ArticlePDF Available

Effect of dietary thyme on laying hen's performance and E. coli concentration in Feces

Authors:
INTRODUCTION
Recently, it has been reported that the usage of antibiotics as
a growth promoter in chicken diets has caused some unwanted
factors [1, 2-3]. Therefore, the searches for alternative feed
supplements have been increased extensively and considerable
attention has been given to the essential herbs as replacements
for antibiotics growth promotants [4]. Langhout, [5] and
Williams and Losa, [6] discovered that essential oils have a
stimulating effect on animal digestive systems. They postulated
that these effects could be due to the increased production of
digestive enzymes and the improved utilization of digestive
products through enhanced liver functions.
Hertrampf, [7] and Alçiçek et al. [8] demonstrated that
essential oils improved animal performance, however, other
researchers [9, 10-11] reported that these additives were not
effective in this regard. Deschepper et al. [4] determined that
essential oil from herbs have received considerable attention as
replacements for antibiotic growth promotants. The antibacterial
and anticoccidial effects of essential oils, or components from
plant extracts, have received widespread attention and numerous
reports exist in the literature. For example, Jamroz et al. [12]
determined that plant extract (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and
capsaicin) reduced the total E. Coli and Clostridium perfringes
numbers in the intestines of broiler chickens; it has been
reported that blends of essential oil components can control
Clostridium perfringens colonization in the intestine and feces
of broiler chickens [13].
As an essential oil, antibacterial, anticocidial, antifungal
and antioxidant effects of thyme oil derived from thyme were
reported by Hertrampf, [7]. Also, in vitro studies have shown
that essential oils to have antibacterial properties against Listeria
monocytogenes, Salmonellatyphimurium, Escherichia coli,
Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus [14]. Smith-Palmer
et al. [15] and Hammer et al. [16] shown that essential oils of
rosemary (Rosmarinus of cinalis), sage (Salvia sclarea), thyme
(Thymus vulgaris), were among the most active in this respect
against strains of E. coli. Dorman and Deans, [19] reported
that thymol (5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl) phenol), a main
component of the essential oil from thyme, has antimicrobial
properties. Essential oils’ antimicrobial mode of action consists
of interactions with the cell membranes of microorganisms
by changing permeability for cautions such as H+ and K+ [18].
Since, there has been yet any report dealing with the promoter
and antimicrobial effect of dietary supplemented thyme on
performance, the objective of this study was to evaluate the
use of the thyme in hen feeding to promote performance and
reduced E. coli concentration in feces.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sixty four, 24- wk-old lohman-LSL hybrid laying hens
were used in this experiment. Birds were randomly assigned to
4 groups at equally (n=16), each of which included 4 cages (50
x 46 x 46 cm) with four animals. The treatments consisted of
diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.5 or 1 % thyme powder. Composition
of the experimental diets is presented in Tables 1. The diets were
isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Experiment lasted in 12 weeks
at the beginning of laying period. During the experiment hens
were fed and water ad libitum. Egg production, feed conversion
rate and feed consumption amounts were recorded daily from
each cage. Percentage of yolk, albumen and shell, egg weight
and Hough unit values were measured biweekly using 8 eggs
from each dietary treatment. At the end of experiment, feces
samples were taken from each replicate cage in order to
determine total Coliform and E. coli.
Bacteriology
Fecal samples were blended in a stomacher (Stomacher
400; AJ Seward, London, England) for 2 min in 50 mL of
0.85 % (w/v) salt water. A series of fermentation tubes that
Effect of Dietary Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) on Laying Hens Performance and
Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration in feces
Ş. Canan BÖLÜKBAŞI M.Kuddusi ERHAN
Atatürk University, the Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science,25240, Erzurum, TURKEY
Corresponding Author Received : 23 November 2006
E-mail: canan@atauni.edu.tr Accepted : 29 December 2006
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) on perfor-
mance of laying hens and E. coli concentrations in feces. Sixty four of 24 weeks old white Lohman LSL laying hens were randomly
assigned to four groups equally (n = 16). Each treatment was replicated four times. Experimental diets were prepared by adding
thyme at the levels of 0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1% to basal diet. Feed conversion and egg productions of laying hen were improved by thyme
supplementation at level 0.1 and 0.5 %. Also, the usage of 0.1 and 0.5 % thyme in laying hens diets signi cantly (P<0.05) reduced
E. coli concentration in feces.
Key Words: laying hen, thyme, E. coli, egg production
International Journal of Natural and Engineering Sciences 1 (2): 55-58, 2007
Ş. C.Bölükbaşı and M. K. Erhan / IJNES, 1 (2): 55-58, 2007
56
contain Fuluorocult lauryl sulfat broth were inoculated with
the water sample and incubated for 48 hours at 35 oC. The
fermentation tube contains an inverted tube to trap gases that
were produced by the Coliform bacteria. After 48 hours, the
fermentation tube was examined for gas production. After, the
tubes were examined under a 366-nm Lampe UV for E. coli.
Based on which dilutions showed positive for Coliform and E.
coli, a table of most probable numbers was used to estimate
the Coliform content of the sample. The results were reported
as most probable number (MPN) of Coliform and E. coli per
g [19].
Differences between groups were analyzed with analysis of
variance (ANOVA) by using the statistical package SPSS for
Windows (20), version 10.0. Signi cant means were subjected
to a multiple comparison test (Duncan) at α = 0.01 and 0.05
level.
Table 1. Calculated nutrient contents of the diet and
additionally
Ingredients and analyses Composition (%)
Corn 48
Soybean meal 19.5
Wheat 12
Meat and bone meal 3
Sun ower meal 5
Limestone 8.5
Soybean oil 3
Dicalcium phosphate 0.40
Vitamin premix10.25
Mineral premix20.1
Salt 0.05
DL-methionine 0.14
Calculated analysis
CP 16
ME, kcal/kg 2710
1 Per kilogram of vitamin premix: 4800000 IU vitamin A; 960000 IU
vitamin D;1200 IU vitamin E; 1 g vitamin K3; 1.2 g vitamin B1; 2.8 g
vitamin B
2
; 8 g niacin; 3.2 g calcium D-pantothenate; 1.6 g vitamin B
6
;
6 mg vitamin B
12
; 400 mg folic acid; 18 mg D-biotin; 20 g vitamin C;
50 g choline chloride
2per kilogram of diet: 80 g manganese; 80 g iron; 60 g zinc; 5 g copper;
200 mg cobalt; 500 mg iodine; 150 mg selenium
RESULTS
In the present study, the effects of dietary treatment on
feed intake and egg production were signi cant (P< 0.05).
Supplementation of thyme at levels of 1% diet signi cantly
decreased feed intakes. Addition of 0.1% and 0.5% of thyme
to the diets signi cantly improved feed conversion ratios.
But, supplementation of 1% thyme decreased feed conversion
compared to control. Egg production in laying hens was
increased signi cantly (P<0.05) with the supplementation
of dietary 0.1 and 0.5% thyme. However, egg weight did not
change during the experimental period from the birds receiving
the control diet and the others with thyme (Table 2).
There were signi cant effects of dietary treatments on yolk
rate of egg (Table 3). Hens receiving the diets containing 1
% thyme had signi cantly lower yolk rate compared to those
fed the control and the diet containing 0.1 and 0.5% thyme.
However, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in albumen, shell
and Hough unit between the treatments in this study.
The coliform count in the feces did not differ (P > 0.05) by
any of the supplemental treatments (Table 4). The control group
and 1% thyme group showed the highest average concentration
of E. coli in the feces. The group fed with the 0.1% and 0.5%
thyme had signi cantly lower E. coli count than the control
group and 1% thyme group. Average E. coli concentrations
signi cantly differed (P < 0.05) from each other 0.1% thyme
group had the lowest concentration. The inhibitory effect o
on the proliferation on E. coli seemed to be stronger for 0.1%
thyme.
Table 4. In uence of dietary thyme herb on total Coliform
bacteria and E. coli in fecal samples of laying hens (MPN/g)
Groups coliform E.coli
Control 110 110a
0.1% Thyme 73 46c
0.5% Thyme 110 73b
1% Thyme 110 110a
PNS *
NS: not signi cant *: P<0.05
Table 2. In uence of dietary thyme (Thymus vulgaris) on performance of laying hens
Groups Feed intake (g) Feed conversion
(g/g)
Egg production
%
Egg
Weight (g)
Control 150.66a2.95b89.81b50.90
0.1% Thyme 150.55a2.88c95.37a51.62
0.5% Thyme 147.57ab 2.79d94.44a49.07
1% Thyme 145.59c3.04a87.96b52.69
SEM 0.46 0.04 1.15 0.94
P* * *NS
NS: not signi cant *: P< 0.05 a,b,c :Column means with no common superscript differ signi cantly
Table 3. In uence of dietary thyme on egg quality of laying hen.
Groups Yolk % Albumen % Shell % Hough Unit
Control 26.25a62.65 11.08 81.25
0.1% Thyme 26.67a61.94 11.38 83.03
0.5% Thyme 26.35a62.25 11.34 83.76
1% Thyme 23.44b63.46 12.19 81.57
SEM 0.30 0.38 0.36 1.32
P * NS NS NS
NS: not signi cant *: P< 0.05 a,b,c :Column means with no common superscript differ signi cantly
Ş. C.Bölükbaşı and M. K. Erhan / IJNES, 1 (2): 55-58, 2007 57
DISCUSSION
Recently, scientists discovered that essential oils have a
stimulating effect on animal digestive systems. They postulated
that these effects could be due to the increased production of
digestive enzymes and the improved utilization of digestive
products through enhanced liver functions [5- 6]. Hertrampf,
[7] reported that essential oils derived from spices and herbs
could be successfully used as growth promoters, since they
increased the feed intake due to their aromatic characteristics
in chickens.
In this study, the coliform counts in the feces of the laying
hens were not affected by any of the supplemental treatments.
But, Cross et al. [21] demonstrated that thyme reduced the
numbers of coliforms. The 0.1% thyme group showed the
signi cantly lowest average E. coli concentration. Some studies
reported that thyme (Thymus vulgaris) was among the most
active from this respect against to strains of E. coli [14, 16,
17-22]. Jamroz et al. [12] reported that plant extract (carvacrol,
cinnamaldhyde and capsaicin) reduced the total E. coli numbers
in intestine of broilers chickens. Sarıca et al. [22] found that the
broilers fed with thyme (0.1%) had signi cantly lower E. coli
count than the control diet in the small intestine. Tucker [23]
reported that the supplementation of a mixed herbal product
containing garlic, anise, cinnamon, rosemary and thyme to
commercial pig diets signi cantly inhibited the number of E.
coli in the digestive tract.
In conclusion, the data of the present study showed that
feeding laying hens with diet containing 0.1 and 0.5 % thyme
improved egg production and feed conversion and signi cantly
reduced E. coli concentrations in the feces compared to the
basal diet.
REFERENCES
[1]. 1-Botsoglou NA, Fletouris DJ. 2001. Drug Residues in
Foods. Pharmacology, Food Safety and Analysis. New
York, Marcel Dekker, Inc. pp. 541-548.
[2]. 2-Madrid J, Hernández F, García V, Orengo J, Megías
MD, Sevilla V. 2003. Effect of plant extracts on ileal
apparent digestibility and carcass yield in broilers at
level of farm. In: Proc. 14th European Symp. on Poultry
Nutrition, August, Lillehammer, Norway. pp.187.
[3]. 3-Moser M, Messikommer R, P rter HP, Wenk C. 2003.
In uence of the phytogenic feed additive sangrovit on
zootechnical effects in broilers in eld trials. In: Proc.
14th European Symp. On Poultry Nutrition, August,
Lillehammer, Norway. pp. 205.
[4]. 4-Deschepper K, Lippens M, Huyghebaert G, Molly
K. 2003. The effect of aromabiotic and GALI D’OR
on technical performances and intestinal morphology
of broilers. In: Proc. 14th European Symp. on Poultry
Nutrition, August, Lillehammer, Norway, pp. 189.
[5]. 5-Langhout P. 2000. New additives for broiler chickens.
World Poultry-Elsevier. 16: 22-27.
[6]. 6-Williams P, Losa R. 2001. The use of essential oils
and their compounds in poultry nutrition. World Poultry-
Elsevier, 17(4): 14-15.
[7]. 7-Hertrampf JW. 2001. Alternative antibacterial
performance promoters. Poultry International. 40: 50-52.
[8]. 8-Alçiçek A, Bozkurt M, Çabuk M. 2003. The effect of
an essential oil combination derived from selected herbs
growing wild in Turkey on broiler performance. South
African Journal of Animal Science. 33 (2): 89-94
[9]. 9-Botsoglou NA, Govaris A, Botsoglou EN, Grigoropoulou
SH, Papageorgiou G. 2003. Antioxidant activity of
dietary oregano essential oil and alpha-tocopheryl acetate
supplementation in long-term frozen stored turkey meat.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51: 2930-
2936.
[10]. 10-Bölükbaşı SC, Erhan MK, Özkan A. 2006. Effect
of Dietary Thyme Oil and Vitamin E on Growth, lipid
oxidation, meat Fatty Acid composition and Serum
Lipoproteins of Broilers. South African Journal of Animal
Science. 36(3): 189-196
[11]. 11-Papageorgiou G, Botsoglou N, Govaris A, Giannenas
I, Iliadis S, Botsoglou E. 2003. Effect of dietary oregano
oil and α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on iron-
induced lipid oxidation of turkey breast, thigh, liver and
heart tissues. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal
Nutrition. 87: 324-335.
[12]. 12- Jamroz D, Wertlecki TJ, Orda J, Wiliczkiewicz A,
Skorupińska J. 2003. In uence of phtogenic extracts on
gut microbial status in chickens. In: Proc. 14th European
Symp. on Poultry Nutrition, August, Lillehammer,
Norway. pp. 176.
[13]. 13-Mitsch P, Zitterl-Eglseer K, Köhler B, Gabler C,
Losa R, Zimpernik I. 2004. The effect of two different
blends of essential oil components on the proliferation
of Clostridium perfringens in the intestines of broiler
chickens. Poultry Science. 83: 669-675.
[14]. 14-Cosentino S, Tuberoso CIG, Pisano B, Satta M,
Mascia V, Arzedi E, Palmas F. 1999 In vitro antimicrobial
activity and composition of Sardinian Thymus essential
oils. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 29:130–135.
[15]. 15-Smith-Palmer A, Stewart J, Fyfe L. 1998 Antimicrobial
properties of plant essential oils and essences against
ve important food-borne pathogens. Letters in Food
Microbiology. 26: 118–122.
[16]. 16-Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV. 1999 Antimicrobial
activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. Journal
of Applied Microbiology. 86: 985–990.
[17]. 17-Dorman HJD, Deans SG. 2000. Antimicrobial agents
from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils.
Journal of Applied Microbiology. 88: 308–316.
[18]. 18-Ultee A, Bennik HJ, Moezelaar R. 2002. The phenolic
hydroxyl group of carvacrol is essential for action against
Ş. C.Bölükbaşı and M. K. Erhan / IJNES, 1 (2): 55-58, 2007
58
the food-borne pathogen, Bacillus cereus. Applied and
Environmental Microbiology. 3: 1561-1568.
[19]. 19- Anonymous, 1992. A possible way to count coliform
bacteria groups and E. coli numbers in feedstuffs and diets:
A possible number (EMS). Turkish Of cial Newspaper,
Jan 21, No. 21118.
[20]. 20-SPSS 1999. SPSS For Windows Release 10.0, SPSS
Inc
[21]. 21-Cross DE, Svoboda K, Hillman K, Mcdevitt R,
Acamovic T. 2002 Effects of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential
oil as an in vivo dietary supplement on chicken intestinal
micro ora. Proceedings of the 33rd International
Symposium on Essential Oils, Lisbon, Portugal, 3-7th
Sept.
[22]. 22-Sarica S, Ciftci A, Demir E, Kılınc K, Yıldırım Y.
2005.Use of an antibiotic growth promoter and two
herbal natural feed additives with and without exogenous
enzymes in wheat based broiler diets. South African
Journal of Animal Science. 35: 61 -72
[23]. 23-Tucker LA. 2002. Plant extracts to maintain poultry
performance. Feed International. 23 : 26-29
... Bolukbasi et al. [35] described that 0.1% and 0.5% of plant powdery thyme increased the rate of feed conversion and production rate. Cross et al. [36] found that the use of thyme oil caused an improvement of the feed conversion ratio in broiler chickens, but not feed intake. ...
... Amoozmehr et al. [39] investigated the effect of two extracts of garlic and thyme on the performance of broilers The use of thyme plant powder led to an increase in broiler feed conversion ratio and production rate Bolukbasi et al. (2007) [35] Essence The use of thyme oil improved the feed conversion ratio in broiler chicks, but did not have any significant effect on feed intake The results showed that the extracts (garlic and thyme) did not have a significant effect on weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed intake of broilers. Feizi et al. [40] investigated the effect of thyme volatile oils on male broiler performance in birds that received thyme extract at 0.02% in drinking water. ...
... Amoozmehr et al. [39] investigated the effect of two extracts of garlic and thyme on the performance of broilers The use of thyme plant powder led to an increase in broiler feed conversion ratio and production rate Bolukbasi et al. (2007) [35] Essence The use of thyme oil improved the feed conversion ratio in broiler chicks, but did not have any significant effect on feed intake The results showed that the extracts (garlic and thyme) did not have a significant effect on weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed intake of broilers. Feizi et al. [40] investigated the effect of thyme volatile oils on male broiler performance in birds that received thyme extract at 0.02% in drinking water. ...
Article
Full-text available
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is plant that contains 0.8 to 2.6% of essential oils, comprised primarily of phenols, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and alcohols. The major phenolic components in thyme are thymol and carvacrol. Thyme oil has antispasmodic, antifungal, antibacterial, antiseptic, antidermatotic, antioxidant, and natural preservative properties. Due to those properties and its potential to increase the feed intake, there are novel research with animals to use it instead of antibiotics. This article reviews studies on the effects of adding thyme to bird’s diets. Feed intake increased over 1 to 42 days when it was added 1% powdery mildew. In addition, the use of 0.075 and 1.0% thyme extract significantly reduced the population of Escherichia coli in the ileum of broilers compared with the control treatment but the population of Lactobacillus ileum was not affected. Application of 500–1000 mg of thyme extract reduced the ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes in broilers compared with the control group. According to the present review, thyme can improve growth performance, feed conversion ratio, immune system, and have positive effects on intestinal health in broilers.
... The essential oil of the thyme has been shown to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli in the media (Marino et al., 1999). Bolukbasi and Erhan (2007) showed that supplementation of 0.1 and 0.5% thyme to layer diets improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) and egg production and also reduced E. coli faecal content (Bolukbasi & Erhan, 2007). ...
... The essential oil of the thyme has been shown to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli in the media (Marino et al., 1999). Bolukbasi and Erhan (2007) showed that supplementation of 0.1 and 0.5% thyme to layer diets improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) and egg production and also reduced E. coli faecal content (Bolukbasi & Erhan, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Organic products for animals are becoming more widely accepted by consumers. Using herbal additives may lead to more healthy animal products. In this research, it is hypothesized that thyme essential oil (TEO) and/or selenium yeast (SY) would be helpful to enhance production performance in broilers. Objective: In the current study, the effects of adding TEO and/or SY to the diet on broiler performance and blood parameters were evaluated in broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 480 chicks were distributed in 24 cages with 20 chicks (10 males and 10 females) each and assigned to be fed four iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets including two levels (0 and 250 mg/kg) of TEO and two levels (0 and 0.3 mg/kg) of SY in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with six replicates. Results: Adding SY significantly decreased feed intake in finishing period (22-42 d) (p < 0.05). Supplementation with SY and TEO significantly decreased plasma uric acid and triglyceride levels, respectively (p < 0.05). However, neither of the supplements had any influence on the plasma glucose and albumin levels (p > 0.05). The lowest level of plasma cholesterol was detected in the birds fed the TEO-supplemented diet (p < 0.05). Addition of SY significantly increased blood glutathione peroxidase activity (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Dietary supplemental TEO has a favourable effect on feed intake, weight gain, and body weight values. Besides, SY may decrease blood concentration of uric acid, as well as blood glutathione peroxidase activity. An interaction is detected between TEO and SY on blood cholesterol.
... Herbs and herbal extracts have a beneficial effect on gut microbiota inhibiting the development of several pathogens and conditionally pathogenic bacteria -Clostridia, coliform bacteria, Salmonella etc. (Dorman and Deans, 2000;Griggs and Jacob, 2005;Bölükbaşi and Erhan, 2007;Windisch et al., 2008;Frankič et al., 2009;Khan et al., 2012;Gerzilov et al., 2015). Different hebs like ginger (Zhao et al., 2011;Mohamed et al., 2012;Karangiya et al., 2016), rosemary (Yesilbaq et al., 2011;Alagawany and El-Hack, 2015) thyme (Abdulkarimi et al., 2011;Saki et al., 2014;Arpášová et al., 2018), yarrow (Lewis, 2005;Norouzi et al., 2015), and garlic (Fadlalla et al., 2010;Raeesi et al., 2010;Elagib et al., 2013;Karangiya et al., 2016;Lukanov et al., 2018) are known to have antioxidant, immuno-stimulatory, phytobiotic and/or probiotic activities, improved the health status, production traits and welfare in poultry. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of herbal and immunomodulatory die-tary supplements and their combinations on growth performance, slaughter traits and meat quality in male broiler chickens. A total of 210 one-day-old Ross 308 male chickens were randomly distributed after weighing in 7 groups (3 replicates in each, n=10 chickens). Broilers were reared on deep litter until 42 days of age and divided as follows: Group I – control (basal diet without supplements); Group II – supple-mented with 0.2% Immunoßeta; Group III – supplemented with 0.2% garlic powder; Group IV – supplemented with 0.2% herbal mix (0.05% ginger, 0.05% rosemary, 0.05% thyme and 0.05% yarrow); Group V – supplemented with 0.2% Immunoßeta + 0.2% garlic powder; Group VI – supplemented with 0.2% Immunoßeta + 0.2% herbal mix; Group VII – supplemented with 0.2% Immunoßeta + 0.2% garlic powder + 0.2% herbal mix. At the end of the experiment, chickens weighed from 2552±54 g (Group I) to 2689±55 g (Group IV) without statistically significant differences (Р>0.05). Feed conversion varied from 1.64 (Group IV) tо 1.74 (Group I). Meat pH, water holding ca-pacity, water absorption capacity, and tenderness were not influenced by the dietary supplement type. All supplements used did not show an adverse effect on health, and no mortality was found in the experimental groups. The obtained results show a clear trend towards a positive effect of the used feed additives and their combination mainly on the fattening characteristics of the broiler chickens, evident from the higher values of the two efficiency indices.
... Extracts from such aromatic plants were added also to the hen's diet to enhance their antioxidant levels (Świątkiewicz et al., 2018). Bölükbaşi and Erhan (2007) and Abdel-Wareth (2016) have shown that thyme additives improve egg-quality and performance of hens. Although some studies haven't found a significant impact of various herb supplementation on egg -production (Arpášová et al., 2014;Ding et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the impact of thyme powder supplementation on the hen egg production (HD%), total egg production, egg quality, antioxidant and biochemical parameters of laying hens. One hundred and eighty Hyline Brown hens, 40 weeks old were randomly divided into 9 groups of 20 hens and subjected to one of the following treatments: T 1 (control diet), T2 (5g/kg of thyme), and T3 (10g/kg of thyme). Each treatment was tested using three groups of hens, which were subject to treatments from 40 to 47 weeks of age. The productive metrics were measured on daily and weekly basis in the period from 40 to 47 weeks of age, while the egg quality was measured after 56 days. Hematological, biochemical and antioxidants parameters were also determined at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the egg production and feed conversion ration were significantly improved in both thyme treatments (T2 and T3). Also, the PCV (%) and the WBC count. However, there was no significant difference in the egg quality between the thyme-treated and control hens. The hens on thyme-supplemented diets were found to have lower serum cholesterol concentration than those of the control. Supplementing a laying hen’s diet with thyme significantly increased glutathione, while, decreased the malondialdehyde, AST and ALT activity in comparison to the control. Therefore, it can be concluded that thyme additives can be used in laying hens diet to improve egg production, egg quality, antioxidant and biochemical parameters in a dose-dependent manner.
... Extracts from such aromatic plants were added also to the hen's diet to enhance their antioxidant levels (Świątkiewicz et al., 2018). Bölükbaşi and Erhan (2007) and Abdel-Wareth (2016) have shown that thyme additives improve egg-quality and performance of hens. Although some studies haven't found a significant impact of various herb supplementation on egg -production (Arpášová et al., 2014;Ding et al., 2017). ...
Article
This study evaluated the impact of thyme powder supplementation on the hen egg production (HD%), total egg production, egg quality, antioxidant and biochemical parameters of laying hens. One hundred and eighty Hy­line Brown hens, 40 weeks old were randomly divided into 9 groups of 20 hens and subjected to one of the following treatments: T1 (control diet), T2 (5g/kg of thyme), and T3 (10g/kg of thyme). Each treatment was tested using three groups of hens, which were subject to treatments from 40 to 47 weeks of age. e productive metrics were measured on daily and weekly basis in the period from 40 to 47 weeks of age, while the egg quality was measured after 56 days. Hematological, biochemical and antioxidants parameters were also determined at the end of the experiment. e results showed that the egg production and feed conversion ration were significantly improved in both thyme treatments (T2 and T3). Also, the PCV (%) and the WBC count. However, there was no significant difference in the egg quality between the thyme-treated and control hens. e hens on thyme-supplemented diets were found to have lower serum cholesterol concentration than those of the control. Supplementing a laying hen’s diet with thyme significantly increased glutathione, while, decreased the malondialdehyde, AST and ALT activity in comparison to the control. erefore, it can be concluded that thyme additives can be used in laying hens diet to improve egg production, egg quality, antioxidant and biochemical parameters in a dose-dependent manner.
... Extracts from such aromatic plants were added also to the hen's diet to enhance their antioxidant levels (Świątkiewicz et al., 2018). Bölükbaşi and Erhan (2007) and Abdel-Wareth (2016) have shown that thyme additives improve egg-quality and performance of hens. Although some studies haven't found a significant impact of various herb supplementation on egg -production (Arpášová et al., 2014;Ding et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the impact of thyme powder supplementation on the hen egg production (HD%), total egg production, egg quality, antioxidant and biochemical parameters of laying hens. One hundred and eighty Hy-line Brown hens, 40 weeks old were randomly divided into 9 groups of 20 hens and subjected to one of the following treatments: T1 (control diet), T2 (5g/kg of thyme), and T3 (10g/kg of thyme). Each treatment was tested using three groups of hens, which were subject to treatments from 40 to 47 weeks of age. The productive metrics were measured on daily and weekly basis in the period from 40 to 47 weeks of age, while the egg quality was measured after 56 days. Hematological, biochemical and antioxidants parameters were also determined at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the egg production and feed conversion ration were significantly improved in both thyme treatments (T2 and T3). Also, the PCV (%) and the WBC count. However, there was no significant difference in the egg quality between the thyme-treated and control hens. The hens on thyme-supplemented diets were found to have lower serum cholesterol concentration than those of the control. Supplementing a laying hen’s diet with thyme significantly increased glutathione, while, decreased the malondialdehyde, AST and ALT activity in comparison to the control. Therefore, it can be concluded that thyme additives can be used in laying hens diet to improve egg production, egg quality, antioxidant and biochemical parameters in a dose-dependent manner.
... Different studies reported on the inclusion of aromatic herbs extract and its essential oils. According to several reports, dietary herbal essential oils affect egg production rate, egg weight, FI, and FCR (Bölükbaşı et al. 2007;Bölükbaşı et al. 2008;Orhan and Eren 2011). The mixture of different essential oils added to the diets improved egg yield and the reproductive performance of laying hen compared to dietary GPAs (Bozkurt et al. 2009;. ...
Article
Full-text available
AB S T RA C T Investigation on the effect of dietary oregano on growth traits, egg physical characteristics, blood biomarkers, and egg lipid profile of heavy ecotype laying hens was conducted. Two hundred and forty eighteen weeks old, heavy ecotype hens were randomly assigned to two (T1; control-zero oregano meals, and T2; 3g oregano meals kg-1) dietary treatment of twelve replicates with ten hens per replicate. Birds fed oregano meals improved body weight and weight gain (P<0.05) compared with those fed the control diet. The heavy ecotype-laying hens fed zero oregano consume more (P<0.05) diets with a poor FCR. Egg production and egg weight were higher for birds fed oregano meals. Birds fed dietary oregano supplementation had a better (P<0.05) shell thickness than those fed the control diet. Red blood cell (RBC) and hemoglobin (Hb) values were higher for birds fed dietary oregano, as shown in Table 6. White blood cell (WBC), lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophil counts were increased (P<0.05) for birds fed the control diet in contrast to those that received oregano inclusion. Cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), as well as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were affected by the dietary oregano. Cholesterol and LDL levels were higher (P<0.05) for birds fed the control diet. At the same time, those that received oregano inclusion had a higher HDL value as well as a reduced (P<0.05) cholesterol and LDL values. It was concluded that oregano improved egg mass, egg quality, and quantity. It also enhanced the immunity of the hens.
... The importance of concentration has been documented in several studies. Bolukbasi and Erhan (2007) added thyme to layer diets at 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1% and observed improved FCR, egg production, and reduced fecal E. coli levels in the 0.1 and 0.5% concentrations. Another study evaluated three different levels of Azadirachta indica (Indian lilac) dried leaf meal at 0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 g/kg of feed, resulting in better body weight, FCR, and dressing percent in the 2.5 g/kg diet, but no improvement in higher or lower amounts (Ansari et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
The poultry industry contributes significantly to bridging the nutritional gap in many countries because of its meat and eggs products rich in protein and valuable nutrients at a cost less than other animal meat sources. The natural antibiotics alternatives including [probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotics, organic acids, essential oils, enzymes, immunostimulants and phytogenic (phytobiotic) including (herbs, botanicals, essential oils, and oleoresins)] are the most common feed additives that acquire popularity in poultry industry following the ban of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs). They are commonly used worldwide because of their unique properties and positive impact on poultry production. They can be easily mixed with other feed ingredients, have no tissue residues, improve feed intake, feed gain, feed conversion rate, improve bird immunity, improve digestion, increase nutrients availability as well as absorbability, have antimicrobial effects, do not affect carcass characters, decrease the usage of antibiotics, acts as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, compete for stress factors and provide healthy organic products for human consumption. Therefore, the current review focuses on a comprehensive description of different natural antibiotic growth promoters’ alternatives, the mode of their action, and their impacts on poultry production.
... Reported by [1] that Pennyroyal herbal supplement reduces feed consumption and feed efficiency in broilers. According to [21] the observed increase in broiler weight gain was due to the opening properties of plant extracts by increasing gastric digestive juices and establishing a more balanced intestinal flora with their antimicrobial effect [1,21,22] . In contrast, [23] found that rations with orange peel oil did not affect broiler body weight. ...
Article
Full-text available
The experiment was done in poultry farm of animal resources department, College of Agriculture, Baghdad University to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with ginger, thyme and mix them on immune response against Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) and Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) and histopathological changes in some internal organ in broiler chickens at day 42 old. One hundred and sixty eight Ross broiler chicks were reared from day1 to day 42 old. Feed and drinking water offered ad libitum to experimental birds. Ross broiler chicks were divided randomly to seven groups. Group1(G1) received 0.25% ginger powder, group 2 (G2) received 0,5% ginger powder, Group3 (G3) received 0.25% thyme powder, group 4 (G4) received 0.5% thyme powder, Group 5 (G5) received 0.25% ginger +0.25% thyme powder, Group 6 (G6) received 0.5% ginger + 0.5% thyme powder and finally group 7 (G7) was control received (basal diet). At the end of the trial 5 birds from each treatment were slaughtered. Results of Heamagglutination inhibition (HI) titer revealed a significant difference among various treatment groups. Specimen from liver, spleen and bursa of fabricius were dissected out for histopathological examination At end of the experiment, data showed significant difference in mean HI values of the group fed with ginger and its combination of thyme (G6) when compared to other groups and control. However, the use of ginger, thyme and its combination (G5) showed no significant effect on mean HI titer values, although numerically a positive impact was observed when compared with other groups Specimen from liver ,spleen and bursa of fabricius were dissected out for histopathological examination and results showed increase in immune response of the chicken of (G6): Tissue sections showed proliferation of kupffers cell and early granuloma within the hepatic parenchyma consisting of aggregation of epihtelioid cells (Fig. 7), in addition tissue sections of treated groups pronounced a large developer Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 30 (3) 2015 37-48
Article
Full-text available
A trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E (E) and thyme oil (TO) supplementation on the growth performance, lipid oxidation, fatty acid concentration of tissues and the serum lipoprotein levels of male broilers. Two-hundred day-old Ross PM3 chickens were assigned to one of five dietary groups (four replicates each). The control group received the basal diet. In addition to the basal diet, the four experimental diets included one of the following: 100 mg vitamin E/kg (E100); 200 mg vitamin E/kg (E200); 100 mg/kg thyme oil (TO100) or 200 mg/kg thyme oil (TO200). Birds that were fed the control, E200 and TO200 diets, exhibited the largest weight gain after a 42-day feeding period. The best feed conversion rate was found in birds that were fed the E200 diet. TBARS values of all of the dietary treatments, except the control, remained unaffected after a 42-day refrigeration period. The addition of thyme oil to the broiler feed led to a significant reduction in the saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations of the leg and breast tissues. The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations in these tissues increased. The thyme oil supplementation also led to increased plasma levels of triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in broilers. Based on the results of this study, it could be advised to supplement broiler feed with 200 mg/kg of thyme oil as an antioxidant.
Article
Full-text available
One thousand two hundred and fifty sexed day-old broiler chicks obtained from a commercial hatchery were divided randomly into five treatment groups (negative control, antibiotic and essential oil combination (EOC) at three levels) of 250 birds each. Each treatment group was further sub-divided into five replicates of 50 birds (25 male and 25 female) per replicate. The oil in the EOC was extracted from different herbs growing in Turkey. The EOC at 24, 48 or 72 mg/kg diet and an antibiotic at 10 mg avilamycin/kg diet were added to the basal diet. There were significant effects of dietary treatments on body weight, feed intake (except at day 42), feed conversion ratio and carcass yield at 21 and 42 days. Body weights were significantly different between the treatments. The birds fed the diet containing 48 mg essential oil/kg were the highest, followed by those receiving the diets containing 72 mg essential oil/kg, the antibiotic, the negative control and the 24 mg essential oil/kg at day 42, respectively. From 1 to 21 and 1 to 42 days of age, feed conversion ratios were improved significantly by the supplementation with 48 and 72 mg essential oil/kg diet. The feed intakes were significantly different between the treatments at 21 days, but not at 42 days. Supplementation in excess of 48 mg EOC/kg had no additional beneficial effect on body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and carcass yield. The EOC, a feed additive of natural origin, may be considered as a potential growth promoter in broiler production.
Article
Full-text available
A study was conducted to compare the effects of an antibiotic growth promoter (flavomycin) and two herbal natural feed additives (garlic and thyme) with and without a xylanase-based enzyme complex in wheat-based diets on growth performance, carcass parameters, total plasma cholesterol concentration, intestinal traits and the dry matter content of excreta of broiler chickens. A total of 112 day-old male broiler chicks was randomly assigned to eight groups containing 14 chicks each and raised from 1 to 42 days of age. The control group received the wheat-soyabean meal basal diet. In the treatment groups the basal diet was supplemented with one of the following: an antibiotic, thyme, garlic, an enzyme, the antibiotic plus the enzyme, thyme plus the enzyme or garlic plus the enzyme. During the 42-d growth period there were no significant differences in body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of the broilers between dietary treatments. Feeding the diet supplemented with the antibiotic plus the enzyme significantly increased hot and cold carcass yields compared to the diets supplemented with thyme, garlic, enzyme and garlic plus enzyme. Total plasma cholesterol concentration, the dry matter content of excreta and the relative weights of the heart, pancreas, liver, gizzard and spleen were not significantly influenced by dietary treatments. The relative weight of the small intestines of the broilers receiving the diets supplemented with the antibiotic, antibiotic plus enzyme, thyme plus enzyme and garlic plus enzyme were significantly less than those of the broilers fed the basal diet and the diets supplemented with thyme, garlic and enzyme. The basal diet and garlic supplemented diet significantly increased the length of the small intestine compared to the other dietary treatments. Broilers receiving the diet supplemented with antibiotic had significantly lower total aerobic bacterial counts in the small intestines compared to those on the other dietary treatments. The combined supplementation of the antibiotic and enzyme resulted in a significantly lower E. coli concentration in the small intestines compared to the basal diet and the other dietary treatments.
Article
Full-text available
The natural antimicrobial compound carvacrol shows a high preference for hydrophobic phases. The partition coefficients of carvacrol in both octanol-water and liposome-buffer phases were determined (3.64 and 3.26, respectively). Addition of carvacrol to a liposomal suspension resulted in an expansion of the liposomal membrane. Maximum expansion was observed after the addition of 0.50 μmol of carvacrol/mg of l-α-phosphatidylethanolamine. Cymene, a biological precursor of carvacrol which lacks a hydroxyl group, was found to have a higher preference for liposomal membranes, thereby causing more expansion. The effect of cymene on the membrane potential was less pronounced than the effect of carvacrol. The pH gradient and ATP pools were not affected by cymene. Measurement of the antimicrobial activities of compounds similar to carvacrol (e.g., thymol, cymene, menthol, and carvacrol methyl ester) showed that the hydroxyl group of this compound and the presence of a system of delocalized electrons are important for the antimicrobial activity of carvacrol. Based on this study, we hypothesize that carvacrol destabilizes the cytoplasmic membrane and, in addition, acts as a proton exchanger, thereby reducing the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane. The resulting collapse of the proton motive force and depletion of the ATP pool eventually lead to cell death.
Article
The antimicrobial properties of 21 plant essential oils and two essences were investigated against five important food-borne pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The oils of bay, cinnamon, clove and thyme were the most inhibitory, each having a bacteriostatic concentration of 0.075% or less against all five pathogens. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to inhibition by plant essential oils than the Gram-negative bacteria. Campylobacter jejuni was the most resistant of the bacteria investigated to plant essential oils, with only the oils of bay and thyme having a bacteriocidal concentration of less than 1%. At 35 degrees C, L. monocytogenes was extremely sensitive to the oil of nutmeg. A concentration of less than 0.01% was bacteriostatic and 0.05% was bacteriocidal, but when the temperature was reduced to 4 degrees, the bacteriostatic concentration was increased to 0.5% and the bacteriocidal concentration to greater than 1%.
Article
FULL TEXT available free from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00780.x/pdf The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. However, few investigations have compared large numbers of oils and extracts using methods that are directly comparable. In the present study, 52 plant oils and extracts were investigated for activity against Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas veronii biogroup sobria, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia col, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus, using an agar dilution method. Lemongrass, oregano and bay inhibited all organisms at concentrations of < or = 2.0% (v/v). Six oils did not inhibit any organisms at the highest concentration, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil for apricot kernel, evening primrose, macadamia, pumpkin, sage and sweet almond. Variable activity was recorded for the remaining oils. Twenty of the plant oils and extracts were investigated, using a broth microdilution method, for activity against C. albicans, Staph. aureus and E. coli. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.03% (v/v) thyme oil against C. albicans and E. coli and 0.008% (v/v) vetiver oil against Staph. aureus. These results support the notion that plant essential oils and extracts may have a role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.
Article
Essential oils and their components are becoming increasingly popular as naturally occurring antimicrobial agents. In this work the chemical composition and the antimicrobial properties of Thymus essential oils and of their main components were determined. Three essential oils obtained from different species of Thymus growing wild in Sardinia and a commercial sample of Thymus capitatus oil were analysed. The essential oil components were identified by GC/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity of the oils and components was determined against a panel of standard reference strains and multiple strains of food-derived spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, using a broth microdilution method. The GC/MS analysis showed that the major constituents of the oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic monoterpenes, but the concentration of these compounds varied greatly among the oils examined. The results of the antimicrobial assay showed that essential oils extracted from Sardinian Thymus species have an antimicrobial activity comparable to the one observed in other thyme oils. It seems also confirmed that the antimicrobial properties of thyme essential oils are mainly related to their high phenolic content. Among the single compounds tested carvacrol and thymol turned out to be the most efficient against both reference strains and food-derived bacteria. The results of this study confirmed the possibility of using thyme essential oils or some of their components in food systems to prevent the growth of foodborne bacteria and extend the shelf-life of processed foods.
Article
The volatile oils of black pepper [Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae)], geranium [Pelargonium graveolens L'Herit (Geraniaceae)], nutmeg [Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae), oregano [Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (Link) Letsw. (Lamiaceae)] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae)] were assessed for antibacterial activity against 25 different genera of bacteria. These included animal and plant pathogens, food poisoning and spoilage bacteria. The volatile oils exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all the organisms under test while their major components demonstrated various degrees of growth inhibition.