Article

Gender mainstreaming in public financing of universities: Central findings for Germany

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  • Frauenakademie München e.V.
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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to assess two funding tools, namely performance-based allocation of funds and target agreements, with respect to their suitability for use in fostering gender equality. It uses the example of higher education in Germany, examining gender mainstreaming in the public financing of universities and the redistribution of funds within their structures. The practice of gender-responsive budgeting in the German higher education system will be analysed on the basis of 13 qualitative case studies of state-run universities. The main features of the state funding system, along with its strengths and weaknesses in promoting gender equality in academia, will be identified.

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... Countries in different parts of the world have started gender budgeting over the last 20 years, and both developed and emerging economiessuch as Austria, India, Nigeria and Swedenare currently at different stages of implementing gender budgeting (Khalifa and Scarparo, 2020;Klatzer et al., 2018;Polzer and Seiwald, 2021;Singh, 2018). Whereas some studies identify a need for adopting gender budgeting in some countries (e.g. in Germany, see Erbe, 2015), other studies show that more and more countries, including those in Africa, Asia and the Balkans, have already started policy discussions about implementing gender budgeting (see, e.g. Ng, 2016). ...
... We find a peak in publications in 2015 (nine publications), attributable mainly to a special issue in Politica Economica. This special issue compiles works on gender budgeting by authors with an established focus in this area, such as O'Hagan (2015, 2018), Erbe (2015), Klatzer (Klatzer and Schlager, 2015) and Addabbo (Addabbo et al., 2015). Recently, publications on gender budgeting have increased, with six to seven publications per year in 2017-2020. ...
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Gender budgeting calls for including a gender perspective at all levels of governmental budgetary processes. While the literature on gender budgeting is interdisciplinary and covers a wide geographical range, it remains fragmented. This study uses a literature review to examine the current discourse on gender budgeting and to elicit avenues for future research. Our review shows that studies focus either on emerging economies, such as India or South Africa, or on countries in Europe. Drawing on an analytical framework, we find that most studies scrutinize the ex ante stages of gender budgeting, whereas less is known about the concurrent and ex post stages. Moreover, because little is known about the outcome and impact of gender budgeting, governments do not know what instruments function best in different settings. Given their ex ante focus, most studies on gender budgeting often either remain descriptive or analyse secondary data. Despite scholars from different disciplines contributing to the field of gender budgeting, several ‘blank spots’ remain, particularly in public sector accounting. Points for practitioners While current gender budgeting projects tend to focus on the ex ante stage of gender budgeting, future practitioner attention needs to focus on the equally important concurrent and ex post stages, which have received less attention thus far. An increasing number of governments worldwide are implementing gender budgeting projects. Governments need to evaluate the outcome and impact of these projects in a timely fashion, aiming at reducing structural inequalities related to gender. Gender budgeting is willingly adopted in times of prosperity and stability or when the scope of projects appears manageable. To avoid negative impacts on their achievements, policy makers need to put gender budgeting on the political agenda and institutionalize it in times of instability and crisis.
... According to Ovseiko et al. (2020), linking funding to the Athena SWAN silver award seems to have increased the number of female theme leads but not the number of female directors in the institutions that were investigated. In general, linking funding to RPO policies to achieve gender equality can create an external incentive to implement actions, thereby leading to higher gender equality (Addabbo et al., 2015a;Erbe, 2015;Ovseiko et al., 2020). However, the effectiveness of these measures depends on whether they are binding, on the existence of a monitoring system, and on the set of indicators chosen to evaluate the actions (Erbe, 2015;Salinas and Bagni, 2017;Winchester and Browning, 2015). ...
... In general, linking funding to RPO policies to achieve gender equality can create an external incentive to implement actions, thereby leading to higher gender equality (Addabbo et al., 2015a;Erbe, 2015;Ovseiko et al., 2020). However, the effectiveness of these measures depends on whether they are binding, on the existence of a monitoring system, and on the set of indicators chosen to evaluate the actions (Erbe, 2015;Salinas and Bagni, 2017;Winchester and Browning, 2015). ...
Article
Gender equality in research and innovation is one of the key priorities of the European Research Area and is part of the European Commission Gender Equality Strategy for 2020-2025 (European Commission, 2020). However, research performing organisations (RPOs) in Europe still show persistent gender inequalities with vertical (the glass ceiling phenomenon, with few women being able to reach the top of the ladder) and horizontal segregation (both with reference to the disciplines of research and teaching and in the choice of education fields) (European Commission, 2019a). This paper analyses inequalities in European RPOs and proposes strategies to reduce them. Can gender budgeting (GB) be a tool, along with other specific actions, in achieving gender equality? What key features should GB include to do so? To answer these questions, 25 GB examples from European RPOs were analysed, paying attention to the methodologies and the indicators that were used, and to their interaction with gender equality plans. Viable suggestions are put forward to improve the impact of GB on gender equality outcomes in RPOs.
... After Rothe et al.'s (2008) transnational research conducted in Austria, Germany and Poland, the knowledge on how to apply gender budgeting in scientific institutions has increased. In her research, Erbe (2015) discusses public financing of universities and the effect of linking gender equality to two funding tools -the performance-based allocation of funds and the target agreements. Her research in 13 public universities indicates that external pressure, as well as linking the fund allocations to progress in gender equality, increases the academic institutions' willingness to work towards gender equality. ...
... To our best knowledge, this is a new approach to gender budgeting within academic institutions. Previous research has focused on connecting funding to gender equality incentives (Erbe 2015) and on whether an institution's expenditures are linked to the students' standpoint on their own capabilities (Addabbo, Rodríguez-Moroño & Gálvez-Muños 2015). ...
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The article addresses the financial framework, decision-making and budgeting processes of the University of Iceland from a gender perspective. The newly appointed rector of the University of Iceland (elected 2015) together with the university council is currently revising the UI system of the distribution formula of budget allocation. This provides an opportunity to examine the system which is inspired by New Public Management, with emphasis on global competition and performance based indicators. The aim of the article is to scrutinize the current system of budget allocation and distribution and its significance when it comes to gender. We ask how the, allegedly gender neutral, system plays out for different schools and disciplines and for academics in different ranks, when the gender dimension is taken into account. We draw on empirical data collected as part of the GARCIA research project, Gendering the Academy and Research combating Career Instability and Asymmetries, which is supported by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union. To shed a light on the process we focus on the male-dominated School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (SENS) and the more feminised School of Social Sciences (SSS). The exploration shows that the financial framework, decision-making and budgeting processes at the University of Iceland are rather non-transparent, and biased in favour of the natural sciences. This applies to funding from the state; third party funding; the allocation of funding in the teaching part of the budgeting, as well as the research part. From the article it can be concluded that the current system contains an internal, though unintended, gender bias that needs to be corrected.
... Policy evaluation with a gender perspective is one of the instruments used in gender budgeting (Elson, 1998;O'Hagan, 2018). Gender budgeting has already been used for higher education internationally (Addabbo et al., 2015;Erbe, 2015). The gender perspective in this evaluation is fourfold: care as the main topic, female-dominated workforce in the ECEC sector, high impact on women's time and high potential effects on gender substructure. ...
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Universal, affordable and high-quality Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) service is a key factor to increase equal opportunities among children and to encourage higher female labour market participation. However, ECEC costs for children aged 0-3 are not available. This paper quantifies the current childcare costs and costs and benefits of a universal high-quality free of charge ECEC 0-3 system for Spain, based on the Swedish model, so it can be seriously considered in its policy making processes. Total and per-child costs are estimated through a macroeconomic method (using public budgets) and a microeco-nomic method (using operational costs of education centres). Employment, income, and GDP benefits are also estimated. It presents the feasibility and efficiency of a 5-year transition plan to develop a public universal ECEC 0-3 system in Spain. The quantified total economic benefits of developing this ECEC 0-3 service are far greater than the costs. Net economic benefits approach 2,800 million euros. Furthermore, very significant positive gender impacts expected include improved labour market conditions, reduced gender pay and pension gaps, increased State and men's co-responsibility, blurring gendered traditional roles, and improved child wellbeing by reducing poverty risk and guaranteeing equal opportunities in access to education.
... Although gender mainstreaming has been criticised for reproducing neoliberal principles and policy agendas (Bacchi and Eveline, 2003), the literature on gender budgeting generally considers it to be a powerful instrument to improve unequal and unfair budgeting policies and processes (Budlender and Hewitt, 2002;Directorate General of Human Rights Council of Europe, 2005;Erbe, 2015;Quinn, 2009;Rothe et al., 2008). In addition to increased transparency, Himmelweit (2002) and Addabbo, Gunluk-Senesen and O'Hagan (2015) have argued that gender budgeting can facilitate the identification of opportunities for the redistribution of resources and enable the achievement of gender equality goals more effectively. ...
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ENGLISH) In the 'era of global competition', academic institutions are progressively managed as efficient organisations, with a strong emphasis on scientific productivity. This paper examines the impact of the prevalent discourses on 'excellence' and the increased use of private sector managerial techniques within academia on gender equality. This paper is based on data collected in an Icelandic academic institution, the organisational policies and practices of which reveal a strong emphasis on becoming an 'excellent university' through international recognition, while simultaneously taking much pride in being 'at the forefront' of gender equality. We argue that an increased focus on 'academic excellence' within the contemporary university, by means of New Public Management, maintains structural gender inequality within academic institutions. By comparing two academic fields, we show that the financial and managerial procedures and processes that direct resources are more favourable for research and teaching in male-dominated fields, which affects women and men working in academia. We do this to demonstrate the importance of including gender in the financial and managerial decision-making in academic institutions. We will introduce gender budgeting as an instrument to uncover the differential impact of budgeting on women and men in academia, in order to reconstruct resource distributions to promote gender equality. FULL TEXT Headnote abstract In the 'era of global competition', academic institutions are progressively managed as efficient organisations, with a strong emphasis on scientific productivity. This paper examines the impact of the prevalent discourses on 'excellence' and the increased use of private sector managerial techniques within academia on gender equality. This paper is based on data collected in an Icelandic academic institution, the organisational policies and practices of which reveal a strong emphasis on becoming an 'excellent university' through international recognition, while simultaneously taking much pride in being 'at the forefront' of gender equality. We argue that an increased focus on 'academic excellence' within the contemporary university, by means of New Public Management, maintains structural gender inequality within academic institutions. By comparing two academic fields, we show that the financial and managerial procedures and processes that direct resources are more favourable for research and teaching in male-dominated fields, which affects women and men working in academia. We do this to demonstrate the importance of including gender in the financial and managerial decision-making in academic institutions. We will introduce gender budgeting as an instrument to uncover the differential impact of budgeting on women and men in academia, in order to reconstruct resource distributions to promote gender equality.
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A nivel mundial las disparidades entre sexos continúan persistiendo en la mayoría de los ámbitos económico y social. En particular, dentro del mercado de trabajo, hombres y mujeres, experimentan oportunidades laborales diferentes. Según las tendencias publicadas por la Organización Internacional de Trabajo (2016), las desigualdades en participación por género sólo ha disminuido 0.6 puntos porcentuales, desde hace veinte años en todo el mundo, y México no es la excepción. En México, la sola tasa de participación laboral difiere de un grupo a otro. De acuerdo con el Instituto Nacional de Mujeres, en 2018 la tasa de ocupación laboral femenina representó solo el 43.4 por ciento, a diferencia de los hombres los cuales mantienen una ventaja de 77.59 por ciento. Además, de la ya menor tasa de participación femenina, se añade que la desigualdad salarial entre ambos sexos se encuentra en 18 por ciento en contra de las mujeres, quien según la OCDE (2016), nos posiciona como una de los estados federales que se encuentra arriba de la media de los países que comprenden esta organización. Esto es explicado, por elementos como la educación, la discriminación o bien la segregación ocupacional que afectan en la distribución de los ingresos. A partir de ello, en México se han establecido políticas públicas y programas que intentan, fomentar la equidad de género dentro de las organizaciones (públicas y privadas), aunque se ha demostrado, que se ha avanzado poco, ya que estos esfuerzos no se han materializado en mejores oportunidades para las mujeres. Con el objetivo generar un espacio de discusión y reflexión entre representantes del gobierno, asociaciones civiles, organismos internacionales, investigadores, estudiantes y público en general, sobre los factores que inhiben la participación de las mujeres en el mercado laboral y el empoderamiento económico, desde diferentes temáticas, teorías, metodologías y espacios geográficos. La Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, a través de los cuerpos académicos “Análisis Económico y Social” de la Facultad de Economía y “Reestructuración regional y políticas públicas” del Centro de Investigaciones Socioeconómicas, organizaron el Encuentro interdisciplinario UAdeC 2018. “Hacia el empoderamiento económico y social de las mujeres”, que tuvo lugar en las instalaciones de la Unidad Camporredondo de la UADEC, en la ciudad de Saltillo, Coahuila, los días 25 y 26 de Octubre de 2018 , donde se dieron cita investigadores y/o estudiantes de 16 instituciones educativas y se presentaron más de 30 ponencias. Las líneas de discusión que se analizaron teniendo al género como eje transversal son: migración, segregación ocupacional, educación, violencia laboral, discriminación, salarios, pobreza, informalidad, desigualdad, trabajo no remunerado, polarización ocupacional, políticas públicas, entre otros temas afines. Dentro de las actividades: se realizaron conferencias magistrales, mesas de trabajo, reproducción de cortometraje sobre violencia, panel de diálogo interinstitucional sobre programas en pro de las mujeres, un taller sobre políticas públicas para el empoderamiento económico y social de las mujeres, panel con académicos sobre el trabajo no remunerado y presentación de libros. El material que se presenta en este libro es producto de este evento, una vez realizado el proceso de selección y dictamen de los documentos. Esta obra se compone de 11 capítulos, los cuales se clasifican en cuatro grandes temas: i) Paticipación laboral, cuatro capítulos; ii) Segregación ocupacional y laboral, tres capítulos; iii) Desigualdad salarial, tres capítulos, y iv) Políticas públicas, un capítulo. Por último, los coordinadores de esta obra deseamos hacer patente nuestro agradecimiento a todos los autores de los capítulos de cada uno de los capítulos, a la Dra. Flor Brown Grossman, por hacer elaborado el prólogo, así como a los dictaminadores anónimos por sus comentarios, observaciones y recomendación que contribuyeron a enriquecer académicamente esta obra. Hacemos una atenta invitación a leer el presente libro, y hacemos nuestros votos para que esta sirva como base para relizar otras investigaciones sobre el tema, así como libro de texto de algunas asignaturas como Economía laboral y estudios de género.
Article
Research grant funding influences the organisation of academic work and academic careers. We problematise general approaches to gender bias in research grant funding and argue that it fails to include the wider structures of inequality and the unequal gendered power relations in academia. Approaching the subject with gender budgeting we challenge assumed gender-neutral practices. The objective is to illuminate how the gendered funding system and (the previous and subsequent) gendered structures of academia are maintained. The whole grants scheme is assessed, drawing on statistical data collected on the whole population of a medium-size, comprehensive research and educational institution in Iceland, and two types of competitive grants. The data is measured against the pool of applicants and comparisons within and between fields and ranks are made. By including the structures of inequality and the gendered power relations, the results show how the funding system is biased not only in favour of men, but towards the male-dominated and culturally masculine positions and fields. This approach illustrates the need to address the whole academic system in order to challenge the norms that maintain and reproduce gender inequalities.
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Structural disadvantages and the waste of female talent in science have been diagnosed for all states in the European Community by several studies of the European Commission. Women are still faced with a so called glass ceiling which hinders them to get into high positions, a phenomenon which is often also described as a “leaky pipeline” as with every step in the scientific career the proportion of women decreases dramatically. Parallel to this situation Gender Mainstreaming has become an important issue in the debate on reforms for the higher education sector during the last years of the former millennium. Thus the European Commission called upon the member states to implement gender equality measures and the Commission insisted on a gender action plan as an obligatory request for an application in the 6th Framework Programme on Research and Technological Development. One request was the development of Gender Mainstreaming instruments for the scientific field and another was the implementation of a gender watch system. The trans-national EU-Project “Gender Budgeting as an instrument for managing scientific organisations to promote equal opportunities for women and men – with the example of universities” is embedded in this context. The question this project focused on is: how can Gender Budgeting be applied as a powerful instrument in the budgeting policy of a scientific organisation? The intention is to show which dimensions and which phases of the budgeting process have to be considered to implement Gender Budgeting successfully. Furthermore, some basic steps for a systematic integration of gender issues into the budgeting process were developed and a list of recommendations on the level of universities, the national and state level and European level are given.
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http://hdl.handle.net/2003/29438 review at http://www.utesymanski.de/downloads/Wima_22_08_2%20Symanski_S.%2052-53.pdf
Chapter
With the expansion of higher education, women have gained access to German universities and are seeking the opportunity to learn and ascend the professional ranks. It is still in dispute whether their access to higher education has developed owing to democratic expectations of cultural forces or to market strategies responding to the demand for a highly skilled labour force (Morley, 1999; Scott, 1999). Both factors attest to modernization and social change. Within these developments, it seems as if German higher education has taken over the role of social stratification. The universities’ knowledge, traditions, cultural codes, and hierarchy of decision making have remained unchanged in spite of the differentiation of students and their educational needs. Thus, the German higher education system has not integrated the new student groups in a qualitative way; instead, it produces and perpetuates inequality by sorting out rather than integrating non-traditional ideas and aspirations as students pursue their academic careers. Consequently, a great amount of human resources, creativity, and potential to further scientific and university development are lost. This wasteful trend threatens the goals of science in achieving excellence (Osborn et al., 2000).
Chapter
In comparison with other European countries such as Great Britain or the Netherlands, Germany is a latecomer with respect to reforms of its university system, although complaints about problems started to accumulate as early as the 1960s. Some reforms in the early 1970s did not really improve the situation. On the contrary, for 20 years their failure discredited further efforts of reform and reinforced those who claimed that German universities were basically ‘healthy’ were they only to receive better funding from the state. Although German re-unification seemed to briefly open a window of opportunity for an overall change in higher education structures through the necessary reform of East German universities, it did not help reform-oriented actors much (Mayntz, 1994). With respect to universities, as in other societal sectors in East Germany, the enormous time-pressure to come to terms with the installation of a working system allowed only the substitution of politically discredited persons; those West-German professors who acted as temporary or permanent agents of renewal did nothing more than implement the West German status quo.
Article
Mainstreaming, an approach aimed at making policy more gender sensitive, has been taken globally on board by countries with widely varying policy machineries. This social innovation was launched in the context of Bejing 1995 by a network of women s movement activists, academics and politicians sometimes referred to as State Feminists. As a policy strategy for change, it utilizes the language of efficiency current in circles hoping to rationalize public bureaucracy. Yet, because it deals with gender, mainstreaming also illustrates, in a particularly provocative way, some more general problems in political innovation. Mainstreaming provides a good illustration of the paradoxes and ambiguities of gender as a motor for change in political organization. Mainstreaming seems to offer the potential to recoup the power of definition by making the image of the citizen behind the policy more evident and erasing the premise of gender neutrality. The trick is carried out through the insertion of tools like Trojan horses inside the policy process, using formal rationality to reveal gender related negotiations. This paper provides an initial discussion of the ways in which the mainstreaming approach aims at changing the definitions of the situation in government and secondly suggests factors that may affect whether the approach will actually succeed in various settings. It offers a framework for a consideration of the conditions necessary to ensure that mainstreaming becomes an institutional innovation and leads to gender being included in policy making as a given. It tests this using observations from the European Commission, Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands and regional and federal government in Belgium. The role of women s organizations, state feminist machinery, academics and policy frameworks are crucial variables to help predict whether mainstreaming remains rhetoric or becomes a useful approach to changing policy. Mainstreaming, ein Ansatz zur Erhöhung der Geschlechtssensibilität von Politik, ist inzwischen weltweit von Ländern mit sehr unterschiedlichen politischen Strukturen übernommen worden. Diese soziale Innovation wurde im Kontext der Weltfrauenkonferenz in Peking 1995 von einem Netzwerk ins Leben gerufen, das sich aus Mitgliedern der Frauenbewegung, Wissenschaftlerinnen und Politikerinnen (manchmal Staatsfeministinnen genannt) zusammensetzte. Als politische Strategie, die auf Veränderungen abzielt, benutzt sie die Rhetorik von Effizienz, die in Diskursen zur Rationalisierung öffentlicher Verwaltung geläufig ist. Aber weil ihr Gegenstand das Geschlechterverhältnis ist, beleuchtet Mainstreaming in besonders herausfordernder Weise allgemeinere Probleme politischer Innovation. Mainstreaming illustriert nachdrücklich die Paradoxien und Zwiespältigkeiten, die der Einsatz von gender als Motor für Veränderungen politischer Organisationen impliziert. Der Ansatz des Mainstreaming birgt möglicherweise das Potential, die Definitionsmacht zu verändern, indem er die Person des Bürgers/der Bürgerin verdeutlicht, auf den/die sich Politiken beziehen und indem er die Annahme von Geschlechtsneutralität in Frage stellt. Dies gelingt durch die Einführung von Instrumenten in den politischen Prozeß - vergleichbar einem Trojanischen Pferd -, wobei formale Rationalität genutzt wird, um die Geschlechtsspezifik von Aushandlungsprozessen aufzudecken.
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