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Social loafing: A review of the literature

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... working individually; Latané, Williams, & Harkins, 1979, Study 2). Since then, social loafing effects have been found in multiple studies that employed both physical and cognitive tasks (Petty, Harkins, Williams, & Latane, 1977), and with both ad-hoc and pre-existing groups (Liden, Wayne, Jaworski, & Bennett, 2004;Simms & Nichols, 2014). ...
... expected to increase in parallel to increases in group size-as confirmed in numerous studies(Alnuaimi Jr, & Maruping, 2010; Kravitz & Martin, 1986; Latané, Williams, & Harkins, 1979; Liden et al., 2004;Petty et al., 1977; Mefoh, & Nwanosike, 2012;Simms & Nichols, 2014). ...
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We propose a new theoretical model depicting the compensatory relations between personal agency and social assistance. It suggests two general hypotheses, namely that (1) the stronger the individuals’ sense of personal agency, the weaker their motivation to utilize social assistance and the greater their consequent tendency to develop anti-social attitudes. Conversely, (2) the stronger the individuals’ reliance on social assistance, the weaker their motivation to be agentic, and the lesser their tendency to develop a strong sense of self. These relations are assumed to apply across levels of generality, that is, concerning agency and assistance within a single goal domain, as well as across domains where the source of agency (e.g., money, power) or assistance facilitates the attainment of multiple goals.
... However, CL can also pose some challenges due to the increased cognitive load involved in organization and collaboration within the group (Nokes-Malach et al., 2012) and the risk of social loafing, where some group members do not contribute to the group's common goal (Simms and Nichols, 2014). Indeed, findings on students' attitudes toward CL are mixed (Gamlath, 2021;Ludlum et al., 2021;Machemer and Crawford, 2007), suggesting that CL may not be advantageous for all students, or that the costs of CL outweigh its benefits for some of them. ...
Article
Collaborative learning (CL) is a common teaching strategy in colleges that involves actively working in groups to achieve a goal. Several studies and theories endorse it as contributing to students’ achievement, motivation, and higher-order thinking skills. However, these studies are inconsistent in the way they define and operationalize CL. For example, they do not separate the quantity and the quality of CL, nor do they distinguish between course-specific and general attitudes toward CL. The study suggests that researchers should define CL more precisely, and demonstrates this approach using a case study ( N = 38). This study examines whether the quality and quantity of group work predicted course achievement after controlling for prior achievement, individual-level motivation, and social ties among students. Quality of CL was operationalized as positive attitudes toward CL in the current course and in general, and quantity of CL was operationalized as the frequency of interactions among group members. Social ties were measured using Social Network Analysis (SNA) which allows researchers to identify the number and strength of connections among students. Findings suggest that positive attitudes toward CL in the current course predicted higher achievement levels, but the frequency of interactions and positive attitudes toward CL in general were associated with lower achievement levels. That is, in the current context, course-specific quality of CL was positively associated with achievement, but other ways of operationalizing CL were not, and in fact had negative relationships with achievement. The study also demonstrates the use of SNA when exploring students’ relationships; it shows that they were associated with course performance but that this association diminished after controlling for students’ attitudes. Overall, it is recommended that researchers clarify what they intend to measure when exploring CL, as this can have an important impact on findings.
... Our findings show that all groups considered mandatory mask wearing as very important measure to feel safe in public transport. Prompting to wear the masks might thus seem a bit like preaching to the converted, but this measure is still important in order to establish correct mask wearing as the new norm and to prevent social loafing (Simms and Nichols, 2014). Passengers could thereby be informed of the increased protection of FFP2 masks in comparison to other medical masks. ...
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In light of the climate crisis, the transport sector needs to be urgently transformed and the number of users of local public transport needs to be increased. However, the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic severely affected public transport with passenger numbers declining up to 80% in Germany. In addition to a general decrease in mobility during lockdowns, we can observe a shift in decision-making in regards to modes of transportation, with public transport losing out. We argue that this change in behavior can be explained by the fact that people tend to overestimate the risk of COVID-19 transmission in public transport. In order to understand risk perception in users and non-users of public transport during the pandemic, a representative survey (N = 918) in a German major city was conducted at the peak of the third wave of the pandemic in April 2021. We identified four main target groups of public transport use during the pandemic: Loyal users (n = 193), reducers (n = 175), pandemic-dropouts (n = 331) and non-users (n = 219). We found reducers (r = 0.12), pandemic-dropouts (r = 0.32) and non-users (r = 0.22) to perceive an increased perception of infection risk for public transport as compared loyal users. This increased risk perception was specific to public transport – it did not generalize to other day-to-day situations, such as going to the grocery store or visiting a hairdresser. This finding can be taken as an indication that risk perception for an infection plays a crucial role in stepping back from public transport use during the pandemic. In addition, however, there were other differences in terms of needs and concerns between the different target groups during the pandemic. Based on our findings, we discuss which tools and interventions might convince these different groups to hop-(back)-on public transport. Our study highlights how risk perception will play an important role in attracting new and former passengers and is the basis for the interventions and developments that will build a pandemic-resistant public transport in the future.
... When the team members are willing to do their best to the team, they can bring the best benefits to the team, but there is a gap between the reality and the ideal [31,32]. There are differences in the contribution of members to the group, that is, some group members hold a fluke mind, thinking that there are other group members who can help them do all the tasks, but they can get the same scores. ...
Article
Introduction. From the students’ perspective, social loafing has also become a major challenge and problem in group tasks in the classroom. Social loafing may affect students’ enthusiasm and attitude to share knowledge. Aim. This study aims to investigate the mediating effects of knowledge sharing (KS) attitudes on the relationships between KS intentions, perceived social loafing, and learning goal orientation. Methodology and research methods. This study used a game-based team learning situation to explore the students’ KS attitudes and intentions. Questionnaires were also delivered to 336 students in business colleges in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The authors used Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with bootstrapping estimation to test all the hypotheses. Results and scientific novelty. The findings show that (1) perceived social loafing has a negative influence on KS attitudes and intentions; (2) learning goal orientation has a positive influence on KS attitudes and intentions; (3) KS attitudes have mediating effects on the relationships of perceived social loafing, learning goal orientation and KS intentions. Scientific novelty. This study uses business simulation games as team learning activities to verify the impact of students’ attitudes and intentions on KS in the context of perceived social loafing. Practical significance. Based on the findings, the authors suggest that teachers should not only enhance students’ learning goal orientation, decrease perceived social loafing to promote the intention to share knowledge in teams, but also make students have positive attitudes towards KS.
... The goal-setting literature documents ample evidence of the negative relationship between group goal difficulty and shirking (Besedes et al., 2011;Harkins & Petty, 1982;Jackson & Williams, 1985;Shepperd, 1993;Simms & Nichols, 2014). In this section, however, we predict that the group goal difficulty effect on shirking depends on the strength of group identity. ...
Research
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Goal-setting is a common practice to motivate effort. However, little is known about the effectiveness of group goal difficulty on shirking depends on team dynamics, such as group identity. We study the question under a mixed incentives setting where a combination of a tournament incentive and a group-based pay is offered as such an incentive setting is widely used in practice. Using a real-effort experiment, we predict and find that group goal difficulty motivates shirking when group identity is strong but demotivates when group identity is weak. The reason is that when group identity is weak, group members focus on individual interests and compete for a larger tournament incentive. When group identity is strong, group members focus on the group's common good. Failing to reach group goals weakens the strong group identity and, therefore, demotivates effort. The study suggests that given the wide use of mixed incentives in practice, organizations need to form teams carefully as team dynamics may adversely affect the influence of the control mechanism on effort.
Conference Paper
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Çalışmanın temel amacı, “sosyal kaytarma” olgusu hakkında yapılan bilimsel yayınların bibliyometrik analizini gerçekleştirmektir. Bu bağlamda, Web of Science veri tabanında yer alan ve “social loafing” anahtar kelimesini içeren, 1980-2022 yılları arasında yayımlanan makaleler taranmış ve tarama sonucunda listelenen 370 makale ile analiz gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda; (i) 1980 yılından başlayarak 2022 yılının ilk aylarına kadar, sosyal kaytarma ile makalelerin sayısında önemli bir artış söz konusudur. (ii) Sosyal kaytarma makalelerinin en fazla yayınlandığı (12) dergi, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology’dir. (iii) Sosyal kaytarma ile ilgili en fazla sayıda makaleye sahip olan ülke, 16 makale ile Amerika’dır. 8’er makale ile ikinci sırada Çin ve Türkiye yer almaktadır. Makalelere yapılan atıflara göre ise en fazla atıf alan (414 atıf) ülkenin yine Amerika olduğu görülmektedir. (iv) Sosyal Kaytarma anahtar kelimesinin dışında en sık kullanılan diğer anahtar sözcükler “motivasyon” (5 kez) ve Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Davranışıdır (4 kez).
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Productive peer talk moves have a fundamental role in structuring group discussions and promoting peer interactions. However, there is a lack of comprehensive technical support for developing young learners’ skills in using productive peer talk moves. To address this, we designed iTalk–iSee, a participatory visual learning analytical tool that supports students’ learning and their use of productive peer talk moves in dialogic collaborative problem-solving (DCPS). This paper discusses aspects of the design of iTalk–iSee, including its underlying theoretical framework, visualization, and the learner agency it affords. Informed by the theory of Bakhtinian dialogism, iTalk–iSee maps productive peer talk moves onto learning goals in DCPS. It applies well-established visualization design principles to connect with students, hold and direct their attention, and enhance their understanding. It also follows a three-step (code → visualize → reflect) macro-script to strengthen students’ agency in analyzing and interpreting their talk. This paper also discusses the progressive modifications of iTalk–iSee and evaluates its usability in a field study. We present the implications of essential design features of iTalk–iSee and the challenges of using it (relating to, for example, teacher guidance, data collection, transcription, and coding). We also provide suggestions and directions for future research.
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Bu çalışmada örgütler için ciddi sonuçları olan sosyal kaytarma, dedikodu ve toksik liderlik kavramları ele alınmış ve birbiri ile olan etkileşimleri incelenmiştir. Çalışma kapsamında 191 kişi ile anket çalışması yapılarak sonuçlar kısmi en küçük kareler (Partial Least Squares-PLS) temelli yapısal eşitlik modellemesi yoluyla analize tabi tutulmuştur. Analiz sonuçlarına göre, sosyal kaytarmanın dedikoduyu ve toksik liderlik davranışını pozitif yönde etkilediği ve toksik liderliğinde dedikoduyu pozitif yönde etkilediği sonuçlarına ulaşılmıştır. Ayrıca, toksik liderliğin sosyal kaytarma ile dedikodu arasındaki ilişkide tam aracılık rolü tespit edilen diğer bir sonuçtur. Son olarak çalışma süresinin sosyal kaytarma ile dedikodu arasındaki ilişkiyi düzenlediği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
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Background: Social loafing (SL) has a detrimental impact on cooperative learning. SL dysfunctionalities are causing more faculty to avoid assigning group projects as part of their course work. Aims: This qualitative case study examines how students' personalities are expressed in social loafers' behavior during university-level group assignments at a Texas university. The case study added further depth and breadth to current literature on SL in cooperative learning by exploring the perpetrator's personality expressions. Sample(s): Ten faculty members were interviewed, 32 students were surveyed, and 10 loafers were identified and self-assessed. Methods: A qualitative case study was used to provide in-depth investigation of Big Five personality in SL behavior. Results: The faculty interviews and students' surveys revealed that Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness were not expressed in SL behavior for university-level group assignments assessed by four IPIP facets. Openness to Experience (values, ideas, actions, and fantasy) was not expressed. Faculty and students indicated that loafers were not curious, barely prepared, with very short attention spans after which they get lost. Social loafers showed no originality, no active imagination, and no deep thinking. Conscientiousness (achievement striving, dutifulness, competence, and order) was not expressed. For Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism, some facets were expressed, and others were withheld. Conclusion: The results of this study provide faculty with a multifaceted understanding of students' personality traits to better guide their group interaction and cooperative learning.
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