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Production of Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on tomato tuff agrowaste

Dirasat, Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, No. 1, 2005
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Production of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)
on Olive Cake Agro Waste
Khlood Ananbeh and Ahmad Almomany
An experiment was conducted to examine the ability of Oyster mushroom to grow on olive cake mixed with
wheat straw. Six treatments were examined including the control, which contained 90% wheat straw with the
fixed additives (wheat bran and gypsum). After inoculation, and incubation, transparent plastic bags were used
for cultivation. Three days were needed for pinheads to start appearing, and then 3-7 days were needed for the
maturity of the basidiomete. Several growth parameters were examined including primordial induction and
fructification period, earliness, average weight of individual basidiomata, average yield for each treatment,
diameter of the pileus, Biological Efficiency (BE%), in addition proximate analysis for protein, crude fat, crude
fiber, ash, carbohydrates, minerals and moisture were performed. It was found that up to 30% olive cake could
be added to the growing medium with satisfactory results. The best performance was obtained by adding 30%
olive cake to the basal growing medium which gave the highest yield (400g/500g dry substrate), average weight
(21.5g/cap), average cap diameter (7.05cm/cap), and BE% (80%). Carbohydrate and protein content were high in
Pleurotus basidiomete, fiber was high too but not as carbohydrate and protein. Ash contents were moderate,
while fat content was low.
For mineral contents in mushrooms the trend was the same in all treatments. Both macro elements K and P were
high in their concentrations when compared with other minerals in all treatments, Sodium was moderate in its
concentrations, while both Mg and Ca were found at low concentrations but Mg was relatively higher than Ca.
For microelements, both Fe and Zn were relatively high compared with other minerals like Cu and Mn, which
were found at very low concentrations.
KEYWORDS: Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, basidiomata, biological efficiency, olive cake,
About 2500 species of mushrooms are reported to be
edible, but few species are very popular. The commonly
cultivated one is the white button mushroom (Agaricus
bisporus) (Royse and Schisler, 1987; Wood and Smith,
1988a; Madbouly, 1987; and Abourough, 1993) which is
cultivated all over the world; Shiitake (Lentinula edodes)
comes next (Philippoussis and Zervakis, 2000) and it is
native of far east such as Japan, China, and Korea
(Campbell and Slee, 1987; Lin et al., 2000., Chen et al,
2000). Thirdly comes the Chinese or straw mushroom
Volvariella volvacea, and finally the Oyster mushroom
(Pleurotus spp) (Madbouly and Al-Hussainy, 1996;
Abourough, 1993). There are other known mushrooms,
which are widely cultivated like maitake Grifola frondosa
in Japan (Shen and Royse, 2001) and the winter
mushroom Flammulina velutipes in both Japan and
Taiwan (Wood and Smith, 1988b). The production of
mushroom was increased world wide because of two
reasons; a) the extension of cultivation in different
geographic regions, and b) the increase in production
efficiency of cultivation techniques (Hayes, 1978). The
objectives of this study were to decrease the cost of
* Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,
University of Jordan. Received on 25/2/2004 and Accepte
for Publication on 31/8/2004.
Dirasat, Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, No. 1, 2005
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mushroom production by finding other suitable substrates
for Oyster mushroom cultivation mainly from agricultural
wastes, and to develop simple techniques for Oyster
mushroom production.
Materials and Methods
Fungal Culture
The basidiomycetous fungus Pleurotus ostreatus
(Jacquin:Fries) P. Kummer was obtained from the White
Botton Establishment in Al-salt, Amman, Jordan. The
strain used was P015, it was obtained as ready spawn
grown on wheat seeds. Later the spawn was prepared
from a pure culture of the strain which was isolated on
Malt Extract Agar (MEA) media.
Experimental Design
The experiment was carried out in a glass house. Six
treatments were used including the control treatment.
Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used with
four replicates. Data were statistically analyzed and
treatments were compared using Duncan multiple range
test. The additives used were 5% wheat bran and 5%
gypsum. The control growth medium was composed of
90% straw: 5% gypsum: 5% wheat bran. The conducted
treatments were prepared on a dry weight basis, those
Control: 90% straw: 5% wheat bran: 5% gypsum.
Olive cake 1: 80% straw: 10% olive cake: 5% wheat
bran: 5% gypsum.
Olive cake 2: 70% straw: 20% olive cake: 5% wheat
bran: 5% gypsum.
Olive cake 3: 60% straw: 30% olive cake: 5% wheat
bran: 5% gypsum.
Olive cake 4: 50% straw: 40% olive cake: 5% wheat
bran: 5% gypsum.
Olive cake 5: 90% olive cake: 5% wheat bran: 5%
The olive cake that was used in this study was the
olive press cake deriving directly from the olive – oil
Substrate Pasteurization
Each treatment was mixed with the additives and
placed in a cloth bag then completely submerged in a
water bath inside a large drum at 100°C for 1-2 hours.
This was done to eliminate insects and pathogens that
may be found in the material. The working area was
disinfected using household bleach diluted; or alcohol to
avoid contamination. Then the material was removed
from water bath and allowed to drain, cooled to about 30-
40 °C, which was suitable for cultivation. Then it was
placed in large plastic bags in order to allow the
manipulation of mixing the spawn with the substrate by
shaking manually, then it was inoculated with Pleurotus
spawn at a rate of 5% on the dry weight basis. Bags were
then tied at the top by a nylon thread and punctured by a
clean nail or fork in a form of (+) shape for ventilation
Substrate Inoculation, Incubation and Culture
After pasteurization, substrates were placed inside
plastic bags and inoculated with spawn at a rate of 5 % of
their dry weight, and then were placed inside incubators
at 20-25°C and under humid conditions between 80-95%
(R.H.) with complete darkness during the first days of
incubation until the compost was complete colonized by
the mycelium. After that, the colonized substrates were
exposed to a cold shock around (4-5°C) for 1-2 days to
improve induction of the first flush. During fruiting
period, ventilation was very important, so the bags’ upper
parts were opened and air was allowed to enter.
Temperature was recorded by a thermograph, (it was
around 18-25°C on an average), and relative humidity
was between 80-90%, it was obtained by watering the
bags twice daily, and spraying water on the floor.
Relative humidity was measured by a hygrograph.
Harvesting and Measurement of Parameters
Mushrooms were harvested when the pilei were fully
mature and before they started to curl up. Remains of the
substrate attached to the stipes were removed and the
mushroom clusters were weighed. The shape and color of
the basidiomete were photographed. After the mushrooms
were harvested, several parameters were evaluated to test
the suitability of the wastes as substrates for the
cultivation of the Oyster mushroom. These included:
length of production cycle (incubation, primordial
induction and fructification), earliness; defined as the
time elapsed between the day of inoculation and the day
of the first harvest, the average weight of individual
basidiomata determined as quotient of the total weight of
fresh mushrooms harvested by their total number, the
average yield for each treatment, diameter of the pieli,
color, Biological Efficiency (BE%), calculated as the
Production of Oyster … Khlood Ananbeh and Ahmad Almomany
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percentage yield of fresh mushroom over the dry weight
of the substrate.
Proximate and Mineral Analysis
Proximate analysis was determined according to the
guidelines of the Association of Official Analytical
Chemists (AOAC, 1995) for protein, crude fat, crude
fiber, ash, carbohydrates, minerals and moisture. Mineral
analysis was performed by the wet ashing procedure;
iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, cupper and manganese
were determined by atomic absorption
spectrophotometer, while sodium and potassium were
determined by flame photometry (AOAC, 1995), and
phosphorous was determined by using Olsen’s method
(Olsen and Dean, 1995).
Results and Discussion
Effect of different rates of olive cake on growth
parameters of P.ostreatus including incubation
period, primordial induction, earliness, yield, average
weight, average diameter, and biological efficiency
Table (1) shows that the days required for incubation
period of olive cake substrate were about 2 weeks for all
treatments compared with the control treatment which
needed 2 extra days, and it was significantly different
from the other treatments. There were no significant
differences between the control treatment and olive cake
1, olive cake 3, olive cake 4, and olive cake 5 in the time
needed for the first primordial appearance. Olive cake 2
was different from the whole treatments, which needed
shorter time for primordial development.
Earliness which is the time needed from spawning till
the first harvest was the highest (40 days) for olive cake 5
which contained 90% olive cake and it was significantly
different from the other treatments but not from the
treatment containing 40% olive cake. No significant
differences were noticed between olive cake 4, olive cake
1, olive cake 3, and the control treatment (values ranged
between 30-37 days). Olive cake 2 presented the lowest
value, the three parameters data explained before may be
attributed to the favorable conditions and exploitation of
the nutrient resources of the medium by the fungus
(Zervakis et al., 2001).
The highest yield was recorded in the control and in
olive cake 3, although there were no significant
differences between them. Olive cake 2 showed no
significant differences from olive cake 3, olive cake 4 and
olive cake 1. The lowest value was recorded in olive cake
5, which contained 90% olive cake. The trend of this
parameter was a decreasing in yield amount when the
concentration of olive cake was increased. Up to 30%
olive cake can be added to the growing medium with
satisfactory results. Adding more olive cake to the
substrate may be detrimental to the growth of Oyster
because seed fraction of olive cake is very rich in lignin
(Sharadqah, 2000) and this affects biodegradation rates of
the substrate; lignin acts as a barrier for the breakdown of
cellulose and delays the appearance of basidiomete, this
may explain the results on growth parameters studied
including incubation period, earliness, and yield
(Philippoussis et al., 2001).
The average weight was the highest in the control
treatment and for olive cake 3; the lowest average weight
was recorded in olive cake 4 and olive cake 5, which was
11-13 g/cap. This was due to the low basidiomete number
harvested from treatments with high percentages (40%,
and 90%) of olive cake. Average pilei diameter was 6-7
cm, with no significant differences observed among
treatments. The high content of olive cake decreased the
average pileus diameter.
There were no significant differences between the
control and olive cake 3 in their biological efficiency
since they presented the highest values among all
treatments. The lowest value was recorded for olive cake
5, which contained 90% of olive cake. The best treatment
overall was the substrate supplemented by 30% olive
cake, which also provided the highest yield and average
pileus diameter (Table 1). The C/N ratio might be
responsible for the results obtained in this study; the
presence of the lignocellulosic fraction of the wheat straw
together with the olive cake might regulate C/N ratio at
optimal levels for the cultivation of Oyster mushrooms.
Effect of different rates of olive cake on proximate
analysis of P. ostreatus including protein, fat, ash,
fiber, carbohydrates, and energy
Table (2) showed that protein content was increased
once olive cake percentage increased in the growth
substrate, so the highest protein content was found in
olive cake 5, followed by Olive cake 4. All the other
treatments presented no significant differences among
Fat content values were less than 2% in all cases. Fat
values ranged between 0.45% for olive cake 5 to 1.5% in
the control treatment. Ash content was the highest in
Dirasat, Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, No. 1, 2005
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olive cake 5, but in general no significant differences
were detected among treatments (Table 2). Fiber content
decreased once olive cake percentage increased in the
growth media; it was the highest in the control treatment,
which was significantly different from the other
treatments. As shown in Table (2), the highest amount of
carbohydrates content was found in mushroom obtained
from olive cake 2 and olive cake 3. Olive cake 4 didn’t
differ significantly from olive cake 2. Olive cake 5
showed the least carbohydrates content in the harvested
mushrooms due to its high content of olive cake and poor
growth of mushroom.
Energy, which depends on protein, carbohydrates, and
fat content in its value was the highest in both olive cake
3 and olive cake 4 where both protein and carbohydrates
contents were high. Proximate analysis for Oyster
mushroom obtained in this study resembled those
recorded by Sanjust et al. (1991); Guler and Axoxlu,
Effect of different rates of olive cake on mineral
contents of mushrooms.
Potassium concentration in mushrooms was the
highest in the control treatment, but it was not
significantly different from olive cake 2, olive cake 3, and
olive cake 4. Olive cake 2 was the lowest in its K content
as shown in Table (3). For phosphorus; olive cake 5
produced mushrooms with the highest P content and it
was significantly different from the rest treatments. Olive
cake 3 was the lowest in its P concentration but with no
significant differences from olive cake 4. No significant
differences were observed among all treatments as
regards mushrooms Na content, but it was relatively the
highest in olive cake 5. Calcium content was the highest
in olive cake 5. The lowest concentration was found in
both olive cake 3 and olive cake 4 with no significant
differences among them. Magnesium concentration was
the highest in olive cake 5 with no significant differences
from olive cake 4. Both olive cake 1 and olive cake 3
were the lowest in their Mg content. Zinc and Cu were
the highest in its concentrations in olive cake 5 with no
significant differences from olive cake 3. Fe was
relatively high in its concentration among the
microelements, the highest concentration was found in
olive cake 4 with no significant differences from olive
cake 1 and olive cake 3. Manganese showed no
significant differences among all treatments, but it was
relatively higher in olive cake 5. It was clear from Table
(3) that olive cake 5 had the highest concentrations of
most studied elements. Mineral analysis for Oyster
mushroom in this study resembled those recorded by
Madbouly (1999) and Dabbour (1999).
Table (1): Effect of different rates of olive cake substrate amendments on incubation
period, primordial induction, earliness, yield, average weight, average diameter,
and biological efficiency (BE%) of P. ostreatus.
Treatments Inc.per(1)
(Days) Prim.Ind
(Days) Earl. Yield
(g/0.5kg ) A.wt
(g/cap) A.D
(cm/cap) BE%
Control 16a(2) 29.25a 36.75b 446.85a 19.33ab 7.03a 89.37a
Olive cake 1 14b 29.25a 35.25b 293.85c 17.05b 7.43a 58.77c
Olive cake 2 14b 22.5b 30.25c 339.03bc 16.63b 7.00a 67.8bc
Olive cake 3 14b 27a 36.25b 399.95ab 21.5a 7.05a 79.9ab
Olive cake 4 14b 29a 37ab 277.68c 11.67c 6a 55.54c
Olive cake 5 14b 28.25a 39.75a 133.19d 13.03c 6.35a 26.64d
(1): Inc.per: incubation period, Prim.Ind: primordial induction, Earl. Earliness, A.wt: average weight A.D: average
diameter, BE%: biological efficiency.
(2): Means within each column followed by the same letter were not significantly different according to Duncan’s Multiple
range test (P= 0.05).
Production of Oyster … Khlood Ananbeh and Ahmad Almomany
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Table (2): Effect of different rates of olive cake substrate amendments
on proximate composition of P. ostreatus basidiomete
Treatments Protein
% Fat
% Ash
% Fiber
% Energy
Control 23.4c(1) 1.53a 8.1ab 19.72a 47.23d 296.37d
Olive cake 1 21.7c 1.25ab 7.2ab 17.58b 52.26c 307.16c
Olive cake 2 21.28c 1.00bc 6.38b 14.99c 56.34ab 319.49b
Olive cake 3 23.09c 1.05b 6b 11.93d 57.9a 333.47a
Olive cake 4 26.13b 0.7cd 7.05ab 11.31d 54.8b 330.09a
Olive cake 5 35.42a 0.45d 8.83a 12.08d 43.23e 318.65b
(1): Means within each column followed by the same letter were not significantly different according to
Duncan’s multiple range test (P=0.05).
(3): Energy: calculated by using proximate analysis values and using the values 4, 9, and 4 kcal/100g
Soluble carbohydrates, fat, and protein, respectively.
Table (3): Effect of different rates of olive cake substrate amendments
on mineral contents in ppm of P.ostreatus basidiomete
Treatments K P Na Ca Mg Zn Fe Cu Mn
Control 2356a 1834b 88.25a 1.10bc 10.30bc 0.98c 1.74b 0.16b 0.16a
Olive cake 1 2136ab 1906b 87.75a 1.26b 9.97c 1.27bc 2.75ab 0.12b 0.22a
Olive cake 2 1854b 1690bc 85.25a 1.24b 10.23bc 1.22bc 2.20b 0.15b 0.22a
Olive cake 3 2088ab 1352d 85.50a 0.74d 9.90c 2.30ab 3.58ab 0.19ab 0.19a
Olive cake 4 1969ab 1582cd 82.75a 0.85cd 11.96ab 1.40bc 5.06a 0.34ab 0.18a
Olive cake 5 2187ab 2328a 98.00a 1.59a 13.23a 2.80a 2.37b 0.41a 0.23a
(1): Means within each column followed by the same letter were not significantly different according to
Duncan’s multiple range test (P= 0.05).
Dirasat, Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, No. 1, 2005
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Production of Oyster … Khlood Ananbeh and Ahmad Almomany
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ﻱﺭﺎﺤﻤﻟﺍ ﺭﻁﻔﻟﺍ ﺝﺎﺘﻨﺇ
(Pleurotus ostreatus) ﻥﻭﺘﻴﺯﻟﺍ ﺕﻔﺠ ﻰﻠﻋ
ﻲﻨﻤﻭﻤﻟﺍ ﺩﻤﺤﻤ ﺩﻤﺤﺃﻭ ﺔﺒﻨﺎﻨﻋ ﺩﻭﻠﺨ *
ﻰﻠﻋ ﻱﺭﺎﺤﻤﻟﺍ ﺭﻁﻔﻟﺍ ﺓﺭﺩﻗ ﺹﺤﻔﻟ ﺔﺒﺭﺠﺘﻟﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺀﺍﺭﺠﺍ ﻡﺘ ﺍﺫﻟﻭ ،ﻥﺩﺭﻻﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻤﺎﻬﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﺍﺭﺯﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻔﻠﺨﻤﻟﺍ ﺩﺤﺃ ﻥﻭﺘﻴﺯﻟﺍ ﺕﻔﺠ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﻴ
ﺔﻋﺍﺭﺯﻠﻟ لﻴﺩﺒ ﻁﺴﻭﻜ ﻪﻤﺍﺩﺨﺘﺴﻻ ،ﺢﻤﻘﻟﺍ ﻥﺒﺘ ﻊﻤ ﻁﻭﻠﺨﻤﻟﺍ ﻥﻭﺘﻴﺯﻟﺍ ﺕﻔﺠ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻭﻤﻨﻟﺍ .ﺎﻌﻤ ﺕﺴ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﺕﻤﺘﻬﻨﻤﻀ ﻥﻤ ﺕﻼﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻱﻭﺘﺤﺘ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻨﺭﺎﻘﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﻠﻤﺎﻌﻤ90 % ﺢﻤﻘﻟﺍ ﻥﺒﺘ ﻥﻤ5 % ﻰﻟﺇ ﺔﻓﺎﻀﻹﺎﺒ ﺢﻤﻘﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﺨﻨ ﻥﻤ5 %ﺱﺒﺠﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ .ﻤﺘ ﺓﺭﺘﺴﺒ ﺙﻴﺤ ﺔﻁﻴﺴﺒ ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻟﻭﻨﻜﺘ ﺔﻁﺴﺍﻭﺒ ﻲﺌﺍﺫﻐﻟﺍ ﻁﺴﻭﻟﺍ ﺱﺎﻴﻜﺃ ﻲﻓ ﺩﻭﺠﻭﻤﻟﺍ ﻁﺴﻭﻟﺍ ﺭﻤﻏ ﺵﻴﺨ ﻥﻴﺘﻋﺎﺴ ﺓﺩﻤﻟ ﻲﻠﻐﻤ ﺀﺎﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺒﻘﺜﻤ ﻡﺜ ﻥﻤﻭ ﺔﻴﻜﻴﺘﺴﻼﺒ ﺱﺎﻴﻜﺃ ﻲﻓ ﻁﺴﻭﻟﺍ ﻊﻀﻭ ﻡﺜ ،ﺎﺒﻴﺭﻘﺘ ﻡﺘ ﺔﺒﺴﻨﺒ ﺕﺎﻨﻭﺒﺴﻻﺎﺒ ﺎﻫﻭﺩﻋ5 % ﻡﺘ ﻙﻟﺫ ﺩﻌﺒ ،ﻥﻴﻋﻭﺒﺴﺃ ﺓﺩﻤﻟ ﺎﻬﻨﻀﺤ ﻡﺜ ﻲﺠﺎﺠﺯﻟﺍ ﺕﻴﺒﻟﺍ ﻰﻟﺇ ﺎﻬﻠﻘﻨ . ﺩﻌﺒ ﺭﻭﻬﻅﻟﺎﺒ ﺔﻴﺭﻤﺜﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﺴﺠﻷﺍ ﺕﺃﺩﺒ3 ﺕﺠﺎﺘﺤﺍﻭ ،ﻲﺠﺎﺠﺯﻟﺍ ﺕﻴﺒﻟﺍ ﻰﻟﺇ ﺱﺎﻴﻜﻷﺍ لﻘﻨ ﻥﻤ ﻡﺎﻴﺃ ﻥﻤ3-7 ﺎﻬﻤﺠﺤ لﺎﻤﺘﻜﺍ ﻥﻴﺤﻟ ﻡﺎﻴﺍﻑﺎﻔﺘﻟﻻﺎﺒ ﺃﺩﺒﺘ ﻥﺃ لﺒﻗ ﺎﻫﺩﺼﺤ ﻡﺘ ﻡﺜ ، .ﻴﻴﺎﻌﻤ ﺓﺩﻋ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﺕﻤﺘ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻲﺌﺍﺫﻐﻟﺍ ﻁﺴﻭﻟﺍ ﺓﺭﺩﻗ ﺹﺤﻔﻟ ﺝﺎﺘﻨﺇ
ﻥﺯﻭﻟﺍ لﺩﻌﻤﻭ ﻲﻠﻜﻟﺍ ﺝﺎﺘﻨﻹﺍﻭ ﺔﻔﻁﻗ لﻭﺃ ﺩﺎﺼﺤﻟ ﺔﻤﺯﻼﻟﺍ ﺓﺩﻤﻟﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﺭﻤﺜﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﺴﺠﻷﺍ ﺭﻭﻬﻅ ﺀﺩﺒﻭ ﺔﻨﺎﻀﺤﻟﺍ ﺓﺭﺘﻓ ﻲﻫﻭ ﻡﻭﺭﺸﻤﻟﺍ
ﻑﺎﻴﻟﻷﺍﻭ ﻥﻫﺩﻟﺍﻭ ﻥﻴﺘﻭﺭﺒﻟﺍﻭ ﺔﺒﻭﻁﺭﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻡﻭﺭﺸﻤﻠﻟ ﻲﺒﻴﺭﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻯﻭﺘﺤﻤﻟﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﺠﺎﺘﻨﻹﺍ ﺓﺀﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍﻭ ﺭﻁﻘﻟﺍ لﺩﻌﻤﻭ ﻲﺒﻴﺭﻘﺘﻟﺍ
ﻴﻫﻭﺒﺭﻜﻟﺍﻭﺔﻴﺌﺍﺫﻐﻟﺍ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻌﻟﺍﻭ ﺔﻗﺎﻁﻟﺍﻭ ﺕﺍﺭﺩ . ﺩﺼﺤ ﻡﺘ4-5 ﻲﻫﻭ ﺔﻋﺍﺭﺯﻟﺍ ﺓﺩﻤ لﻼﺨ ﺕﺎﻔﻁﻗ3 لﺠﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﻗﻭﻟﺍ ﻥﺎﻜﻭ ،ﺭﻭﻬﺸ ﻥﻴﺒ ﺡﻭﺍﺭﺘﻴ ﺔﻴﻨﺎﺜﻟﺍﻭ ﻰﻟﻭﻷﺍ ﺔﻔﻁﻘﻟﺍ ﻥﻴﺒ3-4 ﻰﻟﻭﻷﺍ ﺔﻔﻁﻘﻟﺍ ﺕﻠﻜﺸ ﺩﻗﻭ ﻊﻴﺒﺎﺴﺃ40-70 %ﻲﻠﻜﻟﺍ ﺝﺎﺘﻨﻹﺍ لﻤﺠﻤ ﻥﻤ. ﻥﺃ ﺩﺠﻭ ﻪﺘﻓﺎﻀﺇ ﻥﻜﻤﻴ ﻥﻭﺘﻴﺯﻟﺍ ﺕﻔﺠ ﺔﺒﺴﻨ ﺔﻴﺎﻐﻟ ﻲﺌﺍﺫﻐﻟﺍ ﻁﺴﻭﻟﺍ ﻰﻟ30% ﺎﻬﻴﻟﺇ ﻥﻭﺘﻴﺯﻟﺍ ﻑﻴﻀﺍ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﻙﻠﺘ ﻲﻫﺔﻠﻤﺎﻌﻤ لﻀﻓﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺩﺠﻭ ﺎﻤﻜ ،ﺔﺒﺴﻨﺒ30 % ﺝﺎﺘﻨﺇ ﻰﻠﻋﺃ ﺕﻁﻋﺃ ﺙﻴﺤ )400 ﻡﻏ /0.5ﻡﻐﻜ( ، ﻥﺯﻭ لﺩﻌﻤ ﻰﻠﻋﺃ)21.5 ﻡﻏ/ﻱﺭﻤﺜ ﻡﺴﺠ(
، ﺭﻁﻗ لﺩﻌﻤ ﻰﻠﻋﺃ)7 ﻡﺴ /ﻱﺭﻤﺜ ﻡﺴﺠ (ﻴﺠﺎﺘﻨﺇ ﻩﺀﺎﻔﻜ ﻰﻠﻋﺃﻭ )80 .(%ﺭﻁﻔﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻭﺘﺤﻤ لﻴﻠﺤﺘﻟ ﺔﺒﺴﻨﻟﺎﺒ ﺩﻘﻓ ﻱﺭﺎﺤﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﺩﻴﻫﻭﺒﺭﻜﻟﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺩﺠﻭ ﻥﻴﺘﻭﺭﺒﻟﺍﻭﺔﺒﺴﻨ ﻰﻠﻋﺃ ﻥﻼﻜﺸ، ﻬﻴﻠﻴﺔﻴﺌﺍﺫﻐﻟﺍ ﻑﺎﻴﻟﻷﺍ .ﻥﻤ ﻱﺭﺎﺤﻤﻟﺍ ﺭﻁﻔﻟﺍ ﻯﻭﺘﺤﻤ ﻥﺎﻜ ﺎﻁﺴﻭﺘﻤ ﺩﺎﻤﺭﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﺔﺒﺴﻨ لﻗﺍﻭ ،ﻥﻫﺩﻟﺍ . ﻥﺎﻜﻲﺌﺍﺫﻐﻟﺍ ﻁﺴﻭﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻲﻋﺍﺭﺯﻟﺍ ﻑﻠﺨﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﺒﺴﻨ ﺓﺩﺎﻴﺯ ﻊﻤ ﺩﺍﺩﺯﻴ ﻥﻴﺘﻭﺭﺒﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻁﻔﻟﺍ ﻯﻭﺘﺤﻤ . ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻌﻟﺍ ﻯﻭﺘﺤﻤ ﺫﺨﺃ ﺩﻗﻭ ﻩﺎﺠﺘﻻﺍ ﺔﺴﻭﺭﺩﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﻼﻤﺎﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻉﻭﺭﺯﻤﻟﺍ ﺭﻁﻔﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﺭﻤﺜﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﺴﺠﻷﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺌﺍﺫﻐﻟﺍ ﻪﺴﻔﻨ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﻤﻀ ﻥﻤﻓ ،ﺯﻴﻜﺭﺘﻟﺍ ﺙﻴﺤ ﻥﻤ
ﻡﻭﻴﺴﻴﻨﻐﻤﻟﺍ ﻥﺎﻜ ﺎﻤﻨﻴﺒ ﻩﺯﻴﻜﺭﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻁﺴﻭﺘﻤ ﻥﺎﻜ ﺩﻘﻓ ﻡﻭﻴﺩﻭﺼﻟﺍ ﺎﻤﺃ ،ﻰﻠﻋﻷﺍ ﻭﻫ ﺭﻭﻔﺴﻭﻔﻟﺍﻭ ﻡﻭﻴﺴﺎﺘﻭﺒﻟﺍ ﻯﻭﺘﺤﻤ ﻥﺎﻜ ﻯﺭﺒﻜﻟﺍ
ﻥﻜﻟﻭ ﺎﻤﻫﺯﻴﻜﺭﺘ ﻲﻓ لﻗﻷﺍ ﺎﻤﻫ ﻡﻭﻴﺴﻟﺎﻜﻟﺍﻭﻩﺯﻴﻜﺭﺘ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻭﻴﺴﻟﺎﻜﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﺜﻜﺍ ﻥﺎﻜ ﻡﻭﻴﺴﻴﻨﻐﻤﻟﺍ . ﻯﻭﺘﺤﻤ ﻥﺎﻓ ﻯﺭﻐﺼﻟﺍ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻌﻟﺍ ﺎﻤﺃ ﺱﺎﺤﻨﻟﺍﻭ ﺯﻴﻨﻐﻨﻤﻟﺍ لﺜﻤ ﻯﺭﺨﻷﺍ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻌﻟﺍ ﻊﻤ ﺔﻨﺭﺎﻘﻤ ﺎﻴﺒﺴﻨ ﺎﻴﻟﺎﻋ ﻥﺎﻜ ﻙﻨﺯﻟﺍﻭ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﻟﺍ.
* ﻡﺴﻗﺔﻴﺎﻗﻭ ﺔﻴﻨﺩﺭﻷﺍ ﺔﻌﻤﺎﺠﻟﺍ ،ﺔﻋﺍﺭﺯﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻜ ،ﺕﺎﺒﻨﻟﺍ . ﺙﺤﺒﻟﺍ ﻡﻼﺘﺴﺍ ﺦﻴﺭﺎﺘ25/2/2004 ﻪﻟﻭﺒﻗ ﺦﻴﺭﺎﺘﻭ ،31/8/2004.
... Many studies have been conducted to test the ability of P. ostreatus to grow on different agro wastes. Examples of those agro wastes include rice straw, wheat straw and cotton wastes (Hussain et al., 2002;Pant et al., 2006), olive mill waste Cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on date-palm leaves (Ruiz-Rodrı´guez et al., 2010;Al-Momany and Ananbeh, 2011), maize stover, thatch grass (Fanadzo et al., 2010), palm oil (Rizki and Tamai, 2011), weed plants (Das and Mukherjee, 2007), chopped office papers, cardboard, and plant fibers (Mandeel et al., 2005), sawdust, banana leaves and tomato tuff (Ananbeh and Almomany, 2008), biogas residual slurry manure (Banik and Nandi, 2004), and jute waste products (Basak et al., 1996). Certain agro wastes proved to give higher yields than others. ...
... For example, wheat straw was found to be superior over other agro wastes in colonization rates and production (Philippoussis et al., 2001;Pant et al., 2006;Fanadzo et al., 2010) which is confirmed in the current study. Moreover, mixing agro wastes at different ratios enhances the productivity of P. ostreatus (Yildiz et al., 2002;Ananbeh and Almomany, 2008;Al-Momany and Ananbeh, 2011). In the current study, wheat straw was also superior in mushroom production followed by boobialla leaves and sawdust regardless of the ratio used. ...
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Promoting the use of agriculture waste is one of the newly prepared water and environment friendly agriculture strategy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The objective of this research was to study the efficiency of cultivating oyster mushroom (P. ostreatus) on date palm wastes mixed with other agricultural wastes available in KSA. Four agricultural wastes were mixed with date palm leaves at different ratios, with two supplements and three spawn rates were used. Wheat straw mixed with date palm at ratio of 25 (date palm): 75 (agro-waste) showed the best results in most of the parameters measured. Corn meal was superior over wheat bran as a supplement in all treatments. Parameters values increased with the increase of the spawn rate of P. ostreatus. Treatments with date palm leave waste contained higher carbohydrates and fibers. No significant differences were found among the fruiting bodies produced on the different agro-wastes studied for the different proximate analyzed. Analyses of metal concentration showed that potassium was the highest in all the treatments tested followed by Na, Mg, Ca, and Zn. This is the first study that reported the success of growing oyster mushroom on date palm leaf waste mixed with other agro-wastes obtainable in KSA.
... In addition, combining agro wastes in various ratios improves P. ostreatus productivity [98]. Also growing on chopped papers, cardboard, plant fibers, sawdust, tomato tuff, banana leaves, biogas manure, and jute wastes [100][101][102][103]. Individual oyster mushroom specimens can grow in layers on top of one another. ...
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Edible Mushrooms have been valued as a valuable food source due to its nutritional and medicinal characteristics. Edible mushrooms contain various bioactive components such as proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, dietary fibers, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. They have essential health effects, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, immune-stimulatory, and anticancer, cholesterol-lowering properties. Because of their nutritional and medicinal benefits, mushrooms have become increasingly popular in recent years all over the world. Mushrooms were considered immortality plants in Ancient Egypt and were given to mankind by the god Osiris. Mushrooms were declared a delicacy reserved only for Egyptian nobility due to their distinct flavor. The current study focuses on the common species of edible mushrooms in Egypt and their different bioactive ingredients, nutritional values and the health benefits.
... H o w e v e r , m a n y s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n conducted to test the ability of oyster mushrooms to grow on different agro wastes. Examples of those agro wastes are rice straw, sawdust, (Ananbeh and Almomany, 2008). Mixing agro wastes at different ratios enhances the productivity of P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius as demonstrated in this study and this agrees with the ndings of Al-Momany and Ananbeh, 2011). ...
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This research was borne out of nding alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius were cultivated using cassava peels and sawdust of Tectonia grandis. The mushrooms utilized the lignocellulose in the agro-wastes to grow within 30 days and the antimicrobial potency of the harvested mushrooms was investigated. P. ostreatus and pulmonarius extracts were assayed against seven pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophilia using Kirby Bauer's agar well diffusion. The result of sensitivity test showed that all test organisms except A hydrophilia were susceptible to the ethanoilic extract of P. ostreatus while most were resistant to P. pulmonarius. The In vitro bioassay revealed that the aqueous extract of P. ostreatus inhibited S. aureus, K. Pneumoniae, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis and S. pyogenes with inhibition zones of 18.00 ± 0.24 mm, 16.00 ± 0.15 mm, 14.00 ± 0.05 mm, 14.50 ± 0.12 mm, 15.10 ± 0.20 mm and 17.00 ± 0.22 mm respectively. Phytochemical assays showed that P. ostreatus contained some essential phytochemicals which include; alkaloids, tannins, saponins and phenol of which some were present in P. pulmonarius. The results obtained suggest that P. ostreatus grown on the mixture of these two substrates (cassava peels and sawdust of T. grandis) possessed broader antimicrobial spectrum against a vast numbers of medically implicated organisms used, hence future research work is required to consolidate the potency of mushrooms cultivated on these substrates.
... Ogundele, et al. [31] reported in a study that potassium have the highest value (22.81 mg/100 g and 21.90 mg/100 g) for mushroom harvested from hardwood (Anogeissus leiocarpus) sawdust and softwood (Daniellia oliveri) sawdust respectively. This result was similar to the report of Alananbeh et al., in Ananbeh and Almomany [20] who reported that highest value for potassium was obtained from Pleurotus ostreatus harvested from four different substrates. Potassium was reported to be essential for several enzymatic reactions in food, and the quantity in Pleurotus ostreatus makes it good food for people suffering from hypertension and heart diseases. ...
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Pleurotus genus is one of most extensively studied white-rot fungi due to its exceptional ligninolytic properties. These mushrooms have the ability to colonize and degrade a wide variety of lingo-cellulosic wastes with relatively short cycle. The objective of this study was to review published research works on the effect of substrates on nutritional composition and functional property of Pleurotus ostreatus. A literature search was done on the internet and university libraries in this area. It was found that different substrates used in cultivating mushrooms do have effect on the functional, organoleptic and nutritional properties of mushrooms. This review presents a practical checklist of effect of substrates on quality of Pleurotus ostreatus that may help different users. Contribution/Originality: This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of type of substrate on nutritional composition and functional property of Pleurotus ostreatus.
... Furthermore, proteins in oyster mushroom has the nutritional requirements of all essential amino acids for adults (Carrasco-González et al., 2017). Oyster mushroom has been cultivated using various agro wastes such as rice straw and wheat straw (Yang et al., 2013;Rezania et al., 2017), date-palm leaves (Alananbeh et al., 2014), empty fruit bunch (Marlina et al., 2015), olive cake (Ananbeh and Almomany, 2005), tomato tuff (Ananbeh and Almomany, 2008), banana leaves and pine needles (Ananbeh, 2003) and sugarcane bagasse (Hasan et al., 2015). Mushroom cultivation on Moso bamboo is an economic approach in agroindustry as the residues is readily available. ...
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In this study, the potential of Moso bamboo sawdust as an alternative substrate for the cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was investigated. Oyster mushroom was cultivated on 2-months fermented bamboo sawdust (BS) and mixed with rice bran (RB) and sweet potato schochu lees (SPSL) as additional nutrition. The growth condition, morphological properties, nutritional, mineral contents and free amino acid content of mushroom cultivated were evaluated. Based on the results, the total growth days on the bamboo media were between 3~7 days shorter than the conventional media. The bamboo media mixed with RB had better yield and fruiting bodies at 97.9 ± 3.9 g/bottle and 33.6±4.2 no/bottle, respectively. Furthermore, the addition of SPSL to BS increased the protein content and decreased the carbohydrate contents of fruit bodies. In addition, the free-amino acids in the fruit bodies from the bamboo media were 1.5 times higher than the conventional media, which potentially added the higher value to usual mushrooms. Hence, oyster mushroom cultivation can be an alternative method to reduce bamboos wastes in Japan and would promote sustainable growth in agricultural industry.
... On the other hand, the most part of substrates presented a BE higher than 40% and a PR higher than 1 (except the Shells and coconut fiber), these are Sugarcane pith, Yucca elephantipes leaves, Tillandsia usneoides, Tagetes erecta stalks, Stem of garlic, Sugar cane flower, Cymbopogon citratus, Corn cob, Persea schiedeana Nees leaves, Banana wastes, Chamaedorea tepejilote Liebm, Stem of onion, Tomato straw, Bagasse from trapiche and Sugarcane tops. From those, the Pith sugar cane [44,45], Yucca [46], steam of garlic [47,48], Cymbopogon citrates [49], corn cob [30,35,47,49] and Banana wastes [35,[50][51][52], Onion [53] (stimulation of enzymes of Pleurotus), Tomato straw [36,54], and Pod of beans [49] have been reported, but this is the first report for Tillandsia usneoides, Tagetes erecta stalks, Sugar cane flower and Persea schiedeana Nees leaves and Chamaedorea tepejilote Liebm leaves as substrates for the Pleurotus cultivation. All these substrates represent an economical opportunity, as is reported for Pleurotus that a minimum of 40% of BE is economically viable [55]. ...
... They also can add value to low-cost products as agro-waste (Ahmed et al., 2013;Dahmardeh, 2013). Many studies have been conducted to test the ability of Pleurotus spp. to grow on different agro wastes, such as rice straw, wheat straw and cotton wastes (Hussain et al., 2002;Pant et al., 2006), olive mill waste, pine needles (Kalmis et al., 2008;Ruiz-Rodrıguez et al., 2010;Al-Momany and Ananbeh, 2011), corn straw (Dias et al., 2003), thatch grass (Fanadzo et al., 2010), palm oil (Rizki and Tamai, 2011), weed plants (Das and Mukherjee, 2007), chopped office papers, cardboard, and plant fibers (Mandeel et al., 2005), sawdust, banana leaves, (Reddy et al., 2003) leaf of hazelnut (Yildiz et al., 1997), palm leaves (Alananbeh et al., 2014), tomato tuff (Ananbeh and Almomany, 2008), fruit pulp and peel, coffee pulp, sugarcane residues (Li et al., 2001;Eira, 2003;Ragunathan and Swaminathan, 2003;Moda et al., 2005), weed plants (Khatun et al., 2007), biogas residual slurry manure (Banik and Nandi, 2004), and jute waste products (Basak et al., 1996). A mixture of agro-wastes can be interesting. ...
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Pleurotus genus is one of most extensively studied white-rot fungi due to its exceptional ligninolytic properties. It is an edible mushroom and it also has several biological effects, as it contains important bioactive molecules. In basidiomycete fungi, lignocellulolytic enzymes are affected by many typical fermentation factors, such as medium composition, ratio of carbon to nitrogen, pH, temperature, air composition, etc. The survival and multiplication of mushrooms is related to a number of factors, which may act separately or have interactive effects among them. Out that understanding challenges in handling Pleurotus species mushroom requires a fundamental understanding of their physical, chemical, biological and enzymatic properties. This review presents a practical checklist of available intrinsic and extrinsic factors, providing useful synthetic information that may help different users. An in-depth understanding of the technical features is needed for an appropriate and efficient production of Pleurotus spp.
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Fungi are an understudied, biotechnologically valuable group of organisms. Due to the immense range of habitats that fungi inhabit, and the consequent need to compete against a diverse array of other fungi, bacteria, and animals, fungi have developed numerous survival mechanisms. The unique attributes of fungi thus herald great promise for their application in biotechnology and industry. Moreover, fungi can be grown with relative ease, making production at scale viable. The search for fungal biodiversity, and the construction of a living fungi collection, both have incredible economic potential in locating organisms with novel industrial uses that will lead to novel products. This manuscript reviews fifty ways in which fungi can potentially be utilized as biotechnology. We provide notes and examples for each potential exploitation and give examples from our own work and the work of other notable researchers. We also provide a flow chart that can be used to convince funding bodies of the importance of fungi for biotechnological research and as potential products. Fungi have provided the world with penicillin, lovastatin, and other globally significant medicines, and they remain an untapped resource with enormous industrial potential. Keywords Biocontrol · Biodiversity · Biotechnology · Food · Fungi · Mushrooms
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Cultivation of edible mushrooms is one of the most economically usable processes for bioconversion of agro wastes for the production of protein-rich food with various medicinal values. The present investigation was focused to determine the most effective and suitable substrate for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus considering biological efficiency and medicinal activities of fruiting bodies. Different parameters like mycelium running rate, development of fruiting bodies, cropping phase, productivity, biological efficiency and medicinal activities like antibacterial, antioxidant activities of this mushroom were evaluated. The total mycelium running, total primordial formation, complete fruit body formation and duration of cropping were dominant in PS substrate. Fruiting body size was bigger in SD substrate but higher productivity (19.6%) and biological efficiency (65.33%) was observed in PS substrate. Methanolic extracts of cultivated P. ostreatus on PS substrate showed higher antibacterial, free radical scavenging activity (74.26%), chelating effects on ferrous ion (91.11%), total phenol content (0.097 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids content (0.017 mg CE/g). The lowest EC50 values of cultivated P. ostreatus were found in PS substrate which indicated the stronger ability of antioxidant activity. The present study indicates that the types of used substrates affect biological efficiency and medicinal properties.
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Ten selected wild and commercial strains of Pleurotus ostreatus,Pleurotus eryngii,Pleurotus pulmonarius, Agrocybe aegerita andVolvariella volvacea were cultivated on three agricultural wastes, i.e. wheat straw (WS), cotton waste (CW) and peanut shells (PS). All species demonstrated significantly higher colonization rates on WS and CW than on PS. WS supported faster growth of A. aegerita and Pleurotus spp., whereas V. volvacea performed better on CW. Comparison of growth rates on composted and non-composted WS and CW substrates revealed that in the latter case faster colonization was achieved, particularly for Pleurotus spp. However, one commercial strain of V. volvacea presented higher growth rates when the composted CW medium was used. Furthermore, earliness in the fructification of P. ostreatus, P. pulmonarius and V. volvacea strains was promoted in CW substrates, while WS favoured earliness of P. eryngii and A. aegerita. Similarly, high sporophore yields were obtained by P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius on both wastes, whereas WS enhanced yield and basidioma size of P. eryngii and A. aegerita strains and CW production of V. volvacea. The substrates cellulose:lignin ratios were found to be positively correlated to mycelial growth rates and to mushroom yield of P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius; in addition, positive correlation was also detected for carbon:nitrogen ratio and mushroom yield in P. eryngii and A. aegerita and between cellulose content and mushroom yield for V. volvacea strains.
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Four species of Pleurotus were adapted to grow on olive milling wastewater, and in certain conditions produced high yield of fruit bodies. Some biochemical transformations were observed in the olive milling wastewater owing to the growth of Pleurotus. In particular, the fungi actively excreted large amounts of laccase in the medium, and at the same time the concentration of phenolics and other toxic compounds significantly decreased, as revealed by HPLC analysis and toxicity tests on standard cultures of human cell lines.
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The effects of various combinations of wheat bran, rye and millet (at 20% and 30% of total dry substrate wt) on crop cycle time, biological efficiency (BE) and mushroom quality were evaluated for a commercially used isolate of Grifola frondosa (maitake). Supplements were combined with a basal ingredient of mixed oak (primarily red oak) sawdust, and the resulting mixture was pasteurized, cooled, inoculated and bagged with an autoclaving mixer. Times to mushroom primordial formation and mushroom harvest were recorded, and mushroom quality was rated on a scale of 1-4, where 1 was the highest quality and 4 was the lowest quality. The combinations of 10% wheat bran, 10% millet and 10% rye (BE 47.1%, quality 1.8 and crop cycle 12 weeks) and 10% wheat bran plus 20% rye (BE 44%, quality 1.7 and crop cycle 10 weeks) gave the most consistent yields and best basidiome quality over time.
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The influence of environmental parameters on mycelial linear growth of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, P. pulmonarius, Agrocybe aegerita, Lentinula edodes, Volvariella volvacea and Auricularia auricula-judae was determined in two different nutrient media in a wide range of temperature, forming the basis for the assessment of their temperature optima. V. volvacea grew faster at 35 degrees C, P. eryngii at 25 degrees C, P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius at 30 degrees C, A. aegerita at 25 or 30 degrees C and A. auricula-judae at 20 or 25 degrees C depending on the nutrient medium used and L. edodes at 20 or 30 degrees C depending on the strain examined. The mycelium extension rates were evaluated on seven mushroom cultivation substrates: wheat straw, cotton gin-trash, peanut shells, poplar sawdust, oak sawdust, corn cobs and olive press-cake. The mycelium extension rates (linear growth and colonization rates) were determined by the 'race-tube' technique, and were found to be the highest on cotton gin-trash, peanut shells and poplar sawdust for Pleurotus spp. and A. aegerita. Wheat straw, peanut shells and particularly cotton gin-trash supported fast growth of V. volvacea, whereas wheat straw was the most suitable substrate for L. edodes and A. auricula-judae. Supplemented oak sawdust and olive press-cake were poor substrates for most species examined, while almost all strains performed adequately on corn cobs.
The Office of Special Education Programs, U. S. Department of Education, provided four years of funding to establish a National Assistive Technology Research Institute (NATRI) at the University of Kentucky. The primary goals of NATRI are to examine factors related to the planning, development, implementation, and evaluation of assistive technology (AT) services in schools, and to disseminate the findings in ways that will assist school personnel to develop or improve AT policies and practices for students with disabilities. Seven areas of research will be addressed: (a) status of AT use in schools, (b) policies, procedures, and resources that school districts use, (c) AT decisions made by individualized education programs (IEP) teams, (d) training and technical support needed by service providers, (e) integration of AT into learning environments, (f) effectiveness of AT on the academic, social, and functional performance of students, and (g) preparation of professionals in AT. The primary research questions and methodologies being used to conduct research in the seven areas are described. An overview of dissemination procedures also is provided and ways that people can, participate in NATRI research activities are explained.
Pleurotus ostreatus (444) and P. sajorcaju (537) were grown on a pasteurized mixture of chopped wheat straw (70%) and milled corncobs (30%) nonsupplemented and supplemented with two levels of delayed-release nutrient. Yields for both lines increased 2.3 and 3.2 fold on substrate containing 16% and 32% (dry weight basis) delayed-release nutrient additions, respectively. For mushroom size, a differential response was observed for genotype and delayed-release nutrient. Line 444, a wild isolate from Missouri, produced larger mushrooms on substrate containing higher levels of delayed-release nutrient. Line 537, a commercial isolate used in Italy, produced smaller mushrooms with higher levels of nutrient. Mushrooms of line 537 were harvested 3 to 4 days earlier and line 444 was harvested 12 to 14 days earlier from supplemented substrate.