Non-randomized clinical trial
Urine dipstick test
Mp Joint: Metatarsal- phalanges Joint
Mpj: Metatarsal- phalanges joint
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Journal of Knowledge & Health 2015; Vol 9, No 4
Shahroud University of Medical Sciences
Effect of Foot Massage on Physiological Edema During Pregnancy
Fatemeh Rahimikian (M.Sc.)1, Azadeh Shadmehr (Ph.D.)2, Abbas Mehran (M.Sc.)3, Mahdieh Kiani
1- Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical
Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Dept. of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- Dept. of Biostatistics, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4- Dept. of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Received: 26 November 2013, Accepted: 23 February 2014
Introduction: One of the most common and annoying problems during pregnancy is physiological foot edema
that may cause activity restrictions during pregnancy for pregnant women. Present study aimed to determine the
effect of foot massage on physiological edema during pregnancy.
Methods: This study was non-randomized clinical trial and performed in 2012. 120 pregnant women aged 20 to
35 years were non randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Treatment group, received 20 minutes
daily foot massage during 5 days. Data were analyzes using SPSS statistical software, independent t-test and
Mann-Whitney U test. Foot edema measured by using a measuring non- elastic tape on the leg.
Results: The results indicates a statistically significant difference between the average of the feet environments
(around the ankle, heel and metatarsal joints between the finger bones) in both treatment and control groups
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that massage therapy is effective in reducing physiological edema
during pregnancy. Therefor the lower limb massage can be performed by trained midwives and as a useful, low
risk and low cost method in prenatal clinics or pregnant women homes.
Keywords: Foot massage, Complementary medicine, Pregnancy, Physiological edema.
Conflict of Interest: No Registeration ID: IRCT2013012012198N1
*Corresponding author: M. Kiani, Email: Kiani.email@example.com
Citation: Rahimikian F, Shadmehr A, Mehran A, Kiani M. Effect of foot massage on physiological edema
during pregnancy. Journal of Knowledge & Health 2015;9(4):1-7.