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Medicinal and pharmacological potential of Nigella sativa: A review

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Ethnobotanical Review 13: 946-55, 2009.
Medicinal and Phamacological Potential of Nigella sativa:
A Review
N. K. Sharma*, D. Ahirwar, D. Jhade and S. Gupta
School of Pharmacy, Chouksey Engineering College, Bilaspur, (C.G.)-India
* Corresponding Author
Issued July 01, 2009
Herbs are vital source of drugs from the ancient time holding the scenario of the Indian
system of medicine. Nigella sativa commonly known as karayal is an annual flowering
plant, native to southwest Asia. Seeds and their oil have a long history of folklore usage in
various systems of medicines and are used in food as well as medicine. The present paper
enumerates the medicinal, pharmacological, traditional value and folk remedies of this
herb, which may help the researchers to set their minds for approaching the utility, efficacy
and potency of Nigella sativa.
Key Words: Nigella sativum, Karayal, seeds, Pharmacological activities.
N. sativa, known as kalonji, black cumin is used as a spice in Indian and Middle Eastern cuisine.
The dry roasted seeds flavor curries, vegetables and pulses. The black seeds taste like oregano and
have bitterness to them like mustard-seeds. It can be used as a "pepper" in recipes with pod fruit,
vegetables, salads and poultry.
Nigella is a genus of about 14 species of annual plants in the family Ranunculaceae, native to
southern Europe, North Africa and Southwest Asia. Common names applied to members of this genus
are Devil-in-a-bush or Love in a mist. The plant grows to 20-90 cm tall, with finely divided leaves, the
leaf segments narrowly linear to threadlike. The flowers are white, yellow, pink, pale blue or pale
purple, with 5-10 petals. The fruit is a capsule composed of several united follicles, each containing
numerous seeds [1].
Nigella sativa commonly known as karayal (English: Small Fennel, Black Cumin; Sanskrit:
Kalonji, Kalajira, Kalajaji, Mugrela, Upakuncika) is an annual flowering plant, native to southwest
Asia. The plant is indigenous to the Mediterranean region but now found widely in India (Jammu,
Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, Assam and Punjab). The herb is also cultivated in Bengal and
north-east India. [2].
Several species are grown as ornamental plants in gardens, popular for their seed capsules, which
are used in dried flower arrangements. Karayal are used exclusively for dried arrangements. The
flowers are the best to add texture to any dried flower arrangement. The delicate purple striped pods
are used in several arrangements for an airy effect.
Scientific Classification [3]
Kingdom : Plantae
Division : Magnoliophyta
Order : Ranunculales
Family : Ranunculaceae
Genus : Nigella
Species : sativa
It is small prostrate annual herb about 45 cm high 2-3 slender leaves pinnatisect, 2-4 cm long cut
into linear segment, segments oblong. Flowers pale, blue on solitary long peduncles, seeds trigonous
and black in colour. The plant has a rather stiff, erect, branching stem, bears deeply-cut greyish-green
leaves and terminal greyishblue flowers, followed by odd, toothed seed vessels, filled with small
somewhat compressed seeds, usually three-cornered, with two sides flat and one convex, black or
brown externally white and oleaginous, strong agreeable aromatic odour, like that of nutmegs, and a
spicy, pungent taste. The flowers are delicate, and usually coloured pale blue and white, with 510
petals (Fig. 1). The fruit is a large and inflated capsule composed of 37 united follicles, each
containing numerous seeds. It has a pungent bitter taste and a faint smell of strawberries [4, 5].
Fig 1. Nigella sativa (whole plant, Flower and seeds).
According to Zohary and Hopf, archeological evidence about the earliest cultivation of N. sativa
"is still scanty", but they report that N. sativa seeds have been found in several sites from ancient
Egypt, including Tutankhamun's tomb. Although its exact role in Egyptian culture is unknown, it is
known that items entombed with a pharaoh were carefully selected to assist him in the after life [6].
Folk Medicine
Nigella sativa has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries, both as a herb and pressed into
oil, in Asia, Middle East, and Africa. It has been traditionally used for a variety of conditions and
treatments related to respiratory health, stomach and intestinal health, kidney and liver function,
circulatory and immune system support, and for general well-being. In Islam, it is regarded as one of
the greatest forms of healing medicine available. The Islamic prophet Muhammad once stated that the
black seed can heal every disease except death. Avicenna, most famous for his volumes called The
Canon of Medicine, refers to Nigella as the seed that stimulates the body's energy and helps recovery
from fatigue and dispiritedness. It is also included in the list of natural drugs of 'Tibb-e-Nabavi', or
"Medicine of the Prophet (Muhammad)", according to the tradition "hold onto the use of the black
seeds for healing all diseases. In the Unani Tibb system of medicine, N. sativa is regarded as a valuable
remedy for a number of diseases. The seeds have been traditionally used in the Middle East and
Southeast Asian countries to treat ailments including asthma, bronchitis, rheumatism and related
inflammatory diseases, to increase milk production in nursing mothers, to promote digestion and to
fight parasitic infections. Its oil has been used to treat skin conditions such as eczema and boils and to
treat cold symptoms. Its many uses have earned Nigella the Arabic approbation 'Habbatul barakah',
meaning the seed of blessing. [7, 8]. Karayal seeds and their oil have a long history of folklore usage in
Arabian and Indian civilisation and are used in food as well as medicine. The seeds are used as
flavouring, to improve digestion and produce warmth, especially in cold climates. They are sometimes
scattered in the folds of woollen fabrics to preserve them from insect damage[9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14].
In India the seeds are used as a carminative and stimulant to ease bowel and indigestion problems
and are given to treat intestinal worms and nerve defects to reduce flatulence, and induce sweating.
Dried pods are sniffed to restore a lost sense of smell. It is also used to repel some insects, much like
Traditional Uses
Karayal seeds are used as a carminative, aromatic, stimulant, diuretic, anthelmintic, galactagogue
and diaphoretic. They are used as a condiment in curries. A tincture prepared from the seeds is useful
in indigestion, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, dropsy, amenorrhoea and dysmenorrhoea and in the
treatment of worms and skin eruptions. Externally the oil is used as an antiseptic. To arrest vomiting,
seeds are roasted and given internally.
Chemical Composition [15, 16, 17, 18]
Seeds contain numerous esters of structurally unusual unsaturated fatty acids with terpene
alcohols (7%); furthermore, traces of alkaloids are found which belong to two different types:
isochinoline alkaloids are represented by nigellimin and nigellimin-N-oxide, and pyrazol alkaloids
include nigellidin and nigellicin.
In the essential oil (avr. 0.5%, max. 1.5%), thymoquinone was identified as the main component
(up to 50%) besides p-cymene (40%), pinene (up to 15%), dithymoquinone and thymohydroquinone.
Other terpene derivatives were found only in trace amounts: Carvacrol, carvone, limonene, 4-terpineol,
Furthermore, the essential oil contains significant (10%) amounts of fatty acid ethyl esters. On
storage, thymoquinone yields dithymoquinonene and higher oligocondensation products. The seeds
also contain a fatty oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids, mainly linoleic acid (50 60%), oleic acid (20%),
eicodadienoic acid (3%) and dihomolinoleic acid (10%).
Saturated fatty acids (palmitic, stearic acid) amount to about 30% or less. Also contain parts of the
essential oil, mostly thymoquinone, by which it acquires an aromatic flavour.
The seeds give on steam-distillation a yellowish brown volatile oil with an unpleasant odor. The oil
contains carvone, d -limonene, and a carbonyl compound, nigellone.
Pharmacology [19, 20,]
1. Antimicrobial activity: Nigella sativa exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against
Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and others. The essential oil has been shown to have
activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, sensitivity against Gram-
positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholerae was found to be stronger.
Bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, S. pyogenes and S. viridans are more susceptible to Nigella
sativa. In an in-vitro study, volatile oil showed activity comparable to ampicillin. The activity of
the volatile oil also extended to drug-resistant strains of Shigella spp, Vibrio cholerae and
Escherichia coli and was found to have a synergistic action with streptomycin and gentamycin.
2. Hepatoprotective activity: Thymoquinone, one of the active constituents of Nigella sativa, is
reported to have hepatoprotective activity." An in-vitro study showed the protective effect
against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced oxidative damage to hepatocytes. The activity
was demonstrated by a decreased leakage of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartic transaminase
(AST) and decreased trypan blue uptake.
3. Antidiabetic activity: Significant hypoglycaemic activity has been reported and is thought to
be due to the essential oil present. Clinical studies have confirmed these results and suggest that
the antidiabetic action of the plant extract.
4. Antiinflammatory activity: Asthma and arthritis are chronic inflammatory disorders
involving a variety of inflammatory mediators and different pathways. The fixed oil and
thymoquinone from the seeds were found to inhibit eicosanoid generation in leucocytes and
membrane lipid peroxidation and a significant reduction in rat paw oedema and a reduction in
granuloma pouch weight were also observed. Nigellone in low concentration is effective in
inhibiting the histamine release from the mast cells, which supports an antiasthmatic role for the
5. Antifertility activity: The antifertility activity of Nigella sativa in male rats has been
established, shown by an inhibition of spermatogenesis and a significant reduction in sialic acid
content of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate.
6. Antioxytocic adivity: Preliminary reports suggest antioxytocic properties, in that a reversible
inhibition of spontaneous smooth muscle contraction and inhibition of uterine smooth muscle
contraction induced by oxytocin stimulation have been observed.
7. Cytotoxic adivity: Cytotoxic and immunopotentiating effects of Nigella sativa have been
established. The long chain fatty acids are thought to contribute to the antitumour activity. The
extract shows a modulatory effect in cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice and a protective effect
against cisplatin-induced falls in haemoglobin levels and leucocyte counts.
8. Anthelmintic adivity: Nigella sativa was found to have an anthelmintic activity against
tapeworm comparable to that of piperazine.
9.Analgesic adivity: The essential oil produced significant analgesic activity using chemical and
thermal noxious stimuli methods such as acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate and tail flick
10.Other activites: Other reports include hypocholesterolaemic, antihypertensive and
galactagogue effects.
Indications and Usage [21]
Nigella sativa has been used for thousands of years in the Middle East for allergies, asthma, and for
treating immune disorders. Recent research has shown that Nigella sativa increases the number of
mammary cells in laboratory animals.
Great research has been done on Nigella sativa in regards to it's anti-cancer properties, especially
breast cancer with promising results.
Precautions and Adverse Reactions [22]
No health hazards or side effects are known with the proper administration of designated therapeutic
Safety profile [22]
Seeds of Nigella sativa have a long history of use for food and medicinal purposes. No adverse or side
effects have been reported when used within the recommended dosage, although dermatitis has been
Herbs are the natural drugs used to regain the alterations made in normal physiological system by
foreign organisms or by any malfunctioning of the body. The WHO has already recognized the
contribution of traditional health care in tribal communities. It is very essential to have a proper
documentation of medicinal plants and to know their potential for the improvement of health and
hygiene through an eco friendly system. Thus importance should be given to the potentiality of studies
as these can provide a very effective strategy for the discovery of useful medicinally active identity. A
detailed and systematic study is required for identification, cataloguing and documentation of plants,
which may provide a meaningful way for the promotion of the traditional knowledge of the herbal
medicinal plants. The present review reveals that Nigella sativa is used in treating various ailments. It
elicits on all the aspects of the herb and throws the attention to set the mind of the researchers to carry
out the work for developing its various formulations, which can ultimately be beneficial for the human
beings as well as animals.
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acta, 1949, 32, 939
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Dhar & Sons Pvt. Ltd. Calcuta, 2nd ed. 1958
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... It is also found in India, especially in eastern region Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar and Assam. The medicinal herb is also cultivated in Bengal and north-east India (Sharma et al., 2009). ...
The aim of the present review is to increase the level of interest among agriculturists to cultivate Nigella sativa (a medicinal herb), pharmaceutical industries to dispense its herbal products and researchers to investigate more and more of its pharmacological effects, physiological effects and therapeutic efficacy. The cultivation of Nigella sativa-a medicinal plants/herb will facilitate its conservation. Medicinally important Nigella sativa commonly known as black seeds were searched and reviewed via Green Medinfo, Embase, Scopus, Pubmed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The search terms were Nigella sativa, black seed, and medicinal plant, traditional, natural and herbal medicine. Nigella sativa can be used and cultivated for culinary, medicinal, fragrant or other household purposes, Infact it can be Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antibacterial, Anti hepatotoxic, Antioxidant, Anti-diabetic
... Aftab et al. (2013) have reported on the use of the seeds of this plant as a cure for various disease conditions. Also, it is used to stop vomiting (Sharma et al., 2009), and the oils have also been shown to possess radical Scavenging effects (Altan, 2007;Burits and Bucar, 2000). S. mombin (Linn) is a fructiferous plant from belonging to Anarcardiaceae family. ...
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A major therapeutic approach presently used in managing Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is the use of glucosidase and amylase inhibitors. Hence the growing attention in the quest for medicinal plants of natural sources with inhibitory potentials on these enzymes. This study was done, therefore, to determine the inhibitory potentials of the different parts of three medicinal plants; Nigella sativum (seeds), Spondias mombin (leaves and stem bark), and Picralima nitida (seeds and mesocarp) on α-amylase and α-glucosidase as well as to determine inhibition kinetics. The in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the plant extract were assessed using 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) and p-nitro-phenyl-aD glucopyranoside (p-NPG) respectively. The results indicated that all plant extracts assayed exhibited better α-glucosidase inhibitory effects than the reference drug(acarbose), as indicated by the higher IC50 (76.10 µg/mL) value of the reference drug, whereas the n-hexane extract of N. sativum seeds gave the best α-amylase effect (IC50 = 35.83 µg/mL). All the extracts exhibited an "uncompetitive" type of inhibition pattern. Our findings hence support the use of these plants in the management of diabetic conditions.
... Nigella sativa (NS), a medicinal herb frequently known as black seed or Kalonji, is a member of a Ranunculaceae family, well known for its pharmacological action against various human diseases [11]. Its cultivation is native to Southwest Asia, Southern Europe, and North Africa [12]. ...
... Biologically active compounds of Nigella sativa are not stable during different chemical reactions, and their prescribed amount was not appropriate for clinical research. The Nigella sativa seeds also have unsaturated fatty acid esters with nigellimin, terpene alcohols, saponin, and the alkaloid nigellidine [46,47]. According to Agbaria et al. [48], the unroasted seeds have less anti-proliferative activity than the pretreated heated seeds • C, about 10 min) for the milling process. ...
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The current review investigates the effects of black seed (Nigella sativa) on human health, which is also used to encapsulate and oxidative stable in different food products. In recent decades, many extraction methods, such as cold pressing, supercritical fluid extraction, Soxhlet extraction, hydro distillation (HD) method, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction, steam distillation, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) have been used to extract the oils from black seeds under optimal conditions. Black seed oil contains essential fatty acids, in which the major fatty acids are linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids. The oxidative stability of black seed oil is very low, due to various environmental conditions or factors (temperature and light) affecting the stability. The oxidative stability of black seed oil has been increased by using encapsulation methods, including nanoprecipitation, ultra-sonication, spray-drying, nanoprecipitation, electrohydrodynamic, atomization, freeze-drying, a electrospray technique, and coaxial electrospraying. Black seed, oil, microcapsules, and their components have been used in various food processing, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmetics industries as functional ingredients for multiple purposes. Black seed and oil contain thymoquinone as a major component, which has anti-oxidant, -diabetic, -inflammatory, -cancer, -viral, and -microbial properties, due to its phenolic compounds. Many clinical and experimental studies have indicated that the black seed and their by-products can be used to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, chronic cancer, diabetes, oxidative stress, polycystic ovary syndrome, metabolic disorders, hypertension, asthma, and skin disorders. In this review, we are focusing on black seed oil composition and increasing the stability using different encapsulation methods. It is used in various food products to increase the human nutrition and health properties.
... It can be a valid tool for health promotion due to its multiple mechanisms of action and low toxicity (Majdalawieh et al., 2017). Its oil has also been used for lung disease, hypercholesterolemia, arthritis, stomach and intestinal health, liver and kidney function, immune system support and respiratory health (Gali-Muhtasib et al., 2006;Sharma et al., 2009). N. sativa is used by Iranians as a traditional treatment for infertility (Salehi Surmaghi, 2008). ...
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of thymoquinone (TQ), which is the most essential active compound of Nigella sativa, on the spermatological parameters of ram semen during cryopreservation. Ejaculates were collected from five Sonmez rams using an artificial vagina and extended with Tris‐based extender not containing TQ (control, 0 μg/ml TQ) and containing 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml TQ. The extended semen samples were equilibrated in a + 4°C cold cabinet for 2 h. After 2 h, the samples were loaded into 0.25 ml French straws. The straws were frozen by liquid nitrogen vapour and stored in a liquid nitrogen container (−196°C). The frozen straws were thawed in a water bath (37°C for 30 s) and evaluated in terms of motility characteristics, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels, lipid peroxidation levels, DNA damage and biochemical alterations (oxidative stress index, malondialdehyde and glutathione). TQ100 had higher total motility (53.59 ± 3.01) and progressive motility (19.84 ± 1.44; not significantly different from TQ25 and TQ50) compared to the control and TQ10 (p ˂ 0.05). According to the results of the analyses on motility characteristics, there were significant differences between the groups in terms of curvilinear velocity (VCL), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) and linearity (LIN; p ˂ 0.05). The highest DNA damage was detected in the control group (p ˂ 0.05). TQ50 had higher plasma membrane and acrosome integrity (59.56 ± 5.92) compared to the control and TQ25 (p < 0.05) but not significantly different from TQ10 and TQ100. The lowest mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels were detected in TQ50 and TQ100 (p ˂ 0.05). There were no significant differences among the groups in terms of their oxidative stress index, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde and glutathione levels (p > 0.05). According to the results, it could be concluded that supplementing 50 or 100 μg/ml TQ to Tris extenders that were used for ram semen cryopreservation showed a positive effect on motility, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity, and it reduced DNA damage and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels.
... The compound Caryophyllene oxide is bicyclic sesquiterpenes, has major anticancer properties, impacting increase and propagation of several cancers cells and also, is recognized as antimicrobial activities against a broad spectrum of bacteria and fungi. Plants are one of the natural sources of bioactive substances, lots of them can be used to promote fitness and fight disease status and lots are used as foodstuff or herbal medications (Sharma et al. 2009). The current findings are consistent with Laribi et al. (2013), who cited the predominance of Carvone and Limonene in essential oils of Tunisian, German, and Egyptian caraway ecotypes. ...
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Purpose: Essential oils (EOs) obtained from spices, herbs and medicinal plants are well known in traditional medicine and are an area of interest due to their various biological activities. Therefore, present study investigate the chemical composition, phytochemical properties as well as the biological activity of EOs recovered from un-irradiated and irradiated (2.5, 5, and 10 kGy) caraway seeds. Materials and methods: Carum carvi L. seeds were irradiated with gamma irradiation at dose levels 2.5, 5, and 10 kGy, then EOs were recovered from all the samples. The chemical composition, phenols and flavonoids content were evaluated. As well as, antimicrobial and antitumor activities against the two cell lines [colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) and liver cancer (HepG-2)] were invistigated. Results: The results indicated the percentage of oil increased by radiation, especially at dose of 10 kGy, which gave the highest percentage (3.50%) compared to the control. Also, the Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of twenty six compounds in the essential oil extracts . The main constituent of caraway seeds EOs was Carvone followed by Limonene. According to the results, there was an increase in the content of phenols and flavonoids by using gamma rays compared with control, the maximum increase was observed at dose level 10 kGy (13.70 and 7.38 mg/g oil, respectively) followed by 5 kGy (11.20 and 5.86 mg/g oil, respectively). The antioxidant properties of the caraway essential oils were increased by increasing irradiation dose level (2.5 to 10 kGy) analyzed by DPPH radical and metal chelating activity. Caraway essential oils have an antimicrobial action against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as well as fungi. The antimicrobial activity was increased as irradiation dose raised and the10 kGy dose was more effective in suppressing the growth of bacteria and fungi. Aditionally, the caraway essential oils have anticancer activity against the two cell lines studied; colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) and liver cancer cell line (HepG-2) as reduced the cell viability and density. Conclusion: The 10 kGy dose was more effective for oil yield, phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity as well as antibacterial and antifungal activities. Furthermore, the caraway essential oils indicated anticancer activity against the two cell lines studied; colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) and liver cancer cell line (HepG-2) as reduced the cell viability and density. So caraway could be considered an important herb with multiple therapeutic uses.
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Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural treatments and form the foundation of the Indian medical system. Most of the world's population relies on herbal therapy for health-related issues. Nigella sativa L., commonly referred to as black cumin, has been widely used as a remedy for many alments. Seeds and oil of black cumin are used in food as well as medicine and have a long tradition of folklore applications in Indian traditional medicine systems (Unani and Ayurveda), Chinese medicine, Malay medicine, Arabic, and Islamic medicine. It consists of several bioactive substances, including carvacrol, thymoquinone, p-cymene, thymol, thymohydroquinone, dithymoquinone, 4-terpineol, t-anethole, sesquiterpene longifolene, and a-pinene. Among them, TQ plays a crucial role in the treatment of various diseases. Comprehensive research on the N. sativa plant suggests various biological activities, including antibacterial, bronchodilator, digestive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antiglycation, diuretic, liver tonic, anti-inflammatory, renal protective, appetite stimulant, antihypertensive, analgesic antimicrobial, anticancer, immunomodulator, and hepatoprotective. The present study focuses on highlighting the traditional and modern medicinal significance of N. sativa.
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Nigella sativa L. is a therapeutic natural herb that cures several serious ailments, so can be considered a Golden remedy. It has been used for centuries and has a long history in different cultures. This review article has surveyed nearly all the relevant literature on Nigella sativa L. from 1960-2020, offering a broad range of data including the origin, taxonomy, botany, history of traditional uses in different regions then passing through their phytochemistry, pharmacology, and consumed natural pharmaceutical preparations till recent findings and their possible use in COVID-19 therapy. The main aim of this review is to focus on the importance of Nigella sativa L. as a medicinal herb used widely in therapy and to correlate its phytochemical constituents with their pharmacological effects. The biological importance was attributed to Thymoquinone in the first-place present in the volatile oil of the seeds and other classes such as sterols, triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids, and cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, coumarins, volatile bases, glucosinolates, and anthraquinones. Moreover, several studies confirmed its benefits in Alzheimer’s disease, as a potent antioxidant, cytotoxic, antiallergic, antimicrobial, etc. In addition to other studies which documented the use of this plant mainly the seeds and the extracted essential oil, in the production of cosmeceutical preparations, and its role as a nutritive spice in the food industry due to its very low toxicity, besides their use as fodder for farm animals. Keywords: Black cumin, essential oil, immuno-stimulant, Nigella sativa L., Ranunculaceae, Thymoquinone.
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Background This review of relevant medicinal plants is based on the fundamental knowledge accumulated by indigenous people of Ethiopia and to identify which types of selected medicinal plants for phytochemical analysis were analyzed and which one is not analyzed at Ethiopian levels. In this review, the most traditional medicinal plant species found and used in Ethiopia are chosen. Results The qualitative phytochemical analysis, some of which are the most important phytochemicals such as phenolic, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, phlobatannins, anthraquinones, and reducing sugars are studied by the researcher. Most studies have revealed that some phytochemicals are present in some medicinal plants while some are absent. The phytochemical properties of some species were studied like Artemisia afra (Ariti), Aloe Vera (Erret), Yzygium guineense (Dokuma), Ruta chalepensis (Tenadam), Ocimum grattissimum (Damakese), Nigella sativa (Tikur Azmud), Lepidium sativum (Feto), Hagenia abyssinica (Kosso), Croton macrostachyus (Bisana), and Rhamnus prinoides (Gesho). Conclusions This review has shown that traditional medicinal plants whose phytochemical properties are not studied have various medicinal purposes like treating mastitis, preventing boils, hemorrhoids, congestion, headache, hepatitis, liver, vertigo, stomatitis, kidneys, liver, and vision for treating anemia, hemorrhoid coughs, fluxes, and stomatitis in most animals and human beings. So that identifying the plants based on the investigation and analysis of phytochemical properties of such plant species are more important than Ethiopian levels.
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Nigella is a small genus of the family Ranunculaceae, which includes some popular species due to their culinary and medicinal properties, especially in Eastern Europe, Middle East, Western, and Central Asia. Therefore, this review covers the traditional uses and phytochemical composition of Nigella and, in particular, Nigella sativa. The pharmacological studies reported in vitro, in vivo, and in humans have also been reviewed. One of the main strength of the use of Nigella is that the seeds are rich in the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid and provide an extra-source of dietary phytochemicals, including the bioactive thymoquinone, and characteristics saponins, alkaloids, and flavonoids. Among Nigella species, N. sativa L. is the most studied plant from the genus. Due to the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties, the seed and seed oil from this plant can be considered as good candidates to formulate functional ingredients on the basis of folklore and scientific knowledge. Nonetheless, the main limations are that more studies, especially, clinical trials are required to standardize the results, e.g. to establish active molecules, dosage, chemical profile, long-term effects and impact of cooking/incorporation into foods.
Gastrointestinal ailments are very common among the people of our country and tribals believe that it is a root cause for the occllrrence of several other diseases. Modern synthetic medicine has so far nof produced any effective curative drug. It only gives temporary relief. However, traditional herbal medicines have a better remedy for the diseases of digestive system. In the present paper herbal preparations used for gastrointestinal disorders by tribal and rural people of Satna district, Madhya Pradesh has been discussed. An effort is also made to correlate modern usesand activitiesofplantswiththe plantsused bytribalsandrural people for the curativepurpose of gastrointestinal disorders.
Relivance of medicinal herbs used in traditional system of medicine
  • S Dwivedi
Dwivedi S et. al., Relivance of medicinal herbs used in traditional system of medicine, Farmavita. Net, 2007.
Tools of investigation
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Applied Ethnobotany-A case study among the Kharias of Central India
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