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Effect of Foot Massage on Physiological Edema During Pregnancy

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Abstract

Effect of Foot Massage on Physiological Edema During Pregnancy Fatemeh Rahimikian (M.Sc.)1, Azadeh Shadmehr (Ph.D.)2, Abbas Mehran (M.Sc.)3, Mahdieh Kiani (M.Sc.)4* 1- Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 2- Dept. of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 3- Dept. of Biostatistics, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 4- Dept. of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Received: 26 November 2013, Accepted: 23 February 2014 Abstract: Introduction: One of the most common and annoying problems during pregnancy is physiological foot edema that may cause activity restrictions during pregnancy for pregnant women. Present study aimed to determine the effect of foot massage on physiological edema during pregnancy. Methods: This study was non-randomized clinical trial and performed in 2012. 120 pregnant women aged 20 to 35 years were non randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Treatment group, received 20 minutes daily foot massage during 5 days. Data were analyzes using SPSS statistical software, independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Foot edema measured by using a measuring non- elastic tape on the leg. Results: The results indicates a statistically significant difference between the average of the feet environments (around the ankle, heel and metatarsal joints between the finger bones) in both treatment and control groups (P<0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that massage therapy is effective in reducing physiological edema during pregnancy. Therefor the lower limb massage can be performed by trained midwives and as a useful, low risk and low cost method in prenatal clinics or pregnant women homes. Keywords: Foot massage, Complementary medicine, Pregnancy, Physiological edema. Conflict of Interest: No Registeration ID: IRCT2013012012198N1 *Corresponding author: M. Kiani, Email: Kiani.m89@gmail.com Citation: Rahimikian F, Shadmehr A, Mehran A, Kiani M. Effect of foot massage on physiological edema during pregnancy. Journal of Knowledge & Health 2015;9(4):1-7.
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DOI: 10.1234/knh.v0i0.493
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          



        




     



      Prolonged labor
   Operative delivery
     



Compression stocking


  

   
         

          
      


   

 

    
  

 
    


         



Non-randomized clinical trial      
     
   





  




        
Preeclampsia        

Thrombophlebitis)      
Eczema
          

Baby oil 



3


         
Tibia bone
Urine dipstick test




  
       

  
         

Metatarsal bone      
 
 

      

      

Stroke



    

Thumbs kneading



         
 




   



 

        
  
     

       
         


          
   
    
   
SPSS


Ankle
Instep
Mp Joint: Metatarsal- phalanges Joint 


  

        


-
  
± 
±


 
          
    
           








n
n




±
±
±
±


±
±
±
±

±
±
±
±
MPj
±
±
±
±


±
±
±
±

±
±
±
±
MPj
±
±
±
±
Mpj: Metatarsal- phalanges joint
            

 
    


           



n

n






Z= 
P< 



t= 
df= 
P< 
MPj


Z= 
P< 




Z= 
P< 



t= 
df= 
P< 
MPj


Z= 
P< 





(P

     



    


  
    
  









5

          





        
          





       




   
     

 
   

 
          
Mastectomy     


            
  
        

 
  massageMeridian
    Hemiplegia

 

    





          
         


       










  
       
 

     
        


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Journal of Knowledge & Health 2015; Vol 9, No 4
Shahroud University of Medical Sciences
7
DOI: 10.1234/knh.v0i0.493
Original Article
Effect of Foot Massage on Physiological Edema During Pregnancy
Fatemeh Rahimikian (M.Sc.)1, Azadeh Shadmehr (Ph.D.)2, Abbas Mehran (M.Sc.)3, Mahdieh Kiani
(M.Sc.)4*
1- Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical
Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Dept. of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- Dept. of Biostatistics, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4- Dept. of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Received: 26 November 2013, Accepted: 23 February 2014
Abstract:
Introduction: One of the most common and annoying problems during pregnancy is physiological foot edema
that may cause activity restrictions during pregnancy for pregnant women. Present study aimed to determine the
effect of foot massage on physiological edema during pregnancy.
Methods: This study was non-randomized clinical trial and performed in 2012. 120 pregnant women aged 20 to
35 years were non randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Treatment group, received 20 minutes
daily foot massage during 5 days. Data were analyzes using SPSS statistical software, independent t-test and
Mann-Whitney U test. Foot edema measured by using a measuring non- elastic tape on the leg.
Results: The results indicates a statistically significant difference between the average of the feet environments
(around the ankle, heel and metatarsal joints between the finger bones) in both treatment and control groups
(P<0.001).
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that massage therapy is effective in reducing physiological edema
during pregnancy. Therefor the lower limb massage can be performed by trained midwives and as a useful, low
risk and low cost method in prenatal clinics or pregnant women homes.
Keywords: Foot massage, Complementary medicine, Pregnancy, Physiological edema.
Conflict of Interest: No Registeration ID: IRCT2013012012198N1
*Corresponding author: M. Kiani, Email: Kiani.m89@gmail.com
Citation: Rahimikian F, Shadmehr A, Mehran A, Kiani M. Effect of foot massage on physiological edema
during pregnancy. Journal of Knowledge & Health 2015;9(4):1-7.
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Lymphoedema is a common and troublesome condition that develops following breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of Manual Lymphatic Drainage in the treatment of postmastectomy lymphoedema in order to reduce the volume of lymphoedema and evaluate the improvement of the concomitant symptomatology. A randomized, controlled clinical trial in 58 women with post-mastectomy lymphoedema. The control group includes 29 patients with standard treatment (skin care, exercise and compression measures, bandages for one month and, subsequently, compression garments). The experimental group includes 29 patients with standard treatment plus Manual Lymphatic Drainage. The therapy will be administered daily for four weeks and the patient's condition will be assessed one, three and six months after treatment.The primary outcome parameter is volume reduction of the affected arm after treatment, expressed as a percentage. Secondary outcome parameters include: duration of lymphoedema reduction and improvement of the concomitant symptomatology (degree of pain, sensation of swelling and functional limitation in the affected extremity, subjective feeling of being physically less attractive and less feminine, difficulty looking at oneself naked and dissatisfaction with the corporal image). The results of this study will provide information on the effectiveness of Manual Lymphatic Drainage and its impact on the quality of life and physical limitations of these patients. ClinicalTrials (NCT): NCT01152099.
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Thoroughly revised for its Third Edition, Foundations of Osteopathic Medicine is the most comprehensive, current osteopathic text. This American Osteopathic Association publication defines the terminology and techniques of the field and is the standard text for teaching the profession. It provides broad, multidisciplinary coverage of osteopathic considerations in the basic sciences, behavioral sciences, family practice and primary care, and the clinical specialties and demonstrates a wide variety of osteopathic manipulative methods. This edition features expanded coverage of international practice and includes a new chapter on the structure of the profession. Other new chapters include coding and billing and nutrition. This edition also has standard chapter formats for each section. © 2011, 2003, 1997 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a Wolters Kluwer business. All rights reserved.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of water immersion as a means of reducing peripheral edema during the last 6 weeks of pregnancy. Background: Peripheral edema is a common complaint during pregnancy and is associated with a number of activity limitations. Common interventions for edema include elevation and use of compression hose. Immersion in water represents another potential intervention to eliminate or minimize some of the functional limitations associated with peripheral edema during pregnancy. Study Design: Thirty-two pregnant women in at least their 34th weeks of a normally progressing pregnancy were assigned randomly to either standing water immersion (16) or to sitting upright in a chair with legs elevated at poolside (16). Subjects in the water group (W) were immersed up to the xiphoid process for 20 minutes in a swimming pool (85–90°F). Subjects in the land group (L) sat in a chair with both feet elevated for 20 minutes. Changes in right foot volume were quantified by foot volumetry immediately pre- and post-intervention. Results: Right foot volume decreased 38 ± 18 mL (mean ± SD) for W and increased 2 ± 14 mL for L (P < .001 for between groups). Conclusions: Water immersion for 20 minutes is an effective means of decreasing pedal edema during pregnancy.
Pregnancy initiates alterations to all body systems, which may take weeks to resolve after delivery. Understanding them is the key to managing pregnant women safely. Considerable adjustments to the reference ranges for many laboratory criteria result, and failure to appreciate these can cause diagnostic error or therapeutic disaster. The physiology of pregnancy is considered by system, emphasising the implication of the changes for clinical practice, and the relevance in relation to complications of pregnancy.The placenta creates a low resistance circulation, vasodilatation occurs peripherally and circulating volume increases. Increased heart rate, myocardial contractility and pre-load, and reduced after-load all influence cardiac performance in pregnancy, by expanding cardiac output.Oxygen consumption increases during pregnancy. Ventilation increases by 40%, such that the partial pressure of oxygen is unchanged (i.e. more oxygen is consumed but more is acquired). The partial pressure of carbon dioxide is reduced by this increase in ventilation.•There is a physiological rise in coagulation factors I (fibrinogen), V, V11, V111, IX and XII and a fall in some endogenous anticoagulants (antithrombin, protein S, activated protein C resistance).•The kidneys increase in length, and the renal calyces, renal pelvis and ureter dilate. Renal blood flow increases, leading to a 50% increase in glomerular filtration. Clinically there is a rise in creatinine clearance. Glycosuria is common in pregnancy.•80% of pregnant women experience heartburn.•Liver function test results are lower in pregnancy because of haemodilution. Spider naevi and palmar erythema are common. Pruritus occurs in at least 20% pregnancies.
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Çoban A, Şirin A. International Journal of Nursing Practice 2010; 16: 454–460 Effect of foot massage to decrease physiological lower leg oedema in late pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial in Turkey This study aims to evaluate the effect of foot massage for decreasing physiological lower leg oedema in late pregnancy. Eighty pregnant women were randomly divided into two groups; study group had a 20 min foot massage daily for 5 days whereas the control group did not receive any intervention beyond standard prenatal care. The research was conducted between March and August 2007 in Manisa Province Health Ministry Central Primary Health Care Clinic 1, in Manisa, Western Turkey. Compared with the control group, women in the experimental group had a significantly smaller lower leg circumference (right and left, ankle, instep and metatarsal–phalanges joint) after 5 days of massage. The results obtained from our research show that foot massage was found to have a positive effect on decreasing normal physiological lower leg oedema in late pregnancy.
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Pregnancy is a period of hormonal, immunological, metabolic and vascular changes. Some of them are considered to be physiologic, but others are real diseases specific or not of pregnancy. The aim of our study is to present the epidemiological and clinical physiologic dermatological changes of pregnancy. We present a transversal monocentric study. One hundred pregnant women attending the department of dermatology of the La Rabta hospital were enrolled. Systematic detailed cutaneous examination was performed by a dermatologist to look for a physiologic skin changes. The mean age was 29 years [20-46 years]. Pigmentary changes were the most preponderant (93%), dominated by the areolar region pigmentation (77%). The glandular changes were noted in 75% of cases. The vascular modifications were observed in 77% of pregnant women. Of these, gingival hyperemia was the most common (46%). Others cutaneous changes were less frequent (stria distensae 45%, nevi changes 35%, molluscum gravidarum 10%). The physiologic cutaneous changes during pregnancy are numerous. Our study confirms the frequency and the variability of these modifications. The pigmentary changes were the most common finding.
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The anatomic and physiologic changes occurring with pregnancy result in a variety of symptoms affecting the lower extremity. The purpose of this investigation is to provide a comprehensive look at the lower extremity changes experienced during pregnancy and correlate symptoms with underlying etiology in a literature review. In this retrospective study, 100 postpartum women were interviewed regarding the lower extremity changes experienced in pregnancy. The interview included dermatologic, vascular, neurologic, and musculoskeletal portions. Results demonstrate more than 50% of women reported faster toenail growth, roughened toenail texture, increased dryness of the skin, swelling of the foot, ankle, and leg, unsteady gait, increased foot width, and hip pain. Though a majority of patients did not experience the remaining symptoms represented in the interview, all results are pertinent and deserve understanding to provide better insight and care for the pregnant woman. Therefore, a thorough literature review is presented to correlate the outcomes of the present study with previously published research.