Article

Soursop (Annona muricata L.) antioxidant activity: A literature review

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  • Corporación Biotec, Cali Colombia
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Abstract

An antioxidant is a compound capable of inhibiting molecular oxidation and therefore of protecting biological molecules from reactive oxygen species or free radicals. Antioxidants can be synthesized by the body or obtained from a diet containing fruit, such as soursop. The aim of this project was to review the literature on antioxidant activity of the soursop and compounds that might be responsible for this activity. From the analysis of fourteen studies, we found that in most cases soursop did not contain high activity or concentration of antioxidants in fresh or frozen pulp, in comparison with highly consumed fruits in Colombia. The leaves, as well as the juice and wine from the plant, do not contain high activity or concentration of antioxidants. In-depth characterization of antioxidant activity and compounds in soursop is lacking; additional studies are required to identify the mechanisms of action of the compounds present in the whole fruit (peel and seed) for different varieties of this tropical fruit.

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... Thirty seven phenolic compounds have been reported to be present in A. muricata. The important phenolic compounds found in A. muricata leaves include quercetin [64] and gallic acid [65]. The presence of flavonoids and lipophilic antioxidant compounds such as tocopherols and tocotrienols has been reported to be present in the pulp [65]. ...
... The important phenolic compounds found in A. muricata leaves include quercetin [64] and gallic acid [65]. The presence of flavonoids and lipophilic antioxidant compounds such as tocopherols and tocotrienols has been reported to be present in the pulp [65]. In different studies, when organic or aqueous extracts have been used, the quantity of extractable total phenols is considerably different. ...
... Other compounds such as vitamins, carotenoids, amides, and cyclopeptides have also been identified in A. muricata. Vitamins and carotenoids have been found in leaves, seeds and fruit pulp [65,67] . The presence of the amide N-p-coumaroyl tyramine [68] and cyclopeptides [69,70] have been reported in the seeds and showed to have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. ...
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Annona muricata (A. muricata) is a tropical plant species belonging to family Annonaceae and known for its many medicinal uses. This review focuses on the research history of its traditional uses, phytochemicals, pharmacological activities, toxicological aspects of the extracts and isolated compounds, as well as the in vitro propagation studies with the objective of stimulating further studies on this plant for human consumption and treatment. A. muricata extracts have been identified in tropical regions to traditionally treat diverse conditions ranging from fever to diabetes and cancer. More than 200 chemical compounds have been identified and isolated from this plant, the most important being alkaloids, phenols and acetogenins. Using in vitro studies, its extracts and phytochemicals have been characterized as antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, larvicidal, and cytotoxic to cancer cells. In vivo studies have revealed anxiolytic, anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antimalarial, antidepressant, gastro protective, wound healing, hepato-protective, hypoglycemic, anticancer and anti-tumoral activities. In silico studies have also been reported. In addition, clinical studies support the hypoglycemic as well as some anticancer activities. Mechanisms of action of some pharmacological activities have been elucidated. However, some phytochemical compounds isolated from A. muricata have shown a neurotoxic effect in vitro and in vivo, and therefore, these crude extracts and isolated compounds need to be further investigated to define the magnitude of the effects, optimal dosage, and mechanisms of action, long-term safety, and potential side effects. Additionally, more clinical studies are necessary to support the therapeutic potential of this plant. Some studies were also found to have successfully regenerated the plant in vitro, but with limited success. The reported toxicity notwithstanding, A. muricata extracts seem to be some of the safest and promising therapeutic agents of the 21st century and beyond that need to be studied further for better medicinal formulations and diseases management.
... A. muricata fruit contains a wide range of natural compounds, identification, and quantification of the phytochemicals that have gained importance in the recent years, mainly by their potential biological activities and benefits to the human health [19,24]. Phytochemicals such as phenols [6,7,25], flavonoids [5,7,[26][27][28][29], carotenes [28,30], alkaloids [23,[31][32][33][34], saponins [35], and acetogenins [36][37][38][39] have been identified by qualitative or quantitative methods in A. muricata fruit (Table 3). Additionally, a qualitative screening on unripe A. muricata fruit revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids, anthraquinone, and cardiac glycoside, while the quantitative screening showed that cardiac glycoside (27.19 mg/ g) was the highest occurring phytochemicals in the extract followed by terpenoid (19.3 mg/g), tannin (13.1 mg/g), flavonoid (9.09 mg/g), saponin (4.63 mg/g), and anthraquinone (1.1 mg/g) [40]. ...
... A. muricata fruit contains a wide range of natural compounds, identification, and quantification of the phytochemicals that have gained importance in the recent years, mainly by their potential biological activities and benefits to the human health [19,24]. Phytochemicals such as phenols [6,7,25], flavonoids [5,7,[26][27][28][29], carotenes [28,30], alkaloids [23,[31][32][33][34], saponins [35], and acetogenins [36][37][38][39] have been identified by qualitative or quantitative methods in A. muricata fruit (Table 3). Additionally, a qualitative screening on unripe A. muricata fruit revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids, anthraquinone, and cardiac glycoside, while the quantitative screening showed that cardiac glycoside (27.19 mg/ g) was the highest occurring phytochemicals in the extract followed by terpenoid (19.3 mg/g), tannin (13.1 mg/g), flavonoid (9.09 mg/g), saponin (4.63 mg/g), and anthraquinone (1.1 mg/g) [40]. ...
... Phenolic, carotenoid, and flavonoids are considered as antioxidants with potential health benefit for the human body [42] due to their free radical scavenging activity [7,28] as discussed below. The main compounds found in A. muricata fruit include gallic, chlorogenic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, syringic and ellagic acids, kaempferol, epicatechin, quercetin, lutein, tocotrienol, and tocopherols [5-7, 28, 30]. ...
... These acetogenins are excellent inhibitors of enzymatic processes that are found only in the membranes of cancerous tumor cells [9]. On the other hand, antioxidant compounds such as phenols (gallic and chlorogenic acid), flavonoids (myricetin, fisetin, morin, quercetin, kaempherol and isorhamnetin), anthocianins, ascorbic acid, tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids and acetogenins have been found in soursop leaf, seed and pulp [9,10,11,12]. Some extracts of phytochemical compounds of leaf, stem, root and seeds from Annona muricata L. such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins, phytosterol, terpenoids and proteins have shown antibacterial activity against several pathogen microorganisms [9,13]. ...
... Correa-Gordillo et al. [12] performed a revision about the antioxidant activity of Annona muricata L. pulp and leaves but not from seed. These authors indicated that a comparison of the results between different authors was impossible due to the variability of methods and units reported by the diverse researchers. ...
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Aims: To evaluate the cytotoxic activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts from Annona muricata L (soursop) seed and pulp on human tumor cell lines of breast, prostate and cervix; as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of those extracts. Study Design: For cytotoxic activity, non-linear regressions of the values of IC 50 of all extracts were used. For antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, an analysis of variance with multiple range tests, using the Fisher's LSD method was applied. Each study was replicated 3 times. Methodology: The methanolic extract of soursop seed was obtained by two methods: Soxhlet apparatus (SSS) and maceration (MSS). The aqueous extracts of both soursop seed (LSS) and pulp (LSP) were obtained by decoction. Human tumor cell lines from breast (MCF-7 and SKBr3), prostate (PC3) and cervix (HeLa), and fibroblasts (as control) were used to determine the cytotoxic activity by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were determined by the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and disc diffusion method, respectively. Results: Extracts of SSS, MSS, LSP and LSS had a higher cytotoxic activity on the PC3 (0.0024 to 1.275 µg/mL) and HeLa (0.0011 to 7.194 µg/mL) cell lines with low impact on healthy cells (fibroblasts, as control), than in MCF-7 (27.09 to >100 µg/mL) and SKBr3 (20.50 to >100 µg/mL) cells. Antioxidant activity of MSS (83.23%) and LSS (84.41%) extracts were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those extracts of LSP (69.77%) and SSS (69.43%). Significant (P < 0.05) antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus was only observed for SSS and MSS extracts. Conclusion: Results obtained in this research suggest that consumption of soursop fruit could be a good alternative to prevent illness such as cancer of prostate and cervix. However, further studies are needed to isolate and characterize the specific compounds of these extracts causing such effects.
... Based on their chemical structures, they can be categorized into different subgroups such as flavonoids, stilbenes, phenolic acids, tannins, quinines, curcuminoids, and lignans. Leaves, pulp of fruit, and seeds are main site for accumulation of carotenoids and vitamins [101,102]. Glycosides, steroids, carbohydrates, anthocyanins, amino acids, and minerals are found in A. senegalensis and A. reticulata [12,103]. Amides, purines, sterols, phospholipids, phytosterols, lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene are present in A. cherimoya [104,105]. ...
... It is distributed in the tropical regions of Central and South America, West Africa and Southeast Asia [16], the A. muricata fruit is an edible collective ovoid berry, dark green in colour [17]. The active compounds of A. muricata are acetogenins and polyphenols, among others [18,19], and can be used as reducing agents for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles [20]. It should be noted that the anticancer activity is directly attributed to acetogenins, specifically the lactone functional group. ...
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Cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world and requires new therapies for its treatment. In this context, the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been developed to treat different types of tumors. The Annona muricata plant is known for having anticancer activity. Its main compounds present in the leaves, stems and skin, allowing for its use as reducing agents. In this manuscript, AgNPs with leaf extract (AgNPs-LE) and fruit peel extract (AgNPs-PE) of A. muricata were biosynthesized obtaining an average nanoparticle diameter sizes smaller than 50 nm, being 19.63 ± 3.7 nm and 16.56 ± 4.1 nm, and with a surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) at 447 and 448 nm, respectively. The lactone functional group present in the LE and PE extracts was identified by the FTIR technique. The behavior and antiproliferation activity of AgNPs-LE and AgNPs-PE were evaluated in breast, colon and melanoma cancer cell lines. Our results showed that Annona muricata fruit peel, which is a waste product, has an antitumor effect more potent than leaf extract. This difference is maintained with AgNPs where the destruction of cancer cells was, for the first time, achieved using concentrations that do not exceed 3 μg/mL with a better therapeutic index in the different tumor strains. In conclusion, we present a low-cost one-step experimental setup to generate AgNPs-PE whose in-vitro biocompatibility and powerful therapeutic effect make it a very attractive tool worth exploiting. Citation: González-Pedroza, M.G.; Argueta-Figueroa, L.; García-Contreras, R.; Jiménez-Martínez, Y.; Martinez-Martinez, E.; Navarro-Marchal, S.A.; Marchal, J.A.; Morales-Luckie, R.A.; Boulaiz, H.
... Based on their chemical structures, they can be categorized into different subgroups such as flavonoids, stilbenes, phenolic acids, tannins, quinines, curcuminoids, and lignans. Leaves, pulp of fruit, and seeds are main site for accumulation of carotenoids and vitamins [101,102]. Glycosides, steroids, carbohydrates, anthocyanins, amino acids, and minerals are found in A. senegalensis and A. reticulata [12,103]. Amides, purines, sterols, phospholipids, phytosterols, lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene are present in A. cherimoya [104,105]. ...
... At lower concentration below 800 μg mL −1 , ESA could help ameliorate reducing both intracellular cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP as well as inhibiting NADH: Ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of the electron transfer system. Bullatacin has been identi ed to be highly cytotoxic against multidrug-resistant human mammary adenocarcinoma cells; which explains the concentration-dependent cytochrome c release observed in the extract tested in this study [48][49][50][51][52]. Nonetheless, Correa-Gordillo et al. [53] came up with a review of the antioxidant capacity of Annona muricata and categorically stated that soursop did not contain high activity or concentration of antioxidants in leaves, fresh/frozen pulp, juice as well as wine from the plant. is review perfectly supports our nding in this study as regards the antioxidant feature of fruit-skin ethanol extract of Annona muricata [54,55]. ...
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Uncontrolled cell proliferation hallmarks cancer and most cancer cells have developed multiple resistance to the drugs employed for their treatment. The study examined the phytochemical and antioxidant properties of the fruit-skin ethanol extract of Annona muricata Linn. (ESA) and its effect on rat liver mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT). Qualitative phytochemical study and antioxidant assays were carried out following established protocols while the opening of the MMPT pore in the presence of varying concentrations of the extract was assayed spectrophotometrically under succinate-energized conditions. Calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) and spermine were used to trigger and inhibit pore opening respectively. Cytochrome c release was assayed for using ELISA kit. Terpenoids, steroids, phenols among other phytochemicals were found present in ESA and the extract showed very low antioxidant properties at the tested concentrations based on the diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity assay. Lipid peroxidation was induced in a concentration-dependent manner on both the cytosolic and mitochondrial hepatocyte fractions in vitro . In the absence of CaCl 2 0.84 mg/mL concentration of ESA induced MMPT pore opening by 129% while the extracts showed no inhibitory activity in its presence. The induction fold corresponded with the concentrations of cytochrome c released. The fruit-skin ethanol extract of Annona muricata at certain concentrations may possibly contain bioactive compounds that induce apoptosis.
... Based on their chemical structures, they can be categorized into different subgroups such as flavonoids, stilbenes, phenolic acids, tannins, quinines, curcuminoids, and lignans. Leaves, pulp of fruit, and seeds are main site for accumulation of carotenoids and vitamins [101,102]. Glycosides, steroids, carbohydrates, anthocyanins, amino acids, and minerals are found in A. senegalensis and A. reticulata [12,103]. Amides, purines, sterols, phospholipids, phytosterols, lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene are present in A. cherimoya [104,105]. ...
... An antioxidant is a compound capable of inhibiting molecular oxidation and therefore of protecting biological molecules from reactive oxygen species or free radicals. Antioxidants can be synthesized by the body or obtained from a diet containing fruit, such as soursop ( Gordillo et al., 2012). A. muricata extract restores the activity of enzymes such as glutathione (GHS), catalase (CAT), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA the biomarker of lipid peroxidation that can cause defect in endothelial cells, fibroblast and collagen metabolism necessary for wound healing) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) that reduces cellular ROS, also the extract protects the gastric tissue from hemorrhagic lesion associated with attenuation of leukocyte infiltration and submucosal edema (Moghadamtousi et al., 2015). ...
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Annona muricata (Graviola) has many medicinal properties and used widely in traditional medicine for treatment various disorders. The present study was conducted to evaluate phytochemical and quality control (QC) of random sample of graviola dietary supplement capsules (DS) which sold in the Libyan market as anticancer product. As well as the present work designed to evaluate heatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of graviola fruit pulp or aqueous DS of graviola capsules against trichloroacetic acid (TCA) induced hepatotoxicity in albino mice. Quality control parameters were determined on random samples of graviola DS using standard methods. A total of 120 female mice were divided into 6 groups and were used for biological screening to determine biochemical and histopathological alteration in liver of mice treated with TCA with or without aqueous extract of A.muricata fruit pulp or DS of graviola. The results of quality control and phytochemical screening revealed that all quality control tests conducted on the random sample of DS capsules of graviola were within normal values according to the standards of the Quality Control Center for Pharmaceuticals in Tripoli, only few samples showed slight increase in the moisture content. However, all samples appeared free from microbial contamination. While, growth of fungal contamination (Pencillium Spp) in the same samples were detected but all samples appeared free from aflatoxins contamination. Also, all samples were free from industrial radioactive contamination. Phytochemical study revealed presence of alkaloids, tannins, steroids, glycosides, falvonoids, anthraquinones, saponin and coumarins in extracts of graviola fruit pulp and graviola DS capsules. However, absence some phytochemical components in DS capsules was detected. The result of biological screening revealed that no clinical signs and abnormalities in behavior and external feature in mice treated with aqueous extract of graviola fruit pulp or aqueous extract of graviola DS capsules. However, the treatment with aqueous extract of graviola fruit pulp and DS of graviola reduced the abnormal changes in behavior and external features in female mice intoxicated with TCA, markedly reduced the mortality in TCA administrated mice and induced slight improvement in the final body weight comparing to TCA only intoxicated group. Biochemical study revealed that administration of aqueous extract of graviola fruit pulp or aqueous extract of DS of graviola significantly decreased the elevated serum activities of AST and ALT compared to TCA only intoxicated mice. Histological examination revealed that administration of aqueous extract of graviola fruit plup or aqueous extract of DS of graviola with TCA induced ameliorative changes and disappearance of the most pathological changes in the liver tissue compared to of TCA only intoxicated mice and the ameliorating changes were more obvious in the mice treated with aqueous extracts of DS of graviola and TCA. The present results demonstrate that A. muricata play an important role in the protection against TCA induced hepatotoxicity. It can be concluded that the present study provide some pharmacological and therapeutical informations about extract of the graviola fruit pulp and DS of graviola capsules which can use in future investigations and applications and demonstrated presence of important phyochemical constituents in the graviola fruit pulp extract and DS of graviola capsules. The extract of the graviola fruit pulp and DS of graviola capsules have protective effects against TCA induced liver toxicity in mice.
... In terms of the ability of Annona muricata to chelate and prevent oxidation by metals, root-bark methanol and leaf methanol demonstrated better abilities due to their total phenol and alkaloid contents (p < .05). These findings agree with the reports of Baskar et al. (2007), Ahalya et al. (2014), Gavamukulya, Abou-Elella, Wamunyokoli, and El-Shemy (2014), Gordillo, Ortiz, Larrahondo, and Pachón (2012) and Bryan-Thomas (2016). Significant correlations (r, p < .05) ...
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Numerous bioactive compounds and phytochemicals have been reported to be present Annona muricata (Soursop). Some of these chemical compounds have been linked to the ethnomedicinal properties of the plant and its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to assess the proximate composition, phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant properties of A. muricata using standard biochemical procedures. The defatted Annona muricata crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were used for the estimation of proximate composition and phytochemical screening. The crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were also fractionated using solvent–solvent partitioning. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and methanol-water (90:10) were the solvents used for the fractionation. The different fractions obtained were then used to perform in vitro antioxidant analyses including, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, ferric reducing properties, and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. The leaf methanolic extract had a higher lipid content, whereas its chloroform fraction demonstrated a better ability to quench DPPH free radical. The root-bark methanol-water, leaf methanol, fruit pulp chloroform, and leaf petroleum ether fractions demonstrated potent ferric reducing properties. The leaf and stem-bark petroleum ether fractions demonstrated better hydroxyl-free radical scavenging abilities. The leaf and fruit pulp of Annona muricata have a very potent antioxidant ability compared to the other parts of the plant. This can be associated with the rich phytochemicals and other phytoconstituents like phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and essential lipids, etc. Significant correlations were observed between the antioxidant status and phytochemicals present. These results thus suggest that some of the reported ethnomedicinal properties of this plant could be due to its antioxidant potentials.
Article
Soursop Annona muricata L. is a tropical fruit of current interest for its medicinal properties. The compared proximal composition and antioxidant activity of the pulp, fresh and dried leaves, and seeds of soursop were compared. The highest contents of protein (14.77g/100g) and fat (25.75g/100g) were found in seeds. The pulp showed the highest moisture (86.32g/100g) and dry leaves the highest ash (7.17g/100g) content. The anti- oxidant activity of the studied fractions was higher in ethanolic extracts than methanolic extracts, as also were flavonoid and polyphenol contents. The highest values of antioxidant activity in ethanol extracts were 306.0, 280.2 and 131.2 mu moles Trolox equivalents/100g in the pulp, dried leaves and seeds, respectively. Soursop pulp had the highest contents of flavonoids (574.0mg QE/100g) and polyphenols (941.4mg AGE/100g).
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Annona muricata L. (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) is a tropical plant species known for its edible fruit which has some medicinal merits, but also some toxicological effects. This review focuses on the phytochemicals contents, bioactivity, biological actions and toxicological aspects of extracts and isolated compounds, as well as medicinal uses of A. muricata, with the objective of stimulating further studies on extracts and fruit pulp used for human consumption. Traditional medicinal uses of A. muricata have been identified in tropical regions to treat diverse ailments such as fever, pain, respiratory and skin illness, internal and external parasites, bacterial infections, hypertension, inflammation, diabetes and cancer. More than 200 chemical compounds have been identified and isolated from this plant; the most important being alkaloids, phenols and acetogenins. Using in vitro studies, extracts and phytochemicals of A. muricata have been characterized as an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-protozoan, antioxidant, insecticide, larvicide, and cytotoxic to tumor cells. In vivo studies of the crude extracts and isolated compounds of A. muricata were shown to possess anxiolytic, anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, contraceptive, anti-tumoral, antiulceric, wound healing, hepato-protective, anti-icteric and hypoglycemic activities. In addition, clinical studies support the hypoglycemic activity of the ethanolic extracts of A. muricata leaves. Mechanisms of action of some pharmacological activities have been elucidated, such as cytotoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antinociception and hypotensive activities. However, some phytochemical compounds isolated from A. muricata have shown a neurotoxic effect in vitro and in vivo, and therefore, these crude extracts and isolated compounds need to be further investigated to define the magnitude of the effects, optimal dosage, mechanisms of action, long-term safety, and potential side effects. Additionally, clinical studies are necessary to support the therapeutic potential of this plant.
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Soursop (Annona muricata L., Annonaceae) is a neotropical fruit species producing large fruits that can be consumed fresh and mainly processed. While the leaves, roots and stems of this species have been the subject of reiterated phytochemical studies, their fruits have received less attention. Phenolic compounds were extracted from the pulp of ripe soursop fruits and separated into two fractions by solid phase extraction. The first was eluted with water and HCl (0.01%), while the second was obtained with ethyl acetate. Their characterization was conducted with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection. The analytical system allowed the separation and tentative identification of 16 phenolic compounds, mainly based on MS fragmentation patterns. Prevalent compounds were a cinnamic acid derivative and p-coumaric acid, together with several other minor compounds that may have health benefits due to antioxidant characteristics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the phenolic composition of soursop fruit pulp based on a mass spectrometric method.
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Vitamin C contents measured as ascorbic acid, in thirty-eight samples of tropical leafy vegetables and foods were determined by two methods. One was by cyclic voltammetry using glassy carbon, Ag/AgCl and platinum electrode system in 0.1M phosphate buffer, pH 2.0 containing 1mM Na 2 EDTA in a potential range of 200 mV – 1000 mV using a scan rate of 50 mV/S. The anodic peak current for the electrochemical oxidation of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid was recorded at 580 mV. The other method involved titration of aqueous mixtures of the samples using N-bromosuccinimide. Samples identified to be rich in vitamin C include red pepper (123.73 mg/100 g) and the leaves of white camwood (211.20 mg/100 g), climbing black pepper (181.19 mg/100 g), curry plant (140.50 mg/100 g), fluted pumpkin (129.39 mg/100 g), amaranth globe (97.49 mg/100 g) and jute mallow (serrated edge, 89.94 mg/100 g). Boiling of aqueous mixtures of some vegetables reduced the vitamin C content by 20-43%. The results obtained by both methods were comparable for several samples but were appreciably different for some green leafy vegetables. The data in this report further enlarge the database of vitamin C contents in tropical fruits and vegetables which are sparse in literature and will serve as a useful guide in the selection of plants which are rich in vitamin C. The relevance of the vitamin C contents with medicinal uses of some of the plants is discussed.
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An investigation was conducted on the mycofl ora associated with the different parts of fresh and rotten fruits of soursop (Annona muricata L.) and the potential of using both indigenous yeast fl ora and commercial yeast extract for wine production. Isolation of fungi and pathogenicity test were carried out with Sabouraud dextrose agar. Mycofl ora were more in the rotten fruits than in the fresh fruits. Botryodiplodia theobromae was isolated only from the rotten fruits (skin) while Trichoderma viride was isolated only from the fresh fruits. Penicillium sp., was the most dominant in all the fruit part of fresh soursop fruit with Rhizopus stolonifer having the highest percentage occurrence (36.39%) in the rotten fruit. Most of the isolated fungi indicated occurrence of such common airborne fungi on soursop fruits and the potential to induce rot in fresh healthy fruits of soursop in storage. Soursop juice was fermented for 10 days and wine was obtained. There was a signifi cant difference (P 0.05) in the alcoholic content of the wines obtained from the indigenous and commercial yeasts. The wine obtained from the pasteurized, ameliorated soursop juice inoculated with propagated indigenous yeast yielded the highest alcoholic content. Based on the level of the nutritional composition of soursop juice, the ability to support yeast growth, the high alcoholic content and palatability of the wine, the Annona muricata is good source for wine production and single-cell protein.
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Soursop (A. muricata) fruit is useful as a processed product due to its high pulp recovery and many flavor compounds, particularly rich volatiles. Some constraints to processing are: short storage life of the soursop fruit; fragile peel; uneven ripening of soursop fruit, which makes the selection for processing tedious; loss of flavor by thermosensitive processing methods; and the need to inactivate the enzymes in soursop pulp. Soursop is a good source of nutrition, yet A. muricata, including its fruit, contains annonacin, the most abundant acetogenin, which has been experimentally demonstrated to be toxic in vitro and in vivo to dopaminergic and other neurons. Epidemiological evidence in several regions of the world has linked consumption of the fruit to an increased risk of developing atypical parkinsonism. The absence of family histories of parkinsonism and the cross-ethnic origins found among islands around the world led to the suggestion that consumption of soursop fruit and other consumables derived from this plant places those who consume the fruit at possible risk. Risk, associated with cross-interactions with compounds found in other foods, is suggested by the continued consumption of soursop in places like the North Marianna Islands and the virtual disappearance of atypical parkinsonism in recent decades. A clearer understanding of the risks associated with chronic intake of soursop is warranted given the presence of acetogenins and other alkaloids in the fruit so that competent and reliable dietary advice can be given.
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This work was aimed at producing juice from soursop (Annona muricata L.) and understudying its storage stability at refrigeration (4° ° ° °C) and ambient (28° ° ° °C) temperatures. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory qualities of the juice were analysed before they were stored for 8 weeks. Changes in physicochemical quality and microbiological quality were analysed regularly during the period of storage. Results showed that processing affects the physical and chemical composition of the soursop pulp. The soursop juice was found to be microbiologically safe for consumption. Results showed that the soluble solid of the pasteurized juice was more stable at 4° ° ° °C than at 28° ° ° °C. More acid was produced in the juice at higher temperature (28° ° ° °C) than at lower temperature (4° ° ° °C) during storage. Results have shown that pasteurisation of soursop juice reduced microbial counts from 3 x 10 5 to < 10x10 1 cfu/g for mesophilic aerobic counts and 27.5 x 10 6 to < 10 x 10 1 cfu/g for moulds and yeasts.
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Twenty-four exotic Colombian fruits were evaluated for antioxidant activity and total soluble phenolics (TP) (edible part, seed and peel) and ascorbic acid content (edible part). The antioxidant activities were evaluated by ABTS (free radical-scavenging capacity) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. The ABTS, FRAP, TP and ascorbic acid values in the edible part were 3.25 to 175 μM Trolox equiv/g fresh weight (FW), 6.29 to 144 μM Trolox equiv/g FW, 15.7 to 1018 mg gallic acid equiv/100 g FW, and 0.53 to 257 mg ascorbic acid/100 g FW respectively. There were positive correlations between antioxidant activity (assessed by both ABTS and FRAP) and TP and ascorbic acid with the FRAP and ABTS methods. The edible part of banana passion fruits (P. tarminiana and P. mollisima) exhibited the highest values of antioxidant activity and total phenolics, while the highest level of ascorbic acid was recorded in the edible part of guava apple and cashew. The seeds with the highest values of antioxidant activity and total phenols were cashew, algarrobo, arazá and coastal sapote, while the peel of coastal sapote and algarrobo had the highest values of antioxidant activity and total phenolics. To the best of our knowledge, this paper reports the first evaluation of pulp, seed and skin of Colombian tropical fruits with a view to their knowledge utilization for the development of novel functional food products.
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Antioxidant capacity is related with compounds capable of protecting a biological system against the potentially harmful effect of processes or reactions involving reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). These protective effects of antioxidants have received increasing attention within biological, medical, nutritional, and agrochemical fields and resulted in the requirement of simple, convenient, and reliable antioxidant capacity determination methods. Many methods which differ from each other in terms of reaction mechanisms, oxidant and target/probe species, reaction conditions, and expression of results have been developed and tested in the literature. In this review, the methods most widely used for the determination of antioxidant capacity are evaluated, presenting the general principals, recent applications, and their strengths and limitations. Analysis conditions, substrate, and antioxidant concentration should simulate real food or biological systems as much as possible when selecting the antioxidant capacity method. The total antioxidant capacity value should include methods applicable to both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, with regards the similarity and differences of both hydrogen atom transfer and electron transfer mechanism. The methods including various ROS/RNS also have to be designed to comprehensively evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a sample.
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The objective of this study was to evaluate antiproliferative activity, antioxidant capacity and tannin content in plants from semi-arid northeastern Brazil (Caatinga). For this study, we selected 14 species and we assayed the methanol extracts for antiproliferative activity against the HEp-2 (laryngeal cancer) and NCI-H292 (lung cancer) cell lines using the (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazole) (MTT) method. In addition, the antioxidant activity was evaluated with the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the tannin content was determined by the radial diffusion method. Plants with better antioxidant activity (expressed in a dose able to decrease the initial DPPH concentration by 50%, or IC50) and with higher levels of tannins were: Poincianella pyramidalis (42.95±1.77 µg/mL IC50 and 8.17±0.64 tannin content), Jatropha mollissima (54.09±4.36µg/mL IC50 and 2.35±0.08 tannin content) and Anadenanthera colubrina (73.24±1.47 µg/mL IC50 and 4.41±0.47 tannin content). Plants with enhanced antiproliferative activity (% living cells) were Annona muricata (24.94±0.74 in NCI-H292), Lantana camara (25.8±0.19 in NCI-H292), Handroanthus impetiginosus (41.8±0.47 in NCI-H292) and Mentzelia aspera (45.61±1.94 in HEp-2). For species with better antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, we suggest future in vitro and in vivo comparative studies with other pharmacological models, and to start a process of purification and identification of the possible molecule(s) responsible for the observed pharmacological activity. We believe that the flora of Brazilian semi-arid areas can be a valuable source of plants rich in tannins, cytotoxic compounds and antioxidant agents.
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Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated in animal models. The extract delivered per oral route (p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal contortions by 14.42% (at a dose of 200 mg/kg) and 41.41% (400 mg/kg). Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o) inhibited both phases of the time paw licking: first phase (23.67% and 45.02%) and the second phase (30.09% and 50.02%), respectively. The extract (p.o.) increased the reaction time on a hot plate at doses of 200 (30.77% and 37.04%) and 400 mg/kg (82.61% and 96.30%) after 60 and 90 minutes of treatment, respectively. The paw edema was reduced by the ethanol extract (p.o.) at doses of 200 (23.16% and 29.33%) and 400 mg/kg (29.50% and 37.33%) after 3 to 4 h of application of carrageenan, respectively. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.), administered 4 h before the carrageenan injection, reduced the exudate volume (29.25 and 45.74%) and leukocyte migration (18.19 and 27.95%) significantly. These results suggest that A. muricata can be an active source of substances with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.
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In this work some physicochemical properties and the thermal behavior and stability of sour sop or guanabana ( Annona muricata ) seed “almond” oil were studied by means of chemical, DSC and TG analysis. The results showed that the almond has 2.5% ash, 17.9% crude fiber, 15.7% protein, 26.0% de carbohydrates and 37.7% oil (dry base). The composition of almond oil showed 68.5% unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic, and some palmitoleic acids, and 31.5% saturated, principally palmitic and stearic fatty acids; refraction index was 1.468 and saponification and iodine value were 168.2 and 87.0, respectively. DSC thermal analysis showed that oil crystallization initiates at -4.5 °C and ends at -79.0 °C with a crystallization enthalpy of 48.2 J/g; the oil melts in a temperature range from -42.4 to +16.9 °C, with a maximum peak at -15 °C and a fusion enthalpy of 80.5 J/g. The oil remained liquid at refrigeration temperatures with minimal SFC and free of crystals at temperatures over 10 °C. TG analysis showed that the thermal decomposition of the oil in a N<sub>2</sub> atmosphere starts at 380 °C and ends at 442 °C, with a maximum decomposition rate at 412 °C. Under oxidizing conditions its decomposition begins at 206 °C and concludes at 567 °C. In accordance with this study, sour sop almond seed contains large amounts of an oil that possesses similar characteristics to those of salad and cooking oils. En esta investigación se estudiaron las propiedades físicoquímicas y el comportamiento térmico, mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido y termogravimetría, del aceite extraído de las “almendras” de las semillas de guanábana ( Annona muricata , L). Los resultados mostraron que las almendras de las semillas de guanábana contienen 2.5% de cenizas, 17.9% de fibra cruda, 15.7% de proteínas, 26.0% de carbohidratos y 37.7% de aceite (base seca). El aceite de las almendras de guanábana mostró una composición con predominio de ácidos grasos insaturados (68.5%) mayoritariamente oleico y linoleico y menores cantidades de palmitoleico y linoleico, principalmente; los ácidos grasos saturados fueron principalmente palmítico y esteárico (31.5%), el índice de refracción fue de 1.468, el valor de saponificación y de yodo fueron de 168.2 y 87.0 respectivamente. El análisis térmico mostró que este aceite inicia su cristalización a -4.5 °C y termina a los -79.0 °C con una entalpía de cristalización de 48.2 J/g y funde en un intervalo que va de -42.4 a 16.9 °C con un máximo de fusión a los -15.4 °C y una entalpía de fusión de 80.5 J/g. El contenido de grasa sólida (SFC) fue mínimo a temperaturas de refrigeración, manteniéndose líquido y libre de cristales a temperaturas superiores a los 10 °C. El análisis termogravimétrico mostró que la descomposición térmica del aceite en atmósfera inerte se inicia a los 380 °C y termina a los 442 °C con un valor máximo en la velocidad de descomposición a los 412 °C. En atmósfera oxidante el aceite inicia su descomposición a los 206 °C y concluye a 567 °C. De acuerdo con las características estudiadas las almendras de las semillas de guanábana tiene un alto contenido de aceite y éste posee características propias de los aceites de mesa.
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Interest in the health effects of foods by both industry and consumers has put a spotlight on the role of health claims on foods in Canada. The current regulatory framework governing the use of different health claims on foods in Canada is described and compared with international approaches. Similarities were observed in how risk-reduction claims for serious diseases are managed in the United States, European Union and proposed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand, including the need for premarket authorization and the requirement for a high level of certainty based on the totality of evidence in substantiating this type of claim. However, approaches to permitting function claims other than those for the well-established functions of known nutrients are divergent among the jurisdictions compared. Canada also differs from other jurisdictions in not establishing core nutritional criteria for foods carrying disease risk-reduction claims. A brief overview of the status in Canada of a number of disease risk-reduction claims that have been approved in the United States, based on significant scientific agreement under the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act or through authoritative statements under the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act, is also provided.
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The consumption of plant infusions for prevention and treatment of health disorders is a worldwide practise. Various pharmacological activities inherent to medicinal plants have been attributed to their phenolic composition, including chlorogenic acids (CGA). Studies have shown potential beneficial properties of CGA to humans such as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, hypoglycaemic. In the present Study, the CGA composition of 14 dried medicinal plants was determined by HPLC-UV and LC-DAD-ESI-MS. The plants with the highest CGA contents were Ilex paraguariensis, Bacharis genistelloides, Pimpinella anisum, Achyrochine satureioides, Camellia sinensis, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus, with 84.7 mg/100 g-9.7 g/100 g. dry weight. Plant infusions were prepared (at 0.5%) in order to evaluate the actual consumption of CGA through these beverages. Total CGA contents in the infusions were similar to those in the methanolic extracts and indicated that a satisfactory extraction occurs during the preparation of infusions. These CGA-rich plants deserve attention regarding the pharmacological properties attributed to CGA.
Book
Nutritional aspects of dietary fats, in general, and of olive oil in particular, are of great interest in many nutrition-related pathologies in which they are implicated. Olive oil plays an important role in the reduction of blood cholesterol levels, hence reduces the risk of heart disease and stroke. It is a good source of antioxidants in the form of polyphenols and vitamin E and there is also emerging evidence that olive oil has a role in reducing the incidence of certain types of cancer. This book discusses and summarizes current research and knowledge on olive oil.
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The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important grain legume for direct human consumption, being especially important in eastern Africa and in Latin America. The objective of the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in participating in the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) Micronutrients Project has been to assess the feasibility of improving common beans for micronutrient content, especially iron and zinc. In the evaluation of more than a thousand accessions in the cultivated core collection, a mean iron concentration of 55 mg/kg was found, with a range of 34 to 89 mg/kg. Zinc concentrations ranged between 21 and 54 mg/kg, with an average value of 35 mg/kg. These initial data suggest that sufficient genetic variability exists to improve iron content by about 80% and zinc content by about 50%. An essential question for the improvement of any trait through plant-breeding is the degree to which the trait is stable across environments. Genetic differences have been expressed over environments and seasons, offering good prospects that genotypes selected in one environment for high iron or zinc will express superior levels of minerals in other environments as well. Correlations among mineral concentrations suggest that the improvement of one mineral may simultaneously improve the contents of other minerals, thus multiplying the impact of the effort. The fact that the bioavailability of iron was higher in white beans in rat studies suggests that a lower tannin content could be beneficial, but the role of tannin is still not well elucidated. The genetics of iron and zinc content appears to be complex, involving between 7 and 11 loci.
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To evaluate the comparability of the two most common radical scavenging assays using 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, the 50 most popular antioxidant-rich fruits, vegetables and beverages in the US diet were identified and analyzed for their antioxidant capacities, total phenolics and flavonoids content. Spearmans–Rho correlation coefficients were calculated in order to characterize the relationship between antioxidant capacities, total phenolics and flavonoids content. Antioxidant capacity showed a strong positive relationship comparing both assays (ρ=0.949, p
Data
Flavor is one of the main attributes of foods and is given by a combination of volatile molecules present in the matrix. This paper reviews the general characteristics and uses and focuses on the volatile composition of selected Brazilian exotic fruits: Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora), acerola (Malpighia glabra L., Malpighia punicifolia L., Malpighia emarginata DC.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), starfruit (Averrhoa carambola) and fruits from the genera Annona (cherimoya, soursop, sugar apple etc.) and fruits from the genera Spondias (S. purpurea, S. mombin and S. tuberosa). This is information important for flavor industry, which use different aroma compounds for the formulation of fragrances and flavorings to be used in foods, cosmetics and perfumes.
Article
Thirty-eight types of fruits commonly consumed in Singapore were systematically analysed for their hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC), total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) and various lipophilic antioxidants. Antioxidant composition and concentration varied widely across different fruits. Many of the tropical fruits tested were high in antioxidants. Amongst all fruits tested, sapodilla (Manilkara zapota) had the highest H-ORAC and TPC whilst guava had the highest AA per gram fresh weight. Papaya, red watermelon and cantaloupe had the highest β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and β-carotene per gram fresh weight, respectively. On the other hand, durian and mangosteen were high in tocopherols and tocotrienols, respectively. Based on consumption data, Chinese Singaporeans appear to have a higher intake of carotenoids and tocopherols rich fruits compared to the US population. As fruits are a rich source of diverse antioxidants, efforts to promote consumption of a variety of fruits should be continued for public health benefits.
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Several epidemiological and research studies suggest that a high intake of foods rich in natural antioxidants increases the antioxidant capacity of the plasma and reduces the risk of some kinds of cancers, heart diseases, and stroke. These health benefits are attributed to a variety of constituents, including vitamins, minerals, fiber, and numerous phytochemicals, such as flavonoids. Thus, in addition to measuring the composition of the usual macronutrients and micronutrients, it seems important to also measure the antioxidant capacity of foods. For this purpose, 28 foods including fruits, vegetables and commercially-frozen fruit pulps were analyzed for antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant capacity of the foods varied from 0.73 to 19.8 μmol BHT equiv/g. The highest values were observed for wild mulberries (19.8 μmol BHT equiv/g), acaí fruit pulp (18.2 μmol BHT equiv/g) and watercress (9.6 μmol BHT equiv/g). The antioxidant capacities are only indicative of the potential of the bioactive compounds; however, these data are important to explore and understand the role of fruit, vegetables and other foods in health promotion.
Article
Nine tropical fruits were analyzed for total phenol contents, ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activities were evaluated based on the ability of the fruit extracts to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reduce iron(III) to iron(II) and to bind to iron(II) ions. The results were compared to those of orange. It was found that guava, papaya and star fruit have higher primary antioxidant potential, as measured by scavenging DPPH and iron(III) reducing assays. Banana, star fruit, water apple, langsat and papaya have higher secondary antioxidant potential as measured by the iron(II) chelating experiment.
Article
Frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lowered risk of cancer, heart disease, hypertension and stroke. This has been attributed to the presence of various forms of phytochemicals and antioxidants present in the foods, e.g. carotenoids and polyphenol compounds including flavonoids and anthocyanins. Seventy Fiji grown fruits and vegetables, and some other commonly consumed products, were analysed for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total polyphenol content (TPP), total anthocyanin content (TAT) as well as the major flavonol and carotenoid profiles. These data will be used to estimate the phytochemical and antioxidant intake of the Fijian population and will be a useful tool in future clinical trials.Green leafy vegetables had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the fruits and root crops. A number of herbs also exhibited high antioxidant capacity. Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) leaves have the highest TAC (650 mg/100 g) and are rich in TPP (270 mg/100 g), quercetin (90 mg/100 g) and β-carotene (13 mg/100 g). Moringa oleifera (drumstick) leaves also have a high TAC (260 mg/100 g) and are rich in TPP (260 mg/100 g), quercetin (100 mg/100 g), kaempferol (34 mg/100 g) and β-carotene (34 mg/100 g). Curcuma longa (turmeric ginger) has a high TAC (360 mg/100 g), TPP (320 mg/100 g) and is rich in fisetin (64 mg/100 g), quercetin (41 mg/100 g) and myricetin (17 mg/100 g). Zingiber officinate (white ginger) also has a high TAC (320 mg/100 g) and TPP (200 mg/100 g). Zingiber zerumbet (wild ginger), a widely used herb taken before meals is the richest source of kaempferol (240 mg/100 g).
Article
Free radicals generated as byproducts of normal metabolism can damage biologically relevant molecules. When their generation is increased, damage can also be increased, resulting in the development of many pathological conditions. Antioxidant defenses protect the body from the detrimental effects of free radicals. Dietary fruits and vegetables provide a reasonable amount of compounds that act as physiological antioxidants. Although existing knowledge does not allow a final and conclusive assessment of the relevance of antioxidants for health, it does provide the basis for its rational consideration. This paper addresses the specific aspects of antioxidant supplementation in health and disease.
Article
Ascorbate (vitamin C), an important dietary derived antioxidant, reportedly shows decreasing "antioxidant efficiency" with increasing concentrations in indirect radical trapping methods of antioxidant capacity. This study investigated the effect of concentration on antioxidant efficiency of ascorbate using a direct test of antioxidant capacity, the ferric reducing/antioxidant power test (FRAP assay). Results showed that the antioxidant efficiency factor of ascorbate was 2 and was constant over a wide concentration range in both plasma and pure aqueous solution. However, the absolute amount of ascorbate lost per unit of time increased with concentration. Furthermore, ascorbate was less stable in plasma than in aqueous solutions of similar pH and less stable in ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) than in heparinized plasma. Results indicate that previously reported concentration-dependent changes in antioxidant efficiency of ascorbate may have been caused by loss of ascorbate prior to and during testing, and by methodologic characteristics of indirect peroxyl radical trapping tests of antioxidant capacity. Therefore, it is suggested that the premise that the antioxidant efficiency of ascorbate is concentration-dependent is largely methodologically derived and does not reflect the antioxidant behavior of ascorbate per se.
Article
Recent studies are emphasising the importance and putative modes of action of specific flavonoids as bioactive components of the diet in in vivo and in vitro models. Thus, it is important to have a clear idea of the major phenolic families of which fruit and vegetables are comprised and the levels contained therein. Regularly consumed fruit and vegetables of mixed varieties available on the UK market were analysed for the composition of the major individual phenolic components. The total phenolic content (applying the Folin assay) and the vitamin C levels were also determined. The antioxidant capacities of aqueous/methanolic extracts were comparatively assessed using the TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity), the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma) and ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assays, which comprise contributions from polyphenols, simple phenols and the ascorbate component. The results were calculated in terms of 100 g fresh weight (FW) uncooked portion sizes. Fruit and vegetables rich in anthocyanins (e.g. strawberry, raspberry and red plum) demonstrated the highest antioxidant activities, followed by those rich in flavanones (e.g. orange and grapefruit) and flavonols (e.g. onion, leek, spinach and green cabbage), while the hydroxycinnamate-rich fruit (e.g. apple, tomato, pear and peach) consistently elicited the lower antioxidant activities. The TEAC, FRAP and ORAC values for each extract were relatively similar and well-correlated with the total phenolic and vitamin C contents. The antioxidant activities (TEAC) in terms of 100 g FW uncooked portion size were in the order: strawberry> raspberry = red plum > red cabbage >grapefruit = orange > spinach > broccoli > green grape approximately/= onion > green cabbage > pea > apple > cauliflower tomato approximately/= peach=leek > banana approximately/= lettuce.
Article
Identifying bioactive compounds and establishing their health effects are active areas of scientific inquiry. There are exciting prospects that select bioactive compounds will reduce the risk of many diseases, including chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Recent findings have established that cardiovascular disease is a disease of inflammation, and consequently is amenable to intervention via molecules that have anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, research demonstrating adverse effects of oxidants on atherogenesis raises the possibility that antioxidants can confer cardioprotective effects. This review provides an overview of research approaches that can be used to unravel the biology and health effects of bioactive compounds. Because of the number of bioactive compounds and the diversity of likely biological effects, numerous and diverse experimental approaches must be taken to increase our understanding of the biology of bioactive compounds. Recognizing the complexity of this biology, sophisticated experimental designs and analytical methodologies must be employed to advance the field. The discovery of novel health effects of bioactive compounds will provide the scientific basis for future efforts to use biotechnology to modify/fortify foods and food components as a means to improve public health.
Article
Fruits, vegetables, and commercial frozen pulps (FP) consumed in the Brazilian diet were analyzed for antioxidant activities using two different methods, one that determines the inhibition of copper-induced peroxidation of liposome and another based on the inhibition of the co-oxidation of linoleic acid and beta-carotene. The anthocyanin-rich samples showed the highest, concentration-dependent, antioxidant activities in both systems. In the liposome system, at both 10 and 50 microM gallic acid equivalent (GAE) addition levels, the neutral and acidic flavonoids of red cabbage, red lettuce, black bean, mulberry, Gala apple peel, jambolao, acai FP, mulberry FP, and the acidic flavonoids of acerola FP showed the highest antioxidant activities (>85% inhibition). In the beta-carotene bleaching system, the samples cited above plus red guava gave inhibition values >70%. On the other hand, some samples showed pro-oxidant activity in the liposome system coincident with a low antioxidant activity in the beta-carotene system. There was no relationship between total phenolics content, vitamin C, and antioxidant activity, suggesting that the antioxidant activity is a result of a combination of different compounds having synergic and antagonistic effects.
Article
Ethnobotanical and chemotaxonomical studies for antiparasitic activity of Colombian Annonaceae were carried out. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of 36 extracts obtained from six different species was determined against promastigotes of three Leishmania species, epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi and both chloroquine sensitive (F32) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated in U-937 cells. Active extracts were selected according their selectivity index (SI). Extracts from Annona muricata, Rollinia exsucca, Rollinia pittieri and Xylopia aromatica were active against Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi showing IC50 values lower than 25 microg/ml. Hexane extract from Rollinia pittieri leaves was the most selective against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. (IS=10 and 16, respectively). The extracts from Desmopsis panamensis, Pseudomalmea boyacana, Rollinia exsucca and Rollinia pittieri showed good antiplasmodial activity (IC50 < 10 microg/ml). No correlation between antiplasmodial activity and inhibition of beta-hematin production was found. The present study gives specific and useful information about antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activities of some Annonaceae extracts. Results presented here also demonstrate which plants and/or plant parts could be useful in the treatment of leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease and malaria.
Article
Antioxidant potential of leaves of three different species of Annona was studied by using different in vitro models eg., 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothizoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS), nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxy radical and lipid peroxidation. The ethanolic extract of A. muricata at 500 microg/ml showed maximum scavenging activity (90.05%) of ABTS radical cation followed by the scavenging of hydroxyl radical (85.88%) and nitric oxide (72.60%) at the same concentration. However, the extract showed only moderate lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. In contrast, the extract of A. reticulata showed better activity in quenching DPPH (89.37%) and superoxide radical (80.88%) respectively. A.squamosa extract exhibited least inhibition in all in vitro antioxidant models excepting hydroxyl radical (79.79%). These findings suggest that the extracts of A. muricata possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity as compared to leaves of A. squamosa and A. reticulata suggesting its role as an effective free radical scavenger, augmenting its therapeutic
Instituto Nacional de Cancerología) Plan nacional para el control del cáncer en Colombia 2010-2019
INC (Instituto Nacional de Cancerología). 2010. Plan nacional para el control del cáncer en Colombia 2010-2019. INC, Bogotá. Colombia.
Determination of total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C content of selected local under-utilized and commonly consumed fresh fruits. 4 th Food
  • Colombia
  • Gunawardena
  • Hp
  • Kd Silva
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Amazonia. ARFO Editores e Impresos Ltda. Bogotá, Colombia. Gunawardena, HP, Silva, KD. 2006. Determination of total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C content of selected local under-utilized and commonly consumed fresh fruits. 4 th Food & Nutrition Symposium 4: 4.
Proyecto selección de guanábanos (Annona muricata L.) en diversas condiciones ambientales, caracterización de sitios de selección y fomento para el establecimiento de cultivos en sitios específicos
  • Corporación Biotec
Corporación Biotec. 2008. Proyecto selección de guanábanos (Annona muricata L.) en diversas condiciones ambientales, caracterización de sitios de selección y fomento para el establecimiento de cultivos en sitios específicos. Corporación Biotec.
Estudio etnofarmacológico de las plantas medicinales usadas en el Caribe colombiano. En Reyes G. Diálogo de saberes: plantas medicinales
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Gomez H, Germosen-Robineau L, Nossin E. 2009. Estudio etnofarmacológico de las plantas medicinales usadas en el Caribe colombiano. En Reyes G. Diálogo de saberes: plantas medicinales, salud y cosmovisiones.
El cultivo del guanábano: tecnología desarrollada en la finca
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Sánchez JD, Tróchez KJ, Castro D. 2006. El cultivo del guanábano: tecnología desarrollada en la finca.1ª ed. Daza GJ, Ríos D, Sánchez M, editores. Feriva SA, Cali, Colombia.
Caracterización fisiológica, físicoquímica , reológica, nutracéutica, estructural y sensorial de la guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita) Tesis de maestría
  • Cj Márquez
Márquez CJ. 2009. Caracterización fisiológica, físicoquímica, reológica, nutracéutica, estructural y sensorial de la guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita). Tesis de maestría, Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Medellín, Colombia.
Modelo comercial de producción clonal de materiales seleccionados de guanábano (Annona muricata L.). Corporación Biotec
  • Corporación Biotec
  • Profutales Ltda
Corporación Biotec, Profutales Ltda., Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Colciencias. 2006. Modelo comercial de producción clonal de materiales seleccionados de guanábano (Annona muricata L.). Corporación Biotec. Colombia CD.
Aspectos técnicos sobre cuarenta y cinco cultivos agrícolas de Costa Rica
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Actividad antioxidante de vinos elaborados con frutas tropicales
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  • O Queris
Rodríguez J, Valdés O, Queris O. 2007. Actividad antioxidante de vinos elaborados con frutas tropicales. Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos 17: 66 -68.