Article

The early catastrophe: The 30 million word gap by age 3

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Literacy 'gaps', such as those that exist between socio-economic groups, or between children who are native English speakers and children for whom English is an additional language (EAL), have been cited as economic, social and public health issues (Erbeli & Rice, 2022). Hart and Risley (2003) describe vocabulary input differences between higher and lower socioeconomic classes as a 'catastrophe' of a '30-million-word gap' by the time children start school. EAL students also face challenges, typically having smaller vocabulary sizes than monolingual peers, which can limit reading comprehension and knowledge expression (Bialystok et al., 2010;Sun & Yin, 2020). ...
... Montag et al. (2018) simulated multiple learning environments with type deficits in the CDS. Children may receive less lexically diverse input from CDS due to limited token input (Hart & Risley, 2003), conceptions about how best to talk to children (i.e. reduced complexity), or variability in caregivers' vocabulary sizes. ...
... The most widely known figures for vocabulary input deficit gaps are Hart and Risley's (Hart & Risley, 2003) '30-million-word gap' amongst different socio-economic classes (professional, working class and welfare). In 1318 recorded conversations, welfare children heard on average 616 words per hour, working class 1251 and professional 2153. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents CPB-LEX, a large-scale database of lexical statistics derived from children’s picture books (age range 0–8 years). Such a database is essential for research in psychology, education and computational modelling, where rich details on the vocabulary of early print exposure are required. CPB-LEX was built through an innovative method of computationally extracting lexical information from automatic speech-to-text captions and subtitle tracks generated from social media channels dedicated to reading picture books aloud. It consists of approximately 25,585 types (wordforms) and their frequency norms (raw and Zipf-transformed), a lexicon of bigrams (two-word sequences and their transitional probabilities) and a document-term matrix (which shows the importance of each word in the corpus in each book). Several immediate contributions of CPB-LEX to behavioural science research are reported, including that the new CPB-LEX frequency norms strongly predict age of acquisition and outperform comparable child-input lexical databases. The database allows researchers and practitioners to extract lexical statistics for high-frequency words which can be used to develop word lists. The paper concludes with an investigation of how CPB-LEX can be used to extend recent modelling research on the lexical diversity children receive from picture books in addition to child-directed speech. Our model shows that the vocabulary input from a relatively small number of picture books can dramatically enrich vocabulary exposure from child-directed speech and potentially assist children with vocabulary input deficits. The database is freely available from the Open Science Framework repository: https://tinyurl.com/4este73c.
... Vocabulary and oral language competence are also among the key pre-literacy skills that have been identified in research as being significantly predictive of early and later reading success (Carroll et al. 2011;Hayiou-Thomas et al. 2010;Lee 2011;NICHD 2000). Receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary and broader oral language competencies at school entry (such as semantics, grammar and syntax) have each been shown repeatedly to have direct and indirect relationships with reading ability in the first two to four years of school (Durham et al. 2007;Harrison et al. 2009;Hart and Risley 2003;Hayiou-Thomas et al. 2010;NICHD 2005). There is also some evidence that the expressive vocabulary of children as young as two years old is predictive of their language and reading skills up to Grade 5 (Lee 2011), and that the predictive power of vocabulary growth at age three extends to children at the age of 13 years (Farkas and Beron 2004). ...
... While the relationship between oral language (including vocabulary) and reading is quite clear, particularly the correlation between vocabulary and comprehension (Hart and Risley 2003;Snow, Burns, and Griffin 1998;Rose 2006), there is still uncertainty about the mechanism by which oral language affects early reading ability. Some studies find a direct link between oral language competence and reading ability (Carroll et al. 2011;NICHD 2005), while others find that oral language is associated with early reading mainly through phonological awareness and code-related skills, and has no independent effect Whitehurst 2001, 2002). ...
... Differences in the oral language competence of children from different socioeconomic backgrounds have been found consistently in research (Farkas and Beron 2004;Hart and Risley 2003;Locke, Ginsborg, and Peers 2002;NICHD 2005;Washbrook and Waldfogel 2011). These findings point to vocabulary deficit in particular as playing a key role in the transmission of socio-economic disadvantage into educational disadvantage, and show that this process begins at a very early age. ...
... A high-quality home literacy experience requires the interplay of several factors: an environment enriched with literacy materials, ample opportunities to interact with multiple print forms and objects, availability of proficient language models, and emotionally supportive interactions that facilitate literacy tool involvement (Bingham, 2007;Hindman et al., 2008). Variations in the quality of home literacy experience can result in differing levels of emergent literacy skills among children entering school (Buvaneswari & Padakannaya, 2017;Hart & Risley, 2003). The categories of home literacy activities are discussed below, as well as the factors identified in the literature that affect HLE. ...
... As mentioned above, different levels of emergent literacy skills can be related to variations in the child's HLE (Buvaneswari & Padakannaya, 2017;Hart & Risley, 2003). Several researchers have described how aspects of HLE can affect a child's learning experience. ...
... In the passive HLE the parent does not engage in joint literacy activities directly, and in the limiting HLE the parent does not make an effort to provide or participate in literacy activities. As mentioned earlier, failing to provide opportunities for parentchild interactions and literacy activities in children's HLE can affect their emergent literacy skills (Buvaneswari & Padakannaya, 2017;Hart & Risley, 2003). Indeed, Abu-Rabia (2000) and Saiegh-Haddad (2007) reported that the limited exposure to written texts in Arabic-speaking homes may affect Arabic-speaking children's acquisition of listening comprehension and reading and writing. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated Saudi parents’ participation in and perception of 45 home literacy activities intended to enhance their children’s literacy skills, focusing on several relevant factors: child gender, parent age, parent education, and family income. The survey methodology used in this research collected data from 156 parents who completed an adaptation of Nebrig’s (2008) Home Literacy Activities Questionnaire. The most frequently reported home literacy activities by parents were reading storybooks with their children and encouraging their children to use various methods of writing/drawing. Most of the home literacy activities were engaged in once or twice per month. Parent age and child gender were two variables that significantly contributed to the average scores of parents’ frequency rating of home literacy activities. The result of the independent-samples t-test demonstrated significantly higher scores on home literacy activities frequency for parents reporting to have a female child rather than a male child. Moreover, parents in the age range 30 to 39 were less frequently engaged in home literacy activities than parents in the age ranges 20 to 29 and 40 and up. In terms of parent importance rating of home literacy activities most of the activities were classified as important but not absolutely necessary. The intercorrelations between participation frequency and importance ratings for almost all items were strong to moderate.
... All linguistic skills are in fact critical for oral and listening comprehension, which explains why some scholars consider listening comprehension a general construct that represents "all of verbal ability" (Kirby & Savage, 2008). While earlier studies that tested the impact of SES on literacy focused primarily on vocabulary gaps (Fernald et al., 2013;Hart & Risley, 2003), in recent years, a growing body of research has pointed to gaps in syntax and language processing as well. Levine et al. (2020) found a significant effect of SES on vocabulary, syntax and language processing among kindergarteners. ...
... Putting aside text reading, these variables are components of oral language skills, which are more influenced by environmental factors. Levine et al. (2020), pointed to SES-related gaps in oral language processing above the well-documented gap in vocabulary (Fernald et al., 2013;Hart & Risley, 2003) and support Kirby and Savage's (2008) conceptualization of listening comprehension as a general construct that represents "all of verbal ability". As for morphology, the findings of the current study are consistent with Schiff and Lotem (2011) and Schiff and Ravid (2012), who found that SES-related gaps in morphology widened with age and schooling. ...
... The research shows that high SES is related to better language development, whereas low SES has been linked to lower oral language skills (Huttenlocher, Waterfall, Vasilyeva, Vevea, & Hedges, 2010;Sperry, Sperry, & Miller, 2019). These relations have been explained by differences in the extent of opportunities children receive to stimulate their learning (Longo, McPherran Lombardi, & Dearing, 2017) and develop language skills (Fernald et al., 2013;Hart & Risley, 2003) in low-SES families compared to high-SES families. The only measure that was not affected by SES was RAN, which some researchers attribute to the general speed of processing (Breznitz, 2006) that is less influenced by the environment. ...
Article
Research has shown that children with dyslexia and children with a low socioeconomic status (SES) fall behind in terms of literacy acquisition, but a question remains regarding the cumulative effect of dyslexia and SES on linguistic, cognitive and reading skills. To examine the impact of cognition and environment on literacy development, we returned to the data set of 1,441 elementary school children (223 dyslexic readers and 1,241 typical readers) from low and medium-high SES backgrounds within Palestinian society in Israel who had participated in the development study of a comprehensive battery of tests in oral and written Arabic. The findings of this retrospective study reveal that, across grade levels, dyslexic readers from a low SES background showed similar performance to those from a medium-high SES background on most linguistic, cognitive and reading measures. As for typical readers, SES contributed to individual differences in all linguistic, cognitive and reading indices, with the exception of RAN. Finally, a cumulative effect of dyslexia and SES was found in relation to morphology, vocabulary, listening comprehension and text-reading accuracy.
... Economic adversity-often quantified by low household income or socioeconomic status (SES)-was the main risk factor of interest for this study because of its high prevalence and long-term, negative impact on grouplevel language outcomes (Hart & Risley, 2003;Hoff, 2013;Huttenlocher et al., 2010;Rowe, 2018). As of 2016, approximately 22% of children birth to 3 years of age in the United States were living in poverty (i.e., based on 100% of federal poverty level; United States Census Bureau, 2016). ...
... As of 2016, approximately 22% of children birth to 3 years of age in the United States were living in poverty (i.e., based on 100% of federal poverty level; United States Census Bureau, 2016). Despite family heterogeneity, low SES and associated adversity have been repeatedly linked with group-level low early language interaction quantity and quality (Hart & Risley, 2003;Huttenlocher et al., 2010;Rowe, 2018). Early interaction quality-including language-rich joint engagement and attention-can help buffer against early adversity and support child's 298 INFANTS & YOUNG CHILDREN/OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2023 language outcomes regardless of SES (Hirsh-Pasek et al., 2015). ...
Article
Preventative parent-coaching programs can improve early interaction quality, language skills, and academic outcomes for children experiencing economic adversity. Using a community-based participatory research framework, we piloted Duet, a preventative, parent-implemented, early language intervention. We assigned home visitors to provide Duet or standard-of-care services to 23 children (aged 1; 0-2; 3; 9 Duet, 14 control) and their parents. We used odds ratios to describe the likelihood of improvement. The Duet group had greater odds of improvement than the control group for parent developmental knowledge (moderate effect size), self-efficacy (moderate effect size), parent-child interaction (moderate effect size), and child's language (weak effect size). The preliminary Duet data are promising. Limitations included
... Las experiencias de los niños durante la infancia son cruciales para definir los hábitos de búsqueda, observación e incorporación de vivencias nuevas y más complejas, así como los nuevos esquemas que desarrollen para pensar y categorizar esas vivencias. La variedad de experiencias pasadas de un niño influenciará en qué nuevas experiencias este observará y elegirá en el futuro (Hart y Risley, 2003). Cualquier dificultad en el desarrollo en etapas críticas, principalmente la primera infancia, pueden tener consecuencias importantes tanto en el corto como en el largo plazo. ...
... El niño promedio de tres años de clase baja tiene un vocabulario más reducido que su par en una familia de mayores ingresos, y además suma nuevas palabras a su vocabulario más lentamente. Hart y Risley (2003) encuentran, para los Estados Unidos, que los logros obtenidos a los tres años son un buen predictor de las habilidades lingüísticas a los nueve y diez años. Los hijos de parejas menos educadas también tendrían en América Latina una menor probabilidad de recibir estos estímulos dadas las dificultades de los padres -cuyo propio vocabulario es limitado-de fomentar el desarrollo del vocabulario de sus hijos. ...
Article
Full-text available
La literatura moderna sobre desarrollo humano señala que cuanto más temprano en la vida de las personas se invierte en aumentar y equiparar habilidades, mayores las probabilidades de desarrollo humano y movilidad social. El desarrollo temprano de las personas está enmarcado en su contexto social más cercano, es decir, en la familia. La familia es el primer ámbito del desarrollo humano y también de la desigualdad. Es fundamental estudiar a las familias para entender los mecanismos del desarrollo humano y de reproducción de la pobreza. Este documento da un paso en dicha dirección con énfasis en la conexión entre características y estructuras familiares y el desarrollo de niños y jóvenes. Se documenta que las familias están cambiando; que dicho cambio refuerza patrones divergentes de formación y duración de parejas y de fecundidad entre personas de alto y bajo nivel económico y educativo; y que dichas diferencias de contexto podrían ser un factor importante en el desarrollo de los niños y en la reproducción de las desigualdades sociales.
... Anders formuliert: Kinder, die in diesem Alter in sprachlicher und emoti onaler Hinsicht benachteiligt werden, leiden ein Leben lang darunter! Ein drucksvoll haben dies Betty Hart und Todd R. Risley gezeigt [5,6]. ...
... foundation for complex thinking (Hirsh-Pasek and Golinkoff, 2003) and that poor vocabulary is correlated with academic failure (Baker, 1995). Hart and Risley (2003) "The Early Catastrophe, " showed a "30 million word gap by the age of 3" for children from lower social economic status homes due to less exposure to rich conversational exchanges, fewer books in the home, and parental knowledge of language development (Johnson et al., 2017). Researchers warn that "denying the existence of the 30-million-word gap" suffered by underserved children "has serious consequences" (Golinkoff et al., 2019, p. 985). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent advances in pedagogical research have called attention to the dynamic nature of the teaching and learning process in which the actors mutually influence one another. The understanding of how this works in the brain—the specialized neural networks related to this process—is often limited to neuroscientists but are slowly becoming available to other learning scientists, including teachers. A transdisciplinary approach combining the best information about observable teaching-learning processes from education with newer information from the neurosciences may aid in resolving fundamental questions in the learning process. Teachers’ professional formation and development is often structured in segmented topical ways (e.g., pedagogy, evaluation, planning, classroom management, social–emotional learning), to identify important content knowledge (e.g., art, reading, mathematics, STEM), or to appreciate life skills (e.g., collaboration, critical thinking, social–emotional learning). While important, knowledge about the brain, the organ responsible for learning, is typically absent from teacher education. This paper reexamines the evidence from neuroconstructivism and the hierarchy of learning trajectories and combines it with evidence from psychology and the ways humans interact during the teaching-learning process to suggest radical neuroconstructivism as a framework within which to organize teachers’ professional development. The radical neuroconstructivism framework may contribute to making the content knowledge of teachers’ continual professional development more visible.
... They discovered that children in lower economic status families were exposed to 600 words per hour, while children in higher economic status families were exposed to 2000 words per hour. By age 3, the gap is 30 million words (HART & RISLEY, 2003). This was because children from lower Social Economic Status (SES) families spent lesser time reading independently or coreading with a parent, and invested less in books. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Graded A Final Dissertation & Project. PERSONALISED DIGITAL APPS AND ITS EFFICACY FOR TODDLER LEARNING EXPERIENCES ARCH11255 DIGITAL MEDIA DESIGN (ODL) FINAL PROJECT: A CASE STUDY ON THE EFFICACY OF PERSONALISED DIGITAL APPS FOR YOUNG CHILDREN BETWEEN 0 TO 2 YEARS OLD. From the time they are born, parents have been interested in ensuring their children are well prepared for school. Among the toys for their amusement, parents also buy books, flash cards, and even wall charts containing letters of the alphabet, numbers, and shapes. However, these learning aids are generic, fragile and static and may not encourage exposure to the 2000 words per hour necessary to build neural pathways and improve letter recognition. In this final project, I built a personalized digital book application containing the English alphabet targeting children between 0-2 years old. I tested the efficacy of this personalized digital book on my two children aged 1 and 2 years old first by setting a baseline of what they know without using the digital book, and then testing them weekly using the digital book. For each week, I introduce a small improvement into the application based on my observations of my children interacting with the digital device in order to improve the experience. I then developed a system to ensure progress of letter recognition using the personalized digital application and reduce the harm of device addiction.
... Predictors of word reading can be divided into environmental and child-centered factors. Environmental predictors include poor socioeconomic background and disadvantaged family circumstances, which have been found to have negative effects on reading ability (Carroll et al., 2014;Hart & Risley, 2003;Rutter & Yule, 1975). However, Law et al. (2014) found that the number of books in a household was positively correlated with early reading ability, even after controlling for family income. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid automatized naming (RAN) powerfully predicts word-level reading fluency in the first 2 years of school as well as further reading development. Here, we analyze various RAN stimuli (objects and digits) and oral/silent word reading (OWR/SWR) modalities to find feasible measures for predicting early reading development. The RAN performances of 127 children starting first grade were assessed. The children’s oral and silent word reading skills were then reassessed in the second grade. Linear regression models and relative weight analysis were used to compare reading and screening modalities and further precursors of reading such as phonological awareness and nonverbal IQ were controlled. Scores from the first grade RAN assessment did not differentially predict second grade OWR versus SWR levels. RAN digits predicted word reading development more strongly than RAN objects, which contributed uniquely when predictions used only RAN variables. However, when different precursors of reading were controlled, only RAN digits helped to predict early reading performance.
... Parents with higher educational attainment and more financial resources tend to provide their children with more conducive learning environments (Gennetian et al., 2010) and have higher academic expectations (Davis-Kean, 2005;Slates et al., 2012). More specifically regarding language learning, pupils from advantaged backgrounds were found to interact more with their parents and use a larger vocabulary (Hart and Risley, 2003;Davis-Kean, 2005). As pupils' oral language skills are predictive of their reading skills (Le Normand et al., 2008;Bianco et al., 2012), this results in significant differences between pupils, even before they enter primary school (Magnuson and Shager, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Educational inequalities – i.e., the achievement gaps between pupils from disadvantaged backgrounds and their peers from advantaged backgrounds – are present in many OECD countries. This is particularly problematic in reading, which is a predictor of future academic and social success. To reduce this reading achievement gap, recent meta-analyses point toward progress monitoring: regularly measuring pupils’ mastery levels and differentiating instruction accordingly. However, the research recommendations only slowly make their way to teaching habits, particularly because teachers may consider progress monitoring difficult and cumbersome to implement. To avoid such difficulties, partnerships between teachers and researchers have been recommended. These allow teachers’ complex realities to be taken into account and, consequently, tools to be designed that are meaningful and feasible for practitioners. Method Using an iterative and participatory process inspired by practice-embedded research, the present research set out to (1) co-construct tools to monitor first-graders’ progress in reading, and (2) examine how these tools met teachers’ needs. Five teachers in the French-speaking part of Belgium co-constructed four tools during four focus groups. The transcribed discussions were analyzed using an interactional framework containing three areas of knowledge: shared, accepted, and disputed. Results and Discussion The results indicated three shared needs: perceived usefulness, flexibility of the tools, and a desire to limit the workload. In addition, teachers accepted that, between them, needs varied regarding the goal for progress monitoring and the format of the evaluation. They had lengthy discussions on balancing workload and perceived utility, leading them to conclude that there were two groups of teachers. The first group questioned the added value of the progress monitoring tools in relation to their habitual practice. The second group on the other hand described the added value for the teacher, certainly when aiming to grasp the level and difficulties of struggling pupils. This second group had fewer years of teaching experience and described their classroom practice as less organized compared to the teachers from the first group. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed below.
... Santrock (2014)'un aktarımına göre, Huttenlocher ve arkadaşları (1991) yaptıkları çalışmada annelerinin daha sık iletişim kurduğu bebeklerin daha geniş sözcük dağarcığına sahip olduğunu, Snow ve Yang (2006) bakım verenlerin destek ve müdahalelerinin dil öğrenimini kolaylaştırdığını ortaya koymuşlar; Christofaro ve Tamis-LeMonda (2011) ise anne ile çocuğun konuşmalarının dil ve okuma-yazma becerilerini geliştirdiği sonucuna ulaşmışlardır. Hart ve Risley (2003) yaptıkları boylamsal çalışma sonucunda yaşamın ilk üç yılındaki dil girdilerinin miktar ve niteliğinin çocuğun sözcük dağarcığına önemli etkisi olduğunu ortaya koymuşlardır. Ülkemizde yapılan çalışmalar da yine paralel sonuçları ortaya koymaktadır. ...
Article
İnsan, sosyal bir varlıktır ve iletişim insan yaşamının vazgeçilmez bir ögesidir. Fakat işitme kayıplı ebeveynlerin çocukları (CODA; Children of Deaf Adults) ebeveynleriyle sözlü iletişimden yoksun kalmaktadırlar. Bu çevresel yoksunluk, CODA’ların farklı alanlardaki gelişimlerini farklı şekillerde etkileyebilmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, işitme kayıplı ebeveynleri ile sözlü iletişim yoksunluğunun CODA’ların dil gelişimi ve sosyal-duygusal gelişim alanlarında gelişimleri üzerindeki etkilerini genel çerçevede ele almaktır. Çalışma, bu amaç doğrultusunda, ulusal ve uluslararası literatürde yer alan konu ile ilgili araştırmalarla da desteklenen bir derleme makale niteliğindedir. Bu çalışmada; kısıtlı sayıda araştırmanın yapıldığı bu konuya dikkat çekmek amaçlanarak, ebeveynlerle iletişimde yaşanan bu yoksunluğun bireyin dil gelişimi ve sosyal-duygusal gelişimine etkilerinin önemi üzerinde durulmuştur. Alan yazın gözden geçirildiğinde bu konuda çok kısıtlı sayıda araştırmaya ulaşılmıştır. Ulaşılan çalışmalar sonucunda, CODA’ların dil gelişimi alanında; yaşamın erken dönemlerinde ebeveynlerinden yeteri sesli uyaran alamadıkları ve çıkardıkları sesler için yeterli geri bildirim alamadıkları için dil gelişimi ve konuşma becerisi konusunda gecikmeler yaşayabildikleri, gerekli sözel girdi ve sosyal etkileşimin erken dönemlerde sağlanmasıyla bu gecikmelerin önlenebildiği görülmüştür. Sosyal-duygusal gelişimleri için ise, CODA’ların iki kültürlü bireyler sayılabilecekleri söylenebilmektedir. Ayrıca; ebeveynlerinin işitme kaybı nedeniyle sosyalleşme ve akademik destek görme konularında sorunlarla karşılaşmaları, küçük yaşlarda yaşlarıyla uyumlu olmayan sorumluluklar almaları gibi olumsuzlukların söz konusu olduğu görülmüştür. Diğer yandan; bu sorumluluklar onların daha özgüvenli, problem çözme becerileri yüksek, olgun ve sorumluluk sahibi bireyler olmalarına katkı sunmaktadır. Bu çalışma sonuçları, CODA’ların ve ebeveynlerinin bu süreçlerde mutlaka gelişimsel desteğe ihtiyaç duyduklarını düşündürmektedir. Konuya ilişkin daha çok çalışma ve proje geliştirilmesinin ve bu çocukların desteklenmelerinin de oldukça önemli olduğu düşünülmektedir.
... Theoretically speaking, respected parental occupation reduces parental working hours and this reduction, in turn, leads to increased home time and parental interaction with the children. Better parental interaction with higher education and respected jobs brings about better social emotional development and cognitive skills such as math, reading, and comprehension (Barr, 2015;Hart & Risley, 2003;Jones, Greenberg & Crowley, 2015). ...
... It is often claimed that the SES effect is caused partly by parents directly providing resources at home for their children and indirectly by providing the social capital necessary to succeed in school. Common explanation factors are that qualities within mother and child dialog and the amount of storybook reading differ from one SES class to another (Hart & Risley, 2003;Hoff, 2006;Huttenlocher, Waterfall, Vasilyeva, Vevea, & Hedges, 2010;Rowe, 2012). Furthermore, parents with low SES living in poverty have less access to nutrition and health care (Black et al., 2017). ...
Book
The overall aim of this study is, as suggested by Bialystok (2009), to investigate whether bilingual learners have an advantage in executive functions and a disadvantage in language compared to monolingual learners. In addition, the thesis examines whether the theory holds true for different groups of bilingual learners and different aspects of language and cognitive domains. The study has a multi-method approach. It consists of a meta-analysis investigating the bilingual advantage theory in executive functions (EF) and two studies based on data from the longitudinal study The Stavanger Project—The Learning Child (The Stavanger Project). Study 2 uses data from the first wave of The Stavanger Project. The study investigates Norwegian language comprehension in a monolingual control group and three different groups of bilingual children at 2 years and 9 months. The three bilingual groups had different amounts of exposure to Norwegian. The third article is based on data from the fourth wave of The Stavanger Project and investigates different aspects of Norwegian language and reading skills across bilingual learners and a monolingual control group of 5th graders. The sample in Study 3 is a subsample of the participants in Study 2; thus, the bilingual learners had been systematically exposed to Norwegian by early childhood education and care (ECEC) attendance and schools from at least the age of 2. The thesis contributes three main findings. The first article provides little support for a bilingual advantage in overall EF. Moderator analysis targeting sample characteristics of bilingual subgroups that are theorized to have the largest bilingual advantage in EF shows no relation to the overall outcome of the analysis of differences in executive functions between bilingual and monolingual learners. Furthermore, there is limited evidence for a bilingual advantage in any EF domain. There is an advantage in switching, but not for all populations of bilingual learners. he second article shows that bilingual toddlers have weaker second language comprehension skills than monolingual toddlers, but the differences in second language skills between different groups of bilingual learners are not fully explained by the time on task hypothesis. Bilingual children with mostly first language (L1) input at home had poorer Norwegian language comprehension than the two other bilingual groups. Bilingual toddlers with both first and second language input at home and bilingual toddlers with mostly second language input at home had equivalent second language skills. It therefore seems likely that a threshold value exists for the amount of second language input necessary to develop good second language skills rather than a direct relationship between the amount of input and language skills. The third article shows that even after long and massive exposure to the second language, early bilingual 5th graders have lower vocabulary depth, listening comprehension and reading comprehension in their second language than their monolingual peers. The difference cannot be explained by differences in socioeconomic status (SES). Their decoding and text cohesion vocabulary skills are equal to those of monolingual learners. In contrast to some other studies, the strength of the predictive path between different aspects of language skills and reading comprehension was found to be equal across language groups. In total, these findings contribute to the knowledge base of what is typical development of language, reading skills and executive functions for different groups of bilingual learners. Without information of what is typical development for different bilingual groups, it is difficult to identify atypical development. Hence, the knowledge this thesis provides can support educators in identifying bilingual learners with learning disabilities earlier and with greater certainty, thereby reducing the risk of both over- and under-identifying bilingual learners in need of special needs education.
... Further, studies show early-childhood language skills and vocabulary have particularly strong effect on Anglophone children's reading and literacy development (Biemiller, 2003;Hart & Risley, 2003;Sparapani et al., 2018), with much weaker impact for regular-orthography children (Protopapas et al., 2013;Suggate et al., 2014). These studies suggest speech language pathology intervention in early childhood to be an important factor in reducing reading difficulties, and a value in monitoring child development across the early childhood years There seems value in cognitive processing research exploring • The role of early childhood speech perception and language skills as early predictors of reading and school difficulties, • Monitoring across early childhood of speech perception, language, executive function, and literacy development skills, • Causal relationships between early language skills and later word-reading development, • Early childhood interventions to reduce children's level of risk for school difficulties, and • The prevalence and impacts of language weakness at school entry. ...
Article
Full-text available
The research base on cognitive processing is proliferating exponentially on topics such as short-term and working memory, executive function and cognitive processing. This situation creates the need for practical school-level applications from this useful knowledge. Students in nations with highly regular orthographies (e.g., Finland and Estonia) experience very low cognitive load across literacy development, and consequently are less dependent on effective cognitive processing. With English an extremely complex orthography, Anglophone beginning readers experience very high cognitive load across early word-reading, spelling and literacy development. This makes effective cognitive processing extremely important, particularly for at-risk readers. Using cognitive processing and crosslinguistic perspectives, this chapter considers the characteristics and needs of Anglophone struggling readers; teachers' needs in supporting their instruction; and how ongoing Reading Wars divisiveness about word-reading creates the need for research to establish the differing skills and instructional needs of high-progress and low-progress readers. This chapter explores a wide range of cognitive processing areas relevant to optimising reading instruction for at-risk children, many of which currently have had minimal research. These include impacts of high as opposed to low cognitive load in literacy development; and the cognitive processing benefits of regular orthographies. It highlights the value of cognitive-processing research being increasingly focused on school and reading development issues.
Chapter
Speechifying collects the most important speeches of Dr. Johnnetta Betsch Cole—noted Black feminist anthropologist, the first Black female president of Spelman College, former director of the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of African Art, and former chair and president of the National Council of Negro Women. A powerful and eloquent orator, Dr. Cole demonstrates her commitment to the success of historically Black colleges and universities, her ideas about the central importance of diversity and inclusion in higher education, the impact of growing up in the segregated South on her life and activism, and her belief in public service. Drawing on a range of Black thinkers, writers, and artists as well as biblical scripture and spirituals, her speeches give voice to the most urgent and polarizing issues of our time while inspiring transformational leadership and change. Speechifying also includes interviews with Dr. Cole that highlight her perspective as a Black feminist, her dedication to public speaking and “speechifying” in the tradition of the Black church, and the impact that her leadership and mentorship have had on generations of Black feminist scholars.
Chapter
Speechifying collects the most important speeches of Dr. Johnnetta Betsch Cole—noted Black feminist anthropologist, the first Black female president of Spelman College, former director of the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of African Art, and former chair and president of the National Council of Negro Women. A powerful and eloquent orator, Dr. Cole demonstrates her commitment to the success of historically Black colleges and universities, her ideas about the central importance of diversity and inclusion in higher education, the impact of growing up in the segregated South on her life and activism, and her belief in public service. Drawing on a range of Black thinkers, writers, and artists as well as biblical scripture and spirituals, her speeches give voice to the most urgent and polarizing issues of our time while inspiring transformational leadership and change. Speechifying also includes interviews with Dr. Cole that highlight her perspective as a Black feminist, her dedication to public speaking and “speechifying” in the tradition of the Black church, and the impact that her leadership and mentorship have had on generations of Black feminist scholars.
Chapter
Speechifying collects the most important speeches of Dr. Johnnetta Betsch Cole—noted Black feminist anthropologist, the first Black female president of Spelman College, former director of the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of African Art, and former chair and president of the National Council of Negro Women. A powerful and eloquent orator, Dr. Cole demonstrates her commitment to the success of historically Black colleges and universities, her ideas about the central importance of diversity and inclusion in higher education, the impact of growing up in the segregated South on her life and activism, and her belief in public service. Drawing on a range of Black thinkers, writers, and artists as well as biblical scripture and spirituals, her speeches give voice to the most urgent and polarizing issues of our time while inspiring transformational leadership and change. Speechifying also includes interviews with Dr. Cole that highlight her perspective as a Black feminist, her dedication to public speaking and “speechifying” in the tradition of the Black church, and the impact that her leadership and mentorship have had on generations of Black feminist scholars.
Chapter
Speechifying collects the most important speeches of Dr. Johnnetta Betsch Cole—noted Black feminist anthropologist, the first Black female president of Spelman College, former director of the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of African Art, and former chair and president of the National Council of Negro Women. A powerful and eloquent orator, Dr. Cole demonstrates her commitment to the success of historically Black colleges and universities, her ideas about the central importance of diversity and inclusion in higher education, the impact of growing up in the segregated South on her life and activism, and her belief in public service. Drawing on a range of Black thinkers, writers, and artists as well as biblical scripture and spirituals, her speeches give voice to the most urgent and polarizing issues of our time while inspiring transformational leadership and change. Speechifying also includes interviews with Dr. Cole that highlight her perspective as a Black feminist, her dedication to public speaking and “speechifying” in the tradition of the Black church, and the impact that her leadership and mentorship have had on generations of Black feminist scholars.
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Research shows that experiences with nature have positive direct and indirect effects on multiple domains of child development, including language skills. However, few studies have examined the relationship between young children's language and outdoor nature settings. In this quantitative study, we compared children's language use in an indoor classroom and an outdoor nature setting. Language samples from 16 preschool children (including seven Dual Language Learners) collected in indoor and outdoor settings of a nature-based preschool were analyzed using the CLAN (Computerized Language ANalysis) program. Data analysis showed that for both the entire sample and the sample of Dual Language Learners, children's language had higher syntactic complexity measured by Mean Length of Three or Five Longest Utterances in the outdoor nature setting. The implications of the study results are discussed.
Article
Tujuan penelitian ini ntuk mencari tahu bagaimana penerapan strategi KWL dan strategi summarizing pada pembelajaran bahasa Indonesia untuk keterampilan membaca pemahaman siswa kelas 4 SD. Selain itu juga untuk mencari tahu perbedaan yang signifikan antara hasil membaca pemahaman pada kelompok KWL dan summarizing. Pada penelitian ini, peneliti menggunakan jenis penelitian eksperimen semu (quasi experimental). Jenis ini sering digunakan di ruang kelas saat kelompok eksperimen dan kontrol merupakan kelompok yang berkumpul secara alami sebagai kelas utuh, yang mungkin serupa (Best & Kahn, 1993: 151). Jenis eksperimen ini menggunakan seluruh subjek yang utuh (intact group) untuk diberi perlakuan (treatment). Desain quasi experimental yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pre-test post-test nonequivalent control group design, yaitu desain yang memberikan pre-test sebelum dikenakan treatment, serta post-test setelah dikenakan treatment pada masing- masing kelompok. Penerapan strategi KWL dan summarizing pada kelompok eksperimen 1 dan kelompok eksperimen 2 dilaksanakan sesuai dengan sintaks yang tersedia. Selain itu, dalam penerapannya, kedua strategi tersebut juga dibantu oleh KWL chart serta summarizing chart untuk mempermudah siswa dalam pelaksanaannya.
Article
Bu araştırmanın amacı, ulusal ve uluslararası alanyazında 2015-2020 yılları arasında yapılmış olan erken müdahale programlarına ilişkin çalışmaların kapsamlı ve bütüncül bir şekilde incelenmesidir. Bu bağlamda, mevcut araştırmanın kapsamına giren çalışmaların (1) yayın yıllarına, (2) araştırma desenlerine, (3) uygulandıkları çalışma grubuna, (4) çalışılan yaş grubuna, (5) çalışıldığı gelişim alanlarına ve (5) analiz yöntemlerine göre dağılımlarının incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Sistematik derleme olarak tasarlanan bu çalışmaya 2015-2020 yılları arasında Türkiye ve uluslararası eksenli toplam 19 çalışma dâhil edilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçları uygulanan erken müdahale programlarının aile eğitimi ve çocuk gelişimini destekleme noktasında yoğunlaştığını göstermektedir. Bununla birlikte araştırmalardaki etkinliklerin çoğunlukla bireysel olarak gerçekleştirildiği ve müdahale programlarının uygulandığı yerlerin genellikle kurumlar olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca incelenen çalışmaların ebeveyn yetiştirme, sosyo-kültürel ve ekonomik engelleri azaltma, temel gelişim alanlarını geliştirme ve hayat kalitesini artırma temaları etrafında şekillendiği görülmektedir. Araştırma bulguları, ilgili alanyazınla ilişkili bir biçimde tartışılmış ve bazı öneriler sunulmuştur. Anahtar Kelimeler: Sosyoekonomik dezavantaj; Erken müdahale; Küçük Çocuklar.
Article
Full-text available
The study was structured to determine the opinions of preschool teachers and preservice teachers on the use of worksheets within the scope of literacy preparation practices and was conducted with 30 preschool teachers and 30 preservice preschool teachers. Under the guidance of the research questions, it was determined that there were differences in the use and reasons for worksheets by teachers and preservice teachers. At the end of the descriptive analysis, 4 themes emerged to discuss the worksheets' positive and negative aspects in early childhood education. These themes are conceptualized as effects on academic skills, effects on social life skills, effects on motor skills, and effects on parents. The findings also revealed that teachers use writing sheets more, while preservice teachers avoid book studies and worksheets.
Thesis
Full-text available
This doctoral dissertation explores how the linguistic environment supports language development. The study, taking a usage- based view, aims to answer two questions: firstly, are there differences in language input in the Estonian language context and secondly, do those differences influence variation in children’s speech? As little research has been carried out in this field to date in Estonia, research methods used in earlier studies in the same field have been adapted for the local context.
Article
Full-text available
The contribution of spoken language to outcomes for education and beyond, including attainment, wellbeing and empowerment is long-established and has recently become more prominent under the title of oracy, often conceptualised as learning both to and through talk. Part of the renewed interest in oracy is due to its potential for driving social mobility and its role in developing cultural capital. Cultural capital has a high profile in current English education policy due to its association with ‘knowledge-rich’ curricula and its explicit inclusion in the latest school inspection framework. In comparison with the original characterisation of cultural capital, however, policy-level cultural capital is narrowly defined. This article draws on the experiences of Oracy Leads from 12 schools to explore the motivations for their focus on oracy and the implicit and potential connections with cultural capital. It critiques reductive conceptualisations of cultural capital and oracy's role, arguing that oracy has a broader contribution to make than communicative competence and access to knowledge. Two forms of transformation are suggested: personal transformation through ‘exploratory’ forms of talk and societal transformation through the cultivation of agency and empowerment. Aiming for these transformations may be a powerful next step for schools which are already oracy-engaged.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
WVRA's first visual conference journal, all 2022 conference presenters were encouraged to submit manuscripts based on their presentation for possible publication. The WVRA Visual Conference Journal is an annual, blinded, peer-reviewed publication. Conference presentations did not guarantee publication. To have been considered, the manuscript must have aligned to the conference theme and addressed innovative and best literacy research-based practices
Technical Report
Full-text available
This study consulted children aged 5 to 12 years living in the eastern suburbs of Salisbury. It explored their awareness of sources of support available to children and families. It also sought information from them about the community resources they and their families currently use, and those they would like to have access to, as well as their ideas about what would facilitate access to these resources, and what would improve their lives and communities. Data was collected from 38 children at four schools via small group discussions. Findings reveal that children are generally aware of support systems at school, but have limited awareness of community support systems. Although children knew of many community sports resources, their access to these is limited by financial and transport constraints, and only one of the schools had regular out-of-class school sport teams. Although the children show an interest in the
Chapter
Full-text available
Die Lesekompetenz am Ende der vierten Jahrgangsstufe stellt eine grundlegende Voraussetzung für das Lernen in allen Fächern dar. Ziel eines Bildungssystems muss es sein, seine Schülerinnen und Schüler zu möglichst hoher mittlerer Kompetenz bei gleichzeitig geringer Streuung der Leistungswerte zu führen. Mit einer mittleren Lesekompetenz von 524 Punkten erreicht Deutschland in IGLU 2021 eine deutlich geringere mittlere Lesekompetenz im Vergleich zu IGLU 2016 (537 Punkte) sowie IGLU 2001 (539 Punkte) und im internationalen Vergleich einen Platz im Mittelfeld der Teilnehmerstaaten und -regionen (siehe Kapitel 3 in diesem Band). Damit ist die Lesekompetenz in Deutschland im Durchschnitt signifkant geringer als in Singapur (587 Punkte) oder Hongkong (573 Punkte), die die höchste durchschnittliche Lesekompetenz erreichen, und auch signifkant geringer als in einigen europäischen Teilnehmerstaaten wie zum Beispiel Finnland (549 Punkte), Polen (549 Punkte) oder Schweden (544 Punkte). Die Streuung der Lesekompetenz, also die Unterschiede zwischen guten und schwachen Lesenden, ist mit einer Standardabweichung von 77 Punkten 2021 nach wie vor groß (2016: 78 Punkte) und größer als 2001 (67 Punkte). Differenziert betrachtet zeigt sich mit Blick auf die fünf unterschiedenen Kompetenzstufen für Deutschland mit einem Viertel der Viertklässlerinnen und Viertklässler ein hoher Anteil schwacher Leserinnen und Leser, die lediglich den unteren beiden Kompetenzstufen zugeordnet werden können. Mit derart gering ausgeprägter Lesekompetenz haben diese Schülerinnen und Schüler sehr ungünstige Ausgangsvoraussetzungen für das Lernen in der Sekundarstufe. Der Anteil ist im Vergleich zu 2016 um 6.5 und im Vergleich zu 2001 um 8.4 Prozentpunkte angestiegen und liegt in vergleichbarer Größenordnung wie bei der Gruppe der teilnehmenden OECD- und EU-Staaten. Der Anteil von 8.3 Prozent starken Leserinnen und Lesern auf der höchsten Kompetenzstufe V ist ebenfalls vergleichbar mit dem Mittel der teilnehmenden OECD- und EU-Staaten, wobei auch hier festzuhalten ist, dass es anderen Staaten gelingt, einen sehr viel höheren Anteil ihrer Schülerinnen und Schüler zu starker Lesekompetenz zu führen (z.B. Singapur 35.4%, England 18.2% oder Bulgarien 15.9%). Im Vergleich der beiden in IGLU erfassten Textsorten zeigt sich für die Schülerinnen und Schüler in Deutschland ein Vorsprung im Bereich des erzählenden Lesens gegenüber dem Bereich des informierenden Lesens um 8 Punkte. Mit dieser Differenz gehört Deutschland zu den Teilnehmern mit vergleichsweise hoher Differenz zugunsten des erzählenden Lesens, die lediglich in zwei Teilnehmerstaaten signifkant höher ausfällt.
Chapter
Volltext (Buch): https://www.waxmann.com/index.php?eID=download&buchnr=4700
Thesis
Full-text available
The problem addressed by this study was that educators struggle with knowing which authentic literacy instructional practices and strategies were effective for improving student engagement and achievement levels in the middle grades. The purpose of this qualitative exploratory multiple case study was to examine the instructional strategies related to authentic literacy that educators believed to be effective in high-performing, high-growth public middle schools in Washington state. This study was approached from the conceptual and theoretical lens of sociocultural theory. The participant sample (n=9) was comprised of three different role groups: teachers, instructional coaches, and administrators. These groups served as the different cases for analysis in the multiple case study. Three research questions guided the study. Zoom video-recorded interviews and their transcriptions served as the main source for data collection and analysis. Using NVivo qualitative software, a cross-case analysis and synthesis method for multiple case study research was employed, and three different phases of coding were conducted. The findings of this study provided a better understanding of how experienced educators have incorporated authentic literacy strategies in classrooms to improve academic and engagement outcomes. Six themes and various subthemes were explored in the findings: Recommendations for practice were organized across three themes: literacy instruction and activities, professional learning and training, and curriculum and instructional planning. A logical next step for future research is that researchers should employ other qualitative approaches, such as phenomenology, to examine the lived experiences of teachers and students in classrooms where authentic literacy strategies are being used. This study moves the research forward by examining what experienced literacy educators believe to be best practices and strategies to improve academic outcomes for student in the middle grades. ii Acknowledgements
Article
The structure of inflectional paradigms is characterized by interdependencies between forms and categories. The question is what the nature of these interdependencies are and how they are discovered in acquisition. In this article, I approach these issues from a learning perspective using gender and plural formation in Icelandic as a case study. Specifically, I investigate how knowledge of grammatical gender facilitates the induction of plural forms or vice versa. Noun pluralization in Icelandic cross-cuts both gender and inflection classes, raising the question of how children can extract the relevant generalizations given syncretism both within and across inflectional paradigms. In a corpus study, I show how predictions regarding the productivity of correspondences between gender and plural forms in Icelandic can be formulated by the Tolerance Principle, a learning model proposed by Yang (2005; 2016). The model centers around a threshold function that predicts the division line between productive and unproductive linguistic patterns in language based on the proportion of exceptions associated with any given pattern. These predictions were put to the test in two elicited production studies on both children and adults. I demonstrate how both children and adults were at a loss to pluralize nouns that they were unable to assign gender to. Thus, productivity in gender assignment correlated with productivity in plural formation. Since knowledge of gender is contingent on the knowledge of productive nominative singular forms, I propose that gender may be a developmental prerequisite for the acquisition of plural formation in Icelandic due to the statistical primacy of singular forms in the input. I argue that gaps within the inflectional paradigm of Icelandic nouns follow naturally from a learning process guided by productivity that fails and results in rote memorization.
Article
Purpose This article investigates caregivers' perceived experience as part of the first implementation of LENA Start for Arab American families in New York City, with particular attention to the children's bilingual status as heritage speakers raised in marginalized communities within the United States. Method A qualitative analysis of a semistructured focus group interview conducted with five Arab American mothers who participated in the program was conducted to explore parents' perception and experience of the program using Glaserian grounded theory analysis. Results Parents reported more talking and reading with their children after participation, but the recorded data showed the changes were not significant. Parents reported that they benefited from the program by gaining a sense of belonging and embracing bilingualism while facing systemic barriers to passing on their heritage language. Parents as a group displayed a range of feelings including fear, trust, appreciation, motivation, and internalized supremacy of Western practices. They also engaged in a range of actions and commitments (i.e., self-reflection, self-growth, and progress) in association with the program. The components reported to be most critical were outside of the scope of the manualized program, such as service delivery in Arabic, a trusting and mutually respectful relationship, and attentiveness to sociopolitical and cultural factors. Conclusion The findings highlight the need for a holistic analysis of parent educational programs in marginalized communities to include qualitative methods that engage with the social, political, and cultural realities of families.
Article
Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the rate and age at first identification of speech-language delay in relation to child sociodemographic variables among a pediatric primary care network. Methods We analyzed a deidentified data set of electronic health records of children aged 1- to 5-years-old seen between 2015 and 2019 at 10 practices of a community-based pediatric primary health care network. Primary outcomes were numbers (proportions) of patients with relevant ICD-10 visit-diagnosis codes and patient age (months) at first documentation of speech-language delay. Regression models estimated associations between outcomes and patient characteristics, adjusting for practice affiliation. Results Of 14,559 included patients, 2063 (14.1%) had speech-language delay: 68.4% males, 74.4% with private insurance, and 96.1% with English as a primary household language. Most patients (60%) were first identified at the 18- or 24-month well-child visit. The mean age at first documentation was 25.4 months (SD = 9.3), which did not differ between practices reporting the use of standardized developmental screener and those using surveillance questionnaires. Regression models showed that males were more than twice as likely than females to be identified with speech-language delay (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.05, 95% CI: [1.86–2.25]); publicly insured were more likely than privately insured patients to be identified with speech-language delay (aOR = 1.48, 95% CI: [1.30–1.68]). Females were older than males at first identification (+1.2 months, 95% CI: [0.3–2.1]); privately insured were older than military insured patients (private +3.3 months, 95% CI: [2.2–4.4]). Conclusion Pediatricians in this network identified speech-language delays at similar rates to national prevalence. Further investigation is needed to understand differences in speech-language delay detection across patient subgroups in practices that use developmental screening and/or surveillance.
Article
Pre-school education is offered in the government primary schools ofKhyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. Very little attention is given to thepre-school aged children in these schools. Therefore, this study wascarried to explore teaching activities and facilities for Pre-school Childrenin district Karak. The objectives of the study were to explore theavailability of teaching facilities and to investigate teachers’ teachingactivities while teaching pre-school children in the government primaryschools. The population of the study were all the 438 head teachers ofgovernment primary schools for boys of district Karak, KP, Pakistan. Total216 head teachers were selected as sample through proportionate clusterrandom sampling technique. The study was descriptive and survey methodwas adopted. Self-developed questionnaire was used for the collection ofdata. Data was analyzed through descriptive statistics and the use of ChiSquare (χ2) test. Non availability of Audio-Visual (AV) aids,unavailability of specialized teachers and the absence of separateclassroom for preschool children were major findings of the study.Ensuring of AV aids, construction of additional classroom, recruitment ofspecialized preschool teachers and arrangement of refresher courses forthem are the major recommendations of the study.
Article
Full-text available
It has long been known that children who grow up in situations of economic and social disadvantage tend to have more difficulties when they enter school, and that these are often perpetuated, leading to underachievement and disaffection. The role of the family and home environment in stimulating children’s language acquisition and pre-literacy competences during their earliest years is clearly important. It is possible that with appropriate exposure and encouragement before the age of 3, children from disadvantaged backgrounds could start school on an equal footing with their more privileged counterparts. We provide a conceptual overview of the factors in the home affecting language and subsequent literacy development in children aged 0-3, and a review of programs designed to enhance the home learning environment.
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that storybook reading fosters children’s language skills in the early years, with digital formats bearing new potential. This experimental pilot study with stratified randomization evaluates the effects of digital storybook reading in kindergarten on global language, vocabulary, verb learning (irregular past), and narrative skills. We assessed two reading methods: (a) dialogic reading and (b) supervised, independent screen-based story exposure. Twenty-seven children (aged 4 – 5 years) received a short-term small-group intervention (3 sessions) with a digital storybook on a tablet using one of the two methods with audio narration. Children in the dialogic reading condition made significant gains in receptive vocabulary, expressive target vocabulary, and verb learning. Postcontrasts further revealed a substantial advantage of dialogic reading for children’s narrative skills. Age-appropriate digital storybooks designed in line with insights from cognitive and developmental psychology may be used in early education to foster children’s language skills, if read dialogically.
Article
This collaborative teacher-research study was conducted in children’s first year of school and explored ways young children’s use of oral language, vocabulary and phonology connected with beginning reading. A play-based oral language intervention was implemented and an analysis of oral language and reading suggested that spoken language did not provide a neat, sequential base which can be easily mapped to written language. Questions were raised about the view that oral language neatly underpins reading development and the study concluded that learning to read written English is influenced by children’s oral language development as well as their experience and understanding about written language structures.
Article
The importance of teacher-child dialogue in facilitating young children’s language learning is well established in the research literature, with significant outcomes accrued from rich language use in the classroom (Shiel, Cregan, McGough & Archer, 2012). This study focuses on the opportunities teachers provide to engage children in talk during small group teaching sessions and considers teacher-child talk patterns, within and across preschool and school settings. The intention was to examine teacher talk behaviours that facilitate children’s language use and explore how teachers support children’s oral language development as they move from preschool to school. Teachers from a preschool and school setting serving children from a low socioeconomic region of outer western Melbourne in Victoria, Australia were invited to plan, implement, and record teaching interactions with small groups of children that specifically built on their oral language skills. This paper reports on the fine-grained analysis of the teacher-child talk patterns in two specific ways: (1) teachers’ talk behaviours, to review the discourse patterns used to foster young children’s language learning; and (2) the children’s responses, to ascertain the dialogic interplay that created opportunities for children’s talk and learning. The findings indicate that during talk where teachers were supporting children’s oral language, the teachers’ preference for closed questions that were directed toward the immediate stimuli resulted in limited responses from the children. This particular teacher-child talk pattern was dominant in both preschool and school settings. While the common teacher talk behaviours across both settings support the continuity of children’s learning, as they transition from preschool to school, there was little evidence of interactions that engaged children in rich dialogue to extend their oral language competencies.
Article
Full-text available
The article addresses diversity issues related to language, gender, and culture. Topics include fundamental areas of research essential to the discussion on language diversity in the context of education with respect to equity, poverty, stereotype threat, Pygmalion Effect, non-sexist language, and Matthews Effect. The discussion on diversity and equity creates a space to think about issues of access, opportunity, voice, and equal participation within society and educational settings. Diversity among humans requires thoughtful considerations, accommodations, and differentiations in educational treatment, yet providing equal opportunities for growth and learning for all.
Article
This case study demonstrates teaching and learning activities in the school laboratory and employs talk moves for the direct assessment of practical task effectiveness. By adopting a sociocultural linguistic approach...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies reported negative effects of financial deprivation on child development during early childhood. As already shown, child development, in particular language development, is associated with family background, e.g., educational level. However, less is known about the impact of (restricted) financial resources on early language skills. Therefore, the present study investigates whether family income, measured as a metric variable by net equivalence income, and poverty, operationalized as income groups based on official income thresholds, impact vocabulary and grammar skills of 2-year-old children even when taking the educational level of the mother as well as aspects of the home-learning environment (joint picture book reading) and other relevant variables into account. Drawing on a German sample of N = 1782, we found that especially poverty is significantly associated with early language skills over and above maternal education and joint picture book reading. Hence, our results indicate the relevance to consider the effect of (restricted) financial resources and especially poverty on child development during early childhood additionally to other indicators of social background.
Article
This study was part of a larger longitudinal study in which we focused on measuring reading acquisition and observing the impact of SES, curriculum and gender on reading subtest scores. In Part 1 of our study (in review), we reported on findings for students in Grade 1. For Part 2 of our study, we report on our findings for students in Grades 3 and 5 and offer a comparison across the three elementary grades. Participants for the current study included 657 students from Grade 3 (n = 328) and 5 (n = 329) representing low-cost, middle-cost and high-cost schools in Bangalore, India. The students’ reading skills were measured using progress-monitoring tools and we utilized a mixed-effects hierarchical growth model to observe reading growth. The results suggested that both SES and curriculum had the most significant and positive effect on skills acquisition. These results will shed light on reading assessment and intervention practices in the Indian context.
Article
Background: Early in development, caregivers' object labelling contributes to children's word learning. Language development is a bi-directional process, and differences in joint engagement (JE) and language among children with developmental disabilities such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may provide caregivers varying contexts and opportunities to provide object labels. However, potential variation in caregivers' production of object labels and its relation to language development remain relatively unexplored among toddlers with ASD. Aims: This study characterized the structural and functional features of object labels produced by parents of children with typical (TL) or elevated likelihood (EL) of ASD during naturalistic toy play. We examined features of object labels within two JE contexts, supported and coordinated JE, which are differentiated by a child's use of eye contact, as well as their relations with concurrent and future child language skills. Methods & procedures: The present study included 55 (TL = 12, EL = 43) children who completed a naturalistic parent-child interaction in the home at 18 months of age. Children's expressive and receptive language was assessed at 18, 24 and 36 months. At 36 months, EL children were assessed for ASD and classified as either EL-No Diagnosis, EL-Language Delay or EL-ASD. Videos of interactions were divided into discrete engagement states, including supported and coordinated JE. All parent speech was transcribed and coded to capture structural (types, tokens, mean length of utterance (MLU), sentence position) and functional (follow-in comments, directives, lead-in labels) features of object labels as well as parent prompts for the child to produce a label. Outcomes & results: Parents of toddlers across outcome groups labelled objects at similar rates within each engagement state. However, parents of EL-ASD children provided the lowest rates of prompts for labels in supported JE and the highest rate of labels as the final word of an utterance (sentence-final position) in coordinated JE. Additionally, parent prompts in supported JE were related to concurrent child expressive language. Labels in sentence-final position were positively related to later language outcome when delivered in supported JE but were associated with poorer language outcomes when delivered in coordinated JE. Conclusions & implications: Subtle differences in parent object labels across outcome groups demonstrate the role that child language and social engagement can play in influencing parent input and the cascading impact of this input on language development. What this paper adds: What is already known on this subject Variations in caregiver object labelling can impact child language development. However, child characteristics such as language ability also actively shape the input caregivers provide, demonstrating the bi-directionality of language development. What this paper adds to existing knowledge The present study demonstrates that characteristics of the engagement context in which a label is delivered may be important for understanding how object labelling relates to child language acquisition and whether this relation varies for children who face challenges in language learning. What are the potential or actual clinical implications of this work? As child differences in social engagement emerge, parents may be more attuned to moments their children are engaging with eye contact. Caregiver-mediated interventions might consider strategies that guide caregivers in recognizing engagement without eye contact as a similarly meaningful opportunity for learning and encourage the use of rich input within these moments.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.