ArticlePDF Available

I want to believe: A netnography of the X-philes' subculture of consumption

Authors:
Kozinets, Robert V. (1997) “‘I Want To Believe’: A Netnography of The X-Philes’
Subculture of Consumption,” Advances in Consumer Research, Volume 24, ed., Merrie
Brucks and Deborah J. MacInnis, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 470-
475.
"I Want To Believe": A Netnography of The X-Philes'
Subculture of Consumption
Mulder: "Hey Scully, do you believe in the afterlife?"
Scully: "I'd settle for a life in this one."
"Shadows"
On 10 September 1993, a daring new television drama debuted on the Fox television
network. Created by Chris Carter, The X-Files television series features the bizarre exploits of
FBI agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully. These two agents work on the "X-files," cases that
have unexplainable elements and often involve the paranormal.
The X-Files features a nearly inseparable juxtaposition of truth and fiction drawn from
popular conspiracy theories and belief in supernatural powers. Three canonical maxims
summarize the show's guiding philosophy: "Trust No One," "I Want to Believe" and "The Truth
Is Out There." Despite these individualist mottoes, The X-Files has inspired a large and growing
fan culture.
Fans of The X-Files wasted no time in coining their own nickname: 'X-Philes,' the
'phile' derived from the Greek word philos, meaning 'to love'. . . . few shows have
prompted the sort of emphatic viewer response as The X-Files has in such a
relatively short time period. Indeed, as with any cultural phenomenon, fan reaction
to the series has become as much a part of The X-Files story as the show itself,
from the conventions that have sprung up around the country to the hours of chat
about the series whipping around each week on the Internet." (Lowry 1995: 239).
X-Philes are characterized by their enthusiastic devotion to the series, as well as their
sophisticated connoisseurship of all things relating to it. X-Philes are a subset of all viewers of the
television series, a “small percentage” of the more than 14 million regular viewers who tune in to
1
the series on an average week (Lowry 1995: 242). Typical viewers of the series are young, urban
and educated (Lowry 1995: 22)1.
The existence of fans is an important cultural phenomenon that has been a part of our
social reality since mass media were first developed. The Lisa Lewis edited (1992) volume The
Adoring Audience considers this history in its examination of the multifaceted relationship
between fans, stars, media texts and the media industry. Through a range of contexts ranging
from Beatlemania to Elvis worship to science fiction conventions, the contributors to this volume
argue that fan behavior has been dismissed by scholars as deviant or trivial. However, they
suggest that fandom is a complex, contradictory and fascinating arena that affects a wide range of
social behaviors, including consumer behavior, and is therefore worthy of serious academic
attention.
Recently, Schouten and McAlexander (1995: 43) defined a "subculture of consumption"
as “ distinct subgroup of society that self-selects on the basis of a shared commitment to a
particular product class, brand, or consumption activity.” The "X-Philes subculture of
consumption" (abbreviated to XPSC) thus may represent a transferable site (Lincoln and Guba
1985, Wallendorf and Belk 1989) for studying the consumption of entertainment by subcultures
and these subculture’s impact on the consumption of related artifacts and services.
Studying fan cultures such as the X-Philes as subcultures of consumption allows
researchers insights into contemporary consumer behavior by (1) exploring the relationship
between mass media programming and consumption (see Hirschman 1988, Holbrook and
Hirschman 1993), (2) adding to our understanding of the ways in which social values and
attitudes are created, expressed and maintained through subcultures of consumption, and
mediated by popular culture, and (3) understanding how these cultures are created and
1It might be interesting to note that this same group is often the source of recruits for
religious and other “cults” requiring high levels of personal devotion (see Cushman 1984).
2
maintained, particularly using new communications technologies such as the Internet. Because of
its focus on consumption-related meanings, the focal research question of this investigation is
"What are the key characteristics of X-Philes consumption practices and how do they extend and
inform our knowledge of contemporary consumer behavior?"
METHOD
DATA COLLECTION
This ethnography of X-Philes culture was undertaken as part of a larger consumer
behavior research project investigating mass media culture and a major fan movement within that
culture. However, the investigation possesses sufficient depth and scope to be considered a
separate endeavor in its own right. The ability to construct a "thick description" (Geertz 1973,
Arnould and Wallendorf 1994) may, however, be constrained by the necessarily limited size of the
text.
Data collection by the sole author took place in three venues over a seven-month period
that began in August 1995. A form of site triangulation (Wallendorf and Belk 1989) was
employed through the use of multiple sites for sampling X-Philes culture. The sampling sites
consisted of three areas of highly visible X-Phile activity: at two three-day media fan-related
conventions (one which featured Chris Carter as guest of honor), at a media fan club, and on
several X-Files related sections of the Internet1, particularly The Official X-Files Fan Forum on
the Official X-Files Web Site (at http://www.thex-files.com) and the Usenet group <alt.tv.x-files>.
The term netnography2 refers to the textual output of Internet-related field work. This
paper defines a netnography as a written account of on-line cyberculture, informed by the
methods of cultural anthropology. Cyberculture refers to culture that is mediated by the
1The entire arena of discussion of The X-Files on the Internet is termed "the X-Net" by X-
Philes.
2I am indebted to an anonymous reviewer for suggested this revised term.
3
contemporary computerized communications technology (i.e., “the Internet”). Researchers in
marketing are beginning to explore consumption and cultural activities on the Internet (e.g.,
Fischer, Bristor and Gainer 1995).
Netnography as a type of research inquiry is quite new, and hence has few guidelines. The
validity of netnographic data may be subject to many of the same validity concerns and
evaluations as other types of qualitative data (for guidelines and discussion see Denzin and
Lincoln 1994: 479-480; Lincoln and Guba 1985; Wallendorf and Belk 1989). The Internet
audience combines computer literacy with other types of technological literacy --in this case
television literacy. It thus presents consumer researchers with an interesting site of intersection
between the private and public spheres, where the audiencing consumption of television
programming overlaps with the interactive cyberculture of Internet use1. The XPSC is an
excellent site to study this cultural negotiation, because it apparently is the most Internet-active
community of fans of any current television show (Lowry 1995: 240-2).
Jenkins and a research assistant2 (Tulloch and Jenkins 1995: 281-2) "closely monitored the
interactions of two computer discussion groups" related to another media fan culture. Jenkins
described the reasons he found Internet observation important to his ethnographic project:
monitoring the nets allowed us to observe the regular interactions of community
members within a context that is neither created nor directed by the researcher; that
can be legitimately observed without any invasion of privacy or interference with its
activity; that offers a dense cluster of information about the group's interpretive
categories and discursive resources;
Due to the richness of this method, this investigation focuses mainly on the analysis of
netnographic data. All direct quotations are from Internet sources. However, the mainly
observational stance of the researcher in the netnographic component of this work is balanced by
observation of participation (Tedlock 1991) in the other sampled sites. In observation of
participation the researcher actively participates in the studied culture. Participation in several
1I am also indebted to an anonymous reviewer for this interesting point.
2The assistant was not the co-author of the volume, John Tulloch, but presumably a hired
student researcher.
4
panels and discussions at conventions, at fan club meetings, during informal interviews with media
fans, combined with X-Phile fan activities such as viewing and reviewing the show and reading X-
Files related materials constitutes a prolonged engagement of approximately 350 hours in
duration. This prolonged engagement was utilized as a form of triangulation of analysis
(Wallendorf and Belk 1989). It also provided indirect quotes, personal involvement in the X-
Philes culture, and enhanced cultural fluency.
ETHICAL ISSUES
It might be helpful if ethical issues pertaining to this research were briefly addressed,
particularly because it involves a new type of research. Although all the Internet areas used are
unrestricted publicly accessible forums, to meet ethical research standards, all names of
participants were changed in this ethnography so as to ensure confidentiality. In the interest of
ensuring informed consent, contact by e-mail was established with all persons whose direct
quotations have been used to attempt to gain an extra level of consent. Most of the XPSC
members contacted said that they were "flattered" or "honored" to be quoted in this research. Of
the fifteen persons contacted, only one asked that their quotation --related to their UFO sighting--
not be used. That persons who posted messages to a public forum would still deny the right to
quote them in research testifies to the necessity of contacting them and receiving their informed
consent. In this ethnography, only persons who provided their informed consent were quoted.
XPSC members contacted through the fan club and through conventions were guaranteed
anonymity, and were apprised that the researcher is performing cultural research, thus again
establishing informed consent and confidentiality. The use of member checks to solicit comments
provided another measure of informed consent to X-Philes members.
DATA ANALYSIS
Data was recorded on paper notes, in written and word-processed journal entries, in saved
computer files, and in photographs of fans. Archival material such as fan literature and brochures
5
was also collected. A holographic sampling frame (Denzin and Lincoln 1994: 202) was utilized,
whereby specific sites are analyzed for their insights into universal phenomena.
The data collected totaled 83,150 words, contained on 606 double-spaced pages. This
data was read approximately 9 times, and analyzed using the constant comparative method,
categorization, abstraction, and the holistic search for unifying themes (Spiggle 1994). Contacts
with fan club members, and with X-Net participants were established and this contact was utilized
to perform "member checks" that proved helpful in the revision of the text (Lincoln and Guba
1985, Wallendorf and Belk 1989). Nine interested X-Philes were provided with a complete copy
of the text, that had not been rewritten for lay readers. Six XPSC members returned comments.
The comments were favorable, and supported the contention that the ethnography was an
"accurate and fair" portrayal of X-Philes culture. Among additional comments were some which
noted the presence of different subgroups or "sub-subcultures" within the XPSC community,
Chris Carter's assurances to minimize "overmerchandising," and enforcement of group standards
by the e-mail practice of "flaming"1. Other comments noted the attraction of the relationship
between the show's two protagonists and the series' high production values. The member checks
led to the alteration of the text by including these elements.
THEMES
The X-Philes culture is diverse, constituting people from many locations, many age and
demographic groups, and many ethnic
backgrounds (Lowry 1995: 240). This investigation focuses on three foundational themes
that unite this diverse group of people into an X-Philes culture. The culture is based on shared
aesthetic tastes, shared experience of awe and mystery, and a shared drive to consume the
symbols related to The X-Files. The motivations underlying these themes might be termed "The
Meaning is out there," "I want to believe," and "Trust this one." These themes are explicitly
1Flaming is the practice of sending embarrassing and insulting e-mail messages to a
person's mailbox or in response to their public Usenet posting.
6
integrated into the single theme of an individualistic and faith-driven quest to uncover a deeply
hidden “Truth,” a covert “mystery” theme that also often pervades religious and other sacred
cultural beliefs (Belk, Wallendorf and Sherry 1989). Chris Carter, The X-Files' creator, says that
he thinks the show is "all about religion, really. Not necessarily Christian religion, but it's about
beliefs --and meaning and truth” (Stegall 1996: 24).
Finding the “true” interpretation of the television show is obvious in the first theme, the
theme of Negotiating Aesthetic Consumption Standards, in which fans gather to discuss the
consumption of the shows and to collectively build categories for judging their quality. The
second unifying theme, Consuming Beliefs About Mysterious Experiences, refers to The X-Philes
attraction to mysterious paranormal narratives, such as those regarding UFOs, religious
manifestations, and psychic abilities. The XPSC's Connection Through Consumption of Artifacts
and Services is the third theme. These consumption goods and services offer tangible
manifestations of the mysterious. They also offer opportunities for building communitas both in
person and over the Internet. The three themes will be explored in turn
"THE MEANING IS OUT THERE": NEGOTIATING AESTHETIC CONSUMPTION
STANDARDS
A significant amount of activity in the X-Philes cultures can be conceptualized as the
socialization of evaluative standards. Consuming media entertainment is an important part of
XPSC members' lives, and they create evaluative standards that are well-considered, consistent,
and articulated in great depth. Fans negotiate and teach each other these standards regarding The
X-Files episodes, plots, characters, images, and products. As McCracken (1990: 34) notes, social
groups such as subcultures seek to distinguish themselves through cultivating "certain kinds of
knowledge." This knowledge can include aesthetic categorization schemes denoting "good taste"
regarding those interests. As Bourdieu (1984) notes, "taste classifies, and classifies the classifier."
This construction of tastes is a key activity of consumption subcultures, defining the boundaries of
their shared interpretations of social reality.
7
The reception of "Teso Dos Bichos," an episode of The X-Files that first aired on 8 March
1996, provides an example of the manner in which episodes are used to teach this "classifying
taste." Among members of the XPSC, a clear consensus appeared that the show was "a letdown"
and "disappointing," sentiments explained in the following posting by "Matthew"1:
Man, this thing was all over the place. I appreciate it when they try and put a little bit of a
curveball in there, but I also appreciate it when at some future point it becomes coherent.
Instead, this just spun out of control. . . . Okay. So it's a jaguar spirit, but it's also a feral-
cat spirit?. . . . If the thing can be a jaguar to off the guy in the parking lot, why couldn't it
have been a jaguar down in the steam tunnels? Answer: Because if Scully saw it, she
wouldn't have been able to come up with her scientific explanation.
In this posting, Matthew not only points out what was wrong with the episode, he notes
why it was wrong, and which aesthetic standard was being violated. These comments articulate a
“coherency” evaluative criterion. The show, although it is recognizably fiction, must work to
maintain the suspension of disbelief necessary for viewers to fully enjoy its consumption as a
possible real-world experience. The show must be internally consistent, carefully maintaining the
rules of its own universe. As Matthew states, contradictions such as jaguar-feral cat can not
simply be left unresolved. Otherwise, the intentions of the writers become transparent and thus
reduce the enjoyment of the show. Even the extraordinary must believably conform to physical
limitations. "Leanne" noted "What's up with these killer kitties? A cat cannot kill a human! Even
if it is possessed by some spiritual dude."
As well, the show must conform to standards of tastefulness in the wider social
community, and not excessively "gross-out" its core audience. Sam, another fan, reinforces
Matthew's' later comments about the high "gross-out-visual factor" of "rats in toilets." Sam adds,
"What's with the glistening entrails-thing anyway? This is two eps in a row we've been treated to
human viscera and small furry animals eating the same.”
Aesthetic standards extend to shared assessments of actor's physical characteristics. The
"David Duchovny Estrogen Brigade" is a homepage, an e-mail list, and a public forum for several
1To guarantee anonymity, the names of all culture members have been changed.
8
dozen women who highly admire "the work" of the actor who plays Agent Fox Mulder. Many of
these brigade members also share stories (some of them erotic in nature) featuring the character of
Mulder. This XPSC subgroup focuses on an actor. Its members negotiate standards that might
enhance the hedonic pleasure (Holbrook and Hirschman 1982) of audiovisually experiencing --and
fantasizing about-- the actors' televisual and romantic presence.
It is important to note the parallels of these empirical findings with Scott's (1994) and
Stern's (1989) use of reader-response theory. As individual viewers of the show, XPSC members
“read” meanings from the text of the television shows. They act as skeptical, knowledgeable,
imaginative and even resistant readers (Scott 1994). This reading experience is initially
idiosyncratic for isolated viewers, but then becomes collective subsequent to contact with the fan
culture on the Internet. Meanings initially garnered as individuals are then negotiated as a group.
For instance, "Martina" originally interpreted the feral cats in "Teso Dos Bichos" as nonphysical
manifestations. However, after prompting and explanations from other X-Philes, she
changed her interpretation to accord with that of other XPSC members.
OK, I've thought better of it - the feral cats probably *were* real. . . . I just assumed they
were illusions because they vanished at the end of the ep. Could be...doesn't have to be.
I'll go with it.
This alteration of taste confirms Scott's (1994: 463) contention that reading is not
"completely idiosyncratic," and is "based on collective conventions" allowing for "shared
responses." In member checks, some XPSC members pointed out that a lack of conformance to
aesthetic standards was often enforced through the persuasive threat of communal “flaming.” The
relative anonymity of e-mail and postings may contribute to greater license being taken in flaming
than would be taken in issuing insults in person. As a positive incentive, throwing off one’s
idiosyncratic meanings in favor of shared meanings may also contribute to a long-term sense of
communitas, defined as the “transcending camaraderie of status equality” and communion with
others (Belk, Wallendorf and Sherry 1999: 7). These observations portray the learning,
enforcement and reinforcement of these collective conventions in action in the XPSC.
9
"I WANT TO BELIEVE": CONSUMING BELIEFS ABOUT MYSTERIOUS
EXPERIENCES
Marshall McLuhan posited that television programming reflects humanity's unconscious
mind and is therefore our collective dream. The X-Files episodes might reflect humanity's
collective nightmares and delusions, exploring frightening, paranoid corners of our modern mental
world. TV guide calls The X-Files a "whole new kind of dark, subversive program" and notes
that Chris Carter says that the show is "very dark" "in its tone, mood and look" (Saddy 1995: 15).
Based on this core devotion to the darkly mysterious, XPSC members build communitas based on
their shared exploration of this creepy threshold, united in their "want to believe."
X-Philes' core devotion to the show seems to depend on its ability to draw on and
ambiguously extend extant paranormal and government conspiracy accounts. Chris Carter claims
that he was convinced of The X-Filescommercial viability by a Roper Organization poll showing
that three percent of the U.S. population “believes they’ve been abducted by aliens” (Lowry 1995:
11). Several fan club X-Philes noted that the conspiracy theories drawn on by The X-Files were
particularly interesting to them, and that their belief in UFOs predated the show. Panel members
at a convention said that their interest in The X-Files originated in the “serious way” in which it
treated UFOs and governmental UFO conspiracy or cover-up theories. They pointed to actual
government cover-ups --such as “CIA testing of LSD on civilians”-- to justify their faith in the
show’s precepts.
An open forum for discussion of these beliefs is also
present on the X-Net. A particularly dramatic and dominant area of interest was personal
information regarding UFO sightings. "Cassandra" shares her sighting by posting it on the X-Net:
A couple of nights ago I was driving with my dad and saw these two bright white lights
just hanging in the sky. Or so I thought. Then they started moving, kinda slowly. As the
lights moved on, a blinking red light appeared between the two white ones, and further on,
another white light came into view, making a perfect triangle with the little red
light in the middle.
10
Many XPSC members seem embarrassed by the act of sharing their UFO experiences,
likely because this is stigmatic behavior in “normal” society. Some note that they "feel kind of
stupid doing this," or ask others to "please contact me if you believe me because others say that I
am crazy". Yet the XPSC remains an open forum for the extended discussion of these
experiences, providing a unique sanctuary for their display.
XPSC members also produce communitas by sharing their belief in mysterious government
conspiracies. Several fan club members expressed their mistrust of “all governments,” and their
belief in a “worldwide UFO conspiracy”. On the Internet, similar confessions could easily be
found. On the Usenet group, "Dudley" enthusiastically shares his belief in UFOs and governments
conspiracies:
Greetings all! I'm [Dudley], a believer! I feel that it is my responsibility to tell the truth! . .
. . People think that UFO's, Aliens, etc are just Hollywood fantasies. It's not true! It is not
true! . . . . Don't be a fool ! Be a believer!
Other XPSC members share somber assessments of conspiracy theories. "Marcus" notes
that "one day the truth will finally be presented, and not suppressed under a government's heavy
cloak of darkness". Spiritual beliefs and theories were also evident on the X-Net. Some XPSC
members, such as "Ted," see belief in UFOs as part of a larger spiritual process that humanity is
currently experiencing:
For the past few years now, I've noticed a dramatic change in the awareness of the
paranormal. But not just the paranormal, more spiritual as well. . . . As we enter the next
century, and grow as a mass, I believe that we will grow into a very spiritual society that
will learn to except that we are not alone in the universe.
X-Philes thus consume mysterious and mystical notions through The X-Files show and
through their Internet activities and membership in the XPSC. As noted by Belk, Wallendorf and
Sherry (1989), mystery is an important element of the sacred. Mystery is "above the ordinary"
and derives from "profound experiences and meanings" (p. 7). Consumers are increasingly
turning to secular sources --such as television shows, and the subcultures of consumption
11
that spring up based on them-- to fulfill their deep-seated need for connection with the sacred. It
is also possible that in our faithless, hyper-rational and scientific society, many people crave the
excitement and energy that the only the unexplained can inspire. Cushman (1984) notes that many
people in our current social era are psychologically characterized by an “empty self” that may seek
to be filled up by an all-consuming spiritual or religious “truth,” or through mass consumption of
material objects, or both (Cushman 1990).
The X-Files draws on profound and extraordinary events, mysteries ranging from UFOs to
religious phenomena such as reincarnation and stigmata to psychic abilities. Through repeated
pairings, the television show and its many associated symbols become associated with these
profound symbols. The sacred meaning is transferred (McCracken 1990) and the show itself, its
characters and trademarked symbols, becomes sacred.
"TRUST THIS ONE": CONNECTION THROUGH CONSUMPTION OF ARTIFACTS
AND SERVICES
The X-Philes subculture is based upon shared aesthetic standards regarding the television
show, shared mysteries, and a shared belief in the sacred nature of the show. The embodiment of
these notions finds its expression in a variety of artifacts drawn from the television series and
services related to the show. In this theme, it is suggested that these goods intensify the
spiritually fulfilling experience of The X-Files, deepening both the feeling of devotion to the series
and the communitas felt towards other XPSC members.
An instance of attempting to bring items and images from the show into subculture
members' daily lives is provided by "Simon." Simon asks other X-Philes "Where can I find the
poster behind Mulder's desk that says 'I Want To Believe' [and contains a picture of a flying
saucer]." Presumably, possessing this poster will intensify the experience of being an X-Phile
through its immediate physical presence, symbolically announce Simon's fan status to others, and
help to connect Simon to the transcendent world of The X-Files through evoking its symbolic
vocabulary of UFOs and belief. Beyond this, the poster itself both verbally and pictorially
12
reinforces the themes that attract people to the show: belief in the paranormal, in UFOs and,
perhaps, simply belief in something
Subculture members desire to bring other elements of The X-Files into their daily lives.
One X-Phile admires the "equipment used on the show" and expresses a desire to buy "one of the
flashlights they use." Other fans inquire about the availability and content of the upcoming music
album based on the series. Fans even conceive of new products such as RPGs (role-playing
games) that they would like to see developed. All of these products share an emphasis on
intensification of The X-Files experience, of bringing symbols from the show more concretely into
the lived experiences of the XPSC members.
Members of the XPSC reinforce the value of official products
through publicizing their capacity for providing hedonic experiential pleasure (Holbrook
and Hirschman 1982). "Constance" shares her enthusiasm for official X-Files merchandise in
terms that might make many marketers envious:
I am so excited about the month of March. I must've been born under a lucky star or
something. The X-Files videos, X-Files "soundtrack" and 2 new episodes to tickle my
fancy
XPSC members collectively negotiate acceptable quality and price standards. "Franklin," a
collector of the Topps X-Files Cards notes that their "quality control" is poor, since he found
missing cards in packages, and the distribution of "premium cards" was inconsistent. Price
warnings are also communicated to culture members. "Kathryn" states that, after seeing The X-
Files videos selling for "$19.95," "I feel like I have been mugged." Another XPSC member
replies that Kathryn fan should take this as a "Rip-Off Alert," because he was able to purchase the
same videos for a much lower price. These communications can be interpreted as a resistant
reading of product offerings, or even as a form of consumer activism. This type of information
exchange builds trust, and further differentiates the longer-term communitas of the X-Philes
community from the more time-delimited and self-interested exchanges of strangers.
Exchange of information about products and services promotes social adhesion.
13
Exchange of information and exchange of physical artifacts tie the community together by
promoting dyadic interaction. There is a considerable amount of trading, buying and selling
activity on the X-Net. Fans seek missing editions of comic books, or trading cards, or they may
simply want to determine "what something's worth." Sharing items of common value, and
remarking on their worth, is another way X-Philes reinforce the merit of their mutual fascination
with The X-Files.
For some subculture members, the fascination may become stressfully overwhelming. The
member might even feel a need to join the on-line group XPA --"X-Philes Anonymous". As
"Kevin," a member of XPA notes, XPA has no pretension of actually "curing you of your
obsession for the X-Files. It is more like a support group, where you can talk about your
problem." However, Kevin states that he has "NO desire whatsoever to be cured!. . . . This group
is for the people that are a lost cause!!!"
Notwithstanding XPA, the X-Philes subculture of consumption members are not going to
relinquish their affection for the show, and the multifaceted cyberculture and fan culture based on
its consumption. For, despite any anguish the show might cause, as one member exuberantly
expressed it:
I think The X-files is the most amazing show on earth and it should be shown until the end
of time!!!!!!!!!!!!
CONCLUSION
Studying mass media fan cultures such as The X-Philes subculture of consumption holds
several important insights into contemporary consumer behavior. First, it should be noted that
individual audiencing of television programming is an extremely complex act, one that
resembles the interactive view of interpretation related in reader-response theories (Scott 1994,
Stern 1989). The television viewer, far from a mere passive receiver of meanings, actively,
skeptically, and creatively constructs an interpretation of the meaning of the television show, both
by building on prior television series, episodes of the same series, and related information
14
regarding the series gleaned from other sources such as TV viewing guides. This finding
underlines the importance of reader response theories to understanding the consumption of
entertainment media and other performances (Deighton 1994).
Second, it is important to note that among fans (and perhaps among other less involved
consumers) the consumption of mass media messages is subculturally mediated. Interpretation is
significantly collective in the XPSC. Mass media meanings no longer reside solely in individuals,
but are negotiated, enforced communally and presumably intensified --through consumption-
related exchanges such as this research found occurring over the Internet. These exchanges focus
on the enthusiasm and preference for consumption goods and services, their attributes, and even
acts of resistant activism regarding their purchase and consumption. As access to sophisticated
communication technology continues to proliferate, and as its use in the lives of individuals
mounts, the consumption-negotiation and consumer-activism behavior of the X-Net XPSC
members may become more and more commonplace in society at large.
Third, the need to consume the mysterious, and to speculate on the spiritual seems to fulfill
a specific heartfelt desire for belief in Truths that extend beyond the ordinary, providing support
for a specific aspect of Belk, Wallendorf and Sherry’s (1989) theory. This profound need to fill
an achingly empty self with spiritual or sacred faith --and consumption-- appears to be manifest in
the deep devotion of XPSC members and may be related to that particular brand of anomie that
seemingly afflicts the young, urban, and educated of the Western world (Cushman 1984, 1990).
However, an important insight is this research is the mass mediated, commoditized nature of the
sacred experience of XPSC members. For X-Philes, consumption of the show is a sacred
experience, occurring during a sacred time slot, and the act of discussing the show transforms the
Internet into a sacred space1 (Belk, Wallendorf and Sherry 1989). This intimate relationship
between entertainment media, spiritual beliefs, mass commodification and consumption is an area
that might be transferable to explorations of other consumption behavior and subcultures of
consumption, such as those based around sports, music, and “high culture.”
1This insight was provided by an anonymous reviewer comment.
15
Finally, this investigation points to the importance of popular culture in the lived
experience of contemporary consumers. Popular culture is not merely a vehicle for
advertisements, but is itself an exceedingly potent driver of consumption. The images and
symbols of popular culture programs such as The X-Files provide a new vocabulary for the
construction of culture, community, and meaning.
REFERENCES
Arnould, Eric J. and Melanie Wallendorf (1994), "Market-Oriented Ethnography: Interpretation
Building and Marketing Strategy Formulation," Journal of Marketing Research, 31
(November), 484-504.
Belk, Russell W., Melanie Wallendorf and John F. Sherry, Jr. (1989), "The Sacred and the
Profane: Theodicy on the Odyssey," Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (June), 1-38.
Bourdieu, Pierre (1984), Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste,
Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Cushman, Philip (1984), “The Politics of Vulnerability: Youth In Religious Cults,” Psychohistory
Review, 12, 5-17.
Cushman, Philip (1990), “Why the Self Is Empty: Toward a Historically Situated Psychology,”
American Psychologist, 45 (May), 599-611.
Deighton, John (1991), "The Consumption of Performance," Journal of Consumer Research, 19
(December), 362-372.
Denzin, Norman K. and Yvonna S. Lincoln (1994), Handbook of Qualitative Research,
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Fischer, Eileen, Bristor, Julia, and Brenda Gainer (1995), "Creating or Escaping Community? An
Exploratory Study of Internet Consumers' Behaviors." Paper presented at the 1995
Association for Consumer Research Annual Conference.
Geertz, Clifford (1973), The Interpretation of Cultures, New York: Basic Books.
Hirschman, Elizabeth (1988), "The Ideology of Consumption: A Structural-Syntactical Analysis
of 'Dallas' and 'Dynasty,'" Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (December), 344-359.
16
Holbrook, Morris B. and Elizabeth C. Hirschman (1993), The Semiotics of Consumption:
Interpreting Symbolic Consumer Behavior in Popular Culture and Works of Art, Berlin:
de Gruyter.
Holbrook, Morris B. and Elizabeth C. Hirschman (1982), "The Experiential Aspects of
Consumption: Consumer Fantasies, Feelings, and Fun," Journal of Consumer Research, 9
(September), 132-140.
Lewis, Lisa (1992), The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media, New York:
Routledge, Chapman and Hall.
Lincoln, Yvonna and Egon G. Guba (1985), Naturalistic Inquiry, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Lowry, Brian (1995), The Truth Is Out There: The Official Guide To The X-Files, New York:
Harper Collins.
McCracken, Grant (1990), Culture and Consumption: New Approaches to the Symbolic
Character of Consumer Goods and Activities, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana
University Press.
Saddy, Guy (1995), "Entertainer Of The Year: The X-Files Open Up," TV Guide, December 30,
1995.
Schouten, John W. and James H. McAlexander (1995), "Subcultures of Consumption: An
Ethnography of the New Bikers," Journal of Consumer Research, 22 (June), 43-61.
Scott, Linda M. (1994), "The Bridge from Text to Mind: Adapting Reader-Response Theory to
Consumer Research," Journal of Consumer Research, 21 (December), 461-80.
Spiggle, Susan (1994) "Analysis and Interpretation of Qualitative Data in Consumer Research,"
Journal of Consumer Research, 21 (December), 491-503.
Stegall, Sarah (1996), "It's In His Hands: Interview With Chris Carter," The X-Files Magazine, 1,
Winter.
Stern, Barbara B. (1989), "Literary Criticism and Consumer Research: Overview and Illustrative
Analysis," Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (December), 322-334.
Tedlock, Barbara (1991), "From Participant Observation to the Observation of Participation: The
Emergence of Narrative Ethnography," Journal of Anthropological Research, 47 (1), 69-
94.
Tulloch, John and Henry Jenkins (1995), Science Fiction Audiences, London and New York:
Routledge.
Wallendorf, Melanie and Russell W. Belk (1989), "Assessing Trustworthiness in Naturalistic
Consumer Research," Interpretive Consumer Research, ed. Elizabeth C. Hirschman,
17
Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 69-84.
18
... Pour que la relation soit réciproquement perçue comme existante par les deux parties, il faut qu'elle « s'enracine à l'intersection d'un facteur humain, d'un facteur temporel et d'un facteur de proximité » (Dampérat, 2006, p. 118). Le facteur humain correspond à la nécessité des commerciaux de l'entreprise de « devenir de véritables gestionnaires de relations client et les piliers de la transmission des valeurs et savoir-faire de l'entreprise » (Dampérat, 2006, p. 119) auprès des clients qui forment dès lors des sous-cultures de consommation (Shouten et McAlexander, 1993Kozinets, 1997Kozinets, , 2001, des communautés de marque (Fournier, 1998 ;Muniz et O'Guinn, 2001, McAlexander, Schouten, et Koenig, 2002, ou encore des tribus de consommateurs (Maffesoli, 1998 ;Cova, 1995Cova, , 2003Cova et Cova, 2002 (Dampérat, 2006, p. 119). Enfin, « les relations basées sur un mode relationnel sont caractérisées par une orientation vers la proximité. ...
Thesis
Pourquoi les nouvelles enceintes sportives n’atteignent-elles pas les objectifs escomptés, notamment en termes de taux de remplissage ? Pour répondre à cette question, étudier le processus d’attachement au club et d’attachement au stade nous semble particulièrement porteur, notamment dans les chaînages conceptuels proximité → valeur perçue → attachement et attachement à l’ancien stade → proximité → valeur perçue → attachement au nouveau stade.Vingt-trois hypothèses sont formulées et testées auprès de 1 446 spectateurs de stade Yves-du-Manoir de Colombes, 668 spectateurs de la Paris La Défense Arena et 328 spectateurs des deux enceintes. Les résultats obtenus confirment la validité des deux chaînages conceptuels testés et offrent des pistes de réflexion managériale pour les professionnels de l’industrie du sport professionnel qui souhaiteraient améliorer le taux de remplissage de leur enceinte.
... Additionally, virtual communities became one of the primary venues where consumption related knowledge sharing behavior and word of mouth communication is taking place. As Kozinets asserts, virtual communities are considered as good source of references and venues for social interaction and it is possible to find many virtual community types that are explicitly structured around consumption related activities (Kozinets, 1997). From this point forward, understanding consumption related knowledge sharing behavior taking place in virtual communities and motivational and influential factors of this behavior hold an important value for marketers. ...
Conference Paper
İnsanların inançları, yaşamlarını sürdürdükleri coğrafya, kurmuş oldukları toplumsal düzen, diğer topluluklarla kurmuş oldukları ilişkiler, teknolojik gelişmeler toplumların hayatlarını doğrudan veya dolaylı olarak etkilemiştir. Doğal olarak da toplumların çocuklara bakış açıları da değişime uğramıştır. Tarihe bakıldığında çocukluk kavramının yetişkinlik kavramından farkının olmadığı, sonraki süreçlerde ise bu kavramın toplumların yaşamış oldukları değişim süreciyle başkalaşıma uğradığı göze çarpmaktadır. İlk toplumlarda fiziksel, duygusal ve davranışsal açıdan yetişkinlerden farklılıkları olmasına rağmen çocuklar çocuk olarak kabul edilmemiş, her bakımdan minyatür birer yetişkin olarak görülmüşlerdir. Çocuklar ne kadar seviliyor olsalar da bütün toplumlarda çocukluk bilincinin geçmişte de günümüzde de eksik olduğu göze çarpmaktadır. Dünyadaki toplumlar çocuk hakkında tarihsel süreç içinde yeterli bilgiye sahip olamamış ve bu bilgi eksikliği ne yazık ki günümüzde de devam etmektedir. Dünya genelinde yapılan ve yapılmakta olan başarılı uygulamaların çok az sayıdaki çocuklara ulaştığı ve çocuk eğitim programlarının da bunun etkisiyle istenen seviyelere gelmediği söylenebilir. Bu nedenle çocukların eğitimi söz konusu olduğunda birçok problemin tarih boyunca çocukların karşısına çıktığı görülmektedir. Bir toplumun çocuğa olan bakış açısı o toplumda var olan çocuk eğitim programına yansımaktadır. Çocukluk kavramı birçok araştırmaya konu olmasına rağmen çocuk eğitim programlarının bu araştırmalardan nasibini alamadığı önemli bir problem olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu çalışmada da bu problem göz önünde bulundurularak Dünyada ve Türkiye’de çocukluk kavramının tarihsel gelişimi ve bunun eğitim programlarına nasıl yansıdığı tartışılacaktır.
Thesis
Full-text available
Fan Studies aims to de-pathologise fans, their communities and their fannish practices (Jenkins 1992). In doing so, Fan Studies privileges fan voices by interrogating their quotidian on-and offline fan practices (Brooker 2002; Hills 2002), demonstrating the emotional connection these fans have to texts. Much of this fannish engagement revolves around the creation and consumption of slash fiction (Bacon-Smith 1992; Hellekson & Busse 2006), a fan practice occurring in fan fiction communities that has been identified as a 'queer female space' (Lothian et al 2007, 103). This work predominantly explores why women create these fan texts with little consideration given to the fan's source text. In spite of this, little attention has been given to LGBT+ fandom and how self-identifying LGBT+ fans negotiate mediated representations of LGBT+ identity, especially when considering the increasing level of LGBT+ media representations on television and particularly on Teen TV programmes. Therefore, this thesis addresses the ways in which fans negotiate non-normative identities represented in the teen mystery TV series Pretty Little Liars (2010-) by investigating 'queer' modes of fan production, namely 'fan talk', (fem)slash fiction, digital (fem)slash and fan theory-making created by PLL fans. PLL hosts a range of diverse LGBT+ representations and includes a large number of LGB producers and creative talent. This investigation occurs by employing a reader-guided textual analysis (Ytre-Arne 2011), a method that centralises fan meaning-making by analysing the fan's source text through these fan interpretations. I argue that reader-guided textual analysis (Ytre-Arne 2011) allows us to better understand how fans negotiate LGBT+ representation, how fans accept or reject these LGBT+ representations and the characters' relationships. The implications lie not just in Fan Studies methodologies and fan production, but also for Queer Theory's 'evaluative paradigm' (Davis and Needham 2009) or how Queer Theorist assess representations as either positive or negative.
Article
Big Data has dramatically changed the competitive landscape of the global economy (Demirkan et al., 2015). Big Data capabilities enable marketers to differentiate customers by accessing and analysing their daily activities to influence the customers’ choices in a way that increases profits. Marketers are thus motivated to design technologies that extract as much data as possible to tempt customers, and even lock them into a cycle of commitment. This process of data extraction is the first stage of what has become known as surveillance capitalism, which occurs in the absence of dialogue or consent and contributes to structures of indifference towards the rights and liberties of customers (Zuboff, 2019b). In this paper, we highlight these intersecting relationships between accounting, accountability and marketing practices. We explore the role of the accounting-based marketing practices that persuade customers of a large retail provider in the Middle East to participate in and use a loyalty program. We then explain how particular forms of calculative practice, intertwined with socio-religious cultural norms, serve the goals of surveillance capitalism. We also reflect on the traditional position of accountability systems vis-à-vis accounting-based marketing practices to consider the ethical concerns that underpin the use of ‘Big Data’ techniques (Dillard and Vinnari, 2019, Roslender and Nielsen, 2020).
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Thesis
La société de l’information, de la communication et de la connaissance (SICC) est caractérisée par l’économie du savoir dans laquelle apprendre devient moteur des vies sur le plan privé, professionnel et organisationnel. Les technologies de l’information et communication (TIC), creuset d’une telle société ont permis de démocratiser l’accès aux savoirs de sorte que l’éducation en ligne naguère une modalité d’éducation devient un atout proéminent pour monter en compétences notamment avec l’avènement des cours libres ouverts et massifs (CLOM) ou MOOC en anglais. Notre thèse ayant pour objet ces MOOC (Massive open online courses) évalue un tel dispositif dans sa capacité à favoriser un rapport nouveau à l’activité d’apprentissage dans une visée de montée en compétence de publics variés engagés au sein d’une communauté virtuelle ou communauté de pratique (CoP) dans le sens d’Etienne Wenger. Notre manuscrit s’est attelé dans une posture de chercheur-acteur-impliqué à évaluer le rapport au savoir dans une telle communauté en l’infiltrant pour en débusquer les structurants tout en passant au crible le dispositif central de cette communauté qu’est le MOOC Gestion de projet (MOOC GdP). L’étude monographique du MOOC Gestion de projet et sa communauté en ligne met en exergue un changement d’attitude face au savoir dans une société de connaissance enjoignant à améliorer l’employabilité à travers une attitude proactive et agile dans sa gestion de compétence. Au terme de cette étude, nous montrons par une approche inductive que le dispositif MOOC GdP peut constituer un jalon favorisant une attitude proactive couplé à des pratiques communautiques à un apprentissage tout au long de la vie (ATLV), condition sine qua none d’acquérir la metacompétence de l’apprendre à apprendre qui fonde la société apprenante.
Article
In the convergence era, television audience has become interactive audience. Study about television audience become important, especially in favorite program, such as sinetron (Indonesian soap opera). Netnography method is used to examine the social network dynamics of 7 Manusia Harimau audience. After conducting online participatory observation in two fandom groups and in-depth interviews with seven informants, the results show that media convergence has broaden the way audience consume sinetron and enhanced the audiences’ interactivity. Online media support the audience to develop individual and communal network, collective identity and intelligence, collective actions and participatory culture.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.