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Fluoride is a bio-accumulative, endocrine disrupting, neurotoxic carcinogen – not a nutrient

Authors:

Abstract

Fluoride, Asbestos, Uranium, Lead and Tobacco (FAULT) are multibillion dollar industries that have caused immeasurable harm to humans who have recently discovered that decades of propaganda claims that the products are “safe and effective” are demonstrably false. Each of these industries has a history of denial of harm, suppression of evidence, attempts to avoid litigation and compensation of victims. In a last ditch attempt to retain public drinking water as a conduit for disposal of Fluoride, an industrial waste product, myth-mongers are attempting to promulgate the “Big Lie” that Fluoride is a nutrient.
Fluoride is a bio-accumulative, endocrine disrupting,
neurotoxic carcinogen not a nutrient
Geoff Pain
December 2015
Abstract
Fluoride, Asbestos, Uranium, Lead and Tobacco (FAULT) are multibillion dollar industries that have
caused immeasurable harm to humans who have recently discovered that decades of propaganda
claims that the products are “safe and effective” are demonstrably false. Each of these industries has
a history of denial of harm, suppression of evidence, attempts to avoid litigation and compensation
of victims. In a last ditch attempt to retain public drinking water as a conduit for disposal of Fluoride,
an industrial waste product, myth-mongers are attempting to promulgate the “Big Lie” that Fluoride
is a nutrient.
Fluoride toxicity
The huge literature resource on Fluoride includes descriptive terms including:
Cytotoxin
Clastogen
Mitogen
Genotoxin
Carcinogen
Mutagen
Low-dose Endocrine Disruptor
Neurotoxin
These terms are not used by promoters of Fluoride chemicals and papers that include them are
deliberately excluded from sham “studies” of the “safety and efficacy” of Fluoridation [see for
example, discussion in Deal 2015, Saul 2012].
As pointed out many years ago, the acute toxicity of Fluoride has been underestimated and is as
little as 0.1 mg/kg [Akiniwa 1997].
Some human populations have been exposed to volcanic emissions rich in Fluoride. As mentioned
recently [Pain 2015a], the largest recorded knock down of humans, animals and crops by Fluoride
was the eruption of Lakagígar in Iceland over an eight-month period between 1783 and 1784, where
a mixture of Hydrogen Fluoride and Sulfur Dioxide is estimated to have claimed up to 6 million lives
directly or indirectly (through starvation due to loss of livestock and crops) in the Northern
Hemisphere [Wikipedia 2015].
Research at the molecular level has shown that some other life forms have evolved the machinery,
absent in humans, to eliminate the Fluoride toxin from their cells, [Li 2013, Stockbridge 2015].
Fluoride is a bio-accumulative toxin that our bodies attempt to eject through the kidneys, hair, skin
and nails. Fluoride is a member of the so-called “bone-seeking” poisons due to its ability to displace
hydroxyl groups in the Hydroxyapatite that forms the mineral content of our bones.
Fluoride is readily absorbed directly through the oral tissues no need to swallow!
In the stomach a large proportion of Fluoride is converted to the extremely hazardous, tissue
necrotizing, Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) molecule, a gas at body temperature. HF then readily migrates
through the airways, stomach and intestines to wreak havoc throughout the body [Sauerheber
2013].
Humans evolved with access to surface rainwater and were initially dependent on the obvious
sources of creeks, rivers, lakes and springs that contained little or no Fluoride. Only relatively
recently in human evolution have humans accessed groundwater through sunk wells, and this has
led to identification of major hazards such as Arsenic and Fluoride.
Indeed the groundwater Fluoride problem is now recognized by the World Health Organization
[2014] which states that Fluoride causes an extensive toll of human suffering and lists:
Neurological damage
Reduced IQ scores in children (see also Xiang 2003)
Dental and skeletal fluorosis
Osteosclerosis
Calcification of tendons and ligaments
Bone deformities
Conjunctival hyperaernia
Respiratory disorders
Chronic cough
Bronchitis
Chonic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Exacerbation of Asthma
Lunger Cancer
Haematological Disorders
Ischaemic Heart disease
Carcinoma of the Tracea
Cerebrovascular Disease
Digestive Disorders
Skin Diseases (perhaps referring to Fluoroderma here)
Rheumatic disorders
Nervous conditions
Hearing and Visual disorders
Cognitive Decline in older people
It is of particular interest that WHO [2014] now states that Fluoride is more toxic than Lead.
The Queensland Government [2015] summarizes the toxicity of Fluoride as follows:
Acute fluoride poisoning is manifested by vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, cyanosis, severe
weakness, dyspnoea, muscle spasms, paresis and paralyses, cardiovascular disorders including
ventricular fibrillation, convulsions, coma and death. Fluoride kills by blocking normal cellular
metabolism. Fluoride inhibits enzymes, particularly metallo-enzymes involved in essential processes,
causing vital functions such as the initiation and transmission of nerve impulses to cease. The strong
affinity of fluoride for calcium leads to hypocalcaemia”.
In 2007 a rushed and defective review of Fluoride [NHMRC 2007] dispersed its findings of evidence
of harm, which I have collated and presented below. Those marked with an asterisk were classified
by the NHMRC as supported by statistically significant data:
Cancer Takahashi 2001*
Dental Fluorosis*
Congenital malformations*
Osteosarcoma (males)*
Alzheimer’s disease*
Mental retardation (High F, Low I)*
Goitre*
Urinary stone disease*
Cardiovascular disease
Thyroid Cancer
Osteoporosis
Decreased Bone Density
Fracture
Down’s syndrome
Anaemia during pregnancy
Age at menarche
Infant mortality
Sudden infant death
IQ reduction
Skeletal fluorosis
Despite being a specific requirement of the NHMRC tender, the review omitted its findings on the
known impact of Fluoride on the kidney and those who suffer kidney disease [NHMRC 2007 Part B].
One of the most significant findings against Fluoride is the discovery that hydroxyapatite enhances
the mitogenesis of mammary cells, amplifying the malignant process and resulting in accelerated
tumor growth [Wilson 2014]. Recently Fluoride, delivered by mandated fluoridation, has been linked
to Hypothyroidism [Peckham 2015], Diabetes and Obesity [Vandenberg 2012, Pain 2015b], Pre-term
Birth and Impaired Neurodevelopment [McArthur 2015] and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
(ADHD) [Malin 2015].
Fluoride Toxicity Denial
The Fluoride industry suffered greatly after discovery that the ozone layer has been severely
damaged by release of chlorofluorocarbons and more recently that long-chain fluorocarboxylates,
used as foaming agents, represent another environmental disaster.
Fluoride, Asbestos, Uranium, Lead and Tobacco (FAULT) are all part of a sad tendency in human
history to succumb to promotion of consumerism through scientific ignorance.
Australian Governments have conspired to suppress relevant public health data and in particular for
vulnerable groups [Yazahmeidi 2007].
Fluoride toxicity denial resembles Global Overheating denial. Politicians have been duped by the
Fluoride industry and are reluctant to admit that they have caused suffering to hundreds of millions
of people through forced fluoridation of public drinking water supplies.
For the bureaucrats who have sanctioned or actively promoted water fluoridation to admit that they
have given the wrong advice to the politicians for decades is a question of conscience that leads to
fear of exposure, loss of position, reputation and belief in self.
Denial is a psychological crutch.
Some of these bureaucrats, including scientists and medicos, have developed a strategy that goes
beyond denial to the mongering of myths.
The Big Lie Claiming Fluoride is a “Nutrient”
In 1954 the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council became concerned about the
high levels of Fluoride intake by people working in hot conditions, stating: “cane-cutters in
Bundaberg consume as much as 10 litres per day of which 4 litres is tea” Assuming 0.5 ppm in the
water and 2.5 ppm in the tea, the maximum fluorine intake could be 16.5 mg/day”. Note that today,
1.5 ppm Fluoride is allowed in Australian fluoridation, so that such workers would actually consume
26.5 mg/day. This is about one-twelfth the lethal dose. This comes as a shock to many interested in
nutrition [Stanton 2015].
The fundamental nutritional studies of Fluoride, proving it has no positive role in human
development are more than half a century old [Maurer 1957].
In 1963 the USFDA stated that Sodium Fluoride used for therapeutic effect [e.g. water fluoridation]
would be a drug, not a mineral nutrient [Lovering 1963]. In 1979, the USFDA ordered that all
government documents remove all references to fluoride as an "essential nutrient" or even a
"probable essential nutrient." “The USFDA has never received or ever reviewed, much less approved,
even the fluoride drops or tablets (which are pure pharmaceutical grade fluoride) for safety or
effectiveness”. [Kennedy D, personal communication].
In 1966 The International Society for Research on Nutrition, Vital Substances and the Diseases of
Civilization (founded by Dr. Albert Schweitzer in 1954) issued a statement opposing fluoridation
which included "fluoride is an enzyme poison which can cause irreversible and unpredictable
diseases." [cited in Connett 2015].
The United States Public Health Service stated “The United Sates Public Health Service does not say
sodium fluoride is an essential nutrient” [USPHS 1966].
Numerous scientific journals have subsequently published studies demonstrating that Fluoride is not
a nutrient [Diesendorf 1990].
The US National Research Council [1993] stated “Fluoride is no longer considered an essential factor
for human growth and development”.
The American Dental Association [2000 cited in Connett 2002] and the Center for Disease Control
[2001 cited in Connett 2002] have both declared that there is no significant reduction in tooth decay
from the mechanism of ingested fluoride, including any relevant contribution from glandular saliva
following ingestion of fluoridated water.
In 2002 Belgium banned Fluoride deliberately added to salt [Belgium 2002].
The American College of Nutrition [Marshall 2004] warns against feeding babies infant formula made
up with fluoridated water.
The United States Food and Drug Administration [2006] will not allow Fluoride to be added to
vitamins or supplements that claim a nutritional benefit.
The International Association of Oral Medicine and Toxicology [2003], dentists opposed to
fluoridation, state that Fluoride is of no benefit for teeth.
As pointed out by Needham [2010], the fluoride content of the body is not under physiological
control and that is the fundamental factor that differentiates between a substance that is a nutrient
and one that is simply a contaminant”.
In 2011 the European Commission stated “Fluoride is not essential for human growth and
development [SCHER 2011].
In 2011 in Australia and New Zealand, the Big Lie was stated, by anonymous authors, thus: “Fluoride
is necessary for the mineralisation of teeth and bones with approximately 99% of fluoride in the
body found in calcified tissues” [FSANZ 2012]. This study also deliberately prepared foods in non-
fluoridated water, thus resulting in false low estimation of Australian total dietary Fluoride intake.
In 2013 the United Nations and the World Health Organization officially recognized Fluoride as a
Low-Dose Endocrine Disruptor linked to Diabetes and Obesity [Bergman 2013, Vandenberg 2012].
The European Food Safety Authority [EFSA 2013] could not be clearer and states unequivocally
“Fluoride is not an essential nutrient” and also No signs of fluoride deficiency have been
identified in humans”.
In 2014 the Israeli Government banned water fluoridation to protect the health of its citizens.
In 2015, flying in the face all the historical and rigorous science outlined above, the unsupported
claim was made in Ireland thereby it (Fluoride) could be considered an essential dietary nutrient. As
with all dietary nutrients it is possible to have either too little or too much in the diet” [Sutton 2015].
In 2015 the Obama administration recommended a massive decrease in the allowable concentration
in American drinking water from 4 mg/litre to 0.7 mg/litre.
It’s Time to face the absurd contradictions
The perpetrators of the Fluoridation fraud and the Big Lie must not be allowed to claim that Fluoride
has any value as a nutrient. The overwhelming evidence of harm demands that the Australian and
New Zealand Governments unite with the scientifically literate world and eliminate all pretence by
FSANZ and the NHMRC that Fluoride has a place in any nutritional review or has a “Nutrient
Reference Value”.
Claims of economic benefit from fluoridation have been shown to be false [Ko 2015].
The current Fluoride review [Australian Government 2015] is absurd - stating for Fluoride that “there
is no evidence that the Australian and New Zealand population has any level of deficiency”. And yet
they propose to increase the fictional “adequate intake”!!!
The World Health Organization has begun to undo the damage that it has done by listing the known
harms caused by Fluoride. It must now cease promoting an “adequate intake”. The Australian
Therapeutic Goods Administration must act immediately to classify Fluoride, dispensed in any form,
as a drug, bringing it into line with previous Australia legal findings that it is medication, not “water
treatment” and is therefore subject to regulation of dose at the individual level with consumer
warnings of side effects [Verkerk 2010].
It would be shear lunacy to allow FSANZ and the NHMRC to increase allowable Upper Levels (ULs) of
Fluoride intake. The recommendation should be a target of Fluoride intake as low as reasonably
achievable.
References
Akiniwa, K. 1997. Re-examination of the acute toxicity of Fluoride. Fluoride 30(2) 89-104
Australian Government. 2015. Department of Health. Methodological framework for the review of
Nutrient Reference Values.
Belgium 2002. Belgian Council for Hygiene scientific opinion.
Bergman, Åke, Heindel, Jerrold J, Jobling, Susan, Kidd, Karen A and Zoeller, R Thomas. Editors 2013
State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012 An assessment of the state of the
science of endocrine disruptors prepared by a group of experts for the United Nations Environment
Programme and World Health Organization.
Choi, A.L., Zhang Y., Sun, G., Bellinger, D.C., Wang, K., Yang, X.J., Li, J.S., Zheng, Fug, Q.Y., Grandjean,
P. 2015. Association of lifetime exposure to fluoride and cognitive functions in Chinese children: A
pilot study. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. Volume 47, 96101.
Connett, E and Connett, P. 2002. Submission to the ATSDR.
Connett, P., Beck, J., Micklem, H.S., The Case Against Fluoride, How Toxic Waste Ended up in our
Drinking Water and the Bad Science and Politics that Keep it There, Chelsea Green Publishing, White
River Junction, VT, USA, 2010.
Connett P. et al. 2015. Fluoride Action Network database. www.fluoridealert.org.
Deal, J.R. 2015. National Sanitation Foundation Sham FDA Fraudulent Certifier of Fluoridation
Materials. Available from Research Gate.
Diesendorf, M. 1990. The health hazards of fluoridation: a re-examination, International Clinical
Nutrition Review 10(2) 304-321
Diesendorf M. 2006. Skeptic, Winter edition. Fluoridation: Unsafe, Ineffective and Unethical pp. 61-
63, 68.
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies 2013: Carlo Agostoni, Roberto Berni Canani,
Susan Fairweather-Tait, Marina Heinonen, Hannu Korhonen, Sébastien La Vieille, Rosangela
Marchelli, Ambroise Martin, Androniki Naska, Monika Neuhäuser-Berthold, Grażyna Nowicka,
Yolanda Sanz, Alfonso Siani, Anders Sjödin, Martin Stern, Sean (J.J.) Strain, Inge Tetens, Daniel Tomé,
Dominique Turck and Hans Verhagen. Scientific opinion on Dietary Reference Values for Fluoride.
EFSA Journal 11(8) 3332
FSANZ. Food Standards Australia and New Zealand. 2012. The 23rd Australian Total Diet Study.
International Association of Oral Medicine and Toxicology. 2003. Policy position on ingested fluoride
and fluoridation.
Kennedy D. 2015. personal communication
Ko, L. and K. Thiessen. 2015. A critique of recent economic evaluations of community water
fluoridation. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 21, 91-120
Li, S., Smith, K.D., Davis, J.H., Gordon, P.B., Breaker, R.R. and S.A. Strobel. 2013. Eukaryotic resistance
to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins. Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences. 110(47) 19018-19023
Lovering, E.M. 1963. Consumer Inquiries Section, USFDA to N.M. Wellesley, Mass. 8/15/63
MacArthur, J.D. 2015. Fluoride, Premature Birth and Impaired Neurodevelopment
Malin, A. and C.Till. 2015. Exposure to fluoridated water and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
prevalence. Environmental Health 14, 17
Marshall T.A. et al. 2004. Associations between Intakes of Fluoride from Beverages during Infancy
and Dental Fluorosis of Primary Teeth. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 23, 108-16
Maurer and Day. 1957. The Non-Essentiality of Fluoride in Nutrition. Journal of Nutrition, 62, 561-
573
Needham, B. 2010. “Killer Smile” Report to Minister for Health and Human Services. Water
Fluoridation and Ill Health of at Risk Groups in the Tasmanian Population in 2010.
National Research Council. 1993. Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride. National Academy Press,
Washington DC. p. 30
NHMRC 2007 Part B. Excluded Studies. 355 pages.
Pain, G. October 2015a. Fluoride doped Hydroxyapatite in Soft Tissues and Cancer A Literature
Review. Available from Research Gate.
Pain, G. 2015b. Fluoride Causes Diabetes. Available from Research Gate.
Pain, G. 2015c. NHMRC = Politics, Not Science. Australians Victims of Dangerous Fluoridation
Experiments. Available from Research Gate.
Pain, G. 2015d. Plumbosolvency exacerbated by Water Fluoridation. Available from Research Gate.
Peckham, S. Lowery, D. and S Spencer. 2015. Are fluoride levels in drinking water associated with
hypothyroidism prevalence in England? A large observational study of GP practice data and fluoride
levels in drinking water. J Epidemiol Community Health. pp 1-6.
Queensland Government Workplace Health and Safety. 2015. Fluoride health monitoring guidelines.
Sauerheber, R. 2013. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride. Journal of
Environmental and Public Health Volume 2013
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evidence on the hazard profile, health effects, and human exposure to fluoride and the fluoridating
agents of drinking water.
Stanton, R. 2015. personal communication.
Stockbridge, R.B., Kolmakova-Partensky, L., Shane, T., Koide, A., Koide, S., Miller, C. and S. Newstead.
2015. Crystal structures of a double-barrelled fluoride ion channel. Nature, 525, 548-551
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Products, Labeling, and Dietary Supplements, October 14, 2006
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378-455.
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analysis, Toxicology 278(1) 2738
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and their management in the African Region.
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Australian governments. Aust N Z J Public Health. 31 (5) 51-7
... Hydrofluorosilicic (HFSA) waste is supplied to Port Macquarie Hastings Council by IXOM Operations Pty Ltd (formerly Orica) at the rate of about 600 kg per pumping day. Fluoride is a bioaccumulative endocrine disruptor with no nutritional value [Pain 2015a, Pain 2017a. HFSA is known to increase plumbosolvency, the leaching of Lead from brass [Pain 2015b] which leads to all the diseases caused by Lead poisoning, including damaged teeth. ...
Technical Report
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The people of Port Macquarie Hastings in the state New South Wales, Australia, voted overwhelmingly against Fluoridation of their drinking water but their wishes were ignored due to political pressure to aid the disposal of industrial waste from the Phosphate Fertilizer industry. The water supply is drawn from the Hastings River and the project is unusual due to storage of unfiltered Fluoridated water in interconnected earth dams exposed to sunlight. No environmental impact assessment was performed before the project despite the presence of threatened, vulnerable and endangered wildlife in the catchment area. Risks to public health from organic molecules containing Fluorine manufactured by bacteria and algae appear never to have been considered.
... Fluoride is not a nutrient [Pain 2015a]. Administration of Fluoride "supplements" is known (as expected) to directly cause Fluorosis in children from 0-3 years [Morgan 1998 #]. ...
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Fluoride is a developmental neurotoxin that has been linked to human brain damage since the 1920s when Fluoride induced cretinism was investigated and confirmed with animal studies. With advances in imaging, chemical analytical techniques including proteomics, detailed molecular mechanisms of Fluoride damage to the brain, spinal cord and nerve networks have been investigated with ever increasing levels of detail. The current peer-reviewed scientific publication rate regarding Fluoride neurotoxicity is about one paper per week. This literature guide provides a snapshot of the science as easily obtained in early 2017, to help inform those interested in the depth of knowledge and where the ongoing studies are directed.
Technical Report
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Green Tea is promoted as a healthy beverage yet few consumers are aware of the health risks caused by its Aluminium, Fluoride, Fluoroacetate, Heavy Metal, Oxalate and Polyphenol content.
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Cataract blindness affects tens of millions of people, many of whom will never have access to lens replacement surgery. Fluoride from various sources including drinking water, tea, salt and drugs, enhances and stabilizes crystal growth of Hydroxyapatite within the eye. Fluoride is identified as the major risk for cataract and contributes to risk of other eye diseases including macular degeneration.
Technical Report
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Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council states that the only harm arising from water Fluoridation and total dietary Fluoride intake is Dental Fluorosis. This guide provides a quick reference to harms known by toxicologists to be caused by Fluoride, including those still under intensive research and recognized by other administrations.
Technical Report
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Fluoride causes excess suffering and death by initiating and exacerbating kidney disease, which in turn causes a cascade of secondary, often fatal, diseases. This review demonstrates that proponents of water Fluoridation have attempted to suppress evidence of harm to the population at large and especially vulnerable groups with impaired renal function.
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Fluoride uptake in coronary arteries is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk of sudden death. Fluoride causes enhanced deposition of doped Hydroxyapatite which leads to inflammation and sites for fatty deposits of atherosclerosis. Fluoride interferes with numerous enzyme systems resulting in elevation of key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Fluoride causes oxidative stress and degeneration of heart muscle. Fluoride inhibits Thyroid function with consequential damage to heart function. Fluoride increases risk of sudden death from ruptured aorta. Diabetes, caused or exacerbated by Fluoride, further increases risk of cardiovascular death and disability.
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Plumbosolvency, the dissolution of metallic Lead, which results in the contamination of drinking water and consequent damage to human health, is recognized as a major problem wherever Lead pipes, solder or brass fittings are present in the supply route. Plumbosolvency is exacerbated by Fluoridation of drinking water. The use of Phosphate in an attempt to reduce the dissolution rate leads to increased costs, waste of a scarce natural resource and environmental degradation. Immediate cessation of neurotoxic Fluoridation to reduce plumbosolvency makes more economic sense. Provision of communal water supplies from point of collection reverse osmosis filters can bring an immediate end to Lead exposure while sources of Lead contamination are gradually removed from the supply network, creating thousands of person years employment in a depressed economy.
Research
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The National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) certifies fluoridation materials to be safe. NSF Rule 60 states that some 20 toxicological tests of fluoridation materials must be done. NSF has admitted that the tests are not done. Because states and water districts make the decision to require fluoridation based on NSF’s certification, and because said certification is false and fraudulent, and because NSF is usurping the role of the FDA in certifying the fluoride drug to be safe, the FDA should to order NSF to cease in its certification of fluoridation materials to be safe.
Technical Report
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This report presents the findings of a review of the evidence carried out by a team at the Evidence Centre of the Health Research Board (HRB) on the health impacts of community water fluoridation (CWF).
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This brief literature review and bibliography presents evidence that Fluoride, through fluoridation of public drinking water, causes Diabetes as well as injury to existing diabetics.
Article
The acute toxic dose of fluoride has been believed to be 2 to 5 mg or 8 mg/kg of body weight. However, acute fluoride poisonings have occurred at doses of 0.1 to 0.8 mgF/kg of body weight in the USA. In Japan, a school- based anticariogenic program is being carried out with fluoride mouth rinses containing 500 to 2000 ppm sodium fluoride on approximately 158,000 persons, consisting mainly of elementary and junior high school children. Thus the safety problem of this treatment attracts much attention. Fluoride retention is said to be around 15 to 30% in fluoride mouth rinsing. In this paper, on the basis of toxic doses estimated in outbreaks of fluoride poisoning, the potential for acute poisoning by fluoride ingested during mouth rinsing is assessed. Acute fluoride poisoning is shown to be caused by exposure to lower doses of fluoride than commonly suggested. The toxic dose of fluoride should therefore be re-examined.
Article
A review of The case against fluoride: how hazardous waste ended up in our drinking water and the bad science and powerful politics that keep it there by Connett P, Beck J, and Micklem HS summarises the historical, political, ethical, toxicological, and epidemiological scientific data behind drinking water fluoridation. The book concludes that, if proposed today, fluoridation of drinking water to prevent tooth decay would stand virtually no chance of being adopted, given the current status of scientific knowledge.
Article
From personal experience and from results of recent better-quality dental research studies, water fluoridation and even topical application of fluoride have not been found to produce significant prevention of tooth decay. Moreover, present levels of fluoride ingestion incur measurable toxic effects, especially among young children.
Article
To contend with hazards posed by environmental fluoride, microorganisms export this anion through F(-)-specific ion channels of the Fluc family. Since the recent discovery of Fluc channels, numerous idiosyncratic features of these proteins have been unearthed, including strong selectivity for F(-) over Cl(-) and dual-topology dimeric assembly. To understand the chemical basis for F(-) permeation and how the antiparallel subunits convene to form a F(-)-selective pore, here we solve the crystal structures of two bacterial Fluc homologues in complex with three different monobody inhibitors, with and without F(-) present, to a maximum resolution of 2.1 Å. The structures reveal a surprising 'double-barrelled' channel architecture in which two F(-) ion pathways span the membrane, and the dual-topology arrangement includes a centrally coordinated cation, most likely Na(+). F(-) selectivity is proposed to arise from the very narrow pores and an unusual anion coordination that exploits the quadrupolar edges of conserved phenylalanine rings.
While previous research has suggested that there is an association between fluoride ingestion and the incidence of hypothyroidism, few population level studies have been undertaken. In England, approximately 10% of the population live in areas with community fluoridation schemes and hypothyroidism prevalence can be assessed from general practice data. This observational study examines the association between levels of fluoride in water supplies with practice level hypothyroidism prevalence. We used a cross-sectional study design using secondary data to develop binary logistic regression models of predictive factors for hypothyroidism prevalence at practice level using 2012 data on fluoride levels in drinking water, 2012/2013 Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) diagnosed hypothyroidism prevalence data, 2013 General Practitioner registered patient numbers and 2012 practice level Index of Multiple Deprivation scores. We found that higher levels of fluoride in drinking water provide a useful contribution for predicting prevalence of hypothyroidism. We found that practices located in the West Midlands (a wholly fluoridated area) are nearly twice as likely to report high hypothyroidism prevalence in comparison to Greater Manchester (non-fluoridated area). In many areas of the world, hypothyroidism is a major health concern and in addition to other factors-such as iodine deficiency-fluoride exposure should be considered as a contributing factor. The findings of the study raise particular concerns about the validity of community fluoridation as a safe public health measure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.