Hydrogen peroxide for cleaning irrigation system in: pathogen control in soilless cultures

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... Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) can be used directly as an oxidizing water treatment. Hydrogen peroxide is also an active ingredient in the class of "activated peroxygen" products where H 2 O 2 is combined with organic acids such as acetic acid to form more stable and effective sanitizing molecules including peroxyacetic acid (Hopkins et al., 2009;Nedderhoff, 2000;Newman, 2004;Pettitt, 2003;Van Os, 2010). Hydrogen peroxide has an oxidation potential of 1.76 V (Degrémont, 1979), however the relationship between hydrogen peroxide concentration and ORP is complex (Suslow, 2004). ...
... Phytotoxicity. Phytotoxicity thresholds for hydrogen peroxide have been observed between 8 mg L −1 applied in the nutrient solution of soilless lettuce seedlings (Nedderhoff, 2000) to 125 mg L −1 applied in the nutrient solution in cucumber plants on rockwool (Vänninen and Koskula, 1998). Phytotoxicity thresholds for other activated peroxygens remain to be established. ...
... Phytotoxicity thresholds for other activated peroxygens remain to be established. Symptoms associated with hydrogen peroxide toxicity included leaf scorching (Vänninen and Koskula, 1998), reduced plant growth (Nedderhoff, 2000) and plant mortality (Van Wyk et al., 2012). Symptoms associated with very high concentrations of activated peroxygens included necrosis and dehydration of leaf and flowers, and spots and blotches on the leaves (Copes et al., 2003). ...
... F.-J. Gómez-Gálvez, D. Rodríguez-Jurado Crop Protection 106 (2018) 190-200 The innocuous effect of the tested disinfectants on olive plants might help to promote its use as a post-planting practice in olive orchards. Several authors have reported symptoms associated with H 2 O 2 as spots and blotches on the leaves or reduced plant growth (Vänninen and Koskula, 1998;Nedderhoff, 2000;Copes et al., 2003;van Wyk et al., 2012). Phytotoxicity thresholds for H 2 O 2 have been observed between 8 ppm in the nutrient solution of soilless lettuce seedlings (Nedderhoff, 2000) and 2000 ppm in weekly chemigated Ficus benjamina plants (Vissers et al., 2009). ...
... Several authors have reported symptoms associated with H 2 O 2 as spots and blotches on the leaves or reduced plant growth (Vänninen and Koskula, 1998;Nedderhoff, 2000;Copes et al., 2003;van Wyk et al., 2012). Phytotoxicity thresholds for H 2 O 2 have been observed between 8 ppm in the nutrient solution of soilless lettuce seedlings (Nedderhoff, 2000) and 2000 ppm in weekly chemigated Ficus benjamina plants (Vissers et al., 2009). H 2 O 2 was present at different proportions in the treated water: about 900 ppm when treated with OV and 20 ppm when treated with OA, at the concentrations tested. ...
Disinfestation of irrigation water has re-emerged the interest in including disinfectant treatments within the integrated management of Verticillium wilt of olive to reduce the pathogen spread and introduction through irrigation facilities. OX-VIRIN® (OV) and OX-AGUA AL25® (OA) are two disinfectants based on oxidizing and non-oxidizing agents, respectively, that have shown a potential efficacy reducing water infestations by V. dahliae under certain guidelines. This investigation was designed to evaluate now their effects on V. dahliae in the soil, the olive plant and the plant-pathogen interaction under growth chamber conditions. Seven disinfectant treatments were applied through watering to V. dahliae-infested soils sustaining ‘Picual’ or ‘Arbequina’ olives. The OV-w (weekly), OV-m (monthly) or OA-b (biweekly) treatments reported a significant deleterious effect in the total inoculum density in soil and reduced or tended to decrease the sclerotia survival of all V. dahliae isolates (three isolates used) in presence of both cultivars in all the experiments (two experiments per cultivar were carried out). ‘Picual’ olives exhibited a greater disease incidence than ‘Arbequina’ ones. The incidence of diseased plants was lower in olives subjected to disinfectant treatments in comparison with those under untreated control, with a maximum reduction of 21.1% and 43.4% in ‘Picual’ and ‘Arbequina’, respectively. OV-w or OA-b treatments applied to ‘Picual’ and OV-w treatment to ‘Arbequina’ decreased partially but solidly (all experiments per cultivar) the disease intensity index. Furthermore, values from the area under the disease progress curve were significantly reduced by OV-m and OA-b treatment in both ‘Picual’ experiments, depending on the isolate. The olive growth parameters were not significantly affected by the disinfectants and an absence of phytotoxicity was reported. Results from this work demonstrate that disinfection treatments reducing the fungus in water can also potentially reduce the fungus in soil and, partially, the Verticillium wilt in olive.
... As such, H2O2 has the potential to indiscriminately damage healthy living root tissue, consequently reducing fresh weight of lettuce heads in higher doses. Root damage may be the result of this phytotoxicity [24,25,26]. However, when H2O2 at 37.5 mg/L was added to organic fertilizer the organic . ...
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Hydroponic production typically uses conventional fertilizers and information is lacking on the use of organic hydroponic fertilizers. Development of biofilm is a common problem with organic hydroponics which can reduce dissolved oxygen availability to roots. One potential solution is the use of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 which can reduce microbial populations and decomposes to form oxygen. However, information is lacking on the impact of hydrogen peroxide on hydroponic crops. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of H2O2 concentrations in deep water culture hydroponics by assessing how it affects plant size and yield in lettuce. In this experiment, three different treatments consisting of a control without H2O2, and the application of 37.5 mg/L or 75 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide were added to aerated 4-L reservoirs that contained either organic (4-4-1) or inorganic nutrients (21-5-20), both applied at 150 mg/L N. Three replicates for each treatment and each fertilizer were prepared resulting in a total of eighteen mini hydroponic containers each with one head of lettuce. When added to conventional fertilizers, concentrations of 37.5 mg/L and 75 mg/L of H2O2 led to stunted growth or death lettuce plants. However, when 37.5 mg/L of H2O2 was applied to organic fertilizers, the lettuce yield nearly matched that of the conventionally fertilized control, demonstrating that the application of H2O2 has the potential to make organic hydroponic fertilization a more viable method in the future.
... Previous research on H2O2 in irrigation focused on plant performance and little consideration was given to evaluate the possible phytotoxic effects of H2O2 across a range of species (Nederhoff, 2000;Cheeseman 2007;Vanninen and Koskula, 1998). Fisher (2011) suggested phytotoxicity effects could even manifest at lower concentrations particularly for seed germination, seedling growth and establishment. ...
The use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is recently recommended for use in drip irrigation particularly for cleaning of drip emitters. Relatively less known are the effects of H2O2 in irrigation water on seed germination, seedling growth and establishment. We evaluated two hydrogen peroxide products, with varying levels of stabiliser, over a range of peroxide concentrations (10-5000 ppm), in-vitro (petri dishes) seed germination and seedling growth for ten crop species. Germination of the tested seed species was not impacted negatively by H2O2 concentrations up to 5000 ppm. Positive effects on seed germination were found for mung bean, egg plants, okra, leek and rocket at H2O2 100 ppm. Root and shoot growth were impacted more negatively by H2O2 treatments particularly at higher concentrations and for the highly stabilised H2O2 product in all crops except for corn, which is likely due to persistence of peroxide in the germination media for longer duration with stabilised H2O2 product. We conclude that stabilised H2O2 products up to 1000 ppm do not negatively impact seed germination in general and improve seed germination in some species. Negative impacts on root and shoot growth were largely associated with higher concentrations (1000 and 50000 ppm) and for some species root and shoot growth were enhanced by stabilised H2O2 at lower concentrations. Therefore, continuous injection of H2O2 at lower concentrations in irrigation water for the field crop is unlikely to negatively impact the seed germination and seedling growth.
... In contrast, H 2 O 2 phytotoxic effects were reported at concentrations as low as 9 and 12 mgÁL -1 , when applied every 6 h, resulting in the yellowing of radish and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) (Coosemans, 1995). Lettuce seedlings exposed to 8 mgÁL -1 H 2 O 2 for 24 h experienced a decrease in growth, whereas application of 85 mgÁL -1 over 24 h resulted in seedling death (Nederhoff, 2000). Exposure to 500 mgÁL -1 was reportedly harmful to plant roots, although application methodology and species information were withheld (Van OS, 1999). ...
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Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is an oxidizing agent used to disinfect recirculated irrigation water during the production of organic crops under controlled environmental systems (e.g., greenhouses). To characterize the phytotoxic effects and define a concentration threshold for H 2 O 2 , three microgreen species [arugula ( Brassica eruca ssp. sativa ), radish ( Raphanus sativus ), and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ‘ Black Oil’)], and three lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) cultivars, Othilie, Xandra, and Rouxai, were foliar sprayed once daily with water containing 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, or 200 mg·L ⁻¹ of H 2 O 2 from seed to harvest under greenhouse conditions. Leaf damage was assessed at harvest using two distinct methods: 1) the percentage of damaged leaves per tray and 2) a damage index (DI). Applied H 2 O 2 concentrations, starting from 25 mg·L ⁻¹ , increased the percentage of damaged leaves in every species except ‘Black Oil’ sunflower, which remained unaffected by any applied concentration. Symptoms of leaf damage manifested in similar patterns on the surface of microgreen cotyledons and lettuce leaves, while mean DI values and extent of damage were unique to each crop. Fresh weight, dry weight, and leaf area of all crops were not significantly affected by daily H 2 O 2 spray. Identifying how foliar H 2 O 2 damage manifests throughout the crop, as well at individual cotyledon or leaf surfaces, is necessary to establish an upper concentration threshold for H 2 O 2 use. On the basis of the aforementioned metrics, maximum recommended concentrations were 150 mg·L ⁻¹ (radish), 100 mg·L ⁻¹ (arugula) for microgreens and 125 mg·L ⁻¹ (‘Othilie’), 75 mg·L ⁻¹ (‘Rouxai’), and 125 mg·L ⁻¹ (‘Xandra’) lettuce.
... Phytotoxicity threshold for free chlorine may vary from 0.1 to 77 mg L −1 depending on the plant species (Zheng et al., 2008, and references therein). Thresholds for hydrogen peroxide have been observed between 8 mg L < sup > -1 < /sup > applied in the nutrient solution of soilless lettuce seedlings (Nedderhoff, 2000) to 2000 mg L < sup > -1 < /sup > in Ficus benjamina plants (Vissers et al., 2009). Deccoklor ® phytotoxicity on plants is unknown but this disinfectant is not important to control V. dahliae in water due to its low efficacy. ...
Disinfectants have been widely assessed against conidia, zoospores and mycelial growth of fungal plant pathogens in water, however, studies against sclerotia or melanized structures are limited. The disinfectants OX-VIRIN ® , OX-AGUA AL25 ® and Deccoklor ® reduce Verticillium dahliae conidia in water, but their potential efficacy in reducing sclerotia of the pathogen in water remains unknown. In this study, sclerotia of six V. dahliae isolates differing in virulence were exposed in vitro to a range of concentrations of the mentioned disinfectants for 30 days to evaluate the suppressive efficacy. In addition, concentrations with higher suppressive effect were tested for their preventive efficacy by means of assays where treated water was subsequently infested. Concentration and monitoring time (1 min, and 5, 15 and 30 days post-chemical treatment; dpc) were the critical factors for the efficacy of the chemicals, whereas variations depending on isolates virulence were negligible. The three highest concentrations of OX-VIRIN ® (3.2-51.2 mL L −1) and the two highest concentrations of OX-AGUA AL25 ® (0.4175 and 1.2525 mL L −1) showed an average suppressive efficacy ranging from 87.8 to 100% and 99.2-100% at the last three sampling times, respectively. Deccoklor ® was ineffective at the evaluated concentrations. The three highest concentrations of OX-VIRIN ® and the highest concentration of OX-AGUA AL25 ® maintained a preventive efficacy above 97 and 95%, respectively, at all sampling times. For OX-AGUA AL25 ® at 0.4175 mL L −1 , the preventive efficacy fluctuated over sampling time, but it was of at least 68.9% at 30 dpc in repeated experiments.
... Therefore, irrigation pipes and structures where peroxidetreated water is applied should be corrosion-resistant to avoid costly replacement of irrigation components (Zheng et al. 2014). The concentration of hydrogen peroxide in an irrigation system can be monitored using inexpensive test strips (Nederhoff 2000). ...
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While governments and individuals strive to maintain the availability of high-quality water resources, many factors can “change the landscape” of water availability and quality, including drought, climate change, saltwater intrusion, aquifer depletion, population increases, and policy changes. Specialty crop producers, including nursery and greenhouse container operations, rely heavily on available high-quality water from surface and groundwater sources for crop production. Ideally, these growers should focus on increasing water application efficiency through proper construction and maintenance of irrigation systems, and timing of irrigation to minimize water and sediment runoff, which serve as the transport mechanism for agrichemical inputs and pathogens. Rainfall and irrigation runoff from specialty crop operations can contribute to impairment of groundwater and surface water resources both on-farm and into the surrounding environment. This review focuses on multiple facets of water use, reuse, and runoff in nursery and greenhouse production including current and future regulations, typical water contaminants in production runoff and available remediation technologies, and minimizing water loss and runoff (both on-site and off-site). Water filtration and treatment for the removal of sediment, pathogens, and agrichemicals are discussed, highlighting not only existing understanding but also knowledge gaps. Container-grown crop producers can either adopt research-based best management practices proactively to minimize the economic and environmental risk of limited access to high-quality water, be required to change by external factors such as regulations and fines, or adapt production practices over time as a result of changing climate conditions.
For the sterilisation of aseptic food packages it is taken advantage of the microbicidal properties of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Especially, when applied in vapour phase, it has shown high potential of microbial inactivation. In addition, it offers a high environmental compatibility compared to other chemical sterilisation agents, as it decomposes into oxygen and water, respectively. Due to a lack in sensory detection possibilities, a continuous monitoring of the H2O2 concentration was recently not available. Instead, the sterilisation efficacy is validated using microbiological tests. However, progresses in the development of calorimetric gas sensors during the last 7 years have made it possible to monitor the H2O2 concentration during operation. This chapter deals with the fundamentals of calorimetric gas sensing with special focus on the detection of gaseous hydrogen peroxide. A sensor principle based on a calorimetric differential set-up is described. Special emphasis is given to the sensor design with respect to the operational requirements under field conditions. The state-of-the-art regarding a sensor set-up for the on-line monitoring and secondly, a miniaturised sensor for in-line monitoring are summarised. Furthermore, alternative detection methods and a novel multi-sensor system for the characterisation of aseptic sterilisation processes are described.
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