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Morphological and nutritional parameters of Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea) in hydroponic culture

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Chinese mustard is a perspective vegetable species due to its high nutritional value. The aim of this work was an evaluation of Chinese mustard assortment for hydroponic cultivation, comparison of morphological parameters and nutritional value of fresh leaves. The highest mean weight of one plant was shown in cv. Red Giant (179 g). The biggest leaves with the length of 459 mm were formed by cv. Ta Tou Tsai. The highest cultivar was Cai Cai Tai (1,063 mm), with an abundant number of leaves (57 leaves). Cv. Osaka Purple Leaf showed the highest content of vi-tamin C (738 mg/kg); the highest carotenoids content (899 mg/kg) was found in cv. Swollen Stem. The mean content of chlorophyll a was 2,804 mg/kg; for chlorophyll b it was 1,103 mg/kg. In addition, the results of the content of dry matter, K, Ca, Mg, Na and nitrates are presented in this work. The evaluations showed a significant effect of cultivar on morphological and most of nutritional parameters. Chinese mustard is also suitable for soilless cultivation.
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HORT. SCI. (PRAGUE), 34, 2007 (3): 123–128 123
Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea Czern) is an
Asian leafy vegetable, which can be cultivated for its
leaves, seeds or roots. is species is rich in many
nutritional compounds including antioxidants, pro-
teins and minerals.
D (2002) and USDA (2006) published the
following contents (per 1 kg of f.w.) of selected
compounds: 9.2% of dry matter; 512–5,565 mg Ca;
320–3,837 mg Mg; 3,540 mg K; 250 mg Na; 700 mg
vitamin C; 63 mg carotene; and 99 mg of lutein.
I and F (2003) reported the content of
vitamin C in the range of 1,147–1,240 mg/kg and
beta-carotene content 19.9 mg/kg.
For oil extraction, this plant is grown in field condi-
tions; as a vegetable, it can be cultivated indoor. Green-
house culture can lead to an increase in yield, better
earliness and controlled quality of consumed parts.
e aim of this work was an evaluation of hydro-
ponic culture of Chinese mustard and an evaluation
of selected morphological and nutritional param-
eters in different genotypes of this vegetable.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Experiments were carried out in the greenhouse of
the Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry
Brno, Faculty of Horticulture Lednice. An assort-
ment of 13 cultivars (Table 1) was tested in an open
hydroponic system in rockwool. Plants were grown
on benches and irrigated by ebb-flood system four
times per day. Mean nutrient solution composition
was as follows (in mg/kg): 300 N-NO3, 1 N-NH4,
43 P, 391 K, 464 Ca, 87 Mg, 78 Na, 2.6 Fe, 0.3 Mn,
0.1 Zn, 0.1 Cu, 0.2 B. Level of pH was 5.8 and EC
2.5 mS/cm.
Sowing was performed in spring and autumn cul-
tures on 3rd May and on 30th August 2004 to the
rockwool cubes (25 × 25 mm). Plants were grown at
22°/18°C day/night temperature. ey were trans-
ferred to the rockwool cubes (100 × 100 × 75 mm)
on 12th May and 7th September, respectively. Plant
spacing was 0.25 × 0.25 m. Each cultivar was repre-
sented by 25 individually evaluated plants.
Mean temperature, relative air humidity and the
length of sun radiation in the greenhouse were
19.4°C, 73%, and 16.1 hours in the spring culture and
17.3°C, 74%, and 10.7 hours in the autumn culture.
e harvest dates were 12th July and 30th Novem-
ber for spring and autumn cultivation, respectively.
All evaluations and analyses were made immediately
after harvest; for analyses whole leaves with petioles
were used.
Supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic, Project No. MSM 435100002.
Morphological and nutritional parameters of Chinese
mustard (Brassica juncea) in hydroponic culture
R. P
Faculty of Horticulture, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno, Lednice,
Czech Republic
ABSTRACT: Chinese mustard is a perspective vegetable species due to its high nutritional value. e aim of this work
was an evaluation of Chinese mustard assortment for hydroponic cultivation, comparison of morphological param-
eters and nutritional value of fresh leaves. e highest mean weight of one plant was shown in cv. Red Giant (179 g).
e biggest leaves with the length of 459 mm were formed by cv. Ta Tou Tsai. e highest cultivar was Cai Cai Tai
(1,063 mm), with an abundant number of leaves (57 leaves). Cv. Osaka Purple Leaf showed the highest content of vi-
tamin C (738 mg/kg); the highest carotenoids content (899 mg/kg) was found in cv. Swollen Stem. e mean content
of chlorophyll a was 2,804 mg/kg; for chlorophyll b it was 1,103 mg/kg. In addition, the results of the content of dry
matter, K, Ca, Mg, Na and nitrates are presented in this work. e evaluations showed a significant effect of cultivar on
morphological and most of nutritional parameters. Chinese mustard is also suitable for soilless cultivation.
Keywords: Chinese mustard; Brassica juncea; cultivars; nutritional value
124 HORT. SCI. (PRAGUE), 34, 2007 (3): 123–128
Vitamin C content was analysed by RP-HPLC
(Ecom, CZ) in the column CGC Separon SGX C18
(Tessek, CZ), with size 150 × 4.6 mm; total caroten-
oids and chlorophyll a and b by spectrometry in the
spectrometer Jenway (Jenway, Great Britain) accord-
ing to H (1954); mineral elements by capillary iso-
tachophoresis in the Ionosep (Ionosep, CZ). Content
of dry matter was determined by drying at 105°C; ni-
trate content was analysed by Ion-selective electrodes
in the Ionanalyser MPH 171 (Monokrystaly, CZ).
Statistical analyses were done by using ANOVA,
LSD at 95% probability in Unistat (Unistat, USA).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Cultivation period of spring culture was 71 days.
Cultivars Bau Sin, Suehlihung No. 2 and Cai Cai Tai
formed flowers in spring culture. Autumn culture
lasted 92 days and no bolting was observed. Morpho-
logical description of leaves is shown in Table 1.
Morphological parameters
Mean weight of one plant was 177 g in the spring cul-
ture. e highest weight was in cv. Red Giant (179 g),
while the lowest in Late Head Mustard (65 g).
In the case of the autumn culture, mean weight was
66 g. Data of both cultures are presented in Fig. 1.
Significant differences were found among cultivars,
and the effect of culture was significant as well. Plant
yield was between 1.0 to 2.9 kg per m2.
Results showed that Chinese mustard can be culti-
vated in soilless culture while producing acceptable
plant yield. Several cultivars reached yield around
2 or 3 kg per m2 (Red Giant, King Mustard, Ta Tou
Tsai).
Plant height was significantly influenced by cul-
tivar (Table 2). e highest cultivar was Cai Cai Tai
(1,063 mm), while the smallest was King Mustard
(338 mm). As for the height of plants in relation to
the culture, the results show that in the spring, the
Table 1. Description of evaluated cultivars
Cultivar Origin Colour and description
Bau Sin Taiwan green blade with thick white petioles
Cai Cai Tai China green blade
Grey Leaf Root Mustard China green blade, strong swollen stem
King Mustard Taiwan green blade with violent red nerves
Late Head Mustard China light green and small blade with wide swollen petioles
Mustard Spinach Japan green blade with strong middle white nerve
Osaka Purple USA green blade with light red nerves and white swollen petioles
Osaka Purple Leaf Japan green blade with light red nerves and white swollen petioles
Pink Stem Mustard China green blade with strong middle white nerve
Red Giant USA green blade with strong red middle nerve
Suehlihung No. 2 Taiwan green dissected blade with strong middle white nerve
Swollen Stem Japan green blade with swollen petioles
Ta Tou Tsai China green blade with swollen middle white nerve
Fig. 1. Mean weight of one plant
0
40
80
120
160
200
Bau Sin
Cai-Cai-Tai
Grey Leaf Root M.
King Mustard
Late Head Mustard
Mustard Spinach
Osaka Purple
Osaka PurpleLeaf
Pink StemMustard
Red Giant
Suehlihung NO.2
Swollen Stem
TaTou Tsai
(g)
o.
HORT. SCI. (PRAGUE), 34, 2007 (3): 123–128 125
mean height was 946 mm, while in the autumn it
was only 369 mm.
Leaf length was represented by the mean values of
389 mm and 337 mm in the spring and autumn cul-
tures, respectively (Table 2). Cultivar Cai Cai Tai had
the shortest leaves (155 mm), on the other hand, the
biggest leaves were found in Ta Tou Tsai (459 mm);
the effect of cultivar was thus confirmed.
Mean number of leaves was 19 in spring culture and
8 in the autumn. e highest number was formed by
cv. Cai Cai Tai (57 leaves), while the lowest number
was found in cv. Late Head Mustard (5 leaves). e
statistical effect of cultivar on this parameter was
also confirmed. Data are showed in Table 2. In spring
culture, the number of leaves was significantly higher
if compared to the autumn cultivation. Such results
are widely published in literature.
e content of selected compounds is shown in
Table 3. Statistical differences are represented by
different letters next to the means.
Mean content of dry matter was 6.5%. e vari-
ability was high – in cultivar Cai Cai Tai it was 8.6%,
while Pink Stem Mustard had only 5.3%.
Mean content of potassium was 4,009 mg/kg in
spring, as opposed to 3,795 mg/kg in autumn. e
highest value was found in cv. Osaka Purple (4,429 mg),
the lowest in cv. Mustard Spinach (2,945 mg). Simi-
lar values of K content reported D (2002) or
USDA (2006).
e average content of calcium was 2,701 mg/kg
and 1,374 mg/kg in spring and in autumn, re-
spectively. Cai Cai Tai showed the highest value
(3,414 mg), whereas Late Head Mustard the lowest
(1,044 mg).
Mean magnesium content was 185 mg/kg in spring
and 183 mg/kg in autumn; Cai Cai Tai showed
208 mg, and cv. Pink Stem Mustard 148 mg.
e content of sodium was also significantly differ-
ent between seasons. While in spring, the mean was
386 mg/kg, in autumn it was only 262 mg/kg. Such
Table 2. Mean parameters of Chinese mustard
Cultivar Plant weight
(g)
Plant height Leaf length No. of leaves
(plant)
(mm)
Bau Sin 88.9 ab 706 bc 305 b 8.4 a
Cai Cai Tai 70.5 a 1,063 e 155 a 56.5 c
Grey Leaf Mustard 68.2 a 524 abc 443 fg 9.0 a
King Mustard 175.8 d 338 a 441 fg 5.8 a
Late Head Mustard 65.0 a 358 a 293 b 5.3 a
Mustard Spinach 76.9 a 461 ab 400 def 10.8 a
Osaka Purple 87.4 a 523 ab 320 bc 6.7 a
Osaka Purple Leaf 137.2 bcd 761 cd 314 b 10.4 a
Pink Stem Mustard 88.3 ab 430 a 366 cd 9.6 a
Red Giant 178.9 d 673 bc 397 de 9.2 a
Suehlihung No. 2 105.8 abc 938 de 415 efg 26.3 b
Swollen Stem 73.7 a 358 a 315 bc 10.4 a
Ta Tou Tsai 155.3 cd 728 bcd 459 g 9.7 a
Different letters show significances among cultivars
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
4,000
4,500
K Mg vitamin C chlorophyll
b
nitrates
(mg/kg)
Fig. 2. Range of content of se-
lected compounds in Chinese
mustard
K Ca Mg Na Vitamin C Chlorophyll b Nitrates
Chlorophyll a Carotenoids
126 HORT. SCI. (PRAGUE), 34, 2007 (3): 123–128
Table 3. Mean content of selected compounds (in F.W.)
Cultivar Dry matter
(%)
K Ca Mg Na Vitamin C Chlorophyll aChlorophyll bCarotenoids Nitrates
(mg/kg)
Bau Sin 7.0 c 3,519 ab 2,696 bcd 149 a 560 b 429 ab 2,072 a 546 a 527 ab 968 ab
Cai Cai Tai 8.6 d 3,590 ab 3,414 d 208 b 178 a 472 abc 3,426 e 956 abcd 638 bc 1,433 cd
Grey Leaf Mustard 7.0 bc 3,898 bcd 1,737 abc 204 b 215 a 532 bcde 3,151 cde 1,685 de 622 bc 2,250 e
King Mustard 5.5 a 3,754 bc 2,023 abcd 191 b 233 a 671 ef 2,001 a 668 ab 409 a 1,168 bc
Late Head
Mustard 5.4 a 3,868 bcd 1,044 a 163 ab 284 a 481 bc 1,828 a 693 abc 510 ab 2,533 e
Mustard Spinach 6.7 bc 2,945 a 1,167 a 175 ab 273 a 493 bcd 3,173 cde 1,529 cde 627 bc 1,050 abc
Osaka Purple 6.1 ab 4,429 d 1,508 ab 200 b 266 a 609 cde 3,123 cde 1,203 bcd 762 cd 1,542 d
Osaka Purple Leaf 6.6 bc 4,382 cd 1,836 abc 173 ab 164 a 738 f 2,537 b 1,059 bcd 673 bc 1,258 c
Pink Stem
Mustard 5.3 a 3,595 abc 1,279 ab 148 a 298 a 544 bcde 2,873 bcde 1,606 cde 676 bc 1,167 abc
Red Giant 6.1 ab 4,227 bcd 2,137 abcd 196 b 247 a 580 cde 2,782 bc 1,001 abcd 621 bc 868 a
Suehlihung No. 2 7.0 bc 3,834 bcd 3,327 d 194 b 654 b 327 a 2,859 bcd 857 abc 577 b 1,065 abc
Swollen Stem 6.3 abc 4,106 bcd 1,345 ab 185 ab 284 a 493 bcd 3,317 de 1,836 e 899 d 1,733 d
Ta Tou Tsai 6.7 bc 3,516 ab 3,307 cd 205 b 196 a 654 def 3,309 de 695 abc 620 bc 2,267 e
HORT. SCI. (PRAGUE), 34, 2007 (3): 123–128 127
levels are in agreement with previously reported
results (USDA 2006). e highest level was found
in cv. Suehlihung No. 2 (654 mg), the lowest in cv.
Osaka Purple Leaf (164 mg).
Mean vitamin C content was 612 mg/kg in spring
culture, in the autumn the recorded value was only
498 mg/kg. e highest and the lowest levels were
738 mg/kg and 327 mg/kg in cultivars Osaka Purple
Leaf and Suehlihung No. 2, respectively. Data cor-
respond to the literature, and are much higher if
compared to many common leafy vegetables.
Total carotenoids mean content in spring and
autumn cultures was 572 and 650 mg/kg, respec-
tively. e highest level was recorded in cv. Swollen
Stem (899 mg), while the lowest in King Mustard
(409 mg).
Chlorophyll a mean content was 2,813 mg/kg in
spring and 2,705 mg/kg in autumn culture. Cultivar
Cai Cai Tai reached 3,426 mg, in contrast to 1,828 mg
of cv. Late Head Mustard.
Mean content of chlorophyll b was 653 and
1,327 mg/kg in spring and autumn cultures, respec-
tively. In this case, cv. Swollen Stem had the highest
content (1,836 mg), while cv. Bau Sin the lowest
(546 mg). Generally, more than double levels of chlo-
rophyll b were found in the autumn culture.
Levels of nitrates were similar in both seasons; in
spring, it was 1,433 mg, whereas in autumn 1,387 mg
per kg. e highest level was recorded in cv. Late
Head Mustard (2,533 mg) and the lowest in Red Gi-
ant (868 mg).
A significant effect of cultivar on contents of all
analysed compounds was detected. Similar results
were reported for other vegetables in A
et al. (2001) or E and K (2001).
e effect of growing season was confirmed in the
contents of vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophyll b,
calcium, sodium, dry matter and nitrates. Influ-
ence of climatic conditions on the content of most
nutritional compounds was previously described by
I and K (2000).
Nitrate levels were highly correlated to the sun
radiation and temperature in accordance to E-
-G et al. (2002).
CONCLUSION
Chinese mustard can be cultivated in soilless
system; it results from high yield of cultivars Red
Giant or King Mustard. e effect of genotype on
practically all observed parameters was confirmed.
In some cases, differences in morphological param-
eters and levels of analysed compounds were more
than 3-fold.
The importance of morphological parameters
for economics of cultivation is high. According to
the Chinese mustard type, there was a possibility
to select suitable leaf cultivars with good relation
between plant weight and number of leaves (e.g.
Mustard Spinach, Osaka Purple Leaf or Swollen
Stem).
Differences in nutritional values were confirmed
within the evaluated assortment. Cultivars Cai Cai
Tai and Osaka Purple Leaf showed good levels of
selected compounds, whereas Red Giant and Bau
Sin reached the lowest nitrate levels.
Acknowledgement
Results were obtained in collaboration with Mrs.
P P.
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Received for publication April 19, 2007
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128 HORT. SCI. (PRAGUE), 34, 2007 (3): 123–128
Morfologické a nutriční parametry čínské hořčice (Brassica juncea)
v hydroponické kultuře
ABSTRAKT: Čínská hořčice je perspektivní zelenina s ohledem na svou vysokou nutriční hodnotu. Cílem práce bylo
zhodnocení sortimentu čínské hořčice v hydroponické kultuře a srovnání morfologických znaků a nutriční hodnoty
čerstvých listů. Nejvyšší hmotnosti jedné rostliny dosáhla odrůda Red Giant (179 g); největší listy s délkou 459 mm
vytvořila odrůda Ta Tou Tsai; nejvyšší byla odrůda Cai Cai Tai (1 063 mm), která se vyznačuje i značným počtem
listů (57 na jedné rostlině). Nejvyšší obsah vitaminu C byl zjištěn u odrůdy Osaka Purple Leaf – 738 mg/kg; nejvyšší
obsah karotenoidů – 899 mg/kg – byl nalezen u odrůdy Swollen Stem; průměrný obsah chlorofylu a byl 2 804 mg/kg,
obsah chlorofylu b byl 1 103 mg/kg. Jsou uvedeny zjištěné výsledky obsahu sušiny, K, Ca, Mg, Na a dusičnanů. Práce
potvrdila průkazný vliv odrůdy na morfologické parametry a na většinu nutričních parametrů, stejně tak ukázala na
možnost ekonomicky perspektivního pěstování v hydroponických podmínkách.
Corresponding author:
Doc. Ing. R P, Ph.D., Mendelova zemědělská a lesnická univerzita v Brně, Zahradnická fakulta,
Valtická 337, 691 44 Lednice, Česká republika
tel.: + 420 519 367 232, fax: + 420 519 367 222, e-mail: pokluda@zf.mendelu.cz
... On the contrary, Chl b content was lower in comparison with realised experiment (155 mg*kg -1 f. w.). Pokluda (2007) state that chlorophyll content in Chinese mustard leaves is expressively depending on the cultivar. The content of Chl a was varied in the range from 2072 mg*kg -1 to 3426 mg*kg -1 f. w. ...
... Dependent on the cultivar and cultivation period, the total carotenoid in mentioned study was varied from 260 mg*kg -1 to 490 mg*kg -1 f. w. The higher content of total carotenoid was presented in study of Pokluda (2007) in study with 13 cultivars of Chinese mustard. Author found carotenoid content variation in the range from 527 mg*kg -1 to 899 mg*kg -1 f. w. (average = 668.8 ...
... Duma et al. (2014) and Banerjee et al. (2012) found lower content of vitamin C in leaves of Brassica juncea compared to results obtained in this study. Pokluda (2007) examined effect of leaf mustard cultivar on the vitamin C content. Author presented variability of its value in the range from 327 mg*kg -1 to 738 mg*kg -1 f. w. ...
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As consumer interest in organically grown vegetables is increasing in Malaysia, there is a need to answer whether the vegetables are more nutritious than those conventionally grown. This study investigates commercially available vegetables grown organically and conventionally, purchased from retailers to analyse β-carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents. Five types of green vegetables were selected, namely Chinese mustard (sawi) (Brassica juncea), Chinese kale (kai-lan) (Brassica alboglabra), lettuce (daun salad) (Lactuca sativa), spinach (bayam putih) (Amaranthus viridis) and swamp cabbage (kangkung) (Ipomoea aquatica). For vitamin analysis, a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin. The findings showed that not all of the organically grown vegetables were higher in vitamins than that conventionally grown. This study found that only swamp cabbage grown organically was highest in β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents among the entire samples studied. The various nutrients in organically grown vegetables need to be analysed for the generation of a database on nutritional value which is important for future research.
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The seasonal fluctuation of the physical and biochemical characteristics of three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars, Lady First and Momotaro (large-fruited) and Minicarol (cherry-fruited), were studied at seven different sowing times at harvest intervals of 45 days. Seasonal variations were noted in the external and internal quality characteristics. Fruits ripened rapidly during the summer followed by a progressive decline towards the winter season. Fruits harvested during the early winter to spring had higher constituents compared to the summer season. The fruits that matured during the summer season showed higher accumulation of organic and ascorbic acid and the crop duration was shortened. On the other hand, the fruits that matured during the winter to spring season were firmer, had higher soluble sugars, and a longer growing period. The red colour formation was enhanced during the spring and winter seasons. Of the five climatic factors recorded, temperature was predominantly implicated in affecting tomato fruit quality. The results indicated that firmness, total soluble solids, and turning point of hue (arctan b*/a*) acted as the indicator of fruit maturity, and breaker-stage was the more appropriate stage of harvesting in all the seasons studied. Considering nutritional value, appearance, and fresh consumption, the pink stage of ripening was the best for harvesting. In the present study, although cropping season and growing temperature differed widely, the cumulative temperature (degreesC days; from flowering to maturation) difference among the growing seasons was small, and the most suitable harvest period was found to be around 1000degreesC day. Thus, for consumption, marketing and transportation, fruits should be harvested around 1000degreesC days.
Conference Paper
Seasonal fl uctuations of the physical and biochemical characteristics of three tomatoes, including two large-fruited and one cherry-fruited cultivars, were studied in seven different sowing time at an interval of 45 days. Seasonal variation were noted in the external and internal quality characteristics. The seasonal pattern of ripening exhibited a rapid fi rst ripening during summer, followed by a progressive decline until the winter season. Fruits picked during early winter to spring had higher constituents compared to summer season. The fruits matured during the summer season showed higher accumulation of organic and ascorbic acid; but the crop duration was found to be shortened. On the other hand, the fruits matured during winter to spring season had higher fi rmness, soluble sugars and longer growing period. The lycopene synthesis was enhanced during spring to winter seasons. Of the climatic factors recorded, temperature is predominantly implicated in affecting tomato fruit quality. The results indicated that, fi rmness, total soluble solids and turning point of hue (arctan a*/b*) act as the indicators of fruit maturity, and breaker stage is more appropriate stage of harvesting in all the seasons studied. But regarding nutritional value and appearance, and for fresh consumption, pink stage of ripening is the best for harvesting. In the present study, although cropping season and growing temperature differed widely, but the cumulative temperature (°C day; from fl owering to maturation) difference among growing seasons was small, and most suitable harvest period was found to be around 1000 °C day. Thus, for consumption, marketing and transportation, the fruits availing around 1000 °C days cumulative temperature are congenial to be harvested.
Article
Concerns about high nitrate levels in vegetable produce have led the European Union to introduce limits on nitrate concentrations in some salad crops including lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), with the aim of decreasing nitrate intake by consumers. These limits are likely to create problems for lettuce growers in northern European countries such as the UK, where leafy vegetables can accumulate high nitrate concentrations in leaf tissues due to low light levels, especially during the winter. One option to overcome this problem is the use of low nitrate-accumulating genotypes. The objective of this work was to screen a selection of soil-grown glasshouse lettuce cultivars for head weight and nitrate concentration during the summer and the winter seasons. Two pairs of trials were carried out using a Trojan square design, following commercial cropping practices. Eight long-day commercial lettuce cultivars were grown for both early- and late-summer harvest, and eight short-day commercial cultivars for both early- and late-winter harvest. Both pairs of experiments included examples of cultivars belonging to the following types: Butterhead, Cos, Batavia, Curly, Oakleaf, Lollo Rosso and Lollo Bionda. It was found that the commercial fresh weight of the heads depends on season (summer or winter) and cultivar, with significant interaction between cultivar and experiment (i.e. harvest date within season). By comparison, nitrate concentration showed not only great variability between cultivars in general, but also between the main lettuce types and between cultivars within the Butterhead type. The data for the summer crops suggest that 'Vegus' (in particular) tended to accumulate less nitrate than the other cultivars of the Butterhead type. For the winter crops, although no single cultivar was found to exhibit consistently lower nitrate concentrations at harvest, the means for the Butterhead group were generally lower than the average of the cultivars for the other types. Several of the long-day cultivars were found to exceed the EU maximum summer nitrate limit of 3500 mg kg(-1) fresh weight, whereas relatively few of the short-day cultivars had nitrate concentrations greater than the corresponding 4500 mg kg(-1) limit for winter harvested crops.
Article
Four different colored carrots, orange, purple with orange core, yellow, and white, were examined for their content of phenolics, antioxidant vitamins, and sugars as well as their volatiles and sensory responses. A total of 35 volatiles were identified in all carrots, 27 positively. White carrot contained the highest content of volatiles, followed by orange, purple, and yellow. In total, 11, 16, 10, and 9 phenolic compounds were determined for the first time in orange, purple, yellow, and white carrots, respectively. Of these, chlorogenic acid was the most predominant phenolic compound in all carrot varieties. Differences (p < 0.05) in relative sweetness, the contents of vitamin C and alpha- and beta-carotenes, and certain flavor characteristics were observed among the colored carrot varieties examined. Purple carrots contained 2.2 and 2.3 times more alpha- and beta-carotenes (trace in yellow; not detected in white) than orange carrots, respectively. Purple carrot may be used in place of other carrot varieties to take advantage of its nutraceutical components.
Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and Other Economic Plants
DUKE J.A., 2002. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and Other Economic Plants. Boca Raton, CRC Press.
Agricultural Research Service USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 19
USDA, 2006. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 19. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl, 14. 4. 2007. Received for publication April 19, 2007
The effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield and quality factors of celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce Mill/Pers.). Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin
  • Elkner K
  • Kaniszewski S
ELKNER K., KANISZEWSKI S., 2001. The effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield and quality factors of celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce Mill/Pers.). Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin, 55: 49-59.