Article

Paradgims and Research Programs in the Study of Teaching: A contemporary perspective

Handbook of Research On Teaching 01/1986;

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    • "With the new ideas of cognitive science introduced into language education, researchers are looking beyond the mere examination of teacher behaviors and are studying teacher cognitions from different perspectives (Borg, 2006; Borko & Putnam, 1996; Calderhead, 1996; Cheng & Tang, 2010; Ernest, 2001; Gebhard, 2009; Johnson, 2006; Kelly, 2006; Lantolf, 2004; Raymond, 1997; Shulman, 1986b). Shulman (1986a) and Brown and Barid (1993) have recommended a more comprehensive study of the wide variety of teachers' cognitions and their relationship to a broader repertoire of teaching actions in the classroom. Artzt and Thomas (2012) have conducted a systematic investigation on a relationship between teacher's instructional practice and their underlying cognitive models from a cognitive perspective, with the findings that knowledge , beliefs, and goals directly have formed a network of cognitive models that direct and control the instructional behaviors of teachers in the classroom. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate how a group of Chinese university teachers developed their cognitive models by using “English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers” metaphors. The research method includes an open-ended questionnaire, a checklist questionnaire, and verbal reports. The goal for this research is twofold. First, we will present those metaphors we believe to be the most frequently used or most central in shaping the thoughts or ideas they have had for EFL teaching and learning. Second, we will provide a description of their internal process of developing cognitive models, as well as factors that could account for such models. The findings showed that (a) most of us had three ways of understanding EFL teachers in terms of the educational journey metaphor, the educational building metaphor, and the educational conduit metaphor; (b) we used such a cluster of converging cognitive models as the instructor model, the transmitter model, and the builder model to construct definitions for EFL teachers, with the instructor model as a central model; and (c) metaphor can actually serve as a useful, effective, and analytic tool for making us aware of the cognitive model underlying our conceptual framework.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · SAGE Open
    • "The lack of capability to create conditions favourable to an authoritative attitude may also hinder this way of acting . Differently to authoritarian behaviour , authority relates to a consistent competency to teach the content , which is associated with a proficient use of content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge ( Shulman 1986 ) . Difficulties related to applying these knowledge dimensions were mentioned by PTs as an important influence on their self - efficacy . "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines physical education pre-service teachers’ (PTs) self-efficacy and practicum experiences as self-efficacy sources through a mixed-method approach. For the quantitative phase, a self-efficacy questionnaire was applied to 141 PTs. Results showed a stronger self-efficacy in the relationship with students and discipline promotion. Lower self-efficacy was linked to instructional strategies. Concerning the qualitative phase, eight PTs were interviewed. PTs with higher self-efficacy reported professional experiences before practicum as mastery experiences. During the practicum they highlighted as mastery experiences: classes’ characteristics, planning and teaching practice; lesson observation as vicarious experiences; and post-lesson conversations as verbal persuasion. PTs with lower self-efficacy reported classes’ characteristics and teaching practice as failure experiences. Lesson observation was linked to negative vicarious experiences and post-lesson conversations were associated to negative emotions and the absence of verbal persuasion. This study’s results have implications inasmuch as they confirm the role of the practicum in teacher education programmes and the importance of training supervisors in the implementation and management of the training experience, thus contributing to PTs’ self-efficacy development.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · European Journal of Teacher Education
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    • "An abundance of research has examined the process by which these inexperienced and novice teachers learn to teach and the content considered essential for this teaching. This includes content knowledge (Graber, 1995; Herold & Waring, 2009), pedagogical content knowledge learned simultaneously with content knowledge (Shulman, 1986) and more recently the idea of PSTs appreciating the flexibility of content when teaching (Darling-Hammong & Snowdon, 2005; Loewenberg-Ball, 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to describe the ongoing self-study of a community of physical education teacher educators (PETE) striving to enhance their research capacity and program effectiveness. The underpinnings of the project reside within professional development/professional learning and self-study. Engaging in self-study projects ‘allows teacher educators to focus on their own practice and students’ learning while meeting the research expectations of life as an academic’ [Tannehill, D. (2014). My journey to become a teacher educator. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 19. doi: 10.1080/17408989.2014.898745]. While often beginning with individuals looking at their own work, self-study does not need to confine itself to individuals and can involve collaboration among varying numbers across a variety of participants [Loughran, J. J., & Russell, T. (Eds.). (2002). Improving teacher education practices through selfstudy. London: Routledge Farmer]. This paper reflects one PETE program’s attempts to examine the early findings of our programmatic self-study research into the development of a PETE learning community. It describes our initial findings reported through three themes reflecting our self-study work and experiences: dialogue, memory, and becoming, which link directly to Ovens and Fletcher’s [Ovens, A., & Fletcher, T. (Eds.). (2014). Self-study in teacher education: Exploring the interplay of practice and scholarship. London: Springer] self-study characteristics of community, stance, and desire. While still a work-in-progress, this project has allowed our group to address tensions, dilemmas, and practices of interest, providing for the acquisition of knowledge to move forward both programmatically and individually. Our intent in sharing this work is to provide a platform for discussion as to the potential programmatic use of selfstudy to enhance PETE programs and the research capacities of PETE.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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