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Is bottle gourd a natural guard?

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Abstract

Bottle gourd is one of the excellent fruits gifted by nature to human beings having composition of all the essential constituents that are required for good health and quality human life. Lagenaria siceraria (Cucurbitaceae), popularly known as bottle gourd, lauki or ghiya, is a climbing plant, which bears hard-shelled and bottle-shaped gourds as fruits. It forms an excellent diet being rich in vitamins, iron and minerals. The fruit is reported to contain the triterepenoide cucurbitacins B, D, G, H, two sterols viz., fucosterol and campesterol, aerpene byonolic acid (an allergic compound), flavone-C glycosides (a ribosome inactivating protein) and lagenin. Extract of the ghiya seeds show antibiotic activity. The fruit juice is helpful in constipation, premature graying hair, urinary disorders and insomnia. Lauki has the highest content of choline among all the vegetables known to man till date, which serves as the precursor of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which in turn is crucial for retaining and enhancing memory. Furthermore, Lagenaria siceraria is a vegetable useful in the management of many diseases like cardiac disorders, hepatic diseases and ulcer. Bottle gourd juice helps to regulate blood pressure of hypertensive patients, because of its high potassium content. It helps in losing weight quickly, because of its high dietary fiber and low fat and cholesterol content. In the light of above facts, the authors have made a humble attempt to compile an up-to-date review article on Lagenaria siceraria covering its phytochemistry, pharmacological actions and folk medicinal uses.
Parle Milind et al. IRJP 2 (6) 2011 13-17
IRJP 2 (6) June 2011 Page 13-17
INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF PHARMACY ISSN 2230 8407
Available online http://www.irjponline.com
Review Article
IS BOTTLE GOURD A NATURAL GUARD??
Parle Milind*, Kaur Satbir
Pharmacology Division, Dept. Pharm. Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar,
Haryana, India
Article Received on: 12/03/2011 Revised on: 28/04/2011 Approved for publication: 09/05/2011
*Pharmacology Division, Dept. Pharm. Sciences (Accredited by NBA), Guru Jambheshwar University of Science
and Technology (A Grade NAAC Accredited University), Hisar (Haryana)-125001, India
Email: mparle@rediffmail.com
ABSTRACT
Bottle gourd is one of the excellent fruits gifted by nature to human beings having composition of all the essential constituents that are
required for good health and quality human life. Lagenaria siceraria (Cucurbitaceae), popularly known as bottle gourd, lauki or ghiya, is a
climbing plant, which bears hard-shelled and bottle-shaped gourds as fruits. It forms an excellent diet being rich in vitamins, iron and
minerals. The fruit is reported to contain the triterepenoide cucurbitacins B, D, G, H, two sterols viz., fucosterol and campesterol, aerpene
byonolic acid (an allergic compound), flavone-C glycosides (a ribosome inactivating protein) and lagenin. Extract of the ghiya seeds show
antibiotic activity. The fruit juice is helpful in constipation, premature graying hair, urinary disorders and insomnia. Lauki has the highest
content of choline among all the vegetables known to man till date, which serves as the precursor of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which
in turn is crucial for retaining and enhancing memory. Furthermore, Lagenaria siceraria is a vegetable useful in the management of many
diseases like cardiac disorders, hepatic diseases and ulcer. Bottle gourd juice helps to regulate blood pressure of hypertensive patients,
because of its high potassium content. It helps in losing weight quickly, because of its high dietary fiber and low fat and cholesterol content.
In the light of above facts, the authors have made a humble attempt to compile an up-to-date review article on Lagenaria siceraria covering
its phytochemistry, pharmacological actions and folk medicinal uses.
Keywords: Lagenaria siceraria, traditional uses, cardio-protective, cucurbitacin
INTRODUCTION
Cucurbitaceae family is commonly known as the gourd,
melon or pumpkin family. This family is composed of
118 genera and 825 species, which are widely distributed
in the warmer regions of the world. The plants of
cucurbitaceae family provide the major contribution for
economically important domesticated species and are
cultivated for medicinal and nutritional value1. Among
all plants of the cucurbitaceae family, Lagenaria species
is the most popular. The bottle gourd belongs to the
genus Lagenaria that is derived from the word lagena,
meaning the bottle. In the older literature, it is often
referred to as Lagenaria vulgaris (common) or
Lagenaria leucantha (white flowered gourd), but it is
now generally agreed that the correct name is Lagenaria
siceraria (Mol.) Standl. It seems that bottle gourd was
originated from India because its wild races are still
found in Dehradoon (high humid area) and Malabar
costal area. Old Indian script reveals its cultivation
around 2000 B.C. Archeological survey supports mans
association with bottle gourd in Peru from 1100 to 13000
years B.C2. The bottle gourd is a favorite warm-season
vegetable. It is grown throughout India and is available
in the market throughout the year. The bottle gourd can
be found in the forests of India, Moluccas and Ethiopia.
The centre of origin has been located as the coastal areas
of Malabar (North Kerala) and the humid forests of
Dehradun (North India). The fossil records indicate its
culture in India even before 2000 B.C. The
archaeological evidences suggest that Lagenaria is not a
monotypic genus and has an ancient pan tropical
distribution. Genus Lagenaria to which bottle gourd
belongs is characterized by following key features: The
fruits are fleshy and multi seeded, flowers are solitary
and chalky white. Both the male and female flowers
open at the same time. Male flowers remain open only
for a few hours, after which the petals get withered, thus
the flowers are short lived. Being a monoecious crop,
bottle gourd is strictly cross pollinated. Bees are the
major pollinators. Lagenaria siceraria, commonly
known as Bottle gourd is one of the excellent fruits
gifted by the nature to human beings having composition
of all the essential constituents that are required for
normal and good human health1. Two varieties of this
fruit viz., sweet and bitter are available. Botanically, both
belong to the same genus, the former known by the
Parle Milind et al. IRJP 2 (6) 2011 13-17
IRJP 2 (6) June 2011 Page 13-17
Sanskrit synonym Alaba and Tumbi and latter by the
names as Iksuaku, Katutumbi and Mahaphala.
Nevertheless, the difficulty in procuring and losing
interest in cultivation of wild variety, the sweet and
edible variety is now being used in medicine as well.
Botanical Classification of Bottle Gourd
Kingdom
Plantae
Division
Magnoliophyta
Class
Magnoliopsida
Order
Cucurbitales
Family
Cucurbitaceae
Genus
Lagenaria
Species
L. siceraria
Botanical name
Lagenaria siceraria.
SYNONYMS
International Synonyms
COUNTRY
NAMES
China
Hulu
Japan
Hyōtan
Korea
Bak
Myanmar(Burma)
Boo thee
Philippines
Upo
Italy
Cucuzza
Central America
Morro or jícaro.
Colombia
Tapara or totuma.
Tanzania
buyu
Pakistan
Lauki in Urdu.
Bangladesh
Lau
Nepal
Lauka
Saudi Arabia
Qara
Vietnam
bu canh or bu nm
Indian Synonyms
REGION
NAMES
Punjab, Haryana, Delhi
lauki, dudhi or ghiya
Kerala
Churakka
Assam
Jatilao
Bengal
Lau
Andhra Pradesh
Sora kaaya
Maharashtra
Dudhi-Bhopala
Karnataka
Sorekayi
Tamilnadu
Suraikkaai
Geographical Distribution
It is widely cultivated in tropical and pan-tropical regions
of the world. It is cultivated in Delhi, U.P, Punjab,
Haryana, Gujarat, Assam, Meghalaya, Maharashtra,
Karnataka and Rajasthan in India.
CULTIVATION
ü Climate and Soil
ü It can be grown on all types of soils, if these are not
too much acidic (pH<5.5) or alkaline.
ü Loam soil or sandy soil is the most suitable soil. The
soil should be rich in organic matter and with good
drainage.
ü Acidity and alkalinity adversely affect the crop.
ü Night temperature of 18 0C to 22 0C and day
temperature of 30 0C to 55 0C is optimum for its
proper growth.
ü Day temperature above of 40 0C may cause scorching
of leaves.
ü Temperature lower than 10 0C reduces metabolic
activity of the seeds for germination.
ü Seed germination occurs fast at 25 0C to 30 0C.
PHYTOCHEMISTRY
Now, its time to turn camera on overall constituents and
character of Lagenaria siceraria fruit, so as to have a
quality human life. The edible portion of lauki is a fair
source of ascorbic acid, beta carotene and a good source
of vitamin B complex, pectin and dietary soluble fibers.
It is also a good source of carbohydrates, minerals,
amino acids and vitamins3. The fruit is reported to
contain the triterpenoid cucurbitacins B, D, G, H and 22-
deoxy cucurbitacin the bitter principle of cucurbitaceae.
The fruit juice contains beta glycosidase-elasterase
enzyme. Two sterols were isolated from petroleum ether
fractions of dried fruit pulp of Lagenaria siceraria
namely Fucosterol and campesterol4. The HPLC analysis
of the extract of flowering plant of Lagenaria siceraria
shows presence of flavone-C glycosides5. It contains
more proportion of Soluble Dietary Fibers (SDF) than
insoluble fibers. SDF are having profound effect in
lowering serum cholesterol, which also reveals that the
pectin is a predominant component of soluble fibers in
Lagenaria siceraria fruits6. The seeds are having prime
role in the human nutrition due to encapsulation of
innumerable phytochemicals, such as vitamins, minerals,
amino acids along with saponin and essential fixed oils
especially of unsaturated type1. A ribosome inactivating
protein, lagenin was isolated from lyophilized water
extracts of seeds, the biological actions of which include
anti-proliferative, immunosuppressive and anti-fertility.
A triterpene bryonolic acid, an anti-allergic compound
was reported from callus culture of Lagenaria siceraria
roots. Bitter fruits yield 0.013% of a solid foam
containing cucurbitacins B, D, G and H, mainly
cucurbitacin B. The leaves contain cucurbitacins B, D
and traces of E. The fruit juice contains beta-glycosidase
(elasterase). The mucilage is also present in the fruit,
which can be extracted by microwave assistance
extraction7, 8. Mixture of sterols and two flavonoids were
isolated from the n-butanol and ethyl acetate soluble
fractions of successive methanol extract of Lagenaria
siceraria fruit and were identified as oleanolic acid (I),
mixture of β-sitosterol (II) and campesterol (III),
isoquercitrin (IV) and Kaempeferol (V).
Parle Milind et al. IRJP 2 (6) 2011 13-17
IRJP 2 (6) June 2011 Page 13-17
PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS
Anti-hyperlipidemic activity
Chloroform and alcoholic extracts of bottle gourd at two
different doses (200 and 400 mg kg-1, p.o.) showed
significant lowering of total cholesterol, triglyceride and
low density lipoproteins along with an increased HDL
level9. LSN-I, LSN-II and LSN-III isolated from
Lagenaria siceraria fruit juice extract were found to
have anti-hyperlipidemic activity against triton-X
induced hyperlipidemia10.
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity
Lagenaria siceraria fruit juice (150-300 mg kg-1, p.o.)
showed a dose dependent inhibition of acetic acid
induced writhing and a significant inhibition of both the
phases of formalin pain test, but with a less intense effect
on the first than the second phase. Juice extract of L.
siceraria also showed anti-inflammatory activity against
acute inflammatory models such as., ethyl phenyl
propionate-induced ear edema, carrageenan and
arachidonic acid-induced hind paw edema11 and also the
albumin induced paw edema in rats9.
Diuretic activity
Diuretic activity of L.siceraria fruit was assessed by
measuring different parameters like total urine volume,
urine concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride. It
was found that the extracts of Lagenaria siceraria fruit
(100-200 mg kg-1, p.o.) showed higher urine volume and
exhibited dose dependent increase in excretion of
electrolytes.
Anti-oxidant activity
Acetone extract of fruit epicarp of L. siceraria fruit
showed maximum anti-oxidant activity in-vitro model
using DPPH. The fresh juice of the fruit also showed free
radical scavenging activity12. The fruit extract was also
effective in CCl4 induced liver damage, where it
maintained the level of endogenous antioxidant enzymes
(superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione
peroxidase) and marker of lipid peroxidation to normal13
Immuno-modulatory activity
The methanolic extract of LSF possessed promising
Immuno-modulatory activity. The LSF significantly
increased total WBC, neutrophils and lymphocytes count
while insignificant changes were observed in monocytes,
eosinophils and basophils count14. Ethanol extract of LS
also showed significant prevention in reduction of
humoral immune response, cellular immune response
and percent neutrophil adhesion in mice in the presence
of chemical stressor, pyrogallol 15.
Hepatoprotective activity
Deshpande et al. (2008) evaluated ethanolic extract of LS
epicarp for hepatoprotective activity15. The LS ethanolic
extract (100 and 200 mg kg-1) showed significant
prevention of elevated levels of serum glutamate
oxaloacetate, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase,
alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. The anti-hepatotoxic
activity of different fractions of the ethanolic extract of
L. siceraria fruit administered orally to different groups
of rats in a dose of 250 mg/kg showed significant anti-
hepatotoxic activity, with the petroleum ether fraction
exhibiting comparatively higher activity.
Cardioprotective activity
The fruit powder of L. siceraria showed good cardio
protective effects. The drug was studied against
Doxorubicin induced cardio toxicity in rats at 200 mg/kg,
p.o. for 18 days. The LS prevented the alteration in
endogenous antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, reduced
glutathione) and lipid peroxidation, where as markers of
cardio toxicity i.e., CK-MB and LDH were significantly
reduced. Further the LS powder also showed the
protection against changes in ECG and histopathological
alterations induced by doxorubicin13. Ethanolic extract of
L. Siceraria fruits also showed increased force of
contraction and decreased rate of contraction (from 66 to
44) in isolated frog heart, when perfused with normal
ringer solution15.
Anthelmintic activity
The ethanolic extracts of the seeds of Cucumis sativus,
Cucurbita maxima and L. siceraria exhibited a potent
anthelmintic activity against tapeworms, which was
comparable to the effect of piperazine citrate. Some
activity against pinworms was demonstrated by seeds of
Cucurbita maxima16.
TRADITIONAL USES
Cardio protective, General tonic, Diuretic (Stem bark),
Aphrodisiac, Mild purgative, Cooling agent, Analgesic,
Anti-ulcer agent, Antipyretic, Broncho-dilator,
Antibilious, Emetic (Roots), Alopecia, leucoderma,
Dropsy (Seeds), Worm infection (Seeds), Migraine
(Topical seed oil), Toothache, Gingivitis, Diabetes
mellitus, Antidote to certain poisons such as scorpion
stings
MISCELLANEOUS USES
ü Lagenaria siceraria is a common sight everywhere in
the tribal dominated pockets of Khammam district,
where the ethnic groups mainly use the dry shells for
carrying country liquor (mahua drink, toddy), honey
and water.
ü Domestic utensils like bottles, bowls, milk pots,
spoons and containers of several types are made out
of the dried shells.
ü In some of the pockets, it is being used for making
stringed and wind musical instruments and pipes.
Parle Milind et al. IRJP 2 (6) 2011 13-17
IRJP 2 (6) June 2011 Page 13-17
ü At few places, the natives use the dried shells as floats
on water bodies as well.
ü Though, it is nutritionally less calorific, tribals prefer
bottle gourd as a vegetable for preparation of curries
and pickles.
ü The seed oil is used for both cooking purpose and as
hair oil.
STRANGE FACTS
ü The bottle gourd is so named because of one of its
purposes: To serve as a bowl, cup, or bottle. In other
parts of the world, it is known as calabash,
lauki, doodhi, ghia, kaddu, tarkari.
ü Bottle gourd is one of the excellent fruits gifted by the
nature to human beings having composition of all the
essential constituents that are required for good health
and quality human life.
ü It represents both earth and heaven in shape.
ü It helps in losing weight quickly because it is low in
fat and cholesterol, and provides high dietary fiber.
ü Traditionally, lauki has been recommended for its
anti-diabetic and aphrodisiac properties.
ü The flesh of lauki has a cooling influence on the body.
ü The ghiya juice is used in Ayuvedic medicine to treat
high blood pressure and heart problems.
ü Lauki has the highest content of choline (a lipotropic
factor), a mental healer and also a precursor of
acetylcholine, which is essential for memory than any
other vegetable known to man till date.
CONCLUSION
Lagenaria siceraria, popularly known as bottle gourd,
lauki or ghiya is a climbing plant, which bears hard-
shelled and bottle-shaped gourds as fruits. L. siceraria
fruit is cultivated in India, Japan, Sri Lanka, China and
Thailand for its kitchen use. Ghiya makes an excellent
diet being rich in vitamins, iron and minerals. Lauki has
the highest content of choline, which serves as the
precursor of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which in
turn is crucial for retaining and enhancing memory,
among all the vegetables known to man till date.
Furthermore, Lagenaria siceraria is a vegetable useful in
the management of many diseases like cardiac disorders,
hepatic diseases and ulcer. Bottle gourd juice helps to
control blood pressure of hypertensive patients, because
of its high potassium content. It helps in losing weight
quickly, because of its high dietary fiber and low fat and
cholesterol content. In the light of above mentioned
multiple benefits of bottle gourd, it may be regarded as a
natural guard against diseases.
REFERENCES
1. Habib-ur-Rahaman AS. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria)-a
vegetable for good health. Nat. Prod. Radiance 2003; 2: 249-256.
2. Sirohi PS, Sivakami N. Genetic diversity in cucurbits. Indian
Hort. 1991; 36: 44-45.
3. Modgil M, Modgil R, Kumar R. Carbohydrate and mineral
content of chyote (Sechium edule) and bottle gourd (Lagenaria
Siceraria). J. Hum. Ecol. 2004; 15: 157-159.
4. Shirwaikar A, Sreenivasan KK. Chemical investigation and
antihepatotoxic activity of the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria. Indian J.
Pharm. Sci. 1996; 58: 197-202.
5. Baranoswka KM, Cisowski W. HPLC determination of flavone-
Cglycosides in some species of Cucurbitaceae family. J.
Chromatogram A 1994; 675: 240-243.
6. Chang SC, Lee MS, Li CH, Chen ML. Dietary fiber content
and composition of vegetable in Taiwan area. Asian Pacific J. Clin.
Nutr. 1995; 4: 204-210.
7. Shah BN, Seth AK. Pharmacognostic studies of the Lagenaria
siceraria (Molina) standley. Int. J. Pharm. Technol. Res. 2010; 2:
121-124.
8. Shah BN, Seth AK, Nayak BS. Microwave assisted isolation of
mucilage from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria. Der Pharmacia Lett.
2010; 2: 202-205.
9. Ghule BV, Ghante MH, Saoji AN, Yeole PG. Hypolipidemic and
antihyperlipidemic effects of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) fruit
extracts. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2006; 44: 905-909.
10. Mohale DS, Dewani AP, Saoji AN, Khadse CD.
Antihyperlipidemic activity of isolated constituents from Lagenaria
siceraria in albino rats. Int. J. Green Pharma. 2008; 2: 104-107.
11. Shah BN, Nayak BS, Bhatt SP, Jalalpure SS, Seth AK. The
anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves of Colocasia Esculenta.
Saudi Pharma. J. 2007; 15: 228-232.
12. Deshpande JR, Mishra MR, Meghre VS, Wadodkar SG,
Dorle AK. Free radical scavenging activity of Lagenaria siceraria
(Mol.) Standl. fruit. Nat. Prod. Radiance 2007; 6: 127-130.
13. Fard MH, Bodhankar SL, Dikshit M. Cardioprotective
activity of fruit of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) standley on
doxorubicin induced cardio toxicity in rats. Int. J. Pharmacol. 2008;
4: 466-471.
14. Gangwal A, Parmar SK, Gupta GL, Rana AC, Sheth NR.
Immunomodulatory effects of Lagenaria siceraria fruits in rats.
Pharmacognosy Mag. 2008; 4: S234-S238.
15. Deshpande JR, Choudhari AA, Mishra MR, Meghre VS,
Wadodkar SG, Dorle AK. Beneficial effects of Lagenaria siceraria
(Mol.) Standley fruit epicarp in animal models. Indian J. Exp. Biol.
2008; 46: 234-242.
16. Elisha EE, Twaij HAA, Ali NM, Tarish JH, Al-Omari MM,
Karim S. The anthelmintic activity of some Iraqi plants of the
Cucurbitaceae. Pharma. Biol. 1987; 25: 153-157.
Table 1: DIETARY CONSTITUENTS OF BOTTLE GOURD
Sr.
Constituents
With Peel
(g/100g of dry
ghiya)
Without Peel
(g/100g of dry
ghiya)
1
Total sugar
5.870
8.290
2
Reducing sugar
5.220
7.920
3
Non-reducing sugar
0 .650
0.290
4
Starch
1.310
1.570
5
Curd fiber
4.450
3.400
6
Neutral detergent fiber
22.710
21.160
7
Acid detergent fiber
16.260
15.670
8
Hemicellulose
6.450
5.580
9
Cellulose
16.070
16.400
10
Lagenin
0.193
0.167
Parle Milind et al. IRJP 2 (6) 2011 13-17
IRJP 2 (6) June 2011 Page 13-17
Table 2: MINERAL CONTENT OF BOTTLE GOUR D
Table 3: AMINO ACIDS PRESENT IN BOTTLE GOURD
Sr.
Amino Acids
Fruits (g/100g
ghiya)
Seeds (g/100g
ghiya)
1
Tryptophan
0.003
0.431
2
Threonin
0.018
0.903
3
Isoleucine
0.033
1.264
4
Leucine
0.036
2.079
5
Methionine
0.004
2.079
6
Cystine
……..
0.551
7
Phenylalanine
0.015
1.222
8
Valine
0.027
1.972
9
Arginine
0.14
4.033
10
Histidine
0.004
0.681
Table 4: VITAMIN CONTENT OF BOTTLE GOURD
Sr.
Vitamins
Fruits (mg/100g
ghiya)
Seeds (mg/100g
ghiya)
1
Vitamin C
10.100
1.900
2
Thiamin
0.029
0.210
3
Riboflavin
0.022
0.320
4
Niacin
0.320
1.745
5
Vitamin B6
0.040
0.224
6
Pantothenic
acid
0.152
0.339
7
Vitamin E
16.02/g
1.000
Sr.
Minerals
With peel
(mg/100g of lauki)
Without peel (mg/100g
of lauki)
1
Iron
11.87
2.33
2
Phosphorous
240.33
187.33
3
Potassium
3320.00
3356.67
4
Zinc
3.77
3.47
5
Magnesium
162.33
146.33
6
Copper
0.19
0.24
7
Sodium
27.88
36.68
8
Manganese
0.26
0.31
... (DTI) [30] 3. Health benefits Consumer demand for nutritious foods such as fresh cut fruits and unpasteurized fruit juices has increased in the last decades owing to their low content of sodium, cholesterol and fat and high concentration of vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidants that play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes (Kumar et al., 2009, Patrignani et al., 2010, Mosqueda-Melgar et al., 2012 [47,67,59] . Juices are rich in vitamin B complex, vitamin C, folic acid, citric acid potassium and excellent sources of bioavailable antioxidant, phyto-chemicals (Mathur et al., 1996, Franke et al., 2005, Deshpande et al., 2008, Penniston et al., 2008, Ktare et al., 2011, Milind et al., 2011 [56,35,27,61,46,57] . Juices significantly improves blood lipid profiles in people affected with hypercholesterolemia (Kurowska et al., 2000, Deshpande et al., 2007, Mohale et al., 2008 [48,28,58] , protective against stroke (Feldrnan 2001) [34] ; anti-tumour, antiviral, anti-proliferative and anti-HIV activities (Ahmad et al., 2011) [1] , offset the oxidative stress (Ghanim et al., 2010) [38] and its intake has been consistently associated with reduced risk of many cancer types (Brock et al., 1998, Chan et al., 2005, Kwan et al., 2004, Maserejian 2006, Lewis 2009, Uzcudun et al., 2002, Radosavljevic et al., 2004, Wu et al., 2009 [14,18,49,55,52,98,74,102] . ...
... (DTI) [30] 3. Health benefits Consumer demand for nutritious foods such as fresh cut fruits and unpasteurized fruit juices has increased in the last decades owing to their low content of sodium, cholesterol and fat and high concentration of vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidants that play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes (Kumar et al., 2009, Patrignani et al., 2010, Mosqueda-Melgar et al., 2012 [47,67,59] . Juices are rich in vitamin B complex, vitamin C, folic acid, citric acid potassium and excellent sources of bioavailable antioxidant, phyto-chemicals (Mathur et al., 1996, Franke et al., 2005, Deshpande et al., 2008, Penniston et al., 2008, Ktare et al., 2011, Milind et al., 2011 [56,35,27,61,46,57] . Juices significantly improves blood lipid profiles in people affected with hypercholesterolemia (Kurowska et al., 2000, Deshpande et al., 2007, Mohale et al., 2008 [48,28,58] , protective against stroke (Feldrnan 2001) [34] ; anti-tumour, antiviral, anti-proliferative and anti-HIV activities (Ahmad et al., 2011) [1] , offset the oxidative stress (Ghanim et al., 2010) [38] and its intake has been consistently associated with reduced risk of many cancer types (Brock et al., 1998, Chan et al., 2005, Kwan et al., 2004, Maserejian 2006, Lewis 2009, Uzcudun et al., 2002, Radosavljevic et al., 2004, Wu et al., 2009 [14,18,49,55,52,98,74,102] . ...
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Defatted Lagenaria siceraria seeds and those of Cucumeropsis mannii, obtained after lipid extraction using food-grade hexane, were converted into flours (defatted Lagenaria siceraria seeds flours, LSDSF; defatted Cucumeropsis mannii seed flours, CMDSF), and analysed for their chemical and amino acid (AA) compositions, protein fractions, protein molecular weight distribution, granular surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy, and thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, their antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging and phosphomolybdate reducing power assays. LSDSF and CMDSF contained mainly globular shaped proteins with high thermal stability. Composition wise, these proteins primarily consisted of globulins, glutelins, and albumin. AA analysis of the total protein identified 18 amino acids including all the essential AA. These flours thus could be potential sources of antioxidant compounds with higher activity in aqueous than in methanolic extract. Based on their composition and physicochemical characteristics, LSDSF and CMDSF are potentially good ingredients usable in food systems with low lipid oxidation.
... Bottle gourd can now tolerate low temperature, its temperature below 10°C drops, when flowering is reduced [2]. Bottle gourd is one of the excellent and gifted by nature fruit vegetable to human beings because it consists of all the major and micronutrients that are required to maintain good health and quality of human life [3]. Bottle gourd is much important for its medicinal and nutritional properties. ...
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The research study "Influence of pinching on growth and yield of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria L)" was conducted during April-October 2019 at Palatoo Research Farm, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus Mardan. The study was conducted out according to RCBD, split plot arrangement and then three times replicated. Bottle gourd varieties (Lauki, Pusa samridhi and CO1 hybrid) were assigned to main plots while pinching levels i.e. 1 st node, 2 nd node and 3 rd node stage and No pinching (control) were assigned to sub plots. The results of current study reveal that Pinching treatment significantly influenced yield and growth parameters of bottle gourd. According to the stages of pinching, plants pinched at 3 rd (three) node stage produced more lateral branches. (3.55 plant-1), early male flower appearance (36.33 days), early female flower appearance (41.33), lowest vine length (2.36 m), more female flowers vine-1 (9.11), highest fruit set percentage (73.88 %), lengthy fruit (24.33 cm), more number of fruits. plant-1 (7.78), fruit weight. (419.11 g), yield. plant-1 (5.44 kg) and yield. ha-1 (12.92 t), whereas more male flower vine-1 (70.11) were recorded in plants that were not pinched. Furthermore, among the tested varieties CO1 hybrid variety produced more lateral branches plant-1 (3.28), early male flower appearance (35.50 days), early female flower appearance (40.25 days), lowest vine length (2.39 m), highest fruit set percentage (75.75 %), maximum fruit weight (418 g), highest total yield plant-1 (5.04 kg) and total yield ha-1 (12.71 t) while more male flowers vine-1 (68), more female flowers vine-1 (9.16) and more number of fruits plant-1 (7.75) were noted for Lauki. Furthermore, lengthy fruit (24.45 cm) was recorded for variety Pusa samridhi. From the above results, it is concluded that pinching treatment at 3 rd node stage and bottle gourd varieties particularly Lauki and CO1 hybrid is better for the overall growth and yield.
... Studies on different models revealed the same results as found in this study [51][52][53]. Juice of bottle gourd showed anti-inflamamtory activity against acute inflammatory models of paw edema [54,55]. Sulaiman [56] had evaluated Moringa oleifera aqueous extract for antiinflammatory activity and they concluded that the aqueous extract of drumstick leaves exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in a dose dependent manner. ...
... mg, Potassium-3320.0 mg, Magnesium-162.33 mg (Milind & Satbir, 2011). Fruits are used as cooked vegetables and for preparation of sweets and pickles. ...
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Evaluation of traps and baits to protect bottle gourd against cucurbit fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett) infestation in barind tract. EBAUB J., 3, 49-53. A field experiment was carried out to develop an eco-friendly management practice to control fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett) by using some traps and baits. Field trial was conducted during April to July 2020 at Somaspur village in Godagari upazila under the district Rajshahi to assess the efficacy of certain traps and baits against fruit fly infestation on bottle gourd. Among the traps and baits (Pheromone trap, Mashed sweet gourd trap, Indigenous food bait & Banana pulp bait), lowest fruit infestation on number basis (26.94%) and weight basis (28.98%) was registered in Pheromone trap followed by Banana pulp bait (49.17% on number basis and 51.90% on weight basis). The highest number of adult fruit fly (38.22) also trapped in pheromone trap. The highest percent reduction of fruits over control on both number basis (66.12%) and weight basis (63.74%) was also found in Pheromone trap. The results suggest that Pheromone trap can be used for controlling of fruit fly on bottle gourd.
... It is also a good source of natural antioxidants (Deore et al., 2009). It helps in losing weight quickly, because of its high dietary fiber and low fat and cholesterol content (Parle and Kaur, 2011). A decoction made from leaves acts as medicine for curing jaundice. ...
... mg, Potassium-3320.0 mg, Magnesium-162.33 mg are all present in the edible portion of the bottle gourd fruit [6] . Insect infestations are the primary impediment to increasing the output and productivity of the bottle gourd crop. ...
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An experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different biopesticides against the fruit fly infestation on bottle gourd. All of the treatments were effective compared to control. Among the treatments, Spinosad (Tracer 45 SC) performed the best based on minimum percent fruit infestation on both number and weight basis (30.71% & 32.64%) & highest percent protection of fruit over control (60.86% & 58.94%). Again, the highest marketable fruit yield (60.43 ton/ha) and percent yield increase of marketable fruit (70.46%) were also observed on Spinosad (Tracer 45 SC) treated plot. Based on the same parameters, Neem oil was inferior to Spinosad (Tracer 45 SC), which was followed by the treatment of Abamectin (Ambush 1.8 EC), Allamanda leaf extract and Mahogany oil. Thereby among all the treatments tested, Spinosad (Tracer 45 SC) may be suggested for cucurbit fruit fly management on bottle gourds.
... Moreover, it is recommended to utilise sustainable and innovative technologies for better productivity (Ahmad, 2021). Also, it can be classified into fruit, flower, leaves and seed, as shown in Fig. 1. and 2.33mg of iron per 100g, respectively (Milind & Satbir, 2011). ...
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Bottle Gourd (Lageneria Siceraria) has widespread use as a vegetable in different parts of the world. It is extremely advantageous resource because it comprises lots of nutritional properties that are required for nourishment and which are necessary for health. Approximately it contains: Moisture: 94.5±0.06; Protein: 1.2±0.06; Fat: 0.2±0.02; Carbohydrate: 3.75±0.03; Fiber: 0.7±0.01; Ash: 0.5±0.01; Energy: 15±0.12. In addition bottle gourd is rich in minerals like calcium, phosphorous and also have good source of dietary fibers. Recently, the concentration on bottle gourd has been increasing as a nutritional element/health supplement in the diet due its action in the prevention and control of the diseases like indigestion, ulcers, stress, depression and premature greying of hairs. In spite of this bottle gourd is also act as remedy for diseases like insanity, epilepsy and nervous disorders and fiber present in it helpful in reduction of coronary heart diseases and diabetic occurrence. It contains high choline level which metabolites/metabolic precursors for brain function and vitamins, minerals and amino acids that are helps in synthesizing of neurotransmitters. In this review an insight is present on the effective properties, health related and other significance of bottle gourd in various food products as well as in pharmacological products.
... Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is believed to have many health bene ts and with the increased practice of traditional medicine, it is used as alternate therapies to treat ailments [1]. However, a handful of reports have been published regarding toxicity due to consumption of this juice [2] [3]. ...
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Background Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is sometimes used in complementary medicine practice for the treatment of chronic ailments. It belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. However, there have been reports of toxicity due to consumption of bottle gourd juice leading to severe abdominal upset and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. As emergency physicians we need to be aware of such complementary medicine induced haemorrhagic gastroenteritis as possible etiology of gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Case presentation We present a case of a 41-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency department (ED) with multiple episodes of vomiting, hematemesis and diarrhoea after consuming bottle gourd juice. The patient was resuscitated and stabilized with fluids, proton pump inhibitors and antiemetics. He was subsequently admitted to General Medicine ward for further management. He continued to receive symptomatic treatment in the ward and underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) during his hospitalization stay. His symptoms improved and he was discharged stable five days later. Conclusion Early recognition of this rare presentation of bottle gourd toxicity is important in our local context especially where traditional medicine is widely prevalent nowadays. Treatment is supportive. Public awareness of dangerous effects from the consumption of bitter bottle gourd juice and complementary medicine without proper consultation with practitioner plays a crucial role to prevent further cases. Physicians need to advise patients on the use of traditional medicine and their potential side effects.
Article
Background Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is sometimes used in complementary medicine practice for the treatment of chronic ailments. However, there have been reports of toxicity due to consumption of bottle gourd juice, leading to severe abdominal upset and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Case Report We present a case of a 41-year-old gentleman who presented to the Emergency Department with multiple episodes of vomiting, hematemesis, and diarrhea after consuming bottle gourd juice. The patient was resuscitated and stabilized with fluids, proton pump inhibitors, and antiemetics. He was subsequently admitted to the General Medicine ward for further management. He continued to receive symptomatic treatment in the ward and underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy during his hospitalization stay. His symptoms improved and he was discharged stable 5 days later. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? Early recognition of this rare presentation of bottle gourd toxicity is important in our local context, especially where traditional medicine is widely prevalent nowadays. Treatment is supportive. Public awareness of dangerous effects from the consumption of bitter bottle gourd juice and complementary medicine without proper consultation with a practitioner plays a crucial role to prevent further cases. Physicians need to advise patients on the use of traditional medicine and their potential side effects.
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The leaf of Lagenaria siceraria is considered as a hypolipidemic in folklore medicine. In present investigation, the detailed pharmacognostic study of Lagenaria siceraria leaf is carried out to lay down the standards which could be useful in future experimental studies. The study includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytochemical screening and physicochemical evaluation. INTRODUCTION Herbal medicines are promising choice over modern synthetic drugs. They show minimum/no side effects and are considered to be safe. Generally herbal formulations involve use of fresh or dried plant parts. Correct knowledge of such crude drugs is very important aspect in preparation, safety and efficacy of the herbal product. Pharmacognosy is a simple and reliable tool, by which complete information of the crude drug can be obtained [1-4]. Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley (family cucurbitaceae), commonly known as lauki (Hindi) and bottle gourd (English), is a medicinal plant and utilizable species. The plant enjoys the reputation of being one of the earliest plants to be domesticated on the earth. It is a climbing or trailing herb with bottle, oval or dumbbell shaped fruit. Lagenaria siceraria fruit is traditionally used for its cardioprotective, cardiotonic, general tonic and aphrodisiac properties. It is also used in treatment of various allergic and inflammatory disorders like bronchial asthma, rhinitis, bronchitis, and rheumatism. Various extracts of fruit of Lagenaria siceraria were found to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic and antibacterial activities. These properties of Lagenaria siceraria fruit have been attributed to its saponins, carbohydrates and flavonoids. However there is paucity of data available on the effect of the phytoconstituents of Lagenaria siceraria fruit on immune system. Previously we reported the immunomodulatory activity of different extracts of Lagenaria siceraria fruits in experimental animals [5]. In literature details of morphology, phytoconstituents, medicinal properties and uses of Lagenaria siceraria is very sparce therefore, in present study pharmacognostic standards of the leaves of Lagenaria siceraria are studied. These standards are of utmost importance not only in finding out genuity, but also in detection of adulterants in marketed drug [6].
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A microwave assisted extraction technique was developed to optimize the extraction of mucilage from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria plant. The plant has been extracted by conventional and microwave assisted methods for the isolation of mucilage. Microwave extraction at 320 W intensity and 20 min heating duration, 96.15% increase in the yield of mucilage while 93.95% and 91.20% increase in the yield at 160 W for 60 min and 480 W for 10 min respectively were obtained under microwave irradiation when compared to 1 h conventional heating method. The products obtained by both the methods were of similar nature chemically. The developed microwave procedure can be used successfully in commercial and routine laboratory isolation of mucilage.
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This study investigates the immunomodulatory effect of n-butanol soluble and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of successive methanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria fruits in rats. Oral administration of the fractions at doses 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats. A dose-dependent increase in both primary and secondary antibody titre was observed. Fractions also significantly increased the white blood cell and lymphocyte count. The results suggest that test fractions possess promising immunomodulatory activity.
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With peel and without peel samples of two vegetable viz. Chayote (Sechium edule) and bottle (Lagenaria siceraria) ground both belonging to the family cucarbitacae were analysed for their carbohydrate content viz. crude fiber reducing sugars, non reducing sugars and different dietary fiber constituents like, NDF, ADF, legnin cellulose and hemicelluloses and mineral’s like calcium, phosphorus and iron content and minerals. Chayote was found to be better in dietary fiber constituents, who are significantly higher when compared with bottle gourd, but total sugar, reducing sugars and non reducing sugars were significantly less in chayote
The antihepatotoxic activity of different fractions of the ethanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria fruit, administered orally to different groups of rats was evaluated using the CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity test. All fractions tested, in a dose of 250 mg/kg showed significant activity, with the petroleum ether traction exhibiting comparatively higher activity. Two steroids were isolated from the petroleum ether fraction and they were identified as fucosterol and campesterol.
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Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl. commonly known as Bottle gourd has been widely used as vegetable in India especially by cardiac patients. Since this property may be correlated with the presence of radical scavenging activity, extracts of the fruit were evaluated for this purpose.The fruit was collected and epicarp, mesocarp and pulp containing seeds were separated. Each of them was extracted with different solvents in increasing order of polarity. Extracts were prepared using the Soxhlet apparatus by serial extraction technique and their respective extractive values were determined. All the extracts were assessed by 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The maximum antioxidant activity was observed in the acetone extract of fruit epicarp. Chemical investigation revealed that radical scavenging activity may be due to the presence of ellagitannins present in the acetone extract of epicarp.
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Anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Colocasia esculenta Linn. was studied in wistar rats using the carrageenan induced left hind paw edema, carrageenan induced pleurisy and cotton pellet induced granuloma model. The ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited carrageenan induced rat paw edema. It also showed an inhibitory effect on leukocyte migration and a reduction on the pleural exudates as well as reduction on the granuloma weight in the cotton pellet granuloma method. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract produced significant (p