the limited number of HPEPs that apply and report the use of SToLs suggests a potential disconnect between SToLs and educational practices. Therefore, this review supports earlier calls for collaborative reform initiatives to enhance the optimal use of SToLs in HPEPs. Future research should focus on the applicability and usefulness of other theories of learning in HPEPs and on measuring implementation outcomes. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.researchregistry.com/browse-the-registry#registryofsystematicreviewsmetaanalyses/registryofsystematicreviewsmeta-analysesdetails/60070249970590001bd06f38/ , identifier review registry1069.
... As defined by social cognitive theory, self-efficacy refers to the belief in the ability that an individual will be able to achieve a desired outcome in the future [66]. It is widely believed that self-efficacy is one of the most important non-intelligent factors that will encourage academic motivation, processes, and outcomes [67], and the relationship between self-efficacy and academic performance has been consistently demonstrated to be positive in many studies [68,69]. ...
Article
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COVID-19 has had a profound impact on the mental health and well-being of students. An effective method that can enable students to cope with difficult times is to help them realize their inner potential. Following the stimulus-organism-response model, this study developed a theoretical framework that deepens our understanding of an environmental stimulus (fear of COVID-19) that is experienced by students; struggle within the organism (learning stress, learning involvement, and academic concerns); and the psychological response (psychological well-being). The findings clarified how the fear of COVID-19 affects the psychological well-being of university students and revealed the moderate role of academic self-efficacy in this process. Some systematic practical advice was provided to higher education institutions to develop effective interventions to protect the mental health of college students and establish strategies to promote their inner potential.
... These results are in line with the literature that reports about the same Internet self-efficacy score both in male and female, both using the ISS [11,88] and other ISE cales [85]). This suggests that the classic gender gap in which male have more general self-confidence than females [89] does not work for online tasks, maybe due to the extensive use each person makes of the Internet, in every field of work, education, and leisure. However, some studies reported that males displayed higher Internet self-efficacy than females but they did not use the ISS scale [29,90]. ...
Article
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Online activities are a fundamental part of daily life in this digital era and Internet self-efficacy (ISE) became a central construct for the psychologists of virtual environments. The Internet Self-Efficacy Scale developed by Kim and Glassman (2013) is a recent, valid, and reliable 17-item test to assess the ISE. The aim of this research, composed by two studies, was to translate and validate the Italian version of the ISS. In study 1, we evaluated the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Italian version of the ISS on 3724 individuals. In study 2, we tested the ISS external validity relying on the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) and the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS) based on the answers of 244 participants. The findings supported the reliability and validity of the translated ISS and its use for assessing ISE on the Italian population. Implications for researchers and interventions are also discussed.
... Interestingly, participants continued to demonstrate high gait self-efficacy after experiencing weight loss after their walking improved. One way to improve self-efficacy is to experience success after engaging in an activity [31]. In our sample, since testing occurred four and eight-months after surgery, patients may have experienced adequate success in walking thereby linking gait self-efficacy with movement outcomes. ...
Article
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After bariatric surgery, individuals improve walking characteristics related to fall risk. However, little is known about psychosocial factors, such as gait self-efficacy and fear of falling, after surgery. Our objectives were to (1) examine how weight loss affects psychosocial factors and gait four and eight months after bariatric surgery, as well as (2) determine if there is a relationship between gait self-efficacy and fear of falling. Fourteen adults scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery completed three visits: before surgery, four and eight months after surgery. Gait self-efficacy was measured with the Modified Gait Efficacy Scale, and fear of falls was measured with the Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale. Gait measures were collected during five conditions: initial baseline and final baseline on flat ground, and crossing obstacles of three heights. Gait self-efficacy or fear of falling did not change after surgery. However, both four and eight months after surgery, higher gait self-efficacy and lower fear of falling were correlated with longer and faster steps during all conditions (all ps < 0.05). Focusing interventions on psychosocial measures related to gait may yield longer lasting improvements in walking after surgery, ultimately resulting in a decreased fall risk and higher quality of life.
... Self-efficacy is defined as a personal judgment of how well or poorly individuals are able to cope with a given situation based on their assessment of their skills and of the circumstances at hand (Bandura, 1997). PSTs often spoke about their perceived competence in handling CPI discussions. ...
Conference Paper
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Teachers have been known to avoid discussions of controversial political issues (CPI) despite their well-established benefits for students and for society. This study examines an intervention to train pre-service teachers (PSTs) in handling CPI discussions which includes the use of virtual simulations. Eighteen Arab and 21 Jewish PSTs attended six intensive days that included two parallel virtual simulation workshops with three professional facilitators and four actors in Hebrew and in Arabic. Qualitative analysis revealed the main outcome theme to be self-efficacy, and four themes were identified as leading to its enhancement, including: communication skills, mutual reflections, awareness and willingness, and discussion skills. We find that communication and discussions skills are complementary and important for PSTs training. We conclude that virtual simulations are effective in promoting the awareness, willingness and skills required for the future role of PSTs as teachers.
... Instead, our focus in the present study is on the narrower domain-specific self-efficacy, which concerns individuals' evaluation of their ability to perform in a specific area, such as leadership (Hannah, Avolio, Luthans, & Harms, 2008). Domain-specific selfefficacy is more malleable (Bandura, 1997;Gist & Mitchell, 1992), and responsive to experience, training, and development (Day & Sin, 2011;Lester, Hannah, Harms, Vogelgesang, & Avolio, 2011;van Knippenberg, van Knippenberg, De Cremer, & Hogg, 2004). Domain-specific self-efficacy develops gradually through repeated experience (Bandura, 1986), as individuals monitor their performance and base subsequent efficacy judgments on their perceived ability to master tasks or strategies (Bandura, 1991;Mathieu, Martineau & Tannenbaum, 1993). ...
Preprint
Political candidate personality and electoral success in a British General Election. Self-rated political skill and political efficacy prior to election campaign as predictors of candidate electoral performance.
... "The speculation and judgment of an individual's ability to complete a certain behavior" has become the basic consensus of the definition of self-efficacy (30). While fighting COVID-19, healthcare providers' self-efficacy was expressed as "the degree of self-confidence to complete the work in fighting COVID-19 with their own comprehensive ability." ...
Article
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Objective After the unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, the health status of the general population has suffered a huge threat, and the mental health of front-line healthcare providers has also encountered great challenges. Therefore, this study aims to: (1) investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among healthcare providers, and (2) verify the moderating role of self-efficacy in the influence of PTSD on mental health. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey of 1993 participants. The presence of depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, and PTSD was evaluated using screening tests from March 1. Sociodemographic and COVID-19-related data were also collected. A data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression. Results The prevalence of PTSD among healthcare providers was 9.3%. PTSD was negatively correlated with self-efficacy (r = −0.265, P < 0.01), anxiety (r = −0.453, P < 0.01), and depression (r = 0.708, P < 0.01). Profession, daily working hours, maximum continuous working days, and daily sleep time were influencing factors of PTSD. A binary logistic regression analysis showed that physicians (OR = 2.254, 95% CI = 1.298, 3.914) and nurses (OR = 2.176, 95% CI = 1.337, 3.541) were more likely to experience PTSD than other healthcare providers. Conclusion Self-efficacy has a moderating effect on the influence of PTSD on anxiety and depression. This suggests that health managers need to respond to the current psychological crisis of healthcare providers, implement appropriate psychological interventions, and minimize the psychological harm caused by COVID-19.
... In keeping with these factors, they mentioned that high self-efficacy rates generate a greater ability to face adversity [33,34]. For Pereyra Girardi et al. [35], the self-efficacy construct can have several variables, including a protective factor, whereas Bandura et al. [36] indicated that self-efficacy is directly related to how a person behaves when facing a potentially stressful situation and is what gives human beings the impetus to achieve their goals by applying their skills and abilities, providing the motivation required to reach a goal [37]. ...
Article
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The pandemic caused by COVID-19 has had a global impact that has affected all areas of people’s lives. However, people have different capacities to adapt and cope with the adversities and traumatic events that may have occurred during the pandemic with different levels of resilience. One collective affected by this global crisis was university students, who had to face an unprecedented academic situation, resulting in some abandoning their studies. This study aims to analyse whether the resilience of the students could be related to academic dropout. To carry out this research, we assessed the resilience of 1676 university students from 11 universities in Ecuador. To do so, a committee of experts from the Ecuadorian Association of Social Work Education Centres and 11 Ecuadorian universities designed a questionnaire and sent it to the entire sample. Subsequently, we compared the levels of resilience between university students who withdrew from university during the COVID-19 pandemic with those who continued their studies by using a multivariate analysis. The results showed that there were statistically significant differences in all variables analysed. The students who obtained the highest scores were those who continued their studies, and those students who dropped out obtained the lowest scores. In summary, we found that school dropout among Ecuadorian university students during the COVID-19 pandemic was due to low levels of resilience. Therefore, increasing student resilience could improve university retention rates and, in turn, academic performance and future life prospects.
... Some studies have also confirmed that infant health was an important factor that affected parenting self-efficacy [23,31]. Bandura's theory stated that the perceived task difficulty was significantly related to self-efficacy [50]. If primiparous women perceived that their infants were in poor health and that it was difficult to complete parenting and caring tasks, their sense of parenting competence would be affected. ...
Article
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Background: Parenting sense of competence significantly affects the quality of parenting behaviours and healthy infant development. However, primiparous women without parenting experience may lack confidence and feel stress. This study aimed to explore the status of parenting sense of competence and identify its predictors among primiparous women. Methods: A longitudinal study design was used. Primiparous women were recruited by using a convenience sample from two women's and children's hospitals in two cities in China. All primiparous women completed questionnaires on demographic characteristics, infant characteristics, family function, and parenting sense of competence at 1 month postpartum. At 3 months postpartum, each women's parenting sense of competence was re-assessed. Generalised linear regression was applied to identify the predictors of parenting sense of competence at 3 months postpartum. Results: A total of 743 Chinese primiparous women were included in the analysis. The average parenting sense of competence score of the participants at 3 months postpartum was 70.18 (SD = 12.33). According to the generalised linear regression analysis, higher levels of parenting sense of competence at 3 months postpartum were significantly associated with older age (β = 0.13, P = 0.005), better family function (β = 0.37, P < 0.001), and higher levels of parenting sense of competence (β = 0.35, P < 0.001) at 1 month postpartum. In contrast, lower levels of parenting sense of competence at 3 months postpartum were associated with poorer self-rated economic status (β = - 0.16, P = 0.027), poorer infant health (β = - 0.26, P = 0.007), and mixed or formula feeding (β = - 0.11, P = 0.018) at 1 month postpartum. Conclusions: Chinese primiparous women have a relatively good parenting sense of competence, but there is still room for improvement. Maternal age, economic status, family function, infant health, and feeding patterns were significant predictors. To improve their parenting sense of competence, more attention should be paid to primiparous women who are young, with poor economic status, having an unhealthy infant, and mixed or formula feeding. In addition, measures should also be taken during the early postpartum period to improve family function.
... It consists of five steps to promote smoking cessation: ask, advise, assess, assist and arrange. In addition, improvement in self-efficacy, an individual's belief in their own ability to carry out specific health behaviors, enhanced success in smoking cessation and prevented smoking relapse [35][36][37][38]. ...
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This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a smartphone application named Quit with US among young adult smokers. An open-label, parallel, 2-group, randomized controlled trial with a 12-week follow-up was conducted between March and November 2020 among undergraduate students (18 to 24 years) in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. A total of 273 participants were assigned by simple randomization procedure to the Quit with US intervention group (n = 137) or the control group (n = 136). All participants received pharmacists’ smoking cessation counseling at baseline and follow-ups. In addition, the intervention group’s participants were advised to use Quit with US. The baseline and 12-week follow-up assessments were conducted at a study unit, whereas other follow-ups were completed over the telephone. The primary abstinence outcome was the exhaled CO concentration level (≤6 ppm) verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence. At baseline, the participants’ mean (standard deviation) age was 21.06 (1.62) years. Most identified as daily smokers (57.9%, n = 158), consumed ≤10 cigarettes daily (89.4%, n = 244), and expressed low level of nicotine dependence as measured by Heaviness of Smoking Index score (86.1%, n = 235). Regarding intention-to-treat analyses, participants in the Quit with US intervention group achieved significantly greater smoking abstinence rate than those in the control group (58.4% (80/137) vs. 30.9% (42/136), risk ratio = 1.89, 95% confidence intervals = 1.42 to 2.52, p < 0.001). In conclusion, Quit with US integrated with pharmacists’ smoking cessation counseling significantly enhanced smoking abstinence rates among young adult light smokers consuming ≤ 10 cigarettes daily.
... We also found that frequent exposure-influenced HIV testers reported higher intention to seek future HIV testing than their infrequent tester counterparts. These findings are well supported by the self-efficacy theory, in which mastery experience (i.e., previous experience may boost confidence in future events) represents a key theoretical construct in behavioral prediction [58]. Future theory-based interventions should capitalize on personal relevance and enhance intrinsic motivation for HIV prevention uptake among YMSM. ...
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Self-initiated Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) testing after potential sexual exposure to HIV (i.e., exposure-influenced HIV testing) has high utility in detecting individuals with the highest probabilities of HIV seroconversion. We conducted a cross-sectional study among a sample of sexually active, pre/post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP/PEP)-naïve young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in two US cities to assess the determinants (e.g., demographic, psychosocial, sexual, substance use, and HIV prevention characteristics) of exposure-influenced HIV testing (never/rarely vs. mostly/always) in their lifetime. Of 261 YMSM, only 26.5% reported mostly/always seeking exposure-influenced prior to the study. Multivariable analyses showed that younger age, sexual orientation non-disclosure, perceived HIV stigma, internalized homophobia, lower general resilience, and lower social support were associated with a lower likelihood of mostly/always seeking exposure-influenced HIV testing. YMSM who never/rarely sought exposure-influenced HIV testing were more likely to use recreational drugs before sex, binge alcohol, and have group sex; while less likely to be aware of PrEP, test for sexually transmitted infections, or use condoms compared to those mostly/always seeking exposure-influenced HIV testing. Exposure-influenced HIV testing is suboptimal among YMSM with elevated risk for HIV. Our findings provide important implications for designing targeted interventions to promote exposure-influenced HIV testing among high-risk YMSM.
... Self-efficacy is the key construct in Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997). Behavioral change is facilitated by a personal sense of control. ...
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Background. Susceptibility to smoking, defined as a lack of a firm commitment not to smoke, is therefore useful in estimating which young people can become smokers and under whose influence the status of susceptibility can change. Aims. This study aims to assess the association between the susceptibility of tobacco use among non-smoking students and psychosocial and sociodemographic factors. Methods. The current study is a repeated cross-sectional secondary analysis of data collected using a questionnaire administered in 2015 and 2018 among ninth-grade students in Chisinau, Republic of Moldova. Out of 368 students in 2015 and 819 students in 2018 included in the study as eligible students, 329 students (89.4%) in 2015 and 698 students (85.2%) in 2018 declared themselves as non-smokers. Results. The prevalence of susceptibility to cigarette smoking among the study participants was 38.6% in 2015 and 50.2% in 2018 (p<0,001). Our result indicates that smoking friends represent a strong predictor of high smoking susceptibility among those who have never smoked. In 2015 the share of susceptible students who had smoking friends was 23.4%, and in 2018 the share reached 31.5% (p = 0.007). Parents' smoking or non-smoking status was also an important predictor of smoking susceptibility. Thus, we found that students with non-smoking mothers are less susceptible (2015-59.9%; 2018-47.1%, p = 0.025). The temptation to smoke increased significantly during the period covered by the study from 1.32 (0.67) to 1.48 (0.66) (p < 0.001). Conclusions. The connection between socio-demographic factors (smoking parents or friends) and psycho-emotional factors (the temptation to smoke) will increase the likelihood of smoking among adolescents.
... [17] According to this theory, planned support and promotion of public health can pave the way for communities that seek to control environmental and social factors that affect health behaviors and health outcomes. [18] Researches show that knowledge increases SE [19,20] and people with high SE have more outcome expectation. [21] In addition, self-sufficient people benefit more from the available facilities in the environment, [22,23] because SE is a strong predictor of health behavior and can affect the intention to start or change behavior. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: Preconception reduces unplanned pregnancies and plays an important role in reducing maternal and infant mortality. Considering the importance of these care services, this study was conducted to determine the status of preconception care (PCC) model with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 394 pregnant women referring to Gorgan's health centers. Samples were selected by multi-stage stratified sampling method. The instrument used in this research was a researcher-made questionnaire by Bayrami. Data were analyzed using R software version 4.1.4. Structural equation modeling (SEM) with weighted least square mean and variance method was used to fit the conceptual model and the significance level of the tests was considered 0.05. RESULTS: The results showed that PCC model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; knowledge with a coefficient of 0.182 leads to self-efficacy (SE), and SE affects the accessibility of facilities with a coefficient of 0.465 and the expected outcome with a coefficient of 0.500. After facility structure with a coefficient of 0.500, SE construct with a coefficient of 0.215 had the most effect on performing PCC behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Facilities and SE as a key element of empowerment have an important role in promoting PCC. Identifying the factors associated with this care appears to help health policymakers to planning for these caregivers more precise and sensitive.
... Finally, studies have found that with ITL, teachers seek support from others, which can alleviate pressure, release stress, and increase positive emotions (Huang & Lai, 2020;Kyndt et al., 2016). Given that affective states are a source of self-efficacy (Bandura et al., 1999;Keeley et al., 2008), the close relationship between ITL and teacher self-efficacy can then be inferred. Based on these theories and studies, we propose our fourth hypothesis: ...
Article
This study investigated the associations between different types of informal teacher learning (ITL) activities and teachers' technology integration. Five types of ITL were examined: learning through media, through colleague, stakeholder, and student interactions, and through reflection. Structural equation modelling and bootstrapping were used to analyse 1,881 questionnaire responses from Chinese K-12 teachers. The results revealed that ITL activities were significantly associated with teachers' technology integration. Among the five types of ITL activities, the inner source of ITL, learning through reflection, and the non-interactive social source of ITL, learning through media, exhibited stronger associations with teacher technology integration than did the interactive social sources of ITL. Among the three interactive ITL activities, the effects of learning through student interaction and learning through colleague interaction were significantly associated with teachers’ adoption of technology. The effect of learning through student interaction on technology integration was mediated in equal parts by perceived usefulness and self-efficacy beliefs, while the effect of learning through colleague interaction was mediated only by perceived usefulness. Learning through stakeholder interaction was not a significant determinant of teacher technology adoption. The findings call for greater attention to ITL activities in supporting teacher technology integration. The findings also support taking a differentiated approach to understanding the relationship between ITL activities and teacher technology integration, as well as developing ITL-centred professional development initiatives.
... It has been reported that the participants of home-based rehabilitation have different primary recovery goals, and that interventions are particularly useful when they relate to the participants' individual interests [36]. Informed by Bandura's principles of self-efficacy [37], strategies such as goal setting, sharing videos of recovery after stroke and positive reinforcement were adopted in the program. Some healthcare providers and volunteers faced challenges in fully utilizing and tailoring some strategies, such as providing meaningful positive reinforcement. ...
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Stroke recovery is a complex, multidimensional and heterogeneous process. Volunteer engagement improves the delivery of interventions in stroke rehabilitation programs but is under-utilized due to poor role clarity and other program-related concerns. We evaluated healthcare providers’ and volunteers’ perceptions of volunteer engagement in an 8-week self-management program that provided self-management support for community-dwelling stroke survivors. Using a qualitative design, we conducted individual, semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 5 trained healthcare providers and 18 volunteers. The participants shared their experiences of supporting survivors, perceptions of volunteer engagement, and areas of improvement to optimize volunteer support. Three main themes and six subthemes emerged: bilateral exchange between healthcare providers/volunteers and survivors; adoption of individualized approaches; and suggestions for optimizing volunteer contributions. Volunteer engagement can be optimized by developing well-designed programs with sufficient role clarity, strengthened collaborations with healthcare providers and adequate training. Our findings highlighted the contributions of trained volunteers in supporting stroke survivors’ self-management. Future research should evaluate the use of peer and healthcare professional volunteers in such programs and build community capacity to support stroke survivors’ recovery.
... That self-efficacy and mathematical resilience are linked is well established in the literature. Students with low self-efficacy have been found to have less trust in their own abilities in face of adversity; rationalise problems as threats as opposed to challenges; experience a higher level of negative emotional arousal when completing demanding tasks; and show less perseverance when faced with challenging situations (Bandura et al., 1997). ...
Thesis
The thesis reports on a real-world enactment of teacher-initiated Mathematical Project Based Learning (MaPBL) by teachers and students in one school in the UK. The thesis aims to illuminate our understanding of the relationship between these 12-15-year-old students’ attitudes to mathematics and MaPBL, of the challenges they faced and the pedagogical strategies they perceived supportive, when leading their own learning during MaPBL. The study was conducted in an East London secondary school, which serves a community of high deprivation, whose dominant cultural background is British Bengali. It contributes to our understanding of some tensions, inherent in young people who live in an intersection of cultures, when learning mathematics in such ways. The research adopted a constructivist grounded approach. Data were collected through lesson observations, student focus groups and surveys, and a teacher workshop and interview. The Covid-19 pandemic and national lockdowns impacted data collection: the study was more exploratory than originally envisaged. Two theoretical lenses, activity theory and complexity thinking, were employed to illuminate interpretation of the data. The study offers a unique contribution in privileging student voice. It found that, in contrast to some existing literature, students’ attitudes towards MaPBL, and the level of embraced autonomy, varied significantly with the nature of the projects, the actions of the teacher, and the beliefs of the students. Much literature discusses the outcomes of MaPBL on students’ affective traits and skills. This study offers a unique contribution to knowledge in suggesting that students require a variety of affective traits and skills before they can embark on MaPBL productively– but it is then very much worth doing. These include: self-efficacy, resilience, motivation, a relational vision of mathematics, self-regulated learning and working collaboratively. The thesis evidences pedagogical strategies that were perceived to support affective traits and skills. The study has implications for teachers and researchers wishing to work with a similar approach. Additionally, in line with the aims of a professional doctorate, there has been a symbiotic relationship between the research and my professional work.
... From the descriptive statistics of the self-efficacy data in each dimension, the EG is better than the CG in the average performance of each dimension and shows a significant improvement in the implementation of the survey dimension. Self-efficacy theory assumes that people obtain their beliefs about efficacy from four main sources: actual performance, observations of others (alternative experience), oral and other forms of persuasion, and "people judge their ability, strength and susceptibility to dysfunction through physiological and emotional state" (Bandura et al., 1997). The research tool designed and developed in this study forms attention feedback by collecting EEG signals in real-time, which produces a certain degree of supervision and reminds students to focus on scientific inquiry. ...
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This study aims to explore the impact of an augmented reality (AR) scientific inquiry tool based on a brain-computer interface (BCI) on students’ scientific performance, flow experience, self-efficacy, and cognitive load of primary school students. The BCI-based AR inquiring tool provides real-time attention feedback to students’ activities in an AR science learning environment. Before the formal experiment, a pilot study was conducted to prove that the attention estimation algorithm involved in the tool is effective and the AR learning environment based on the BCI technology is feasible. In the formal study, quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed. A total of 41 primary school students were randomly assigned to the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG) to learn the lever principle. The students of EG used the BCI-based AR inquiring tool, and the CG used simple AR inquiring tools without real-time attention feedback. Results show that the BCI-based AR inquiring tool positively impacts students’ scientific inquiry. It significantly helps students improve their science learning performance, achieve mental flow, and promote their scientific inquiry participation self-efficacy. Besides, no significant effect on cognitive load was found. The interview results indicate that students have a positive attitude toward the BCI-based AR scientific inquiry tool.
... The following illustration depicts the model. Inspired by VAM and Social Cognitive Theory [23], research also proposed the Self-efficacy-based Value Adoption Model (SVAM) [24] to study consumers' acceptance of new mobile applications. ...
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In light of the complexity of predicting behavior, the individual decision to accept and use technology innovations has been a long-standing debate across disciplines. Recognizing that the subject is vast and fragmented, this paper examines the mainstream technology works to assist researchers to understand, conceptualize and select the most appropriate theoretical framework for their study. Thus, starting with the pioneering effort on Diffusion of Innovations (DOI/IDT), the analysis considers the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM/TAM-2/TAM-3), the Value-based Acceptance Model (VAM), and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT/UTAUT-2) among the most prominent. A review of the key literature is vital to assessing and identifying research trends, as well as contributing to the discussion of emerging technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), Augmented Reality (AR), Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Internet of Things (IoT), Mobile Apps, etc. Suggestions for future research paths are also provided.
... The mediating role of self-efficacy Social cognitive theory states that self-awareness and selfregulation play a key role in the formation of self-efficacy, while emotion management ability emphasizes the ability of an individual to perceive and regulate self-emotion and selfemotional states (Bandura et al., 1997). Emotion management ability includes the basic and critical things that individuals should have in coping with the environment, solving problems and adaptive survival. ...
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During the COVID-19, the wanton spread of novel coronavirus had a huge negative effect on the emotions of college students, resulting in a serious impact on the daily learning behavior of many college students. In this context, college students’ emotion management ability is particularly important. Therefore, based on the results of a questionnaire survey of 580 college students, the present study conducts an in-depth analysis of the relationship between current college students’ emotion management ability and learning engagement, and explores the mediating role of psychological safety and self-efficacy in the relationship between emotion management ability and learning engagement. The results show that college students’ emotion management ability is significantly positive related to learning engagement, psychological safety and self-efficacy; Psychological safety and self-efficacy can play a partial mediating role between emotion management ability and college students’ learning engagement. The results reveal the importance of good emotion management ability of college students during the COVID-19, and enlighten colleges and universities to actively pacify students’ emotions to promote their normal learning.
... Self-efficacy (SFE) is a broad concept that refers to an individual's belief in their capacity to carry out tasks and achieve the desired goal (Bandura, 1997). Vagni et al. (2020) found that individual efficacy in resolving negative feelings and thoughts is a protective strategy against stress and secondary trauma among healthcare and emergency personnel treating COVID-19 in Italy. ...
Conference Paper
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The COVID-19 Pandemic has revealed organizations' vulnerability and increased the need to ensure employee work engagement (WKE). Utilizing the conservation of resources theory (COR), this study investigates the influence of friends and family supports (FFS), employee resilience (ERS), self-efficacy (SFE), and supervisors' supports (SST) on employees' work engagement. Data was collected from 259 knowledge workers in Malaysia and analyzed using Smart PLS-SEM 3. The findings revealed that ERS, SFE, and SST significantly influence WKE. However, FFS does not have a significant influence on WKE. The results of this study contribute to the COR theory and have practical implications.
... Self-efficacy, which is the belief in one's capabilities to execute and succeed in a situation, is a key personal influence in Bandura's model (Bandura et al., 1999). Individuals strive for a sense of agency, or their belief in their perceived capabilities to exert influence over important events of their life. ...
Purpose The purpose of this study is to utilize social cognitive theory to investigate how social comparison orientations, individual cognitive, and environmental factors influence females' decisions to pursue self-employment in the United Arab Emirates In doing so, the authors explore how the entrepreneurial self-efficacy of Emirati women also influences individuals towards entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach Using a survey instrument administered in both English and Arabic, data were collected from one hundred and three (103) employed Emirati women and eighty-four (84) self-employed Emirati women who were taking part in workshops conducted by the Dubai Chamber of Commerce. Findings The results from the study suggest that the social environment is a contributing factor toward self-employment, with higher levels of social comparison orientation increasing the likelihood of Emirati women being self-employed. Consistent with prior research, the authors also find that internal cognitive factors also play a significant role, with Emirati women possessing higher levels of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and having a higher likelihood of being self-employed. Originality/value This is one of the few studies aimed at exploring the role of social comparison orientation as a factor in motivating females towards entrepreneurship in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region.
... Value perception, proposed by Zeithaml (1988), refers to an individual's subjective evaluation of service effectiveness after weighing the benefits and costs of the service. Self-efficacy perception, proposed by Bandura et al. (1999), refers to an individual's degree of confidence in his or her ability to perform a task. Many studies have used value perception and self-efficacy perception to analyze farmers' behavior and willingness. ...
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Straw return is a kind of agricultural cleaner production technology. It can not only reduce environmental pollution caused by straw burning, but also help to improve soil conditions. However, few studies focus on the impact of increasingly active land transfer on farmers' willingness to pay for straw return. This study had a theoretical framework for systematic analysis and based on data from 1080 households in Sichuan Province, China. The conditional value assessment method (CVM) was used to estimate the interval of farmers' willingness to pay for straw return, and IV-Probit and IV-Tobit models were constructed to control endogeneity and to explore the effects of land transfer on farmers' willingness to pay for straw return. The results showed that (1) only 37.69% of farmers were willing to pay for straw return, and the average amount of farmers' willingness to pay was 12.94–34.41 RMB/666.7 m²-season. (2) Land transfer, especially land transfer-in, increased farmers' willingness to pay and willingness to pay amount for straw return, but there were noticeable intergenerational differences and differences in land operation scale. (3) The perception of economic value and the perception of payment effectiveness play a positive mediating role. The conclusion provides reference for improving straw return policy and promoting agricultural cleaner sustainable production. It is suggested to encourage land contiguous circulation to promote land integration, and reduce the price of straw return. At the same time, farmers' correct cognition of straw return should be improved through extensive publicity, especially for the new generation and large-scale farmers.
... People with better quality of interpersonal relationships were more confident about effectively dealing with emotion and interpersonal communication. In addition, according to selfefficacy theory of Bandura (1999), individuals' perception of their own abilities was affected by the evaluation of people around them. Especially the opinions of important others, which could affect individuals' self-efficacy, and then affect individuals' negative emotional responses and non-adaptive behaviors. ...
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Objective The objective of the study was to investigate the mediating effect of regulatory emotional self-efficacy (RESE) between negative peer relationship and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), as well as the moderating effect of gender difference.MethodsA study of 578 Chinese adolescents (46.9% males, mean age = 16.32 years, SD =0.54) was conducted using the Child and Adolescent Peer Relationship Inventory, Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Adolescent Self-Injury Questionnaire.ResultsNegative peer relationship was positively correlated with NSSI, and RESE was negatively correlated with negative peer relationship and NSSI. RESE mediated the association between negative peer relationship and NSSI. The first stage(predicting the effect of negative peer relationship on RESE) and the second stage (predicting the effect of RESE on NSSI) of the mediation effect of RESE were both moderated by gender. Specifically, compared with boys, the effect of negative peer relationship on RESE was stronger for girls, and the effect of RESE on NSSI was stronger for girls than boys.Conclusion Negative peer relationships may influence NSSI of adolescents through the mediating effect of RESE and the moderating role of gender.
... Self-Efficacy theory by Bandura et al. (1999) have advanced the features that the reception of an objective alongside the beginning of its interest, the quantum of exertion utilized and consistency of these endeavours will rely upon the assessment of the chance of accomplishment of the objective. With regards to gamification, this hypothesis features that clients will start and mess around if they accept that it is inside their grip to finish and dominate the match.The starting points of the term gamification traces all the way back to 2008, and it originated from the advanced media industry (Deterding et al., 2011). ...
Article
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The purpose to conduct this study is to examine the behaviour of young Indians in via Financial Applications taking into consideration the role of Gamification. As the technology has been rapidly growing and now investment has been made very convenient. The role of gamification has to be known in these financial investments via going through different literature.
... Another important aspect to focus on when studying the factors that improve the academic performances of adolescents with SLD is the concept of self-efficacy. According to Bandura's perspective, self-efficacy is a set of the individual's beliefs relating to their competence to plan and perform a series of actions to realize desired goals [37]. In addition, self-efficacy plays a decisive role in the individual's choices, engagement, effort, and persistence [38,39]. ...
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This study aimed to explore interpersonal adaptation, generalized self-efficacy, and metacognitive skills in a sample of Italian adolescents with and without a specific learning disorder (SLD). A total of 564 secondary and high school students (males = 236; females = 328; age range: 11–19; M = 16.14, SD = 1.70) completed a set of standardized tests assessing social and interpersonal skills (non-affirmation, impulsiveness, narcissism, social preoccupation, and stress in social situations), general self-efficacy, and metacognition. Students with SLD reported a lower interpersonal adaptation than students without SLD. Furthermore, students with SLD were more impulsive and had more problems handling social situations. They also reported lower levels of self-efficacy but higher metacognition scores than peers without SLD. The use of compensatory tools was associated with better interpersonal skills and higher levels of self-efficacy in students with SLD. Finally, using these instruments is predictive of high levels of metacognitive skills in adolescents with SLD. In line with the previous literature, this study showed the presence of a gap between adolescents with and without an SLD in terms of interpersonal adaptation, general self-efficacy, and metacognitive skills in the school context. Further studies are needed on the psychological well-being of adolescents with SLD and especially on the protective role of personal, social, and environmental characteristics.
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The CLEANcultures project uses unconventional interventions to increase the sense of community and collective efficacy in neighbourhoods to trigger behavior change and reduce lifestyle related greenhouse gas emissions. The impact of interventions is measured with a longitudinal survey setting.
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This paper analyzes the effects of entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial passion on entrepreneurial intention in Morocco. The developed model suggests that entrepreneurship intention depends on two variables, entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial passion, mediated by entrepreneurial self-efficacy. We use structural equation modeling to test the proposed model, based on a sample of 148 scientific and technical students from the Higher School of Technology, Khenifra, Morocco. The results demonstrate that entrepreneurial passion has a strong positive relationship on entrepreneurial intention, even when entrepreneurial self-efficacy is introduced as a mediator. Further, the relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention is fully mediated by entrepreneurial self-efficacy. The findings confirm that entrepreneurial self-efficacy is a central psychological mechanism that can convert entrepreneurship education into entrepreneurial intention. Therefore, individuals need to feel more self-efficacious in order to choose an entrepreneurial career, and entrepreneurship education should orient students towards an area in which they feel truly passionate.
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Grundlegend für die Entwicklung von Lehrer:innenprofessionalität ist die erste universitäre Phase der Lehrer:innenbildung. Ein häufig geäußerter Kritikpunkt ist die Praxisferne des Studiums. Hier setzt die von Lehrkräften angebotene Intervention „LMU Teacher Coaching & Training“ an, bei der entsprechende Trainings- mit weiterführenden Coachingelementen kombiniert werden. Bislang liegen jedoch keine Befunde zur Effektivität von derlei Maßnahmen bei Lehramtsstudierenden vor. Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es, die Wirkung dieser Intervention auf Reflexionsbereitschaft, Selbstwirksamkeit und antizipierte Unterrichtsemotionen mittels eines Kontrollgruppen-Messwiederholungsdesigns mit zwei Messzeitpunkten zu untersuchen. Die Stichprobe umfasst bislang 144 Studierende in der Interventions- und 59 Studierende in der Wartekontrollbedingung, die im Abstand von ca. vier bis fünf Wochen zu zwei Messzeitpunkten an entsprechenden Online-Befragungen teilnahmen. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen, dass Reflexionsbereitschaft, Selbstwirksamkeit und antizipierte Unterrichtsemotionen in dieser Stichprobe von Lehramtsstudierenden reliabel erfasst werden können. Varianzanalysen mit Messwiederholung zeigen, dass sich Selbstwirksamkeit und antizipierte Unterrichtsemotionen bei den Studierenden der Interventionsbedingung signifikant günstig verändern, bei den Studierenden der Wartekontrollbedingung hingegen konstant bleiben. Die Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die Intervention „LMU Teacher Coaching & Training“ die Selbstwirksamkeit der Studierenden besonders effektiv anspricht. Aktuell werden die Stichproben fortlaufend erweitert, um die empirische Basis dieser ersten Befunde zu stärken.
Article
This study analyzed the responses of Korean students to interest, confidence, value, and instructional clarity in science and mathematics. To achieve this, the raw data of the recent student survey of TIMSS were analyzed. A one-way ANOVA was performed, and a post hoc test was performed. Additionally, a cohort analysis was performed to determine the changes when the fourth-grade students reached the eighth grade. The study results are as follows. First, interest and confidence were higher in the fourth grade than in the eighth grade. Second, in most cases, the average response of Singaporean students was the most positive, but in terms of interest and confidence in science in the fourth grade, the Japanese response average was generally the highest. Third, the average scores of Korean students on wanting to have a job related to their subject and knowing what teachers expect from them were low in both science and mathematics.
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Purpose – This research aims to examine the impact of supply chain integration and Integrative value creation on Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs)' performance in Pakistan. We also examined the mediating impact of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Innovation Capability in these correlations. Design/methodology/approach: Innovative Capabilities, Integrative Value-Creation, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and supply chain integrations in Pakistani SMEs, as well as their impact on company performance, were identified and briefly contested. Hypotheses were investigated using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) on research data from 394 SMEs registered with the SMEDA (Small and Medium Enterprises Regulatory Authority of Pakistan). The quantitative analysis was completed last, followed by a discussion of the findings. Findings The study's findings revealed that there are positive and significant connections between the factors. The beneficial association between supply chain integration and business success is mediated by innovation capability. Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Firm Performance also played a beneficial mediation influence. Research limitations/implications The findings are limited to SMEs in Pakistan. Future research could look into the impact of foreign investments on value creation amongst firms as of the growing figure of Internationally-owned SMEs in Pakistan, as well as the perception of unfair competition from these enterprises, this is useful. The findings of these research could have implications with regards to policy implementaion on how to encourage domestic and foreign-owned enterprises to collaborate. Originality / Value The current study is considered the first to explore the nexus of Supply Chain Integration (SCI) and Integrative Value Creation with Firm Performance in SMEs of Pakistan embedding the mediating roles of Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy and Innovation Capability. It enriches the literature by exploring the ways to foster the firm performance through integrative value-creation and supply chain integration and validating the importance of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Innovation Capability of firms in development and enhancement of firms’ performance compared to previous studies. Moreover, it also offers various theoretical and managerial ramifications, as well as future possibilities.
Article
Online learning has emerged as a fresh method to successfully prevent teacher and student gatherings as well as the propagation of viruses in the context of the ongoing influence of the COVID-19. A problem deserving of consideration is how to increase users’ desire to participate in online learning through online class APPs, identify the variables that affect users’ use of them, and create a useful assessment scale. In this study, user ratings from 68 students who had used an online class APP were collected using the combination of qualitative and quantitative research, and 200 online questionnaires were sent out to complement the interview findings, based on which 328 assessment questionnaires were gathered and 23 valid items were obtained. The influencing elements that had an impact on users’ online learning experiences were identified using factor analysis, and the relationships among the components were investigated using structural equation modeling. Perceived benefits are the main influencing factors, subjective norms and functional quality are the direct factors influencing users’ perceived benefits, and self-efficacy is influenced by subjective norms while promoting the perception of functional quality. The factors influencing users’ use of online class APPs are ultimately identified as perceived benefits, functional quality and self-efficacy. In order to facilitate users’ online learning, user psychological traits, social ties and software functions should be integrated into a cohesive system while designing online class APPs.
Article
The present research aims to (i) assess the suitability of psychological capital (PsyCap) in a non-Western world, i.e. Indian context, and (ii) to expand the PsyCap domain by testing suitability of flow as the next construct of PsyCap. Two independent quantitative studies were conducted to meet the above-stated aims. There were 906 and 302 participants in Studies 1 and 2, respectively. Standardized scales were used in both studies. Confirmatory factor analysis, confirmatory bifactor analysis, correlation, and hierarchical regression analysis were used. Study 1 results showed that PCQ-24 is valid in the Indian context only after the deletion of three negative items. PsyCap has been established as a second-order construct. PsyCap and flow were found to be closely associated with each other in Study 2. They were related to CWB as well. Flow predicted CWB over and above PsyCap. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically establish that PsyCap is valid in India on a relatively larger sample, and it is indeed a second-order construct. Theoretical and empirical evidence was provided to support flow as the new PsyCap construct.
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