Drowning - United States, 2005-2009

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 05/2012; 61(19):344-347.
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    ABSTRACT: Drowning is the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid; outcomes are classified as death, morbidity and no morbidity. In most of the developed countries, drowning is the second or third cause of accidental death for children aged < 15 after road accident and fires and, according to the World Health Organization, the third leading cause of death in children aged 1–5 years. Males are especially at risk of drowning, with twice the overall mortality rate of females. Not all drownings are correlated to recreational water use, and the percentage that is attributable to swimming pools and similar environments is expected to vary from country to country.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Microchemical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among US children, and an important driver of health status globally. Despite its enormous burden, injury is preventable. Over the last 10 years, significant progress has been made in the reduction of unintentional injury among US children. However, aggregate trends mask important disparities by age group, region, and injury mechanism. Basic and translation research is needed to develop and test prevention strategies to address these new or recalcitrant problems. Motor vehicle occupant injury has fallen to historic lows, but challenges remain in protecting novice drivers and managing the distraction of new technologies. Injury to pedestrians has also declined, but likely as a result of decreased exposure as fewer children walk. This calls for a broader public health perspective to promote activity while enhancing safety. Deaths due to drowning are common and illustrate the difficulty in measuring and promoting appropriate supervision. Environmental modification and use of protective products may be a more appropriate response. Concussion in sport is another challenging issue: public health laws promote identification and appropriate management of concussed athletes, but less progress has been made on primary prevention of these injuries. Unintentional poisoning is on the rise, attributable to misuse of, and overdose with, prescription opioids. Injury deaths to infants are also increasing. This trend is driven in part by better death investigation that classifies more sleep-related deaths as suffocation events. Finally, we examine a sample of cross-cutting themes and controversies in injury control that might be amenable to empiric evaluation.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Academic pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Life jackets may prevent one in two drowning deaths, however, 85% of recreational boating-related drowning victims in the United States in 2012 did not wear a life jacket. This study explored behavioral factors and strategies to encourage consistent life jacket use among adult recreational boaters. We conducted a qualitative study among boat owners who boat regularly, and explored factors associated with life jacket use by adults and child or adolescent passengers. Sixteen boaters participated in four focus groups. Most boaters reported inconsistent use of life jackets, using them only when conditions were poor. Each described episodes of unpredictable boating risk which occurred despite favorable conditions. Most required younger child passengers to wear a life jacket, but reported resistance among older children. Barriers to consistent life jacket use included discomfort and the belief that life jacket use indicated inexperience or poor swimming ability. Participants stated that laws requiring life jacket use would change behavior especially for children. The only demonstrated behavior change among group members was associated with use of inflatable life jacket devices. Boating risk is inherently unpredictable; therefore interventions should focus on strategies for increasing consistent use of life jackets. Passage and enforcement of life jacket legislation for older children and adults is likely a promising approach for behavior change. Designing more comfortable, better-fitting, more appealing life jackets will be paramount to encouraging consistent use.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Accident; analysis and prevention
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