ArticlePDF Available

The syndrome of burnout, self-image, and anxiety with grammar school students

Authors:

Abstract

This article deals with certain characteristics of the teenagers experiencing burnout and the influence of some dimensions of self image and anxiety on the burnout dimensions. The research investigated the relation between anxiety, dimensions of self image and the burnout syndrome. The research data were obtained through the use of the modified MBI - "The Maslach Burnout Inventory", Spielbergs' questionnaire of trait anxiety and Offer Self-Imagination Questionnaire. The research comprised 1868 students aged between 15 and 19 6.7 percent of them turned out to have suffered a strong burnout. The results of the research proved that the burnout syndrome appears in several different levels of intensity also among adolescents attending secondary school (gymnasia programme). True multivariate research the two basic hypotheses were confirmed: the adolescents with some negative self image areas are more likely to suffer burnout and that there is the certain dimensions of self image influence certain dimensions of burnout.
Psiholoka obzorja / Horizons of Psychology, 10, 2, 21-32 (2001)
© Drutvo psihologov Slovenije 2001, ISSN 1318-187
Znanstveni empirièno-raziskovalni prispevek
The syndrome of burnout, self-image, and anxiety
with grammar school students
BRANKO SLIVAR*
Board of Education of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Abstract: This article discusses certain characteristics of teenagers experiencing burnout and the influ-
ence of some dimensions of self-image and anxiety on the burnout dimensions. The research investigated
the relation between anxiety, dimensions of self-image and the burnout syndrome. The data were
obtained applying the modified Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Spielbergs questionnaire of
trait anxiety and Offer Self-Imagination Questionnaire. The sample comprised 1868 students aged
between 15 and 19; 6.7 percent of them turned out to have suffered a strong burnout. The results proved
that the burnout syndrome appears in several different levels of intensity also among adolescents
attending secondary school (grammar school programme). True multivariate analysis the two basic
hypotheses were confirmed: the adolescents with negative self-image areas are more likely to suffer from
burnout and that certain dimensions of self-image influence certain dimensions of burnout.
Key words: burnout, self-image, anxiety, high-school students
Sindrom izgorelosti, samopodoba in anksioznost
pri gimnazijcih
BRANKO SLIVAR
Zavod RS za olstvo, Ljubljana
Povzetek: Besedilo obravnava sindrom izgorelosti pri srednjeolcih (gimnazijcih) in vpliv nekaterih
dimenzij samopodobe in anksioznosti na posamezne dimenzije izgorelosti. Podatke za raziskavo smo
dobili s pomoèjo prirejenega vpraalnika MBI (The Maslach Burnout Inventory), Spielbergovega
vpraalnika potezne anksioznosti in Offerjeve lestvice Self-Imagination Questionnaire. V raziskavi smo
zajeli 1868 srednjeolcev starih od 15 do 18 let, od teh je izkazalo visoko stopnjo izgorelosti 6.7
odstotkov gimnazijcev. Rezultati so pokazali, da se sindrom izgorelosti pojavlja v razliènih stopnjah
jakosti med srednjeolsko mladino, ki obiskuje gimnazijski program. Rezultati multivariantne analize so
potrdili tudi dve temeljni predpostavki, da imajo mladostniki z visoko stopnjo izgorelosti negativno
samopodobo na posameznih podroèjih v primerjavi z ostalimi mladostniki ter da nekatere dimenzije
*Naslov / address: mag. Branko Slivar, Zavod RS za olstvo, Poljanska 28, Ljubljana, Slovenija, e-mail:
branko.slivar@zrss.si
22
samopodobe vplivajo na dimenzije izgorelosti.
Kljuène besede: izgorelost, samopodoba, anksioznost, srednjeolci
CC=3120
Burnout may be defined as a state of physical, emotional and mental exhaustion that
results from long-term involvement with people in situations that are emotionally de-
manding (Pines & Aronson, 1981). The concept of burnout is usually mentioned in
connection with workplace stress, especially in professions that involve extensive
contact with people in emotionally demanding situations (nurses, doctors, teachers,
social workers, managers, etc.). Yet we can also speak about burnout when referring
to students. Why?
School is essentially a conflictive institution, where various relations are formed
among peers as well as among students and teachers.teachers. For a student it is a
social space, the meaning and the effects of which are placed immediately after
those of the family (Kos, 1993). In the first place school represents a stimulative
environment where students can fulfil their needs and interests, develop their social
skills, acquire knowledge, etc. It is however also a place where an ongoing confirma-
tion of ones own skills and knowledge is required. In the same way as other social
environments school, among other things, also produces numerous threatening and
negative occurrences, which at times concern most students (Kos, 1993). Maslach
(Maslach & Leiter, 1997) described six most significant and frequent reasons for
burnout. These are: work overload, lack of control over ones work, lack of reward
for contributions, lack of community, lack of fairness and a value conflict. Let us take
a look at the more important threatening occurrences that can cause burnout in schools:
1. With its constant productiveness demands school is overtaxing students with
schoolwork wherefore a feeling of overburdening of youngsters during school-
ing increases. The Slovene secondary school system (gymnasia programme)
is still overloaded with school demands such as overloaded syllabus at certain
subjects, too many subjects (Slivar, 2000), external assessment (matura), per-
formance pressures (achieving the best grade, be the best in the class) that
accumulate in the course of years. Beèaj (Beèaj, 2000) has found that there is
a strong connection between matura and the ovrproductive school climate in
grammar schools.Students are overloaded and alarmed by matura and the pres-
sure to achieve the best possible results (Beèaj, 2000). Tomori (Tomori, Stergar,
Pinter, Rus-Makovec & Stikoviè, 1998) studied a sample of students and found
that the majority of students experience temporary or frequent overtaxing.
The feeling of being overloaded provokes psychosomatic symptoms. Bencik
Murko (1988) states in the reasearch on psychosomatic symptoms in students
B. Slivar
23
that psychosomatis symptoms strongly correlate with overtaxing (30 % of sec-
ondary school students have psychosomatic symptoms). Lovin (Lovin et al.,
1988) found that in secondary schools in Ljubljana as much as 60 % of stu-
dents have school related psychosomatic problems. Students have to do a lot
of work in a relatively short time and with limited resources. Great expecta-
tions of parents, the youngsters aspirations and the school demands present a
constant pressure and the least of failures can cause distrust in ones own
abilities.
2. Reduced opportunities of control over teaching, few opportunities for creativ-
ity, and active participation in the problem solvin, no participation in the planing
and decision making regarding the teaching and learning methods (Ilc-Rutar,
2000).
3. There is not enough incentive and praise for well-done work although we know
that rewards and incentives are of great importance for motivation and progress.
Schools also do little to encourage internal rewarding manifested as pride or
satisfaction of the knowledge and success, which is not directly linked to the
grade.
4. Lack of suitable interpersonal relations. These are mostly events arising from
exclusion by peers (conflicting relations with peers), accusations of adoles-
cents by teachers (negative emotions of one or more teachers directed per-
sonally toward the student), or disturbances and disputes of a more general
character within school (disputes and disturbances among teachers, lack of
work discipline).
5. Mostly due to expectations by significant others (family members), many stu-
dents live in fear of failure, criticism for lack of success or unpleasant conse-
quences in general. They experience school as a threat where injustices often
happen to individuals, for example in assessment. Students who pay regard to
school demands on the one side, while on the other side they feel fear or
opposition to them, will find themselves in a conflicting situation. School can
also cause feelings of fear, for example fear of being assessed, to which stu-
dents react differently. School related fear may lead to absenteeism (Punik,
1998).
6. There are often clashes of values in school, mostly between the values of the
students family and the school values, but also between the values of the
youth and those of the teachers (i.e. about learning, the meaning of knowl-
edge).
With their long-term effects, these factors of school stress can also cause the
burnout syndrome with certain individuals, who can start feeling overburdened, un-
successful and feel that they do not have enough control over the events in school.
Important determinants of burnout are also character traits. From the ones
that significantly influence the appearance of burnout we took a closer look at the
Burnout syndrome, self-image and anxiety
24
role and significance of self-image and anxiety. Self-image is an attitude component
of Self as known or Me (Burns, 1982) and it means the individuals description of
the self. The part of self image are commitments and beliefs, which are very impor-
tant in cognitive appraisal processes of the situation (Epstein, 1976; Hilgard, 1949).
For Kobasa (1985) the coping ability is determined with individuals self image, it is
the part of individuals self awareness or self confidence. A positive self-image is
among other things connected with psychological adaptedness and emotional stabil-
ity, greater activity and the feelings of greater psychic power, increased resistiveness
to negative feedback, positive emotional states etc. These are at the same time also
factors that play an important role in the experiencing of stress and burnout, respec-
tively. Fear and anxiety are two other negative emotions that contribute to burnout
(Maslach, 1997). In some researches (e.g. Richardsen, Burke & Leiter, 1992) it was
established that anxiety foretells all three components of burnout. Frequent emotional
exhaustion was also linked to higher anxiety.
The basic goals of this study are:
- the determination of the incidence of burnout among secondary school stu-
dents and the possible connection of this phenomenon with gender and some
school factors (school performance, number of students, absenteeism),
- the analysis of the relative influence of individual dimensions of self-image and
anxiety in the predictions of individual dimensions of burnout, and
- the establishment of the dimensions of self-image that are important for distin-
guishing between the group with burnout experience and the group with no
such experience.
Method
Participants
14 grammar schools were included in the sample. The choice was accidental, how-
ever the school region and the number of students at school were taken into consid-
eration. At small grammar schools (up to four classes of first year students) one class
of students of each year was included into the research. At large grammar schools
(five or more classes of first year students) two classes of each year were included
into the research. In this way, 2105 students participated. The analysis included 1868
secondary school students of all four years of Slovene gymnasiums, aged from 15 to
18 years. The sample contains 58,3 % of girls and 41,7 % of boys.
B. Slivar
25
Instruments
A) Self-image
The questionnaire used in the study was the Offer Self-image Questionnaire  OSIQ.
The adaptation of the questionnaire was carried out by Paènik and Zalar (1986). It
incorporates five images of the self, three of which were relevant for us and thus
included in the research (excluded were the Social Self and the Sexual Self):
1. Psychological Self (PS)
The Psychological Self comprises the adolescents concerns, feelings, wishes,
and fantasies. The scales that constitute this self deal with the teenagers
sense of control over impulses, the emotions and conceptions of their bodies.
The three relevant OSIQ scales are as follows: Impulse Control, Emotional
Tone and Body Image.
2. Familial Self (FS)
The feelings and attitudes teenagers have toward their families are crucial for
their overall psychological health. Barring extreme circumstances, the family
will contribute more to the development of adolescents than any other psycho-
social influence. The following scale is used: Family Relationships.
3. Coping Self (CS)
The scales constituting this aspect of the self measure the psychiatric symp-
toms the adolescents say they have, if any; they also allow the adolescents to
describe how they cope with the world. The three relevant OSIQ scales used
are as follows: Mastery of the External World, Psychopathology and Superior
Adjustment.
The OSIQ questionnaire enables a multidimensional reflection of the self which
incorporates the everyday experiences of teenagers. Internal reliability coeffi-
cients for all scales ranged between 0,53 to 0,87. In our case it contains 121
items in the form of a 6-point Likert-type scale and is intended for youngsters
between the ages of 13 and 19. It was originally constructed by Daniel Offer
in 1962.
B) Anxiety
The questionnaire used for the evaluation of the anxiety level was the Spielberg trait
anxiety questionnaire, which contains 20 items (Lamovec,1994). The internal reliabil-
ity coefficient for the scale is 0,88.
Burnout syndrome, self-image and anxiety
26
C) Burnout
Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; Maslach &
Jackson, 1986). The MBI is a 22-item measure which produces three scores: Emo-
tional Exhaustion, Depersonalisation and Lack of Personal Accomplishment. Emo-
tional exhaustion caused by exagerated demands with which students are faced at
their school work is demonstrated through the feeling of being overloaded and exhauste.
Depersonalisation is a state in which one employs cynical, underestimating and im-
personal attitude towards other people. Lack of Personal Accomplishment is demon-
strated through the feeling of ineffectivenessand the loss of competence (Penko,
1994).
Some items were adjusted to the school environment terminology; the ques-
tionnaire has an adequate internal validity, the Crombach alpha is 0,72.
Although burnout can be regarded a continuous variable which is supposed to
vary from a minor to a greater burnout, a high score was regarded as such if it was in
the upper third of the result distribution on individual sub-scales of Emotional Exhaus-
tion and Depersonalisation, and in the lower third on the sub-scales of Personal ac-
complishment (Rafferty, Lemkau, Purdy & Rudsill, 1986).
Statistical treatment
The relationship between burnout and gender and school factors was estab-
lished by chi-square.
Direct effects: stepwise multiple regression procedures were used for each
dimension of burnout. The self-images variables and anxiety were regressed in com-
bination in order to test the overall effect. The measure of differentiation between
groups as regards the scale of burnout was established with the aid of logistic regres-
sion.
Results
It was established that 6,8 % of gymnasium students in our sample have experienced
a high degree of burnout. Results have shown that girls are experiencing burnout
more than boys: 72,1 % of girls and 27,9 % of boys (chi-square=10,25; p=0,00). Girls
tend to experience especially emotional exhaustion.
The average academic success of the youngsters with a manifested burnout
tends to be a bit lower, in average sufficient to good. We presume that these are
essentially hard working and diligent students who are experiencing burnout due to
overburdening school demands and pressures. We were also interested whether the
youngsters experiencing burnout are missing classes. The results show that students
that have experienced burnout are absent more school hours per year than their
B. Slivar
27
peers with no burnout. Students with burn out are absent on average 63 hours per
year, students with no burn out are absent 48 hours per year (the difference is statis-
tically significant, t-test=-3,24; p=0,00).
The analysis of variance (Table 1) for three groups of students (low absentee-
ism, average absenteeism, high absenteeism) has also shown that absenteeism is
enhanced by emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. of students.
Fuelled by some research results confirming a higher degree of estrangement
between students and teachers, and more careless relationships between students in
larger schools (Lovin et al., 1988), we assumed that the portion of youngsters expe-
riencing burnout would be greater there. The results however did not confirm this
presumption since there is no significant correlation between the share of burnout-
affected youngsters and the size of the school.
II. (??? - tukaj bi lahko avtor kaj dopisal...pa se malce nedosledno je, ker ni nikjer videti I.)
Further on we were interested in the relative influence of individual dimensions of
self-image and anxiety in the prediction of the particular dimension of burnout. Thus
we first analysed the influence of individual dimensions of self-image and anxiety on
Depersonalisation and established that the interrelation is low yet statistically impor-
tant, the highest being the one with anxiety (0,31). The correlation of the psychologi-
cal self dimensions with depersonalisation is within in the range between 0,22 and
0,28, while the correlation of the coping self dimensions lies between 0,10 and 0,24.
The correlation between depersonalisation and family relationships lies at 0,26. In-
corporated in the model with the help of the multiple regression analyses are all
dimensions of self-image and anxiety as dependent variables and depersonalisation
as the independent variable.
Of the 8 variables included 6 contribute significantly to the clarification of
Burnout syndrome, self-image and anxiety
Sum of
Squares
df Mean
Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups 3000,870 2 1052,435 13.212 0.000
Within Groups 212075,141 1865 113,713
Emotional
Exhausted Total 215080,010 1867
Between Groups 381,684 2 190,842 7.707 0.000
Within Groups 46183,329 1865 24,763
Depersonal. Total 46565,013 1867
Between Groups 321,485 2 160,742 2.940 0.053
Within Groups 101981,029 1865 54,682
Personal
Accomlishment
Total 102302,514 1867
Table 1: Influence of absenteeism from school on dimensions of burnout: emotional
exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment (analysis of variance ta-
ble).
28
depersonalisation (Table 2). The multiple coefficient of the correlation (R) between
depersonalisation and the chosen variables lies at 0,34; the determination coefficient
(R2=0,11) is low yet statistically significant (F=20,06; p=0,000).
We have determined that the independent variables included in the regression
model account for 11 percent of depersonalisation. Family relationships among the
self-image dimensions and anxiety are the most important contributing factors to the
above percentage. Of the three dimension of the psychological self, impulse control
has the greatest influence, and of the three dimensions of the coping self, superior
adjustment plays the most important role. Psychopathology and mastery of the exter-
nal world do not play an essential role and were not incorporated into the model.
The next step was to analyse the influence of the individual dimensions of self-
image and anxiety to lack of personal accomplishment. The interrelations are nega-
tive and low yet statistically important, the highest being the correlation with anxiety
(-0,38). The correlation of the dimensions of the psychological self with personal
accomplishment ranges from 0,28 to 0,36, the correlation of the dimensions of the
coping self ranges from 0,30 to 0,37 and the correlation between personal accom-
plishment and family relationships is 0,27. With the help of the multiple regression
analyses we have included all dimensions of self-image and anxiety as independent
variables and lack of personal accomplishment as the dependent variable.
Of the 8 variables included 6 contribute significantly to the clarification of the
lack of personal accomplishment (Table 3). The multiple coefficient of correlation
(R) between depersonalisation and the chosen variables is 0,45; the determination
coefficient (R2=0,20) is low yet statistically significant (F=58,08; p=0,000).
We have established that the independent variables included in the model ac-
count for 20 percent of lack of personal accomplishment. The most significant con-
tributor is anxiety and of the dimensions of self-image the coping self has the greatest
influence (the most important part being superior adjustment). In addition to the above
mentioned factors family relationships and emotional tone also influence the lack of
personal accomplishment while impulse control and body image do not play an essen-
tial role and were not incorporated into the model.
Lastly we analysed the influence of the individual dimensions of self-image
and anxiety to emotional exhaustion. The interrelations are of medium values and
B. Slivar
Model R2 Ä R F Change Sig. F Change
anxiety ,078 ,078 157,43 ,000
family relationships ,095 ,018 37,12 ,000
impulse control ,101 ,007 13,58 ,000
superior adjustment ,104 ,003 6,52 ,011
psychopathology ,107 ,003 6,77 ,009
emotional tone ,111 ,005 11,02 ,001
Table 2: Multiple regression analyses predicting depersonalisation from anxiety, family
relationships, impulse control, superior adjustment, psychopathology, emotional tone.
29
statistically important, the highest being the correlation with anxiety (0,56). The cor-
relation of the dimensions of the psychological self with emotional exhaustion ranges
from 0,39 to 0,48, and the correlation of the dimensions of the coping self ranges from
0,28 to 0,45. With the help of the multiple regression analysis we have included all
dimensions of self-image and anxiety as independent variables and emotional ex-
haustion as the dependent variable.
Of the 8 variables included 3 contribute significantly to the clarification of
emotional exhaustion (Table 4). The multiple coefficient of correlation (R) between
depersonalisation and the chosen variables is 0,56; the determination coefficient
(R2=0,31) is low yet statistically significant (F=105,51; p=0,000).
We have established that the independent variables included in the model ac-
count for 31 percent of emotional exhaustion. The most significant contributor is
anxiety and of the dimensions of self-image impulse control has the greatest influ-
ence. In addition to the above factors mastery of external world also influences emo-
tional exhaustion while other dimensions of self-image do not play an essential role
and were not incorporated into the model.
III.
This study was aimed at the establishment of differences between a group of young-
sters that did experience burnout and those that did not experience it as regards the
dimensions of self-image and trait anxiety. The logistic model included all dimensions
of self-image and trait anxiety as independent variables and two groups of youngsters
as to the (non) experience of burnout as the dependent variable. Negelkerke value,
Burnout syndrome, self-image and anxiety
Model R2 Ä R F Change Sig. F Change
anxiety ,141 ,141 304,26 ,000
superior adjustment ,176 ,035 79,41 ,000
mastery of external world ,183 ,007 16,68 ,000
psychopathology ,189 ,006 12,88 ,000
family relationships ,195 ,007 15,11 ,000
emotional tone ,200 ,004 10,42 ,001
Table 3: Multiple regression analyses predicting personal accomplishment from anxiety,
superior adjustment, mastery of the external world, psychopathology, family relation-
ships and emotional tone.
Model R2 Ä R F Change Sig. F Change
anxiety ,291 ,291 762,03 ,000
impulse control ,306 ,015 40,76 ,000
mastery of the external world ,310 ,005 12,43 ,000
Table 4: Multiple regression analyses predicting emotional exhaustion from anxiety,
impulse control and mastery of the external world.
30
which is comparable to the R2, is 0,25. Of the 8 dimensions included four have a
significant effect on the differences between the two groups. The group of young-
sters that did experience burnout is differentiated from the other group by the follow-
ing dimensions: trait anxiety, family relationships, impulse control and mastery of the
external world. The most contributing dimension is anxiety, followed by dimensions of
self-image: family relationships, mastery of the external world and impulse control.
Conclusions
The study represents a contribution to the analysis of burnout with adolescents. It is
however necessary to emphasise that the gained results have to be used with a certain
measure of cautiousness. The reasons therefore are especially: the restricted methodol-
ogy used (i.e. measures of self report), the choice of personality traits and their respec-
tive measurement (i.e. reduced inventories  OSIQ) and omission of other potential
antecedents (i.e. locus of control, self esteem).
The results have confirmed that self-image and anxiety are connected with the
appearance of burnout. Compared to the dimensions of self-image it is necessary to
emphasise the high predictive value of trait anxiety in the prediction of burnout while, on
the other hand, various dimensions of self-image predict individual dimensions of burn-
out in various ways. Of the three dimensions of burnout emotional exhaustion is best
explained with the dimensions of self-image and anxiety, while the depersonalisation
sub-scale is explained worst.
The results for emotional exhaustion are not surprising; as was already men-
tioned anxiety plays the most important role in emotional exhaustion, the role of school
also having great importance in this issue. Many students live in fear of failure, criticism
for lack of success and unpleasant consequences arising therefrom (not being able to go
to college). School is experienced as a threat whereby injustices happen to individuals,
for example in assessment. Youngsters who respect the schools demands on the one
side and feels fear or resistance to it on the other will come into a conflicting situation
triggering stress or burnout. Decreased impulse control also contributes to emotional
exhaustion. It is a dimension of self-image that reflects the power of the ego apparatus
in coping with different internal and external pressures. The lower the ego power is, the
higher the feeling of overburdening and exhaustion tends to get. Beside impulse control
another dimension of self-image plays an important part in the prediction of emotional
exhaustion  mastery of the external world, which reflects the individuals capability to
cope with the demands of the external world. In so far as this capability is reduced we
can expect a higher degree of emotional exhaustion.
Findings for personal accomplishment also show that the most contributing di-
mension is anxiety (14 % of the variance). Besides anxiety personal accomplishment is
affected especially by all three dimensions of the coping self. A specially important role
is attributed here to superior adjustment. A reduced capacity to cope with the challenges
of the environment increases feelings of inefficiency and lack of success. To a lesser
B. Slivar
31
extent mastery of the external world and psychopathology also play a role in this case.
A reduced capacity to cope with demand and the presence of psychopathological signs
increase the feeling of decreased personal accomplishment; familiar self and emotional
self also contribute to a decreased personal accomplishment. Family relationships, in
our case bad relations between the youngster and the members of the family, negative
family climate, an increased fluctuation of emotions and a reduced measure of harmony
additionally fuel the feeling of a decreased personal accomplishment.
Depersonalisation is the dimension least explained with self-image and anxiety
(11 % of the variable). Noted in this dimension is the highest contribution by anxiety (8
% of the variance), with family relationships and one of the dimensions of the psycho-
logical self  impulse control, contributing in a lesser extent. Even lower but still notice-
able are the contributions of the emotional tone and two dimensions of the coping self 
superior adjustment and psychopathology.
Taking a close look at the differences between the group that did experience
burnout and the group that did not, it was established that the former differ from the
latter in anxiety, family relationships, mastery of the external world and impulse control.
These youngsters have are manifesting increased anxiety, their families have a history of
bad interpersonal relations and negative climate, they have a reduced capability to mas-
ter the external world and their ego apparatus is not strong enough to cope with various
pressures arising from both the external and the internal environments.
We have thus established that besides anxiety some dimensions of self-image also
play an important part in the prediction of burnout. Worth mentioning are especially
family relationships, impulse control, emotional tone (psychological self), mastery of
the external world, superior adjustment and psychopathology (coping self). Burnout is
more common with girls and is one of the reasons for missing school lessons.
References
Beèaj, J. (2000). Vpliv mature na storilnostno naravnanost pouka [The influence of matura
on the productiveness orientation of school practice]. Ljubljana: Zavod RS za
olstvo.
Bencik-Murk, M. (1988). Psihosomatske in adaptacijske motnje pri tudentih ljubljanske
Univerze [Psychosomatic and adaptation disturbances with students of the Univer-
sity in Ljubljana]. Zdravstveno varstvo, 28, 253-256.
Burns, R. (1982). Self concept development and education. London: Holt, Reinhart and
Winston.
Epstein, S. (1976). Anxiety, arousal and the self-concept. In I.G. Sarason & C.D. Spielberg
(Eds.), Stress and anxiety. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
Hilgard, E.R. (1949). Human motives and the concept of the Self. American Psychologist, 4,
374-82.
Ilc Rutar, Z. (2000). Analiza pouka v prenovljenem gimnazijskem programu [The analyses of
the school practice in the reformed programme of gimnazija]. In B. Slivar (Ed.),
Poroèilo o spremljavi 1. in 2. letnika prenovljenega gimnazijskega programa
Burnout syndrome, self-image and anxiety
32 B. Slivar
[Evaluation of the reformed grammar school programe for the first and second
year  a report] (pp. 30-48). Ljubljana: Zavod RS za olstvo.
Kobasa, C.S. (1985). Stressful life events, personality, and health: an inquiry into hardiness.
In A. Monat & R.S. Lazarus (Eds.), Stress and coping: An anthology (pp. 174-188).
New York: Columbia University Press.
Kos-Miku, A. (1993). ola in stres [School and stress]. Vzgoja in izobraevanje, 24 (4), 3-
13.
Lamovec, T. (Ed.) (1994). Psihodiagnostika osebnosti I [Psychodiagnostics of personalitiy
I]. Ljubljana: Znanstveni intitut Filozofske fakultete.
Lovin, M., Meden, S., Plankar, D., Punik, M., Slivar, B., Suelj, M., Paj, N., Vodopivec, M.
& Zor, R. (1988). Izostajanje uèencev od pouka v srednjih olah Organizacijske
enote Ljubljana [Absenteeism in secondary schools under Local education author-
ity of Ljubljana]. Ljubljana: Zavod SR za olstvo.
Maslach, C. & Leiter, P.M. (1997). The truth about burnout. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Paènik, T. & Zalar, B. (1986). Nekateri dejavniki veèdimenzionalnega doivljanja
mladostnikove lastne podobe ter njihov vpliv na avtoagresivno vedenje [Some
factors of multidimensional experiencing of self-image in teenagers and their
influence on the auto-agressive behaviour]. Raziskovalna naloga [The research
report]. Ljubljana: Univerzitetna psihiatrièna klinika, Center za mentalno zdravje,
Oddelek za mladostnike.
Penko, T. (1994). Izgorelost pri delu [Burnout with work]. in T. Lamovec (Ed),
Psihodiagnostika osebnosti I [Psychodiagnostics of personalitiy I] (pp. 327-343).
Ljubljana: Znanstveni intitut Filozofske fakultete.
Pines, A.M., & Aronson, E. (1981). Burnout: From tedium to personal growth. New York:
Free Press.
Punik, M. (1998). Izostajanje gimnazijcev [The absenteeism of the Gimnazia students].
Vzgoja in izobraevanje, 29 (1), 48-50.
Rafferty, J.P., Lemkau, J.P., Purdy, R.R. & Rudsill, J.R. (1986). Validity of the Maslach Burn-
out Inventory for family pracitise physicians. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42
(3), 489492.
Richardsen, A.M., Burke, R.J. & Leiter, M.P. (1992). Occupational demands, psychological
burnout and anxiety among hospital personnel in Norway. Anxiety, Stress and
Coping, 5, 55-68.
Slivar, B. (2000). Temeljne ugotovitve spremljave - povzetek poroèila [The basic findings of
monitoring  synopsis of the report ]. In B. Slivar (Ed.), Poroèilo o spremljavi 1. in
2. letnika prenovljenega gimnazijskega programa [Evaluation of the reformed
grammar school programe for the first and second year  a report] (pp. 7-18).
Ljubljana: Zavod RS za olstvo.
Tomori, M. (1998). Tvegano vedenje v adolescenci [The risky behaviour in adolescence]. In
M. Tomori, E. Stergar, B. Pinter, M. Makovec-Rus, & S. Stikoviè (Eds.), Dejavniki
tveganja pri slovenskih srednjeolcih [Risk factors in the Slovenian grammar
school population] (pp. 5-50). Ljubljana: Psihiatrièna klinika.
Prispelo/Received: 05.12.2000
Sprejeto/Accepted: 08.03.2000
... School-related stress has also been found to be a risk factor for psychosomatic symptoms (Murberg & Bru, 2007) and experiences of high demands in school, have been found to be associated with symptoms of chronic stress (Schraml et al., 2012). Associations between schoolrelated burnout and internalising symptoms like anxiety and depression have also been reported (Salmela-Aro et al., 2009;Slivar, 2001;Walburg, 2014). Therefore, in the current study, we expected that students' academic stress would be associated with self-reported emotional problems. ...
... Hormonal changes can play a role in these developmental differences between genders and may underlie that adolescent girls also seem to have a stronger emotional response to stress than adolescent boys (Bale & Epperson, 2015). The higher impact of stress or burnout among girls has also been supported elsewhere (Lillejord et al., 2017;Slivar, 2001). However, social factors can also play an important role. ...
... Academic stress was strongly associated with emotional problems (supporting H3), and thus in line with theoretical reasoning and the few previous studies that have examined this relationship (Haugan et al., 2021;Slivar, 2001). This is regarded as an important empirical finding that aligns with the argument that succeeding in school is increasingly important for many young people (Eriksen et al., 2017;Inchley et al., 2020). ...
Full-text available
Article
This study investigates the levels of and associations among academic stress, perceived motivational climate and emotional problems in students at Norwegian upper secondary schools. A structural equation model with a sample of 1379 students (Mage 16.5 years old) tested the associations between perceived mastery and performance climates and emotional problems via associations with academic stress. Levels of academic stress and emotional problems were found to be higher among female participants than male participants. Performance climate was related to higher academic stress; it was also related to more emotional problems through its association with academic stress. Mastery climate was associated with lower academic stress, and both directly and indirectly (via academic stress) related to less emotional problems. There was a strong link between academic stress and emotional problems, and this was significantly stronger among female participants. Practical implications are suggested.
... Son yıllarda tükenmişliğe olan ilgi artmasına rağmen tükenmişlik ile ilgili kabul gören tanım ve tanı ölçütleri bulunmamaktadır. Genel olarak tükenmişlik; yorgunluk, duyarsızlaşma, performansta azalma (Kutsal & Bilge, 2012;Weber & Jaekel-Reinhard, 2000), fiziksel, zihinsel ve duygusal tükenme (Slivar, 2001) veuzun süre iş stresine maruz kalma sonucu oluşan psikolojik bir durum olarak ifade edilmektedir (Embriaco, Papazian, Kentish-Barnes, Pochard & Azoulay, 2007). Bireylerin yaşadığı tükenmişliğin sebeplerini ve yapısını araştırmak amacıyla geliştirilen tükenmişliği farklı şekillerde ifade eden ve adlandıran modellerBristlin, Lonner ve Thorndike (1973) tarafından geliştirilen Shirom-Melamed Tükenmişlik Ölçeği, Pines ve Aronson'un (1988) Tükenmişlik Ölçeği, Kristensen, Borritz, Villadsen ve Christensen (2005) tarafından geliştirilen Kopenhag Tükenmişlik Envanteri) bulunmaktadır. ...
... Bunlardan en yaygın olarak kabul göreni ise Maslach'ın tükenmişlik modelidir. Maslach'ın tükenmişlik modeli duyarsızlaşma, duygusal tükenme ve kişisel başarı eksikliği boyutlarından oluşmaktadır (Çapulcuoğlu & Gündüz, 2013b;Kutsal & Bilge, 2012;Maslach, Schaufeli & Leiter;2001). Bu modele dayandırılarak geliştirilen Maslach Tükenmişlik Envanteri özellikle insanlarla birebir iletişim kurmayı gerektiren meslek gruplarında çalışan bireylere uygulanmış ve bu uygulamalar sonucunda tükenmişlik eğitim alanında çalışan kişilerde ve öğrencilerde Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, Yıl: 2022 Cilt: 17 Sayı: 34 yüksek oranlarda görülmüştür (Balkıs, Duru, Buluş & Duru, 2011;Bauer, vd., 2006;Slivar, 2001;Weber & Jaekel-Reinhard, 2000). ...
... Maslach'ın tükenmişlik modeli duyarsızlaşma, duygusal tükenme ve kişisel başarı eksikliği boyutlarından oluşmaktadır (Çapulcuoğlu & Gündüz, 2013b;Kutsal & Bilge, 2012;Maslach, Schaufeli & Leiter;2001). Bu modele dayandırılarak geliştirilen Maslach Tükenmişlik Envanteri özellikle insanlarla birebir iletişim kurmayı gerektiren meslek gruplarında çalışan bireylere uygulanmış ve bu uygulamalar sonucunda tükenmişlik eğitim alanında çalışan kişilerde ve öğrencilerde Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, Yıl: 2022 Cilt: 17 Sayı: 34 yüksek oranlarda görülmüştür (Balkıs, Duru, Buluş & Duru, 2011;Bauer, vd., 2006;Slivar, 2001;Weber & Jaekel-Reinhard, 2000). ...
Article
Öğretmen adaylarının meslekleri ile ilgili istenen performansı gösterebilmeleri duyuşsal özelliklerine de bağlıdır. Öğretmen adaylarının akademik iyimserlik ve tükenmişlikleri onların performanslarını doğrudan etkilemektedir. Öğretmen adaylarının tükenmişlik düzeyleri ile ilgili çalışmalara rastlanmasına karşın, akademik iyimserlik ve tükenmişlik düzeylerinin birlikte ele alındığı ve bu düzeyler üzerinde demografik özelliklerin etkilerine yönelik çalışmalara çok fazla rastlanmamaktadır. Bu doğrultuda bu çalışmanın amacı, cinsiyet, genel ağırlık not ortalaması (GANO), anne-baba tutumu, gelir düzeyi ve anne-baba eğitim durumu değişkenlerine göre öğretmen adaylarının iyimserlik ve tükenmişlik düzeylerini incelemektir. Araştırmada ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Araştırma 2019-2020 güz döneminde Türkiye’nin Akdeniz Bölgesinde yer alan bir devlet üniversitesinin Eğitim Fakültesinde öğrenim gören farklı bölümlerdeki 326 öğretmen adayı (117 erkek ve 209 kadın) ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Katılımcılar amaçlı örnekleme yöntemlerinden kolay ulaşılabilir örnekleme yöntemi kullanılarak belirlenmiştir. Araştırmadan elde edilen sonuçlar, öğretmen adaylarının akademik iyimserliklerinin incelenen tüm değişkenlere göre bir farklılık göstermediğini, tükenmişlik düzeylerinin ise duyarsızlaşma faktöründe kadın öğretmen adaylarının lehine ve anne-baba tutumu faktörlerinde anlamlı olarak bir farklılık olduğunu göstermektedir. Ayrıca öğretmen adaylarının akademik iyimserlik ve tükenmişlik düzeyleri arasında negatif yönde bir ilişkinin olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
... It is also known that learners' excessive expectations from themselves may lead to the actual and objective perception of their pressures, resulting in stress about studying a foreign language learning (Ireland et al., 2020;Nejad et al., 2022;Slivar, 2001). Mainly, the individual factors related to academic stress can be divided into four personality traits: self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. ...
... − 2.394 < 0.05 Accept 2022; Snyder et al., 2012;Kakabraei et al., 2013;Struthers et al., 2000). Although there is no unified effort on the mechanism of the effect of their evaluations on the coping process, Nejad et al. (2022) and Slivar (2001) showed with their stress exchange model that the core of their evaluations influences coping styles. As people with positive core beliefs believe they can control the environment, they report less stressful factors. ...
Full-text available
Article
While several studies have addressed the interconnections between self-assessment and academic stress, much uncertainty still exists about the mediating role of coping styles in this interplay. Therefore, this research aimed to determine the mediating role of coping styles in the relationship between the core of self-assessment and academic stress. To this aim, a total of 384 English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in the training institutes in Woldia, Ethiopia, filled out three questionnaires, including self-evaluations, the coping styles, and the academic stress. The analysis of the data using structural equation modeling revealed that the core of self-assessment had significant negative effects on academic stress, emotion-based coping, and avoidance. Furthermore, self-assessment with the mediating role of other factors, namely problem-oriented coping, emotion-based coping, and avoidance coping showed to have a negative and significant effect on academic stress. Based on the findings, it is possible to receive personality traits as an individual factor, predict differences in individuals coping styles of academic stress, and, as a result, teach appropriate coping styles to EFL learners to reduce their academic stress.
... Additionally, 50.8 percent of students experience a high amount of burnout during online learning (Alsaad et al., 2021). According to the research discussed previously, numerous factors influence the burnout study, including self-control, work overload, a lack of control, a lack of reward, a lack of community, value conflict, job mismatch, social support, and demographics (Seibert et al., 2016;Slivar, 2001;Yang, 2004). (Maslach & Leiter, 2008). ...
... In general, burnout research is influenced by a variety of elements both internal and external to the human self. Numerous factors affecting burnout can be classified into three categories: demographic factors, such as gender, age, and education; personal factors, such as work stress, workload, and personality type; and organizational factors, such as working conditions and support (Maslach & Leiter; Stephenson & Several) additional experts concurred, stating that the burnout study was influenced by factors such as self-concept, work overload, a lack of social support, a loss of control, a lack of reward, demographic considerations, and a lack of justice (Seibert et al., 2016;Slivar, 2001;Yang, 2004). The following section discusses these elements in further detail. ...
Full-text available
Book
Tele collaboration technology and pedagogy in virtual era is very important. Redesign curriculum based on the students Gen Z characteristic is not easy. The important of innovation and creating is not new topic on educational sector. In particular, "the link between teaching and practice, between pedagogical skills and subject knowledge, and between values and technical competence, should be stressed and demonstrate that improved technological teacher education can serve to support in which future teachers may conceptualize their work and put these theories into practice in an iterative reflection cycle. It is unusual to note that using technology to build 'digital areas' for collaborative learning and creating teaching model for digitarian
... Research regarding the relationship between anxiety, perceived stress, and academic behavior found that perceived stress can significantly predict academic burnout (Yu, 2017). When students feel that academic pressure and levels of anxiety increase, it leads to a rise in the level of academic burnout (Slivar, 2001;Sevari and Kandy, 2019). In addition, perceived stress and anxiety are significant influencing factors of academic involution. ...
Full-text available
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant negative effect on university students’ mental health worldwide. The pandemic has resulted in individuals experiencing increased levels of anxiety and stress as well as intensified concerns about the future due to a rise in uncertainty. To eliminate the anxiety and stress caused by uncertainty, individuals who have high cognitive closure needs are strongly motivated to achieve certainty and seek answers, even if the decisions they make in the process are inappropriate or even irrational. This study attempts to analyze the influence of anxiety and stress on university students’ academic involution behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic through the mediating effect of the need for cognitive closure. Analyzing the survey data collected from 402 university students from 3 different universities through the mediating effect model and path analysis with latent variable (PA-LV), our results indicate that: (1) The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly increased the levels of anxiety and stress experienced by university students. The path coefficient of the perceived risk of contracting COVID-19 to perceived emotions (including anxiety and stress) was 0.352 ( p < 0.01), (2) anxiety and stress significantly and positively affect academic involution behavior. For each unit of increase in the scores of anxiety and stress, the scores of academic involution behavior increased by 0.408 ( p < 0.01) and 0.398 ( p < 0.01) units, respectively, and (3) The need for cognitive closure had a complete and partial mediating effect on the relationship between the perceived risk of contracting COVID-19 and academic involution behavior, as well as anxiety and academic involution behavior, respectively. The results of PA-LV showed that the mediating effect values were 0.106 and 0.044, respectively. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has not yet come to an end and so clarifying the relationship between anxiety and academic involution behavior will assist university students to optimize the relationship in their own subjective situations, to establish good learning habits, and reduce psychological distress.
... Menurut Thabrany (1995) kelelahan merupakan salah satu faktor yang dapat mengganggu dan menyebabkan penurunan konsentrasi belajar, Gejala yang paling menonjol dari kelelahan mental ini adalah rasa bosan atau jenuh. Siswa yang mengalami kejenuhan belajar sulit untuk berkonsentrasi karena pada dasarnya konsentrasi belajar membutuhkan kesiapan belajar, ketika siswa jenuh maka siswa tidak siap untuk menerima materi yang akan disampaikan oleh guru (Slivar, 2001). Selain kejenuhan belajar yang dapat mempengaruhi konsentrasi belajar pada proses belajar yaitu interaksi sosial. ...
Full-text available
Article
Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh burnout studi dan interaksi sosial dengan konsentrasi dalam belajar pada 80 siswa dengan Islam sistem sekolah asrama modern di Samarinda. Ukuran yang digunakan dalam hal ini Penelitian adalah konsentrasi dalam skala pembelajaran, skala burnout studi dan sosial skala interaksi yang diuji dengan analisis regresi berganda dengan SPSS 2. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ada pengaruh antara burnout studi dan interaksi sosial dengan nilai p signifikan = 0,000 dan F hitung 14,043 dan F tabel 3.12, dengan jumlah pengaruh 26,7%. Tidak ada efek antara kelelahan belajar dan konsentrasi dalam pembelajaran dengan nilai p 0,572, t hitung -0,059 dan t tabel 1,991. Ada pengaruh antara interaksi sosial dengan konsentrasi belajar dengan nilai p 0,000, t hitung 4,784 dan t tabel 1.991
... Expecting high effort and achievement without providing necessary support to cope with academic demands, is one of the major characteristics of such a setting (Neumann et al., 1990). Personal factors and outcomes related with academic burnout are depression, anxiety and negative self-image (Salmela-Aro et al., 2009;Slivar, 2001), as well as negative emotions regulation strategies (Chen, 2021). On the other hand, social support, life satisfaction, and school engagement are some of the factors which are negatively associated with academic burnout (Akbaşlı et al., 2019;Ye et al., 2021). ...
Full-text available
Article
The aim of the present study was to determine whether COVID-19 burnout and emotional distress predicted academic burnout, and to assess the mediating role of emotional distress, on the relationship between COVID-19 burnout and academic burnout in university students. The sample consisted of 311 (259 female and 52 male) students enrolled in undergraduate (87.1%), master/doctorate programs (12.9%).
Article
Introduction School burnout (SBO) is a public health issue with possible long-term consequences that occurs among developing adolescents. To design prevention policies, SBO's causes and consequences must be established. Moreover, a better understanding of its development might help identify key moments for interventions. Longitudinal studies can reveal whether SBO changes or remains stable over time and can track how its different dimensions develop. They can also clarify the distinction between the predictors and outcomes of SBO. Methods This systematic review follows PRISMA guidelines and aims to synthesize knowledge about the development of SBO and its predictors and outcomes. We queried databases for articles published between January 2002 and February 2021 that use a quantitative assessment of SBO and have longitudinal designs using students in secondary education. Results Forty-three articles representing 48 studies were included in this review. The most-documented risk factors are female gender and high school academic track. Exhaustion is the first dimension of SBO to develop. The most-documented risk factors are female gender and high school academic track. Relationships with parents serve as a protective factor. Outcomes of SBO include lower engagement at school, impaired identity development, and lower satisfaction with life. Complex relationships are found between SBO, problematic use of internet, problematic use of social media, and depressive symptoms. The three are likely to be caused by SBO but probably develop in vicious cycles. Conclusion More research on the organizational factors influencing SBO in diverse educational systems is needed.
Article
Background Academic burnout is a common issue that interferes with the role shift from nursing students to qualified nurses and aggravates a shortage of workforce in global healthcare system. According to the Areas of Worklife Scale, developed by Maslach and Leiter, there are six dimensions that encompass the major antecedents of burnout. Therefore, it's well worth an exploration to understand academic burnout and its' underlying mechanism based on the theoretical instrument. Specifically, academic burnout, professional attitude, academic self-efficacy and smartphone addiction were selected as observation variables after widely literature review. Objective The purpose of this study is to examine academic burnout and figure out the relationships between academic burnout, professional attitude, academic self-efficacy and smartphone addiction among nursing students. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting The study was conducted in a nursing department in Anhui province in eastern China. Participants 1445 nursing students. Methods Academic burnout, professional attitude, academic self-efficacy and smartphone addiction of participants were measured using online questionnaires with a supportive platform called “wenjuanxing”. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlations, and path analysis. Results Of all the participants, 44.26 % had a certain degree of academic burnout. Professional attitude and academic self-efficacy were negatively related to academic burnout. Smartphone addiction was positively associated with academic burnout. Meanwhile, academic self-efficacy and smartphone addiction partly mediated the effect of professional attitude on academic burnout. Conclusion The compound strategies targeted at boosting positive professional attitude, fostering academic self-efficacy, and controlling the smartphone addiction are warranted for decreasing academic burnout.
Full-text available
Article
The present study reports the results of a questionnaire survey among 212 health care workers at a hospital in Northern Norway. Measures included burnout, trait anxiety, various job demands and supports, and work attitudes (job satisfaction and organizational commitment). Results provided support for Maslach's conceptualization of the burnout syndrome cross-culturally. Correlations among the three burnout subscales, as well as organizational correlates of burnout were generally consistent with earlier findings. The burnout scores of hospital workers were higher than North American norms, and some occupational differencs among subscales were found. A model of individual characteristics, job demands, burnout, and work attitudes was tested through a series of multiple regressions. Trait anxiety as well as job demands contributed to burnout. The influence of trait anxiety on work attitudes was mediated through emotional exhaustion. However, in addition to emotional exhaustion, both job demands and organizational supports had direct effects on work attitudes. Thus, burnout does not fully operate as a mediating variable between demands and attitudes such as commitment. The study also addressed the issue of individual differences in the burnout response and focused on the need to systematically investigate the relaive importance of situational versus personality variables in future burnout research.
Full-text available
Article
Too often, theories of emotions in humans are simple extensions of theories of emotions in subhuman animals. Though it is reasonable to extend our knowledge of emotions from lower to higher order animals, there is one major difference between man and other animals that imposes a serious limitation on this procedure. The difference is that man has a highly developed conceptual system that not only structures the content of what he fears, but itself must be defended against threat. Expressed otherwise, fears in animals are primarily a consequence of threats to life and limb, while in humans they are primarily a consequence of threats to ego. There are essentially two basic types of threat to ego, threats to the assimilative capacity of an individual's conceptual system, and threats to his self-esteem.
Article
Studied personality as a conditioner of the effects of stressful life events on illness onset. Two groups of middle- and upper-level 40-49 yr old executives had comparably high degrees of stressful life events in the previous 3 yrs, as measured by the Schedule of Recent Events. One group of 86 Ss suffered high stress without falling ill, whereas the other group of 75 Ss reported becoming sick after their encounter with stressful life events. Illness was measured by the Seriousness of Illness Survey (A. R. Wyler et al 1970). Discriminant function analysis, run on half of the Ss in each group and cross-validated on the remaining cases, supported the prediction that high stress/low illness executives show, by comparison with high stress/high illness executives, more hardiness, that is, have a stronger commitment to self, an attitude of vigorousness toward the environment, a sense of meaningfulness, and an internal locus of control. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
In order to understand how human motives affect human conduct it is necessary to deal with the question of how problems arising by the so-called defense-mechanisms or mechanisms of adjustment influence us. In reviewing the mechanisms of adjustment in motivational theory the author points out the lack of systematic treatment, and the paucity of carefully formulated experimentation. The assumption is made that "all the mechanisms imply a self-reference, and that the mechanisms are not understandable unless we adopt a concept of the self." Three aspects of the concept of the self are discussed. (1) The mechanisms and the self. (2) The self present in awareness. (3) The inferred self. The establishment of laboratories for the study of psychodynamics is recommended. Psychologists who work in these laboratories will stem from heterogeneous backgrounds, yet they will be united in their scientific research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study assesses the utility of Maslach's concept of burnout for family practice physicians. Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) subscale correlations for the 67 residents in this sample are compared with Maslach's normative sample. The residents scored in the moderate to high range on the MBI subscales. MBI interscale correlations were similar to the pattern reported by Maslach. Significant correlations between job satisfaction and five of the six MBI subscales suggest that the construct of burnout has considerable psychological import for these physicians. The validity of the emotional exhaustion subscale is demonstrated by significant correlations with self-assessed burnout, job satisfaction, and faculty assessments of resident burnout. Independent observers were most sensitive to residents' emotional exhaustion and less likely to assess accurately the less visible aspects of burnout related to depersonalization and lack of achievement, which suggests the usefulness of multiple measures for assessing the burnout phenomenon.
Psihodiagnostika osebnosti I [Psychodiagnostics of personalitiy I]. Ljubljana: Znanstveni inštitut Filozofske fakultete
  • T Lamovec
Lamovec, T. (Ed.) (1994). Psihodiagnostika osebnosti I [Psychodiagnostics of personalitiy I]. Ljubljana: Znanstveni inštitut Filozofske fakultete.
Temeljne ugotovitve spremljave -povzetek poroèila
  • B Slivar
Slivar, B. (2000). Temeljne ugotovitve spremljave -povzetek poroèila [The basic findings of monitoring synopsis of the report ].
Nekateri dejavniki veèdimenzionalnega doživljanja mladostnikove lastne podobe ter njihov vpliv na avtoagresivno vedenje [Some factors of multidimensional experiencing of self-image in teenagers and their influence on the auto-agressive behaviour]. Raziskovalna naloga [The research report]
  • T Paènik
  • B Zalar
Paènik, T. & Zalar, B. (1986). Nekateri dejavniki veèdimenzionalnega doživljanja mladostnikove lastne podobe ter njihov vpliv na avtoagresivno vedenje [Some factors of multidimensional experiencing of self-image in teenagers and their influence on the auto-agressive behaviour]. Raziskovalna naloga [The research report]. Ljubljana: Univerzitetna psihiatrièna klinika, Center za mentalno zdravje, Oddelek za mladostnike.
Psihosomatske in adaptacijske motnje pri tudentih ljubljanske Univerze [Psychosomatic and adaptation disturbances with students of the University in Ljubljana
  • M Bencik-Murk
Bencik-Murk, M. (1988). Psihosomatske in adaptacijske motnje pri tudentih ljubljanske Univerze [Psychosomatic and adaptation disturbances with students of the University in Ljubljana]. Zdravstveno varstvo, 28, 253-256.