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Die Feuchtigkeit als steuernder Faktor für das Kletterverhalten von Collembolen

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... Field studies usually only considered responses of microarthropods to very simple climatic gradients, rather than shifting microclimatic mosaics. For instance vertical redistributions between soil strata, or soil and trunk, in response to season, daytime or weather have been demonstrated ( Riha 1951, Vannier 1970, Bowden et al. 1976, Wallwork 1976, Bauer 1979, MacKay et al. 1987, Hopkin 1997. Laboratory studies could not accurately simulate the complex and irregular shifting microclimatic mosaics encountered in the Þeld ( Madge 1964, Joosse 1970, Bauer 1979. ...
... For instance vertical redistributions between soil strata, or soil and trunk, in response to season, daytime or weather have been demonstrated ( Riha 1951, Vannier 1970, Bowden et al. 1976, Wallwork 1976, Bauer 1979, MacKay et al. 1987, Hopkin 1997. Laboratory studies could not accurately simulate the complex and irregular shifting microclimatic mosaics encountered in the Þeld ( Madge 1964, Joosse 1970, Bauer 1979. Moreover, in the laboratory, microarthropods face fewer obstacles when moving along a climatic gradient than they do in the Þeld. ...
... In fewer than 1% of all plots was a species only found during these preliminary counts, i.e., might it have been chased away by the hand lens search, and only in such cases did I consider the preliminary counts. Thus, hand lens searching for corticolous microarthropods was highly efÞcient, as has already been demonstrated by Mayer (1957) and Bauer (1979). To further assess if there was any collection bias associated with hand lens counts, many animals that had been spotted from a distance were tested by approaching them directly with the hand lens. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study focused on two questions relevant to ecophysiology: Do distributions of animal species track shifting microclimatic mosaics under Þeld conditions? Do distributions on different levels of spatial resolution (different "scales") consistently modify a speciesÕ access to heat or humidity? I counted the arthropods on the bark of exposed tree trunks in northern Germany with a 10 lens and investigated how the dominant species (collembolans, psocopterans, isopods, a linyphiid spider, and an oribatid mite) used climatic patterns at various scales. These included mesoclimatic patterns and shifting microclimatic patterns such as microrelief, trunk faces, and trunk/mesoclimate differences. Bias owing to changing frequency of microhabitats, or to redistri-butions of animals between microhabitats was avoided. I also investigated the effects of climatic patterns on heat and humidity levels at the bark surface. The distributions of all species, except the psocopterans, similarly tracked shifting microclimatic mosaics and mesoclimates. The distributions of most species modiÞed their access to heat or humidity consistently at several mutually independent scales. The remaining species seemed to be restricted in their climate use by sensory or metabolic limitations.
... In temperate regions, diel cycles in the activity or vertical migration of Collembola have been observed on tree trunks and shrubs (e.g. Gisin, 1943;Bauer, 1979), in vegetable crops (Davies, 1932) and on a rooftop (Moon and Gough, 1972). These activity patterns have been attributed to changes in humidity and temperature, to which Collembola are very sensitive (e.g. ...
... These activity patterns have been attributed to changes in humidity and temperature, to which Collembola are very sensitive (e.g. Joosse, 1970;Joosse and Groen, 1970;Bauer, 1979;Verhoef and Van Selm, 1983). As collembolan reactions vary interspecifically to humidity (e.g. ...
... Curry, 1976;Frampton, 1999). Collembola may exhibit climbing behaviour in response to favourable conditions of humidity (Bauer, 1979), ascending plants early in the morning or at night when temperatures are relatively low (e.g. Davies, 1925), or in response to rainfall (Bowden et al., 1976). ...
Article
Diel patterns of activity and abundance among soil-surface Collembola in a wheat crop in southern England were investigated in summer using pitfall trapping, suction sampling and sweep-net sampling. The multivariate technique principal response curves (PRC) analysis was used to investigate changes in the overall community composition within and between sampling dates. Catches of Collembola obtained using all three sampling methods were generally highest from 12.00 to 00.00 h and lowest from 00.00 to 06.00 h, but diel patterns varied among species and were more variable for pitfall than suction samples. Pitfall catches of Lepidocyrtus cyaneus and also of the total Collembola were correlated positively with soil-surface temperature. The above-ground abundance of Arthropleona estimated by suction sampling varied by ca. 870 m−2 in a 24-h period, suggesting that availability of Collembola to predatory arthropods could change considerably in a short time. These findings have implications for arthropod sampling strategies, exposure of Collembola to agrochemicals and predation of Collembola in agroecosystems.
... Field studies usually only considered responses of microarthropods to very simple climatic gradients, rather than shifting microclimatic mosaics. For instance vertical redistributions between soil strata, or soil and trunk, in response to season, daytime or weather have been demonstrated (Riha 1951, Vannier 1970, Bowden et al. 1976, Wallwork 1976, Bauer 1979, MacKay et al. 1987, Hopkin 1997. Laboratory studies could not accurately simulate the complex and irregular shifting microclimatic mosaics encountered in the Þeld (Madge 1964, Joosse 1970, Bauer 1979. ...
... For instance vertical redistributions between soil strata, or soil and trunk, in response to season, daytime or weather have been demonstrated (Riha 1951, Vannier 1970, Bowden et al. 1976, Wallwork 1976, Bauer 1979, MacKay et al. 1987, Hopkin 1997. Laboratory studies could not accurately simulate the complex and irregular shifting microclimatic mosaics encountered in the Þeld (Madge 1964, Joosse 1970, Bauer 1979. Moreover, in the laboratory, microarthropods face fewer obstacles when moving along a climatic gradient than they do in the Þeld. ...
... In fewer than 1% of all plots was a species only found during these preliminary counts, i.e., might it have been chased away by the hand lens search, and only in such cases did I consider the preliminary counts. Thus, hand lens searching for corticolous microarthropods was highly efÞcient, as has already been demonstrated by Mayer (1957) and Bauer (1979). To further assess if there was any collection bias associated with hand lens counts, many animals that had been spotted from a distance were tested by approaching them directly with the hand lens. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study focused on two questions relevant to ecophysiology: Do distributions of animal species track shifting microclimatic mosaics under field conditions? Do distributions on different levels of spatial resolution (different “scales”) consistently modify a species’ access to heat or humidity? I counted the arthropods on the bark of exposed tree trunks in northern Germany with a 10× lens and investigated how the dominant species (collembolans, psocopterans, isopods, a linyphiid spider, and an oribatid mite) used climatic patterns at various scales. These included mesoclimatic patterns and shifting microclimatic patterns such as microrelief, trunk faces, and trunk/mesoclimate differences. Bias owing to changing frequency of microhabitats, or to redistributions of animals between microhabitats was avoided. I also investigated the effects of climatic patterns on heat and humidity levels at the bark surface. The distributions of all species, except the psocopterans, similarly tracked shifting microclimatic mosaics and mesoclimates. The distributions of most species modified their access to heat or humidity consistently at several mutually independent scales. The remaining species seemed to be restricted in their climate use by sensory or metabolic limitations.
... The number of trees sampled per month was 60, 47, 41 38, 29, 21, 19, 36, and 8. I sampled 80 of the trees at night, because the animals are active also during the night (Mayer 1957, Bauer 1979. I investigated trees of different species: 120 oaks Quercus robur, 42 lindens Tilia spp.; mainly platyphyllos, 87 beeches Fagus sylvatica and 50 ashes Fraxinus excelsior. ...
... Identification and nomenclature followed Sellnick and Forsslund (1952), Gisin (1960), Gü nther (1974, and Gruner (1966). All these arthropod species graze on cryptogams (Jentsch 1940, Den Boer 1961, Bauer 1979, Wunderle 1992, Prinzing and Wirtz 1997. ...
... With an increase of the spatial scale of climatic fluctuations, the distances to be covered by migratory tracking of climates increase overproportionally, and hence migration becomes increasingly difficult (Introduction). Nevertheless, it should be noted that such large-scale migrations do occasionally occur, e.g. between trunks and litter (Bauer 1979). ...
Article
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Animals can cope with fluctuating climates by physiological tolerance, tracking of climatic fluctuations (migration) and compensatory redistribution among (micro)habitats (compensation). Compensation is less demanding and thus more important than migration at large geographic scales. It is not clear however which strategy is more important at the small scale of a microhabitat landscape. I investigated how six arthropod species (Collembola, Oribatei, Psocoptera, Isopoda) respond to microclimatic fluctuations at the surface of exposed tree trunks. Across a nine-month period I characterized the microclimatic zonation of 299 trunks, and focally sampled the arthropods from different microhabitat types (different cryptogam species and bark crevices) within different microclimatic zones. I found that compensatory microhabitat-use was a general phenomenon. The distribution of all species across microhabitats was influenced significantly by ambient microclimate. Also, the arthropods’ microhabitat use changed throughout their ontogeny, and microhabitats were used even if they were rare. Most interestingly, the arthropods responded to microclimatic fluctuations primarily by redistribution among microhabitats and less by fluctuations of overall abundances across all microhabitats. Hence compensation was more important than migration. The animals moved for centimeters to decimeters rather than for decimeters to meters; they perceived and utilized their environment primarily at the finest, but also most complex scale. This has implications for the resilience of arthropod populations, their interactions with cryptogams and the turnover of species between macrohabitats.
... For example, precipitation may increase or decrease arthropod activity on the forest floor (FF) (Pedigo, 1970;Lensing et al., 2005). Previous studies have reported that collembolans move upward from the FF to arboreal habitats during precipitation (Bowden et al., 1976;Bauer, 1979;Farrow and Greenslade, 1992). Rainwater also washes out arboreal arthropods, inhabiting the substrates of trees. ...
... Moreover, wandering arthropods, such as Acari and Collembola, can be washed out of the tree substrates by rainwater. After precipitation, however, tree trunks are moist, which serve as suitable habitats for arthropods, resulting in their consequent upward movement to the arboreal habitats (Bowden et al., 1976;Bauer, 1979;Farrow and Greenslade, 1992). Subsequently, increased tree climbing by arthropods would increase the dispersal of arthropods by wind currents or would promote their falling from the arboreal habitats, thus leading to arthropod rain. ...
Article
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Vertical stratification of forests results in the occurrence of different arthropod assemblages between the vertical layers. Fallen arthropods from the canopy layers (i.e., “arthropod rain”) are additional food sources for predators thriving on the forest floor (FF). However, the abundances of arthropods are strongly affected by weather conditions and vertical stratification. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the vertical distribution of arthropod assemblages and effects of temperature and precipitation on the arthropod rain in a temperate conifer (Cryptomeria japonica) forest. Arthropods were collected by water-pan traps and trunk-sticky traps in the upper canopy (UC; 16 m), lower canopy (10 m), and FF (0.5 m). Among the fallen arthropods collected by water-pan traps, wandering detritivores, and herbivores were more abundant ranging from the FF to the UC, whereas the abundance of wandering predators (mainly spiders) was similar in the upper and lower canopies. However, detritivores, herbivores, and predators showed the highest abundance in the UC among the flying arthropods. Wandering arthropods moved upward from the FF toward the tree trunks more frequently than downward, indicating the importance of arthropod immigration from the ground to arboreal habitats. Temperature and precipitation had different effects on fallen and moving arthropods among different taxonomic groups. Flying arthropods were affected only by temperature, while wandering detritivores and herbivores were affected by precipitation and temperature. Thus, the abundance of wandering and flying arthropods differed among the vertical layers of a temperate conifer forest; additionally, arthropod rain was closely associated with weather conditions.
... Others feed on the roots of crop plants and associated weeds (Ulber 1980) or on decaying leaf material (Sadaka and Poinsot-Balaguer 1989) . Yeasts, epiphytic algae and the excreta of arthropods such as Diplopoda are also occasionally consumed (Bauer 1979;Csutak 1974;McMillan 1976). This paper describes the unusual feeding biology of 0. arcticus on West Spitsbergen and suggests how it may explain observed patterns of spatial distribution. ...
... Onychiurus arcticus is a large collembolan that cannot easily move into the smaller interstices of the soil. It is, however, highly susceptible to desiccation (unpublished data) and this probably explains why animals are seldom seen foraging over the surface of moss mats and why they remain sheltered beneath rocks or within the compact moss tussocks (Bauer 1979). With wellembedded rocks, herbivory is probably confined to moist areas around the rock margin-vegetation interface where the animals congregate. ...
Article
Full-text available
The feeding biology of the arctic collem bolan Onychiurus arcticus (Tullberg) is described from West Spitsbergen, based on a combination of gut content analyses for field collected and microcosm-living animals , together with laboratory feeding trials. There was wide variation in the food items consumed by individual animals, reflecting the wide choice available in the environment. Most animals fed predominantly on living and dead bryophytes, detritus and to a lesser extent algal cells. Laboratory trials showed that O. arctic us feeds as a herbivore on a range of bryophyte species. The presence of dense aggregations below bird cliffs and elsewhere may reflect the distribution of particularly favourable microenvironments.
... Changes in moisture can directly affect Collembola behaviour and survival, and can indirectly affect their densities by influencing resource levels. Collembola are sensitive to changes in moisture and relative humidity (Bauer, 1979;Loring, 1981). Ferguson and Joly (2002) uncovered a strong positive correlation between Collembola densities and precipitation, and also found that experimental water supplementation increased Collembola numbers. ...
... Most Collembola species move both laterally and vertically through the leaf litter (Greenslade and Greenslade, 1973;Filser and Fromm, 1995), apparently searching for favourable microclimates (Usher, 1970;Hijii, 1987;Sgardelis et al., 1993). Bauer (1979) determined that moisture is a primary factor influencing the climbing behaviour of three species of Collembola. Hassall et al. (1986) found that during periods of low rainfall, most Collembola moved into the humus layer, but with increased rainfall the majority migrated into the litter, with %30% remaining in the humus layer. ...
Article
1. A field experiment was conducted to determine how short-term changes in moisture can alter activity-densities of spiders and springtails.2. In a Kentucky forest 10 unfenced 4-m2 plots were divided into two rainfall treatments. A clear roof over five plots excluded rainfall to simulate severe drought conditions (drought treatment). Water was sprayed on the five uncovered plots at a rate equal to two times the long-term mean in order to establish the high-rainfall treatment. Activity-densities of Collembola and spiders were measured using pitfall traps designed to sample the top, middle, and bottom layers of leaf litter. The experiment ran from 20 July to 23 September 2001.3. Overall (i.e. litter layers pooled) activity-density (mean number trapped each sampling date) of Collembola was ≈ 60% lower in drought plots than in plots receiving increased precipitation. Surprisingly, overall spider activity-density was ≈ 1.6 times greater in the drought plots.4. Differences in rainfall affected the spatial stratification of Collembola and spiders in strikingly different ways. Activity-densities of neither group differed between drought and high-rainfall treatments in the bottom litter layer. Collembola activity-density was three times greater in the top and middle litter layers in high-rainfall plots than in drought plots. In contrast, spider activity-density did not differ between treatments in the top layer, but activity-density was decreased by 50% in the middle layer of high-rainfall plots compared with drought plots.5. Three Collembola families (Sminthuridae, Tomoceridae, and Entomobryidae) accounted for most of the Collembola pattern. The spider response was due to altered activity-density of one family of wandering spider, the Gnaphosidae.
... Others feed on the roots of crop plants and associated weeds (Ulber 1980) or on decaying legfmaterial (Sadaka and Poinsot-Balaguer 1989). Yeasts, epiphytic algae and the excreta of arthropods such as Diplopoda are also occasionally consumed (Bauer 1979;Csutak 1974;McMillan 1976). This paper describes the unusual feeding biology of O. arcticus on West Spitsbergen and suggests how it may explain observed patterns of spatial distribution. ...
... Onychiurus arcticus is a large collembolan that cannot easily move into the smaller interstices of the soil. It is, however, highly susceptible to desiccation (unpublished data) and this probably explains why animals are seldom seen foraging over the surface of moss mats and why they remain sheltered beneath rocks or within the compact moss tussocks (Bauer 1979). With wellembedded rocks, herbivory is probably confined to moist areas around the rock margin-vegetation interface where the animals congregate. ...
Article
Full-text available
The feeding biology of the arctic collembolan Onychiurus arcticus (Tullberg) is described from West Spitsbergen, based on a combination of gut content analyses for field collected and microcosm-living animals, together with laboratory feeding trials. There was wide variation in the food items consumed by individual animals, reflecting the wide choice available in the environment. Most animals fed predominantly on living and dead bryophytes, detritus and to a lesser extent algal cells. Laboratory trials showed that O. arcticus feeds as a herbivore on a range of bryophyte species. The presence of dense aggregations below bird cliffs and elsewhere may reflect the distribution of particularly favourable microenvironments.
... (Jentsch, 1940;Trav! e, 1963;Bauer, 1979;Foelix, 1979;Eisenbeis, 1982) that have taken up the inflowing water vapor (Lerch, 1991). Finally, many oribatid mites are capable of digging mines into the cryptogams (Trav! ...
... Willmer (1982) and Andrewartha and Birch (1984) had already suggested that heat and humidity may often be determined at different scales, with important consequences for the availability of conditions that are warm as well as moist. But to my knowledge this effect had never been documented quantitatively for a natural system before (for an experimental system see Bauer, 1979). In the animals' alternative habitat, the litter layer, the temperature and humidity are more antagonistically distributed. ...
Article
Full-text available
I studied the boundary-layer climate of exposed tree trunks and demonstrated that bark dwelling arthropods can potentially profit from three benefits: (1) temperature and humidity strongly depend on microclimatic, as opposed to mesoclimatic, impacts. Hence, the arthropods can track high temperatures and high humidities by small-scale redistribution. (2) High absolute temperatures and high temperatures relative to the ambient mesoclimate are favored by opposite impacts. Hence, high temperatures are available—in one way or the other—most of the time. The same applies to high humidity due to low saturation deficit and due to influx of water vapor. (3) High temperature and high humidity are often mutually non-exclusive.
... He interpreted the lack of specificity of Collembola towards bark cover as the result of the absence of true corticolous communities in Collembola. This can be compared with the results of Bauer (1979) and Bowden et al. (1976) who demonstrated that Collembola c1imb from litter to tree trunks in sorne seasons and thus that there are no permanent trunk populations. The problem is now shifted towards the litter: does litter type influence Collembola? ...
... Prat & Massoud (1982) proved that Vertagopus cinereus (Nicolet 1841) that was living in the moss layer in winter and early spring migrated into the soil during summer. Climbing behaviour of epigeic Collembola proved to be correlated with rainfall (Bowden et al. 1976 ;Bauer 1979) and this may explain seasonal variations in trunk populations. Hygrophilic species such as Tom,ocerus minor (TMI) may be more aggregated in summer than in other seasons, due to concentrations in moister places (Verhoff & van Selm 1983). ...
Article
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Samples (679) from various forest sites in the atlantic temperate region (lowlands in the northern half of France) have been studied. Their Collembolan species composition 145 species, with only 43 rare species) was analysed by Benzecri's correspondence analysis, a multivariate method. Five groups of species, each associated with a given habitat, were determined: above the ground surface a distinction is evident between light species (open sites), hygrophilic species (moist forest sites) and corticolous species (dry forest sites); edaphic species may be divided into acidophilic species (mor, moder and acid mull humus) and neutroacidocline species (earthworm mull). A depth gradient may be traced from edaphic to atmobiotic species in both forest and open sites. As a conclusion, it is apparent that vegetation in itself does not directly influence Collembola but may effect them indirectly through humus formation.
... Die meisten nachgewiesenen Arten haben eine mitteleuropäische oder weitere Verbreitung, keine davon gilt als besonders selten oder gefährdet. (BAUER, 1979 ;GREENSLADE, 1981 ;BAUER, 1993 ;BAUER & CHRIS TIAN, 1993 ;BRAND, 2002 ;HAWES et al., 2006HAWES et al., , 2007OLEJNICZAK, 2006). Das macht die Collembolen zu einer der ökologisch am stärk s ten dif fe renzierten Arthropo den gruppen überhaupt (RUSEK, 1998(RUSEK, , 2007 Der Name "Stechimme" setzt sich aus dem alten Wort für Biene und die Fähigkeit des Stechens zu sam men. ...
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Results of the 14th „GEO day of biodiversity“ in the transboundary biosphere reserve Palatinate Forest - Northern Vosges As part of the GEO Biodiversity Day, on 16 June 2012 an assessment of the flora and fauna in the cross-border Palatinate Forest-North Vosges Biosphere Reserve was undertaken. The Rhineland-Palatinate Nature and Environment Foundation directed the event, together with GEO magazine and the two sponsoring associations of the cross-border UNESCO Palatinate Forest-North Vosges Biosphere Reserve and numerous other partners. Enjoying suitable weather for catching, the nearly 100 experts invited from Germany and France ranged, according to their individual specialties, through the selected survey areas around Fischbach/Dahn (D), Eppenbrunn (D), Hirschthal (D & F) and Wingen (F). In total, they succeeded in finding evidence of 2081 species from 147 orders and 470 families. The survey revealed many vulnerable or severely endangered species, some of which are extremely rare in Germany or are subject to protection under Annexes II and IV of the European Habitats Directive. The assessment provided the first recordings of some species in the area under investigation. A total of ten new species of cicada for the state of Rhineland-Palatinate; however, in view of the low level of research so far undertaken on this group here, this was not entirely unexpected. Particularly noteworthy was the first recording in Rhineland-Palatinate of the very rare European hoverfly Myolepta potens (RL D: 2). For the first time, clear evidence was found for the carabid beetle Amara infima in Rhineland-Palatinate. In addition, the existence of the pygmy locust (tetrix bipunctata) was clearly proven for the first time in the Palatinate Forest. In the French section of the biosphere reserve, the soprano pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pygmaeus) had not previously been documented. However, this was achieved several times on the GEO biodiversity day.
... Wegen seiner myrmekophilen Lebensweise bemerkenswert ist Platyarthrus hoffmannseggii , eine klei ne, weiße, augenlose Assel. Auch diese Art hat eine weite Verbreitung von Nordafrika bis Finnland, im Osten bis Kleinasien, außerdem ist sie nach Nordamerika eingeschleppt., 1979 ; GREENSLADE, 1981 ; BAUER & CHRIS TIAN, 1993 ; BRAND, 2002 ; HAWES et al., 2006 HAWES et al., , 2007 OLEJNICZAK, 2006). Das macht die Collembolen zu einer der ökologisch am stärk s ten dif fe renzierten Arthropo den gruppen überhaupt (RUSEK, 1998RUSEK, , 2007) ...
Article
Full-text available
As part of the GEO Biodiversity Day, on 16 June 2012 an assessment of the flora and fauna in the cross-border Palatinate Forest-Northern Vosges Biosphere Reserve was 31 conducted. The Rhineland-Palatinate Nature and Environment Foundation directed the event, together with GEO magazine and the two sponsoring associations of the cross-border UNESCO Palatinate Forest-Northern Vosges Biosphere Reserve and numerous other partners. Enjoying suitable weather for field work, the nearly 100 experts invited from Germany and France ranged, according to their individual specialities, through the selected survey areas around Fischbach/Dahn (D), Eppenbrunn (D), Hirschthal (D & F) and Wingen (F). In total, they succeeded in finding evidence of 2081 species from 147 orders and 470 families. The survey revealed many vulnerable or severely endangered species, some of which are extremely rare in Germany or are subject to protection under Annexes II and IV of the European Habitats Directive. The assessment provided the first recordings of some species in the area under investigation. In total of ten new species of cicada were recorded for the state of Rhineland-Palatinate; however, in view of the low level of research so far undertaken on this group here, this was not entirely unexpected. Particularly noteworthy was the first recording in Rhineland-Palatinate of the very rare European hoverfly Myolepta potens (RL D: 2). For the first time, clear evidence was found for the carabid beetle Amara infima in Rhineland-Palatinate. In addition, the existence of the pygmy locust (Tetrix bipunctata) was clearly proven for the first time in the Palatinate Forest. In the French section of the biosphere reserve, the soprano pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pygmaeus) had not previously been documented. However, this was achieved several times on the GEO biodiversity day.
... Die meisten nachgewiesenen Arten haben eine mitteleuropäische oder weitere Verbreitung, keine davon gilt als besonders selten oder gefährdet. (BAUER, 1979 ;GREENSLADE, 1981 ;BAUER, 1993 ;BAUER & CHRIS TIAN, 1993 ;BRAND, 2002 ;HAWES et al., 2006HAWES et al., , 2007OLEJNICZAK, 2006). Das macht die Collembolen zu einer der ökologisch am stärk s ten dif fe renzierten Arthropo den gruppen überhaupt (RUSEK, 1998(RUSEK, , 2007 ...
Article
Full-text available
As part of the GEO Biodiversity Day, on 16 June 2012 an assessment of the flora and fauna in the cross-border Palatinate Forest-Northern Vosges Biosphere Reserve was conducted. The Rhineland-Palatinate Nature and Environment Foundation directed the event, together with GEO magazine and the two sponsoring associations of the cross-border UNESCO Palatinate Forest-Northern Vosges Biosphere Reserve and numerous other partners. Enjoying suitable weather for field work, the nearly 100 experts invited from Germany and France ranged, according to their individual specialities, through the selected survey areas around Fischbach/Dahn (D), Eppenbrunn (D), Hirschthal (D & F) and Wingen (F). In total, they succeeded in finding evidence of 2081 species from 147 orders and 470 families. The survey revealed many vulnerable or severely endangered species, some of which are extremely rare in Germany or are subject to protection under Annexes II and IV of the European Habitats Directive. The assessment provided the first recordings of some species in the area under investigation. Rare and/or Red Data Book spider species: Aphileta misera, Dolomedes fimbriatus, Frontinellina frutetorum, Glyphesis servulus, Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata, Hypsosinga albovittata, Micrargus apertus, Oxyopes ramosus, Pardosa bifasciata, Pirata tenuitarsis, Rugathodes instabilis, Theridiosoma gemmosum.
... Certain Collembola species can avoid becoming waterlogged by climbing up the tree trunk to drier bark. These tend to be larger species mainly from the genera Entomobrya and Orchesella, yet climbing of the trees for survival has been described for several other species (Bowden et al., 1976;Bauer, 1979;Farrow and Greenslade, 1992;Zettel et al., 2000). Tree trunks can therefore be considered as ecological Noah's Arks providing protection for some Collembola species, which, after the red sludge flood receded, could re-colonise the surface and upper soil layers quickly. ...
Article
Effects of red mud pollution on the community structure of Collembola were studied in soils from open grassland and forest habitats following the red mud disaster in Western Hungary. Nearby unpolluted control plots of each habitat types were selected for comparative purposes. Analyses revealed that soil became strongly alkaline and, even nine months after the disaster, pH exceeded a value of 9.0 in the polluted forests. Water soluble Na content found to be 50–160 times greater in the polluted area, and total content of metals (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) also increased considerably. Nevertheless, owing to the high alkalinity and red mud’s adsorption capacity, bioavailable forms of heavy metals were lower in comparison to the acid control soils. Collembola species richness was about the same in the polluted and control forests (31 and 32, respectively), but lower in the polluted meadows compared to the control plots (21 and 27, respectively). Total community abundance changed differently in the open habitat and in the forest. Its value dropped by 45% in the polluted meadows, while almost tripled in the polluted forests. Changes in the abundance of individual species involved both ecrease/elimination of sensitive species (e.g. Isotomiella minor, Sminthurinus aureus) and displacement of species tolerant to pollution (e.g. Micranurida pygmaea) into higher abundance classes. Certain species (e.g. Folsomia manolachei, Sphaeridia pumilis), following the pollution, showed a reverse pattern of abundance in the two habitat types; increasing in the forest while decreasing in the meadow. This study has suggested that soil alkalinity and salt (Na) toxicity were presumably the two most important factors determining the structure of Collembola communities in the area affected by red mud pollution. Despite the high toxicity risk associated with this accident, no adverse effect has been observed in Collembola abundance. Nevertheless, as a consequence of soil re-acidification, re-mobilisation of fixed metals may occur in the long term, constituting to a potential risk to soil Collembola.
... We had hypothesized that the density of epigeic Collembola like the Symphypleona/Neelipleona will respond to manipulations of plant species richness and plant functional group diversity (hypothesis 2). Epedaphic Collembola, such as Symphypleona, feed on living plant tissue and pollen (Kevan and Kevan 1970, Bauer 1979, Kato 1995. Bourletiella hortensis, an abundant species at our study site, may damage seedlings by feeding at the base of the stems just above the soil surface (Stenton 1922, Davies 1926. ...
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This chapter focuses on the ecophysiological research on soil invertebrates to gain insight into the mechanisms of stress resistance in natural environments and in habitats exposed to human disturbances. To trace the multiple adaptations of organisms in specific habitats, examples are presented of physiological and behavioral avoidance mechanisms, life-history adaptations, and tolerance mechanisms in soil inhabiting species of dune and heathlands and of polluted habitats. The stress factors drought, temperature, food supply, both absence of food and mineral shortage, and the presence of toxic substances are presented. Research on resistance mechanisms of invertebrates to stress factors like drought, cold, and heat is restricted to animals of extreme habitats like deserts and Polar Regions. Temperate animals, however, meet similar stresses, which can be reflected in the potential of their resistance mechanisms. The chapter discusses the paucity of such research on temperate soil invertebrates and the need for similar studies on this group. The chapter also focuses on the interaction of metals and other vital elements: several synergistic, competitive, and antagonistic actions are known or suspected.
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Pure spruce stands are unsatisfactory, especially from the ecological point of view. Therefore, attempts are being made to convert these into mixed forests by planting groups of beech under the canopy of the spruce forests. In this study the invertebrate fauna of such 20 and 40-year-old beech groups, pure spruce stands and deciduous stands are compared to see how far the young beech groups have already influenced the coenosis of spruce forests. The analysis was based upon 3 ecological guilds: Saprophagous macroinvertebrates, epigeic predators and predators of the trunk area. The study shows that while spruce stands are not barren deserts, they do contain less species and individuals than deciduous stands. As a result, the reconversion of spruce forest remains an important task in forest management. The beech groups are species richer than the spruce stands. However, the tree species are not the only important factor, the structure and the size of the groups are also of significance. Furthermore, other tree species such as Quercus, Tilia, Acer and Fraxinus as well as successional tree species may possibly promote diversity and accelerate the improvement of soil quality.
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We investigated the life cycle and habitat use of an arboreal collembolan species, Xenylla brevispina, in the canopy and soil of a conifer (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantation. The adaptive significance of migration between arboreal and soil habitats in the maintenance of its population in relation to the vertical structure of the forest is discussed. We sampled dead branches with foliage in the canopy (canopy litter) and on the forest-floor (soil litter). X. brevispina had one generation a year throughout the 3 years of the study. The mean densities of X. brevispina were similar in the canopy litter (0.06 to 14.57 g−1 dry weight) and the soil litter (0.44 to 18.99 g−1 dry weight). Seasonal patterns of density and relative abundance indicate that individuals of X. brevispina in the canopy were closely associated with those in the soil. These results suggest that vertical migration between the canopy and the soil might be a strategy allowing X. brevispina to be a predominant collembolan species in this forest.
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The larvae of the ground beetle Notiophilus biguttatus F. (Coleoptera, Carabidae) feed mainly on hemiedaphic Collembola (springtails). The level of humidity required by the larvae lies between that of their prey and that of the adult beetles, and leads them to places where Collembola are abundant. The larvae are able to detect aggregations of Collembola by means of chemical cues. Visual orientation is of no importance in predatory behaviour: the attack is triggered and directed by contact with a springtail. This contact, by the trichobothria of the head, is too gentle to provoke the Collembola to jump.
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The dispersal ability, home range size and habitat preference of sixth instar larvae of the widespread cantharid species Cantharis fusca (L.) and C. livida (L.) were studied in a mark–recapture experiment in a meadow–field (winter grain) area between autumn and spring in 1999/2000. The main results and conclusions were: (i) The mean dispersal velocity of C. fusca/C. livida larvae was 1.4/1.6 m d–1 with a maximum of 3.2/2.3 m d–1. The larvae were able to disperse more than 100 m during their larval development, demonstrating that larvae and not only adults contribute to spreading. (ii) The average home range area of seven C. fusca individuals was 12.9 m2 (minimum 8 m2/maximum 19 m2). The low number of multiple recaptures and the large distances larvae can cover indicate that the real home range size was underestimated. (iii) C. fusca larvae significantly preferred the meadow area compared to the bare ground of the field. This can be explained by the meadow's higher plant cover and humidity C. livida specimens that were released one month later and recaptured only in low numbers showed no such preference. (iv) Due to the high dispersal ability of soldier beetle larvae, immigration from meadows and grass bulks of boundary strips into the crop margins and inner field areas is possible; it can be augmented by creating constant plant cover, e.g. through winter grain or cover crops.
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The ability to absorb solutions has been examined in the coxal vesicles of the ventral tube in two sympatric surface dwelling Collembola (Tomocerus sp. and Orchesella villosa) from a beech forest. The net influx of distilled water and different sodium chloride solutions was measured, followed by examination of the effective surface of the vesicles which contacts the medium. The transport rate decreased with increasing salinity of the medium. Orchesella always showed higher absorption rates than Tomocerus, if the values were related to unit surface area. However, considering that the effective surface area of the vesicles of Tomocerus is larger, the total absorption rate by the ventral tube of Tomocerus exceeded that of Orchesella. Calculating the increase in the total water content. Orchesella compensated for its deficit faster than Tomocerus, because Orchesella is smaller in total weight and water content. In most cases the efficiency of the absorptive epithelium decreased during an absorption cycle; this also occurred before moulting. Some hours after moulting, the absorption rates increased to their former level. Comparing the rates of transpiration, absorption by the ventral-tube vesicles, and drinking, confirmed the dominant role of the ventral tube in the water balance of Collembola. It is an important factor in the strategy of adaptation from the hypogaic to the epigaic life.
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Microscopic algae and cyanobacteria (the term micro-algae will be used in the text to cover both eukaryotic algae and prokaryotic cyanobacteria) are able to colonize almost all of the biotopes on earth. They are the most important primary producers in both sea and freshwater ecosystems. Their importance in terrestrial ecosystems increases further in extreme habitats because of the decreased competition of higher plants. For example, in the Antarctic, the role of algae as primary producers increases from the maritime to the continental areas where harsher conditions limit the development of mosses (Wynn-Williams, 1985). Algal mats and biological soil crusts are found worldwide in various extreme environments (Broady, 1979; Vincent, 1988; Cohen and Rosenberg, 1989; Belnap and Lange, 2001). As primary producers, micro-algae represent the bottom of the food webs, and serve as an important food source for a wide spectrum of animals. The aim of this chapter is to summarize recent knowledge about the role of terrestrial and freshwater micro-algae as a food source for invertebrates, with particular attention to extreme habitats.
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BONTE D., MAELFAIT J.-P., HOFFMANN M.: Seasonal and diurnal migration patterns of the spider (Araneae) fauna of coastal grey dunes. In Gajdoš P., Pekár S. (eds): Proceedings of the 18th European Colloquium of Arachnology, Stará Lesná, 1999. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Sup-plement 4/2000, p. 5-16. The study of the grey dune species' phenology patterns revealed interesting data on the occupa-tion of this xerotherm habitat by several spider species groups. Apparently stenotopic erigonid species are totally absent during the summer months. A possible explanation for this phenome-non is the lack of suitable prey (Collembola). Larger species of the Gnaphosidae, Thomisidae, Salticidae, Lycosidae and Araneidae are present during the summer. Of these Haplodrassus dal-matensis is characterised by clear seasonal migration from the litter border zone, where the juve-nile development takes place, to the open grey dune as reproduction habitat. The smaller stenoto-pic erigonid species (Typhochrestus digitatus, Pelecopsis nemoralis) do not show a clear seasonal but instead a diurnal migration between these two habitats in their adult phase.
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To examine the resilience of soil animal communities to large-scale disturbances. we studied the recovery of total abundance, diversity and community composition of forest soil mesofauna after a 6-year climatic disturbance. This was done in a pre-established experiment in a Norway spruce Picea abies stand in southern Sweden in which long-term summer droughts had been experimentally imposed and had caused large changes in soil fauna communities. We included both predators (mesostigmatid mites) and fungivores/detritivores (oribatid mites, collembolans) in the study because of the likelihood that they would differ in recovery ability due to differences in their feeding habits, dispersal ability and reproductive strategies. Total abundances of Collembola, Oribatida and Mesostigmata were similar in recovery and control plots after three years, but species richness, the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and community composition recovered more slowly, particularly among the Oribatida. To only use total abundance of higher taxonomic groups was thus not sufficient when measuring community recovery. There was a tendency for more mobile groups to recover faster than the slow-moving oribatids, indicating the importance of dispersal ability for the resilience of soil communities.
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From collections made in very different biotopes of very different zoogeographical regions it is concluded that the biomass per area, the average body size, and the number of winged insects and spiders are primarily governed by the relative humidity of the biotope. From this finding several predictions are put forward on parental care, social systems, activity time and predators in different biotopes all of which seem to support the hypothesis.
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Pure spruce stands are unsatisfactory, especially from the ecological point of view. Therefore, attempts are being made to convert these into mixed forests by planting groups of beech under the canopy of the spruce forests. In this study the invertebrate fauna of such 20 and 40-year-old beech groups, pure spruce stands and deciduous stands are compared to see how far the young beech groups have already influenced the coenosis of spruce forests. The analysis was based upon 3 ecological guilds: Saprophagous macroinvertebrates, epigeic predators and predators of the trunk area. The study shows that while spruce stands are not barren deserts, they do contain less species and individuals than deciduous stands. As a result, the reconversion of spruce forests remains an important task in forest management. The beech groups are species richer than the spruce stands. However, the tree species are not the only important factor, the structure and the size of the groups are also of significance. Furthermore, other tree species such asQuercus, Tilia, Acer andFraxinus as well as successional tree species may possibly promote diversity and accelerate the improvement of soil quality.
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We used leaf-litter and bark-litter bags to examine the colonization patterns of microarthropods in arboreal and soil microhabitats of a Cryptomeria japonica plantation. The mass loss of leaf-litter was slower in the arboreal environment than in the soil environment. The variation in leaf-litter mass among litter bags increased markedly with increasing decomposition in the soil, and was smaller in the arboreal environment. The colonization processes of microarthropods differed between the arboreal and soil leaf-litter bags. In the arboreal bags, Collembola, Gamasida, and Prostigmata had a peak density in the summer of the second year after establishing the bags whereas Oribatida maintained relatively constant densities until 15months. In the soil bags, Collembola colonized the litter first, and Gamasida and Prostigmata subsequently colonized the more decomposed litter. The vertical colonization patterns of the major microarthropods were consistent at all heights on the tree trunk. Slow decomposition in arboreal litter reflected severe conditions for most decomposers throughout the experimental study. In contrast, severe conditions of arboreal litter may lead to a relatively stable resource for limited microarthropods that have physiological tolerance for unfavorable conditions. Because of the traits of these fauna, the arboreal litter may thus be utilized seasonally by Collembola and Gamasida, but continuously by Oribatida. We suggest that soil microarthropods would be more affected by successional changes than by seasonal changes, because of faster decomposition of the litter, whereas arboreal microarthropods would be more affected by seasonal changes because of slow decomposition processes in the arboreal environment. KeywordsCollembola– Cryptomeria japonica plantation–Forest canopy–Litter bag–Microarthropods
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