Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D.Don) G.Don (Family: Pinaceae) is a medicinal tree traditionally important and well mentioned in traditional system of medicine of India, Pakistan, China, Korea etc. for its use in in the management of skin diseases, microbial infections, joint disorders, asthma, kidney stones, ulcer, brain disorders and immunological disorders.
Aim and objectives
This review provides an insight into the information available regarding traditional uses, ethnobotany, phytochemistry and, pharmacological profiling of C. deodara crude extract, its isolated compounds and, fractions, to explore its potential for the development of novel therapeutic agents.
Material and methods
Various databases including Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, ACS, Wiley, Web of Science, Springer Link and, PubMed were used to collect all the appropriate information available in previously published literature related to this plant. Besides, other official electronic sources viz. Encyclopedia Britannica and Northern Regional Center, Botanical Survey of India, theplantlist.org. and relevant book chapters and books were also explored.
C. deodara is a popular medicinally active tree, traditionally used in the form of decoction, syrup, oil, powder, and extract alone or in combination with other herbs for the management of different ailments viz. asthma, ulcers, bone fractures, sprains rheumatism, boils, leprosy, etc. Phytochemical studies reported 105 chemical constituents from different parts of the plant, most of them belong to a class of terpenoids and flavonoids. Crude extracts, essential oils, fractions, and isolated compounds of C. deodara exhibited some important pharmacological activities including anticancer, antimicrobial, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, antiurolithiatic, antiarthritic and, antiasthmatic.
Present article delivers in-depth information on botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology. C. deodara has been in practice among indigenous people of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Korea, China, Nigeria and Russia and 28 different ethnicities for the management of approximately 40 diseases. Bioactive compounds particularly cedrin, himachalol, himachalene and atlantone are recognized as key constituents for observed pharmacological activities of C. deodara. However, further in-depth studies involving bio-guided fractionation, isolation, identification using advanced techniques to afford some new therapeutically active phytoconstituents in the management of different diseases. Preliminary pharmacological investigations on different extracts and fractions of C. deodara partially validated its traditional claims in different ailments such as skin diseases, asthma, neurological disorders, arthritis, microbial infections, gastric disturbances, and inflammation. However, immediate attempts are required to establish its mechanism of action, efficacy, dosage range, and safety in combating different pathological states.