Objective: Whereas the effect of stress on nightmare frequency is well-documented in adults, research on this topic in children is scarce. In addition, these studies are often based on data obtained from the parents which may not be valid with regard to nightmare frequency and subjective stress levels. Method: 95 school children (fifth grade; age range: 9 to 11 years) completed a questionnaire about the occurrence of stressors, their subjective stress level and nightmare frequency. Results: The findings indicate that interindividual differences in nightmare frequency were explained by social stressors like quarreling with a sibling, death of a close person and chronic illness of a close person. Conclusions: The next step will be a longitudinal study measuring the occurrence of stressors as well as personality dimensions and the occurrence of nightmares and their content by applying diaries and self-rated scales together with information obtained from the parents.