Article

Effects of Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) Seed on Blood Glucose and Electrolyte Parameters in Diabetic Wistar Rats

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Abstract

Given the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, with its associated complications, this study is aimed at investigating the effect of citrullus lanatus seed extract on blood glucose concentration and electrolyte parameters. Citrullus lanatus is an antioxidant and has been shown to reduce oxidative stress (Khaki et al., 2013). Effects of phytochemicals (flavonoids) on pancreatic β-cells leading to their proliferation and secretion of more insulin have been proposed by Mahesh and Menon (2004), as the mechanism by which medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus reduce hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Fifteen female wistar rats were used in the study, they were divided into three groups of five rats each, namely; the control group, diabetes control group administered distilled water, and diabetes group administered watermelon seed extract. The diabetic groups were made diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Daily watermelon seed extract was administered orally (200 mg per kilogram body weight), one week post streptozotocin injection. On 29th day the rats were sacrificed and blood was collected via the inferior vena cava, into plain bottles and fluoride oxalate sample tubes for electrolyte; (Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-) and glucose analyses, respectively. Results showed that plasma glucose concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05) at week 2 and 4. However, administration of methanolic extract of Citrullus lanatus seed did not have any significant effects (P>0.05) on Na+, K+ , Cl- , and HCO3- concentrations . In conclusion, watermelon seed extract may be of supportive treatment to combat diabetes complications.

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... Due to its high prevalence and potential deleterious effect on a patient physical and psychological state, diabetes is a chronic disorder caused by partial or complete insulin deficiency and it's a major medical concern [2].The disease remains incurable and can only be controlled with drugs. Despite the availability of medication for management of diabetes, the interest in alternative traditional remedies is increasing [3,4]. ...
... C. lanatus (watermelon) seeds contains phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and Saponin with recognizable hypoglycemic effect as well as the presence of soluble fiber and carbohydrate [4][5][6]. C. lanatus helps in boosting antioxidant levels because it is exceptionally rich in carotenoids such as lycopene, lutein and β carotene [7]. A regular watermelon juice consumption result in significant increases in blood plasma concentrations of lycopene and β carotene [8][9][10]. ...
... Alloxan has been observed to cause a massive reduction of the B-cells of the islets of Langerhans and induce hyperglycaemia [17,18]. In our study we have found that co-administration of caffeine and hydromethanolic fraction of C. lanatus seeds extract decreases blood glucose in alloxan diabetic rats, which is consistent with study done by Omigie and Agoreyo [4]. Also, administration of glybenclamide (a known hypoglycemic drug) significant decrease blood glucose level. ...
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Objective: To investigate the effect of Citrillus lanatus (C. lanatus) seeds and caffeine on blood glucose levels and testicular functions of alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Methods: Alloxan was administered at a single dose of 150 mg/kg BW to induce diabetes. A dose of either 200 mg/kg C. lanatus or 100 mg/kg caffeine or both was administered daily to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for three weeks, after which results were compared with a normal control group and a positive control group that received both alloxan and glybenclamide. Results: C. lanatus seeds extract significantly decreases (P
... Due to its high prevalence and potential deleterious effect on a patient physical and psychological state, diabetes is a chronic disorder caused by partial or complete insulin deficiency and it's a major medical concern [2] .The disease remains incurable and can only be controlled with drugs. Despite the availability of medication for management of diabetes, the interest in alternative traditional remedies is increasing [3,4]. Citrullus lanatus (C. ...
... Citrullus lanatus (C. lanatus) (watermelon) seeds contains phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and Saponin with recognizable hypoglycemic effect as well as the presence of soluble fiber and carbohydrate456 . C. lanatus helps in boosting antioxidant levels because it is exceptionally rich in carotenoids such as lycopene, lutein and b carotene [7] . ...
... Alloxan has been observed to cause a massive reduction of the B-cells of the islets of Langerhans and induce hyperglycemia [17,18] . In our study we have found that co-administration of caffeine and hydromethanolic fraction of C. lanatus seeds extract decreases blood glucose in alloxan diabetic rats, which is consistent with study done by Omigie and Agoreyo [4] . Also, administration of glybenclamide (a known hypoglycemic drug) significant decrease blood glucose level. ...
... Due to its high prevalence and potential deleterious effect on a patient physical and psychological state, diabetes is a chronic disorder caused by partial or complete insulin deficiency and it's a major medical concern [2] .The disease remains incurable and can only be controlled with drugs. Despite the availability of medication for management of diabetes, the interest in alternative traditional remedies is increasing [3,4]. ...
... Citrullus lanatus (C. lanatus) (watermelon) seeds contains phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and Saponin with recognizable hypoglycemic effect as well as the presence of soluble fiber and carbohydrate [4][5][6] . C. lanatus helps in boosting antioxidant levels because it is exceptionally rich in carotenoids such as lycopene, lutein and b carotene [7] . ...
... Alloxan has been observed to cause a massive reduction of the B-cells of the islets of Langerhans and induce hyperglycemia [17,18] . In our study we have found that co-administration of caffeine and hydromethanolic fraction of C. lanatus seeds extract decreases blood glucose in alloxan diabetic rats, which is consistent with study done by Omigie and Agoreyo [4] . Also, administration of glybenclamide (a known hypoglycemic drug) significant decrease blood glucose level. ...
... Several products are consumed worldwide that are prepared from the pulp of watermelon, but seeds are the most underutilized waste products (9). These seeds are encumbered with several essential fatty acids such as linoleic, oleic, palmitic, linolenic, and stearic acid (10,11). Moreover, in several areas of the world, these seeds are consumed traditionally to cure several diseases, and these seeds are used as an antitussive, digestive, febrifuge, and vermifuge (12). ...
... Moreover, in several areas of the world, these seeds are consumed traditionally to cure several diseases, and these seeds are used as an antitussive, digestive, febrifuge, and vermifuge (12). Apart from their therapeutic value, watermelon seeds are a good source of trace elements and other elements such as iron, zinc, calcium, potassium, and fat-soluble vitamins, respectively (11). Furthermore, several anti-nutritional factors are also present in seeds that directly inhibit the intestinal absorption of the trace element (13). ...
... Several products are consumed worldwide that are prepared from the pulp of watermelon, but seeds are the most underutilized waste products (9). These seeds are encumbered with several essential fatty acids such as linoleic, oleic, palmitic, linolenic, and stearic acid (10,11). Moreover, in several areas of the world, these seeds are consumed traditionally to cure several diseases, and these seeds are used as an antitussive, digestive, febrifuge, and vermifuge (12). ...
... Moreover, in several areas of the world, these seeds are consumed traditionally to cure several diseases, and these seeds are used as an antitussive, digestive, febrifuge, and vermifuge (12). Apart from their therapeutic value, watermelon seeds are a good source of trace elements and other elements such as iron, zinc, calcium, potassium, and fat-soluble vitamins, respectively (11). Furthermore, several anti-nutritional factors are also present in seeds that directly inhibit the intestinal absorption of the trace element (13). ...
Article
Objective: Citrullus vulgaris seeds are the most concealed oil seeds consist of vital therapeutic potential. Apart from nutritional and therapeutic indices, these seeds contain numerous anti-nutritional components. Method: Hence, solid-state fermentation was used as an alternative biotechnological contrivance to enhance the nutritional and functional properties of seeds. Fungal strain Aspergillus awamori was used for solid-state fermentation and uncoated watermelon seeds were used as a substrate for 144h. The range of bulk density was obtained from 0.39 to 0.72 g/cm³, however, fermentation significantly decreased the bulk density of the seed flours. Based upon soluble nitrogen content (79.81%) and functional properties, fermented seed samples of 120h was selected for FTIR analysis and in-vitro mineral bioavailability through Caco-2 cells. Results: FTIR spectrum confirmed the presence of amide groups (1200–1100 cm⁻¹) of the protein. Conclusion: Fermented seeds also unveiled significantly (p<0.05) higher iron (61.24%), zinc (62.36%), and calcium (61.89%) bioavailability and this significant increase in bioavailability confirmed significantly (p<0.05) higher cellular mineral uptake.
... They can be used to develop different type of food products like cookies to increase their nutritional values, which are helpful in fulfiling nutritional requirement and combat various degenerative disease (Gupta et al., 2018). The ethnomedicinal utility of C. lanatus was also confirmed by Omigie and Agoreyo (2014) who also implicated the plant as having antidiabetic properties. Agricultural malpractices (such as intercropping and the use of certain allelopathic plants as biofertilizers) of most farmers may lead to reduced yield and economic losses. ...
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This study was conducted to ascertain the allelopathic relationship between Tithonia diversifolia and some cucurbits C. sativus, C. colocynthis and C. lanatus. Seeds of the cucurbits were treated every 24 hours with 10ml of different concentrations (0% [control], 25%, 50% and 100%) prepared from 2.5g/ml stock solution of aqueous extracts of T. diversifolia. Two experiments (the Petri and micro plot experiments) were conducted concurrently and were both laid out in a completely randomized design with four replicates in the Green house of Centre for Ecological Studies, University of Port Harcout. Data were taken on Radicle length, Plumule length, Number of leaves (NOL), Plant Height (PH), Fresh weight and Dry weight for five weeks after plating / sowing for the test cucurbits. Results showed that, compared to the control, there were no significant (p≤0.05) difference in all the parameters investigated for the three cucurbits studied after treatment with different concentrations of T. diversifolia. Results from the analysis shows that for laboratory (Petri dish) experiment, T. diversifolia inhibited the plumule of C. calocynthis in 25% concentration at 5 days after plating; the radicle and plumule of C. lanatus in 50 and 100% concentrations at 5 and 7 days after plating (WAP). T. diversifolia showed no effect on the radicle and plumule length of C. sativus. For Green house (potted) experiment, it stimulated the growth of C. sativus and C. calocynthis in 50% at 5WAP and stimulated the growth of C. lanatus in 25% at 5WAP. Conclusively, there are possibiliites that T. diversifolia possess allelopathic effect on the growth and development of some cucubits.
... different comparing the experimental group to the control group. This findings which are in agreement with Omigie [7] who worked on the effect of Citrullus lanatus seed extracts on serum electrolyte levels revealed that the kidney was not in distress nor suffered any form of toxicity as a result of the seed oil administered. Creatinine is a watersoluble molecule generated by muscle cells during the metabolism of creatine for energy for muscular activities such as contraction and relaxation. ...
... Citrullus lanatus commonly known as watermelon is used for treating various ailments in the Ayurvedic system of Indian medicine. It belongs to the family of Cucurbitaceae and the most commonly consumed fruit worldwide, also known as an energy booster, due to its rich content of nutrients, vitamins and minerals [15,16]. The pink fruit is a rich source of lycopene, pectin and the amino acid citrulline, which plays an important role in the treatment and prevention cardiovascular diseases and cancer. ...
Article
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Objective: The present study was designed to identify the bioactive phytochemicals and its antibacterial and in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous and methanolic seed extract of Citrullus lanatus.Methods: The phytochemical screening of both the aqueous and methanolic seed extract was carried out qualitatively to identify the major Phyto-constituents present in the extracts. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated against six pathogenic bacterial strains by agar well diffusion method and the Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by broth dilution method. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of C. lanatus seed extracts was evaluated by using human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization and inhibition of albumin denaturation method.Results: The results of the study indicated that both the extracts of the seed having antimicrobial activity, while the methanolic extract showed more significant activity against the tested organism than aqueous extract. Methanol extract had the lowest MIC of 1.562 mg/ml against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis, whereas in aqueous extract was highly sensitive to Bacillus subtilis, E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia with MIC of 3.125 and 6.25 mg/ml, respectively. Methanolic extracts exerted comparative higher anti-inflammatory activity than aqueous extract.Conclusion: Present study provides a firm evidence to support that the synergistic effect of C. lanatus seed extracts having potent anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial property, which might serve as an effective drug for various microbial infections and inflammatory disorders.
... However, there are other plants with known medicinal properties that are non-toxic and edible, some forming an important part of the diet. Five such plants, namely, Papaya 1,2,3 , Pomegranate 4,5,6 , Watermelon 7,8,9 , Bitter gourd 10,11,12 and Capsicum 13,14,15 known for their medicinal properties, which are also edible, were selected. The study aimed at scientifically evaluating the in vitro anti-arthritic activity, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of the seeds of the selected plants. ...
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The African tulip tree, Spathodea campanulata was selected for performing the following study. Three extracts of the bark, namely hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were taken and subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis, performed by standard protocols. These revealed the presence of various biochemical compounds like phytosterols, triterpenes, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrates, alkaloids and oils. Antioxidant capacity of the three extracts was assessed using DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, with ascorbic acid as control. The ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts showed very high antioxidant activity. Finally, the three extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, with Rifampicin as the standard drug. The ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts showed fairly good antibacterial activity against the six test organisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, Bacillus pumulis & Bacillus subtilis). Further research needs to be done to identify the specific drug candidate responsible for the observed antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
... Further analysis showed that watermelon was effective in protecting pancreatic cell death (Ahn et al., 2011). Omigie and Agoreyo (2014) investigated the effect of watermelon seed extract on blood glucose concentrations and electrolyte parameters. The study used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and after a week of inducing diabetes in the rats, they were administered the watermelon seed extract (200 mg/kg body weight) orally for 29 days. ...
Article
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The management of diabetes is crucial since that is the only option for this chronic non-communicable disease. The administration of medicinal drugs for the management of diabetes is critical. It is however important to note that some plants have components that confer anti-diabetic properties and may be of use especially in developing countries where there is limited access to healthcare. The aim of this review is to review studies that involved plants with anti-diabetic effects. Such plants as tea, mushroom, broccoli, garlic, moringa, ginseng, guava, onion, tiger nut, bush mango, okra, dates, bitter melon, dandelion, watermelon, and pumpkins may reduce diabetes risks, or even lower blood glucose in diabetes patients (notably type 2 diabetes). Phytoremediation via plant foods should not be underestimated in the management of diabetes.
... In modern medicine, no satisfactory effective therapy is available to control DM along with electrolyte imbalance. The literature survey reveals that anti-diabetic herbs have the capacity to cure electrolyte imbalance along with DM [10][11][12][13]. In this regard, an herbal anti-diabetic drug used traditionally viz., momordica charantia and syzygium cumini were chosen for the present study to investigate a possible effect of the standardized aqueous fruit extract of momordica charantia (SAFEMC) and standardized aqueous seed extract of syzygium cumini (SASESC) on the serum electrolytes in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. ...
Article
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Objective: Diabetes is a group of disorders characterized by high blood glucose levels. Disturbances in serum electrolytes like sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) are found in diabetes. The purpose of the study was to investigate the disturbances in concentrations of serum electrolytes in hyperglycemic crisis and the effect of syzygium cumini and momordica charantia standardized aqueous extracts on serum electrolytes (Na+and K+) in normal and diabetic rats.Methods: Diabetes is induced by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan at a dose of 120 mg/kg b. w in rats. Rats were divided into 5 groups (normal control, disease control, metformin, test 1 and test 2). In test groups 1 and 2, SASESC (standardized aqueous seed extract of syzygium cumini) and SAFEMC (standardized aqueous fruit extract of momordica charantia) were respectively administered orally to alloxan induced diabetic rats, and their serum electrolyte levels were observed at 1st, 4th, 7th and 14th days.Results: By the 14thday, the Na+ and K+ levels in groups 4 and 5 were almost normal. However, in group 3 (standard), Na+levels were relatively lower and K+ levels were relatively higher than groups 4 and 5 (test). In group 2 (disease control) as compared to group 1 (normal control), a decrease in Na+ and increase in K+ levels was observed even on day 14.Conclusion: Treatment with anti diabetic drugs like metformin, syzygium cumini (test-1), momordica charantia (test-2) restored the electrolyte levels almost back to normal over a period of study (14 d). There was significant (**P<0.01, *P<0.05) normalization of electrolyte levels in diabetic rats. It was concluded that syzygium cumini and momordica charantia showed better efficiency in restoring the electrolyte imbalance as compared to metformin during our study.
... These often-neglected parts are claimed to possess health benefits. The rind is known to possess a vasorelaxant effect [10] ; the seed regulates blood sugar by triggering insulin release from the β-cell of the islet of Langerhans [11] whereas the peels are known to have analgesic activities [12] . However, research on their biological effects is scarce. ...
Article
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This study investigated the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the peel, rind, pulp and seeds of C. lanatus (watermelon) as well as their respective phytochemical composition. The antioxidant effect was investigated using the DPPH and ABTS assay whereas the an-timicrobial activity was evaluated using the well diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results revealed that the peel possessed the highest antioxidant activity whereas the pulp demonstrated the lowest. The peels demonstrated the highest antimicrobial effect, which was followed by the seed and then the rind. The pulp, however, demonstrated the least antimicrobial activity. A strong correlation was observed between total phenolic contents and biological activity. The peels were found to possess the highest content of total pheno-lics (0.087 ±0.002 mgGAE/g), which was followed by the seed (0.042 ±0.003 mgGAE/g) and the rind (0.026 ±0.003 mgGAE/g). The pulp did not only demonstrate the lowest antiox-idant and antimicrobial activities but also had the lowest phenolic content (0.010 ±0.001 mgGAE/g). The peel and the seed show the presence of flavonoids whereas alkaloids and free reducing sugars were present in all parts of the watermelon fruit. From the results of the current study, it can, therefore, be concluded that among the various parts of the watermelon fruit, the peel has the highest antioxidant and antimicrobial activity whereas the pulp has the least. The peels and seeds are not only potent in their antioxidant and antimicrobial effects but also possess appreciable levels of phenolic compounds relative to the other parts.
... Moreover, EACr at different doses does not significantly modify the electrolytes after four weeks of gavage. These results are like those of Omigie and Agoreyo who showed that the aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae) seeds did not modify the content of electrolyte parameters and blood parameters 22 . ...
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The present study is a contribution to the enhancement of Ivorian traditional medicine, by carrying out bio-tolerance tests of an aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Crotalaria retusa (EACr) in mice and rats according to the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 423 and 407, respectively. The doses of 2000 and 5000 mg/kg of body weight (BW) of the extract were used for acute toxicity. For subacute toxicity which lasted 28 days, doses of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg BW have been used. The administration of the single doses of 2000 and 5000 mg/kg BW of EACr did not provoke death in female mice in the acute toxicity setting. For subacute toxicity in rats (male and female), the administration of repetitive doses of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg BW of EACr over a period of 28 days did not cause death in these animals. In females, these doses caused weight loss and a decrease in platelets. The extract reduced the activity of AST in both sexes of rats. The findings also showed that this extract would possess a nephroprotective property in male and female rats.
... The animal data show rind intake consistently decreased blood glucose in all models it was tested (STZ-induced diabetes; alloxan-induced diabetes), as did juice [63, 69, 70•, 71-74]. Seed and peel extracts decreased blood glucose in some studies, but not all [41,47,75]. Watermelon flesh did not alter glycemic indices in the two models it was tested (diet-induced, STZ-induced diabetes) [69, 70•]. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) distinctively contains l-citrulline and l-arginine, precursors of nitric oxide (NO), along with polyphenols and carotenoids suggesting a role in cardio-metabolic health. The goal of this paper is to review the preclinical and clinical trial evidence published from 2000 to 2020 to assess watermelon intake and l-citrulline, as a signature compound of watermelon, on cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes, and to identify future directions important for establishing dietary guidance and therapeutic recommendations actionable by health care professionals, patients, and the general public. Recent Findings Watermelon and l-citrulline supplementation reduced blood pressure in human trials. Evidence for benefits in lipids/lipoprotein metabolism is emerging based on human literature and consistently reported in animal models. A role for watermelon intake in body weight control, possibly through satiety mechanisms, warrants further research. Likewise, improved glucose homeostasis in chemically and diet-induced animal models of diabetes is apparent, though limited data are available in humans. Emerging areas include brain and gut health indicated by NO bioavailability in all tissues, and evidence suggesting improvements in gut barrier function and altered microbial composition after watermelon intake that may influence metabolite pools and physiological function. Summary Watermelon fruit contains unique vaso- and metabolically-active compounds. Accumulating evidence supports regular intake for cardio-metabolic health. Future research to determine the amount and frequency of watermelon/citrulline intake for desired outcomes in different populations requires attention to advance preventative and therapeutic strategies for optimal health and disease risk reduction.
... Advanced extraction methods include extraction, ultrasonication assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwaveassisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction (Gupta et al., 2012;Handa, 2008). Most of the information available on the antibacterial activity of C. lanatus seed have made it clear that cold maceration is popularly used for extraction of C. lanatus plant parts (Okunrobo et al., 2012;Omigie and Agoreyo, 2014;Oseni and Okoye, 2013); and in few cases Soxhlet extraction (Meena and Patni, 2008;Oyeleke et al., 2012). This has brought about the need to compare extraction methods in order to determine which method will yield the highest antibacterial effect on the organisms. ...
Article
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This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of extraction methods on the antibacterial activity of Citrullus lanatus seed extract. C. lanatus (watermelon) is a popular fruit consumed all over the world. Three solvents were used for the extraction process: chloroform, methanol and distilled water while two extraction conditions- cold extraction and Soxhlet extraction (coded as hot in this study) were employed. Antibacterial activity of the seed extracts was determined by agar well diffusion method. The seed extracts were tested against clinical isolates including Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp. and a type Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). It was observed that the cold methanol extracts had the highest antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus sp. followed by hot methanol extract while cold chloroform extract showed no antibacterial activity. In the presence of P.aeruginosa only the hot methanol and chloroform extracts showed significant antibacterial potentials (p.0.05). Also, saponins which have been implicated in antimicrobial activity were found to be present in moderate and high concentrations in the hot and cold methanol extracts respectively. Results of this study reveal that the kind of solvent employed as well as the conditions for extraction (cold maceration and Soxhlet extraction) influenced the efficacy of the extract against specific test organisms. Furthermore, the presence of saponins may have influence the relatively high zone of inhibition recorded with cold and hot methanol extracts against some of the test organisms. Key words : Watermelon seed, antibacterial, Soxhlet extraction, cold maceration, solvents.
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Hand sanitizer merupakan sediaan yang digunakan untuk menjaga kesehatan dan kebersihan tangan, serta penggunaannya lebih praktis. Sebagian besar hand sanitizer tersedia dalam bentuk cair atau gel. Umumnya gel hand sanitizer berbahan dasar alkohol. Namun penggunaan secara terus-menerus alkohol dapat mengiritasi kulit. Oleh karena itu perlu adanya alternatif bahan alam yang dapat digunakan untuk mengurangi terjadinya iritasi kulit. Salah satu bahan alam yang terbukti sebagai antibakteri adalah kulit semangka (Citrullus lanatus). Tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu untuk melihat potensi gel hand sanitizer ekstrak metanol kulit semangka terhadap bakteri Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus. Metode penelitian yang digunakan riset empirik dengan platform luring dengan melaksanakan protokol kesehatan secara ketat di masa pandemi Covid-19. Ekstrak metanol kulit semangka dilakukan pengujian antibakteri terhadap bakteri E. coli dan S. aureus dengan tiga konsentrasi yaitu 15%, 17,5% dan 20%. Formulasi dibuat dengan variasi konsentrasi karbopol yaitu konsentrasi 1%, 1,5% dan konsentrasi 2%, kemudian dilakukan evaluasi sifat fisik dari sediaan gel. Ekstrak metanol kulit semangka 15% memiliki aktivitas antibakteri terhadap bakteri E.coli dengan rata-rata zona hambat 5,03±1,98 mm (kategori daya hambat cukup) dan pada bakteri S. aureus 2,53±2,40 mm (kategori daya hambat lemah). Formula 1 (karbopol 1%) dan formula 2 (karbopol 1,5%) memenuhi syarat evaluasi sifat fisik sediaan gel yaitu pada uji organoleptik, pH, viskositas, homogenitas, dan daya sebar. Sedangkan untuk formula 3 (karbopol 2%) tidak memenuhi pada uji fisik yaitu uji daya sebar.
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Background: Nephourolithiasis is a term refers to kidney stones formation, due to aggregation of minerals leading to the development of crystalluria in kidneys or any part of the urinary tract system. Many herbs were used to fragment and crush renal calculi. Habitually, it is noted that people who suffer from kidney problems are advised to eat large quantities of watermellon fruit then, the patient feels healing, without knowing the scientific reason for this improvement. Objectives The current study was designed to investigate the antilithiatsic effects of Fresh Watermelon Juice (FWJ) on calcium oxalate kidney stones. Methods Direct exposure technique between FWJ and enucleate stons was used. The pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of the exposure solution in addition to the chemical and morphological properties of the renal calculi before and after exposure using X-ray diffraction method (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were investigated. Results: after 24 hours of submerging renal calculi with FWJ, the calculi appeared dissolved and fragmented with absence of solidity, rigidity and crystallization. The Ph Value and electrical conductivity (EC) of FWJ increased significantly after 24 hours of submerging the calculi increasing total soluble solids and ion concentrations in the solution. X-ray diffraction showed sharp peaks and intensity of of calcium oxalate calculi indicating a significant change in calculus compositionn, shape and crysallization within 48 hours of exposure FWJ.Scanning electron microscope images of treated and untreated renal calculi showed a significant difference in the shape of the crystals that have been transformed from their regular shape as bipyramids with tetragonal crystal point group symmetry to sculpted and un coordinated particles with the absence of a regular geometric shape of crystals with no clear crystallization patterns. Conclusion: Fresh watermellone juice appears to have a strong effect on the shape and composition and integrity of renal calculi which may aid its expulsion from the body.
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Background: Onion has significant blood sugar lowering action. Objective: Antioxidants have essential effect on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters. Streptozotocin can dioceses oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant capacity are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetes mellitus. Methods: Wistar male rat (n=30) were allocated into three groups, control group (n=10) and oninon (O) group that received 1cc/rat (gavages); (n=10), and Diabetic group that received 55mg/kg (IP) streptozotocin (STZ) (n=20) which was subdivided to two groups or 10; STZ group and treatment group. Treatment group received 55mg/kg (IP) STZ plus15mg/kg (O), daily for,4 weeks, respectively; however, the control group just received an equal volume of distilled water daily(gavages). Diabetes was induced by a single (IP) injection of streptozotocin (55mg/kg) .Animals were kept in standard condition. In 28day after inducing diabetic 5cc blood were collected for testestrone, TAC, MDA and Ox-LDL levels and testes tissues of Rat in whole groups were removed and sperm was collected from epididymis then prepared for analysis. Results: Sperm population, percentage of sperm viability and motility and Serum total testosterones significantly increased in group that has received 1cc/rat onion (p<0.05) in comparison to control and experimental groups. Testes weights in streptozotocin group significantly decreased in comparison to control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Since in our study 1cc/rat onion have significantly Preventive effect on Sperm percentage of viability and motility and serum total testosterones by reducing level of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in serum, so it seems that using it can be effective for sperm healthy parameters in Diabetic Rat.
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Objective: Citrullus vulgaris is an antioxidant that has been shown to reduce oxidative stress. Worldwide studies have been done in order to use as herbal medicine in different fields of medicine. Based on ancient Persians traditional books use of herbal medicine has positive effect on treatment of different diseases. Previous studies confirmed antioxidants have significant effect on infertility by their role on reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study was to see effect of this herb on spermatogenesis.
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The classic proposal of intracellular K+ for extracellular H+ exchange as responsible for the hyperkalemia of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been questioned because experimentally induced organic anion acidosis fails to produce hyperkalemia. It has been suggested, instead, that the elevated serum [K+] of DKA might be the result of the compromised renal function, secondary to volume depletion, that usually accompanies DKA. However, several metabolic derangements other than volume depletion and acidosis, which are known to alter potassium metabolism, also develop in DKA. This study of 142 admissions for DKA examines the possible role of alterations in plasma pH, bicarbonate, glucose (G), osmolality, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma anion gap (AG) on the levels of [K+]p on admission. Significant (p less than 0.01) correlations of [K+]p with each of these parameters were found that could individually account for 8 to 15 percent of the observed variance in the plasma potassium levels; however, the effects of some or all of these parameters on the [K+]p could be independent and therefore physiologically additive. Since the parameters under study are themselves interrelated, having statistically significant correlations with each other, their possible independent role on [K+]p was evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Only plasma pH, glucose and AG emerged as having a definite independent effect on [K+]p, with no independent role found for bicarbonate, BUN and osmolality. The equation that best describes [K+]p on admission for DKA was: [K+]p = 25.4 - 3.02 pH + 0.001 G + 0.028 AG, (r = 0.515). These results indicate that the endogenous ketoacidemia and hyperglycemia observed in DKA, which result primarily from insulin deficit, are the main determinants of increased [K+]p. Since exogenous ketoacidemia and hyperglycemia in the otherwise normal experimental animal do not increase [K+]p, it is postulated that insulin deficit itself may be the major initiating cause of the hyperkalemia that develops in DKA. Renal dysfunction by enhancing hyperglycemia and reducing potassium excretion also contributes to hyperkalemia.
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Musa sapientum commonly known as 'banana' is widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 g/kg body weight of the chloroform extract of the flowers for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin and an increase in total haemoglobin. The extract prevented a decrease in body weight, and also resulted in a decrease in free radical formation in the tissues. Thus the study shows that banana flower extract (BFEt) has an antihyperglycaemic action. The decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the increase in reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) clearly shows the antioxidant property of BFEt. The effect of BFEt was more prominently seen in the case of animals given 0.25 g/kg body weight. BFEt was more effective than glibenclamide.
Article
Diabetes mellitus is found in almost all populations and is emerging as a growing problem in developing countries. A large number of studies are in progress to fi nd natural sources, which are effective in reducing the intensity of diabetes. Quercetin, a constituent present in fruits and vegetables, was studied in two different doses (50 and 80 mg/kg body weight) for 45 days to assess its effect on streptozotocin induced diabetes. The blood glucose level was elevated in diabetic rats. Circulatory lipid peroxidation, vitamin C, vitamin E and enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase and catalase were analyzed. Alterations in the antioxidant defense were observed in diabetic animals compared to normal. Oral administration of quercetin to diabetic rats resulted in a decrease in the levels of blood glucose, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides. Quercetin also resulted in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase coming to near normal, along with the levels of vitamin C and vitamin E. Quercetin at lower doses was found to be more effective. These result indicate that quercetin ameliorated the diabetes-induced changes in oxidative stress.
Antioxidants and Antitumour Properties
  • I T Johnson
  • J N Pokorny
  • M Gordon
Johnson, I.T., Pokorny, J. N., Gordon, M. (2001). Antioxidants and Antitumour Properties. In: Antioxidants in Food, (Eds.). p 100-123.
Effects of Ginger on spermatogenesis in Streptozotocin induced Diabetic Rat, Iran
  • M Nassiri
  • A Khaki
  • S Gharachurlu
  • A Ashteani
  • K Rastegarnea
  • S Rezazadeh
Nassiri, M., Khaki, A., Gharachurlu, S., Ashteani, A. Rastegarnea, K., Rezazadeh, S. (2009). Effects of Ginger on spermatogenesis in Streptozotocin induced Diabetic Rat, Iran. J. Med. Plants, 8(31):118-125.