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Critical thinking and pedagogical license. Manuscrito XXII, 109–116.

Authors:
İƃŻƺƯō'ŻƺŬƯ'ƹ'įŶƤƳ'źĪƠţ
ƱřźÉĩźÉĩ'ƱŚū
ƱƺƯŻō&Ƣǀƣŵ&ƩŚưƗÊř&ƲưƌŤƯ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&&ŢſŚƷŹŚǀƘƯ&ƹ&ŚƷ&ƮƷ&ƹ&ŚƷŹƹŚŝ&įƹŹ&ƮƷƁƹŹ&įƹŹ&&&&ƶºĩ&ƾƿŚºƷ
İƯ&ƵŵŚƠŤſř&ŚƷŹƹŚŝ&ƶŝ&ƱŶǀſŹ&įřźŝ&ŶƳƺƃ
.Ư&Ƶŵřŵ&ƱŚưƬƘƯ&ƶŝ&ƶĩ&Ţſř&įŹŚǀŤųř&İƃŻƺƯō&ŻƺŬƯİ&&&&&ŚºƸƳō&ƶºŝ&ƶºĩ&ŵƺƃ
İƯ&ƵŻŚūř&ŶƷŵ&İƃŻƺƯō&ƝřŶƷř&ƢƤŰţ&įřźŝ&&&&ݺưƳ&ŻŚºŬƯ&šŹƺºƇ&Ʋƿř&źǀƛ&Źŵ&ƶĩ&Ŷƴƴĩ&ƵŵŚƠŤſř&İƿŚƷŹřżŝř&Żř&ŵƺŝ&ŶºƳ .
İƬĩ&ŢƫŚů&Źŵ&[Śƿ&įźƗŚƃ&ŻƺŬƯ&ƶǀŞƃ&įżǀģ&İƃŻƺƯō&ŻƺŬƯ&ƲƿřźŝŚƴŝ&&&Ţºſř&įźºƴƷ&ŻƺŬƯ&[źţ .&&&&ƶºĩ&Ŷºƿŵ&ƮǀƷřƺºų
Ţſř&ƖƿŚƃ&ŹŚǀƀŝ&İƫŚƗ&ƁŻƺƯō&Źŵ&İƃŻƺƯō&ŻƺŬƯ
.&ƉźƟ&ƶƫŚƤƯ&Ʋƿřƿř&ƶĩ&Ţſř&Ʋ&ŹŵŽLjĩ&&&&źºŝ&įŶºƤƳ&źĪƠţ&įŚƷ
Őţ&ƕƺƋƺƯ&ƹŵİƯ&Ŷǀĩ Źŵƹ :&&&&&ݺƃŻƺƯō&ŻƺºŬƯ&Ʊŵƺºŝ&ƖƿŚºƃ&ƹ&ŢºǀƷŚƯ&[ƭƹŵ&hįŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&Ʊŵƺŝ&ŶǀƠƯ&ƹ&ŢǀƷŚƯ&[Ʃƹř .
İƯ&ŹŚǀƄƷ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&ƶŝ&ŻŚǀƳ&ƶŝ&ŢŞƀƳ&řŹ&ƺŬƄƳřŵ&İƃŻƺƯō&ŻƺŬƯ&Żř&ƕLjƏř&Ŷƴĩ.
įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ
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&İƠƴƯ&ÅŚţŹƹźƋ
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&&İě&Źŵ&ŚƿƞƫŚŴƯ&İƳřƺų
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&&ŵŚºƤŤƳř&ÅŚţŹƹźƋ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&hŢƀǀƳ
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&&&&&Ŷºƴģ&Żř&Ĩºƿ&źºƷ&ƶºŝ&[
&įŚƴƘƯ&[ŵŚƤŤƳřŭźƐƯ&İưƳ&&ŢǀƘƣƺƯ&Ĩƿ&ƪů&ƶŝ&ƝƺƐƘƯ&ÅŚţŹƹźƋ&ƹ&hŶƴĩİƳřźŰŝ
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&[&Śƿ&&ƱřźºŰŝ&Ĩºƿ
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&ŢºƀǀƳ&[ .&&&įŶºƤƳ&źºĪƠţ
ŜǀƗ&İƿƺū
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&ƱřźŰŝ&ŢƿźƿŶƯ&ŢƀǀƳ&żǀƳ .Ƶĥřƹ&įŶƤƳ&&šŹŚŞƗ&ŹŵįŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&ƶŝ&&&&&ƶºŝ&ݺƇŚų&ÅŚŤŞºƀƳ&įŚºƴƘƯ&&&ŹŚºĩ
İƯ&ƶƄƿŹ&hŵƹŹ&Ţſř&ƵŶƳŻƺƯō&Ʊō&İſŚƴƃ .Ƶĥřƹ&[ŜſŚƴƯ&įŚƴƘƯ&Źŵ&ƤƳįŶ&&ƲǀţLJ&ƭŚƳ&Śŝ
ƫřĨ
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&&&&&&ƪºƘƟ&Śºŝ&ƶºĩ&[Ţºſř&ƎŞţźƯ
Ĩƫř&Ʊŵźĩ
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&ƱŚƴģ&&Źŵ&ƶĩĨƫř&&[ŵŹō&ƱŵźĩĨƫř&&ƹ&[ħŚų&ƱŵźĩĨƫř&İƯ&ŹŚĩ&ƶŝ&Ʋŗřźƣ&ƹ&ŶƷřƺƃ&Ʊŵźĩ&ŵƹŹ-&&ƮºƷ&&&ƵŵřƺƳŚºų
Ţſř.
Ƶĥřƹ&Żř&źĮƿŵ&İưƳ&ƵŵŚƠŤſř&ƱřŶƴģ&Ĩƫř&&&&Ƶĥřƹ&Żř&źŤºƄǀŝ&Ʈǀºƴĩ&ƵŹŚºƃř&Ĩƫř&Ĩƿ&ƶŝ&ƮǀƷřƺŴŝ&ƶĩ&İƯŚĮƴƷ&hƮǀƴĩ&
ƩŚŝźƛ
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&İƯ&ƵŵŚƠŤſř&Ʈǀƴĩ .Ʊŵźĩ&ƩŚŝźƛ&ƪƘƟ&ŚƯř&[ŶƃŚŝ&įŹŚū&ŻƺƴƷ&Ʊŵźĩ&Ĩƫř&ƪƘƟ&ŶƿŚƃ
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&ƩƺưƘƯ&Ţſř&źţ.
ÊƱŵźĩ&ƩŚŝźƛ&Śƿ&Ʊŵźĩ&Ĩƫř&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&Ţſř&İƳLjƤƗ.&Ƶĥřƹ&įŶƤƳ&Ƶĥřƹ&Śŝ&ŹŚǀƘƯ
12
&ƮƷ&&Żř&ƶĩ&[Ţſř&ƵŵřƺƳŚų
ƱƺƯŻō&ƶŝ&ƹ&Ţſř&ƵŶƯō&İƳŚƳƺƿ&ƱŚŝŻ&Śƿ&ŚƷ&ƶŝ&ƱƺƯŻō&Źŵ&ƶĩ&İƿŚƷŵŹřŶƳŚŤſř&ŚƷ&İƯ&ƵŵŚƠŤſř&ŵŹřŵ&ƵŹŚƃř&ŶƳƺƃ
.Ƶĥřƹ&ŹŚǀƘƯ&į&İŤů
İƯ&ƵŵŚƠŤſř&įźĮƫŚŝźƛ&įřźŝ&ƶĩ&İĭĦƿƹ&Śƿ&[ƶƈŴƄƯ&[ƍźƃ&[ŢǀƠǀĩ&Ĩƿ&ƶŝ&ŵƺƃ&żǀƳ&ŵŹřŵ&ƵŹŚƃř&[&ƶŤŞƫř&ƶĩƶŝ&&&&ƲºƯ&źºƔƳ&&&Ʋºƿř
&ŵźŝŹŚĩİŞſŚƴƯ&ƱřŶƴģ&ŢƀǀƳ .ŚưƗÊř&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţƱƺƯŻō&Ʃ&ƶŝ&hŢſŚƷ&ƅŚų&ŹƺƏ&źţ[&ưƗÊřƱƺƯŻō&ƩŚ&&&&ºĪƠţ&įƹŹ&ŚºƷŹŚǀƘƯ&Śºƿ&ŚƷ
Ţſř&ƆŴƃ&ŵƺų.
ƶŝ&İƯ&Ʋǀƴģ&ƲƯ&źƔƳ&ƶĩ&ŶſŹ Ţſř&ƭŻLJ&&ƶŤĪƳ&Ʋƿř&ƮƷƀƬū&Ʋǀƫƹř&ŹŵƵŹƹŵ&źƷ&šŚ&[ŵƺƃ&ŭźƐƯ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&į&ƹ&ƮƷ
ƩƺƏ&Źŵ&Ƃƴǀŝ&żĭźƷ&ƱŚƿƺŬƄƳřŵ&Śţ&ŵƺƃ&ŹřźĪţ&ŵŚƿŻ&ƵŹƹŵ&ŢſŹŵ&&&ݺƯ&Ţºĩźů&Ʊō&įƺſ&ƶŝ&ƶĩ&ƶĤƳō&ƶŝ&ŢŞƀƳ&řŹ&&&Żř&Ŷºƴƴĩ
ŶƴƷŶƳ&Ţſŵ .ƱƺƯŻō&ƩŚưƗÊř&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&źĪƠţ&įƹŹ&ŚƷ&Ţſř.
1
critical thinking
2
negative
3
disapproving
4
criticism
5
critical situation
6
crisis )Ƶĥřƹ&İƿŚƴƘƯ&ŹŚŝ&źƏŚų&ƶŝ&šŚŰǀƋƺţ&Ʋƿř&ƶĩ&Ţſř&įŹƹōŵŚƿ&ƶŝ&ƭŻLJ&critical&Ţſř&ƵŶƃ&Ƶŵřŵ&İƀǀƬĮƳř&ƱŚŝŻ&Źŵ(.
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fault-finding
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sieve
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to sift
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screen
11
to screen
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criterion
&&&İƃŻƺƯō&ŻƺŬƯ&ƹ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ
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ƮǀſźĜŝ&ƩŚů&İƯ&Źřźƣ&ƱƺƯŻō&ƉźƘƯ&Źŵ&ƶĩ&įżǀģ&Ʊō&&ƶºŝ&ƱƺƯŻō&Ʋƿř&ƶĩ&įżǀģ&ƹ&„Ţƀǀģ&ŵźǀĭ&&&źƏŚºų
Ʊō
&&&ƭŚºŬƳř
İƯ&Ƃſźě&ŚƸƴƿř&„Ţƀǀģ&ŵƺƃ&ŲſŚě&ƶƳřŹƺŞƇ&ŶƿŚŝ&ŚƯ&ƶĩ&ŶƴŤƀƷ&İưƸƯ&įŚƷ&ƮǀŝŚǀŝ&ŚƸƳō&įřźŝ&İƬƯŚĩ&įŚƷ .&&ƶºŝ&İƸƿŶºŝ&&&źºƔƳ
İƯ&&ƶĩ&ŶſŹ&Ʋƿř&ŚƷŹƹŚŝƱƺƯŻō&ƉźƘƯ&Źŵ&ƶĩ&ŶƴŤƀƷ&řŶƳ[&żǀƳ&&&ŚºƷŹƹŚŝ&ƶºĩ&Ţſř&İƸƿŶŝ&&&&ŢºƸū&Żř&řŶºŤŝř
&ƭŚŬºƀƳř
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&
&&ƭŶºƗ
ƭŚŬƀƳř
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&İƯ&ƱƺƯŻō&&ݺƯ&ƱƺƯŻō&śŸĩ&ƹ&ơŶƇ&Ŧǀů&Żř&ŶƳŶƃ&Ƶŵřŵ&ƆǀŴƄţ&ƭŚŬƀƳř&įřŹřŵ&ƶĩ&ŚƸƳō&[žĜſ&ƹ&[ŶƳƺƃ&&ŶƳƺºƃ .
ƶŝ&ŹƹŚŝ&Ʋƿř&İŤƣƹ&[ƩŚŨƯ&ƱřƺƴƗ&řŹ&İƯ&ƲǀƯŻ&ŵźĭ&źŝ&ŶǀƃŹƺų&ƶĩ&İƯ&Ŷųźģ&&&&Ǝºſƺţ&ŶºƿŚŝ&ƶĩ&İƿŚƷżǀģ&Ʋǀƫƹř&Żř&İĪƿ&[ƮǀƿŚƯŻō
ţƶŝ&ŹƹŚŝ&Ʋƿř&ƭŚŬƀƳř&ƭŶƗ&ŵƺƃ&ƞƄĩ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠ&ů&ŢƬƗ&&źºĮƿŵ&żǀģ&ŵźĭ&źŝ&įżǀģ&ƮǀƿƺĮŝ&ƶĩ&ŵŹřŶƳ&ŚƴƘƯ&hŢſř&šŹŚŞƗ&ƝŸ
İƯ&ƶƐƤƳ&ƶĩ&Ʊō&ƱƹŶŝ&Ŷųźģ&ƖūźƯ&į
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&Ʈǀƴĩ&ƆŴƄƯ&řŹ .ƶƐƤƳ&řŹ&ŶǀƃŹƺų&źĭř&į&&&&&&ƶºĩ&Ţºſř&ƲºƃƹŹ&ƵŚºĮƳō&ƮƿźǀĮŝ&ƖūźƯ
İƯ&ŶǀƃŹƺų&ŵźĭ&źŝ&ƲǀƯŻ&ƶƐƤƳ&řŹ&ƲǀƯŻ&źĭř&hŶųźģ&į&ƮƿźǀĮŝ&ƖūźƯ&&&&&Ţºſř&ƲºƃƹŹ&ƵŚºĮƳō&&ŶǀºƃŹƺų&ƶºĩ&&&&&ƲǀºƯŻ&ŵźºĭ&źºŝ
İƯ&Ŷųźģ.
&řźģ&ƶĩ&Ŷƴƴĩ&ŜŬƘţ&İƌƘŝ&Ţſř&ƲĪưƯŶƃ&ŭźƐƯ&Ʋǀƴģ&İƯ&ƱƺƯŻō&řŹ&ŚƷŹƹŚŝ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&ƶĩ&&ƵŹřżºĭ&ƶƳ&ƹ&Ŷƴĩ&&&ŚºƷ
İƯ&ƭŚŬƳř&śŸĩ&ƹ&ơŶƇ&ƆǀŴƄţ&įřźŝ&řŹ&ƱƺƯŻō&ŚƯ&İŤƣƹ&ƶĩ&Ţſř&ƲƃƹŹ&hřŹ
&ƵŹřżĭ&Śƿō&ƶĩ&ŢƀǀƳ&ŭźƐƯ&Ʋƿř&ƮǀƷŵ&&ƶĩ&įř
Ţſř&ƱƺƯŻō&ŵŹƺƯ&ƶƳ&Śƿ&Ţſř&ŹƹŚŝ&Ĩƿ .&Żř&İĪƿ&[Ɩƣřƹ&ŹŵİĭĦƿƹ&ƲƿźţLJŚŝ&&ƶĩ&İŤǀƈŴƃ&įŚƷ&ŶƿŚŝƵŹƹŵ&Źŵ&ŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&įŚƷ
ŶŝŚƿ&ƁŹƹźě&Ţſř&ƝŚƈƳř :&&&&ŵźºĩ&ŹŚºŤƟŹ&Ʊō&Śºŝ&İĮŤºƀŞƫŵ&ĢǀƷ&ƱƹŶŝ&ŶƿŚŝ&Ţſř&ƱƺƯŻō&ƉźƘƯ&Źŵ&ƵŹřżĭ&Ĩƿ&ƶĩ&İƯŚĮƴƷ .
İƯ&İſŹźŝ&řŹ&ƵŹřżĭ&Ĩƿ&śŸĩ&ƹ&ơŶƇ&ƶĩ&İƀĩ&ŢŞƀƳ&ƱřźĮƿŵ&ƶĩ&İţŹƺƇ&Źŵ&[Ŷƴĩ&[ŶƳŹřŵ&İƘƋƺƯ&Ʊō&ƶŝ&&ŶƿŚŞƳ&řŹ&Ʋƿř&&ƶºŝ
&İƳŚƀĩ&ƶģ&ƶĩ&ŵŹƹō&śŚƀůơŶƇ&ƶŝ&Ʊō&ŶƳŹřŵ&ŹƹŚŝ&ƵŹřżĭ&&İƳŚƀĩ&ƶģ&ƹƱō&śŸĩ&ƶŝ.&&ƵŹřżºĭ&Ĩƿ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠŤƯ&řŹ&&żºǀģ&ƹ
ƵŹŚŝŹŵ&ƵŹřżĭ&ƶĩ&řŹ&Ţſř&Ʊō&į&İƯ&İĭŶǀſŹ&İƫŚů&Źŵ&Žźţ&[ŚƷŶǀƯř&ƶĩ&Ŷƴĩ&&İƳŚƀĩ&įŚƷŶƿŶƸţ&ƹ&[ŚƷŶƿƺƳ&[ŚƷ&řŹƶŬǀŤƳ&ƶĩ&
ŝ&ƱƺƯŻō&Ʋƿřƽřź İƯ&ƵŶƿŵŚƳ&Ţſř&ƮƸƯ&ƱŚƃ&ŵźǀĭ.
Ţſř&ŢſŹŵ&ƲŴſ&Ʋƿř&ƶģźĭř&[ŵŹřŵ&ŵƺūƹ&İŝƺų&ƪƿLJŵ&ŚƯř ƶŝ&řŹ&ŚƷŹƹŚŝ&ƶĩ&Ʋƿř&įřźŝ&&&ƶºĩ&İţLJƺƤƯ&Żř&İĪƿ&ƱřƺƴƗ
ƺŝ&ƱƺƯŻō&ƉźƘƯ&Źŵ&ƶƬǀſ&ŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&įƮƿźǀĮŝ&źƔƳ&Źŵ&ŶƴŤƀƷ&į
.ƶĩ&Ţſř&Ʋƿř&ƪǀƫŵ&Ʋǀƫƹř&ŚƷŹƹŚŝ&įƹŹ&żĩźưţ&&&ŢºǀƘƣřƹ&Ʋƿř
İƯ&ƲƃƹŹ&řŹ&ĪƠţ&ƶĩ&Ŷƴĩ&įŶƤƳ&źİưƳ&řŶǀě&ŵŹƺƯ&ƴĩƶƳƺĭ&ƶĩ&Ʋƿř&źĮƯ&Ŷ&&&&&ƱƺºƯŻō&ŶºƿŚŝ&ƶºĩ&řŹ&İƿŚƷŹƹŚŝ&źĪƠţ&Żř&įźĮƿŵ&įŚƷ
Ŷƴƴĩ&Ŷǀƫƺţ&ŶƳƺƃ
.&źĪƠţ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ
Ƃǀě&įŶƤƳ
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&Ƃǀě&řŹ&İƯ&ƉźƟ&ŵźǀĭ .&&&ƱƺºƯŻō&ƩŚºưƗÊř&įřźºŝ&ƶŤŞƫř&&&&&įřźºŝ&ݺƳLjƤƗ&įŚºƷ
śŸĩ&ƹ&ơŶƇ&ƆǀŴƄţ&ƵŹřżĭ&Ĩƿ&įŹƹŚŝ&ƶĩ&ŢƀǀƳ&įŹƹźƋ&ƵŹŚŝŹŵ&Ʊō&į&hƮǀƃŚŝ&ƶŤƃřŵ&&&[ƱřŶǀºƋŚƿŹ&[ŶƴưƄƳřŵ&Ĩƿ&ŜƬƛř
İſŹźŝ&Śƿ&[ƵŚĭōŹŚĩ&ƵŶƴƴĩ&&Ĩƿ&[źĮƿŵ&į
ƶǀƋźƟ
&İƯ&ƱƺƯŻō&řŹ&ŶƴĩƵŹřżĭ&İƴƘƿ&[&įř&ƶŝ&ƶƳ&ƶĩ&Ƴ&ƹ&Ţſř&ŹƹŚŝ&ŵŹƺƯ&ơŵŚƇ&ƱřƺƴƗ
ƶŝ&śŷŚĩ&ƱřƺƴƗ.&İƯ&ŹŚĪƃō&ƱƺƯŻō&Ţſř&ƭřŶĩ&ƶĩ&Ŷƴĩ .İƷŚĭ Ƃǀě&ŹƹŚŝ&İƯźŝ&ƱƺƯŻō&Żř&įŶƤƳ&&ŶƿŶě&Źŵ&ƱƺƯŻō&ŜƬƛř&ŚƯř&hŵżǀų
ƹŚŝ&ƱŶƯōŵŹřŶƳ&İƄƤƳ&Ź.
įŵŚƗ&ŢǀƫŚƘƟ&Żř&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&Ţſř&ƭŻLJ
5
&įŹŚū&ƹ
6
&İſŹźŝ&ŵƺƃ&Ƶŵřŵ&żǀưţ&İƴǀƗ&ƹ&ƶƳŚƠƈƴƯ&įŚƷ .&&&Śºţ&įŶºƤƳ&źĪƠţ
ƶūƺţ&ŵŹƺƯ&ƝŚƈƳř&ƹ&ŢǀƴǀƗ&ƶĩ&İƿŚū&&ƶºŞƴū&ƶŝ&ƶĩ&Ţſř&İŤǀƫŚƘƟ&ŚƯř&[Ţſř&İưƬƗ&źĪƠţ&ƶǀŞƃ&ŶƳř&&&&Ţºſř&ƢºƬƘŤƯ&İƳŚºƀƳř&į
.
İƟ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&İƯ&ƪưƗ&ŵŹřƹ&İŤƣƹ&ƶƀƠƳ&ţ&ƶĩ&ŵƺƃƂǀě&źĪƠ&ŶƃŚŝ&Ƶŵźĩ&Ŷǀƫƺţ&řŹ&ŚƷŹƹŚŝ&įŶƤƳ.
ƾŝ&İƄƸū&ŚƯ&źĭř ƪǀƫŵ&&řŹ&ƶŬǀŤƳ&Ĩƿ&ƶŝ&ƮƷ&&&Ʈǀºƴĩ&śƺºƀŰƯ&ŹƹŚºŝ&Ĩƿ&ƶŝ&ƱŶǀſŹ&Źŵ&İƃƹŹ&&ݺƯ&ƵŚºĮƳō&[&&&ƮǀƳřƺºţ
ŹƹŚŝ&źƷ&ƶĩ&ƮǀƿƺĮŝį&ŝŚ&ƃƹŹİ&Ţſř&ƵŶƃ&ƪƇŚů .&ݺƯ&Źřźƣ&įŶƤƳ&İƟŚĪƃƺƯ&ƉźƘƯ&Źŵ&ŹƹŚŝ&ŵƺų&ƶĩ&Ʋƿř&źŝ&ƵƹLjƗ&&&[ŵźºǀĭ
İƃƹŹ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ řŹ&&Ʊō&ƶĩƶŝ&ŹƹŚŝ&İƯ&żǀƳ&Ţſř&ƵŶƯō&Ţſŵ&ŶƿŚƯŻō.
İƯ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&Ŷſźě :&ƶƳƺĮģ
Ʊō
&&„Ţſř&ƵŶƯōźŝ&ŹƹŚŝ
&ŹƹŚŝ&Ʊō
&Ĩƿ&ƶƳƺĮģ
ŹƹŚŝ
&&ݺƯ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&„Ţſř&ƵŶƃ&&&ŶºƷřƺų
&[ŶƴƿřźƟ&[ƵřŹ&ƱōřŹ&źǀƀƯ&ƹ&ŹƹŚŝ&Ʊō&ŢǀŞŨţ&ƶŝ&ƶĩ[&ƱŚƴĤƳō&ŢƀƷ&ƶĩ[&ŤƴƯƵŶƃ&İƸ Ŷƴĩ&ƆŴƄƯ .ƳƺĮģ&ŹƹŚŝ&ŜůŚƇ&ƆŴƃ&ƶ
1
coherency
2
incoherency
3
point of reference
4
precritical
5
normal
6
routine
&&&İƃŻƺƯō&ŻƺŬƯ&ƹ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ
3
řŹ&ƅŚų&ŹƹŚŝ&Ʋƿř&&ơŵŚƇřŵƀƳ&&ƶºĩ&ƶĤƳō&Śŝ&ŹƹŚŝ&Ʋƿř&ƶĩ&Ţſř&ƶŤƟźĭ&Źřźƣ&źŧř&Ʋƿř&ŢŰţ&ƹř&ƶƳƺĮģ&„Ţſř&ƶŤ&&&ŶƴŤºƀƷ&ŚºƷżǀģ
&„ŵŹřŵ&ŢƤŝŚƐƯƶŝ&ƵŶǀſŹ&ŹƹŚŝ&Ʋƿř&ƶŝ&[Ʊřźĩźĩ&ƱŚū&[ƲƯ&ƶƳƺĮģ&[ƩŚŨƯ&ƱřƺƴƗ&&İƫřƺŤƯ&ŵźƟ&ŵřŶƗř&Żř&įŵřŶƘţ&źƷ&ƕƺưŬƯ&ƶĩ&ƭř
Ţſř&ŵřŶƘţ&Ʊō&ŹƹŸŬƯ&ŵƺƃ&ƕƹźƃ&Ĩƿ&ŵŶƗ&Śŝ&ƶĩ
1
Ź&ŹƹŚŝ&Ʋƿř&ƶŝ&ƲƯ&ƶƳƺĮģ&„ƵŶǀſ&ƶŝ&įŹŚƴƣ&źƿřżū&ƶĩ&ƭř&Ĭſ&źƏŚų&&&ƶºŝ&ŚƷ
ƶŝ&ƶƳ&Ţſř&ƵŶƃ&ƵŶǀƯŚƳ&ƭŚƳ&Ʋƿř&įŹŚƴƣ&źƏŚų&„ŚƷ
İƯ&řŹ&Ʊō&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&[Ŷƃ&İſŚƴƃŻŚŝ&źǀƀƯ&İŤƣƹ&&&&&&&&ƶºūƺƯ&řŹ&ŹƹŚºŝ&[Ŷºů&ƶºģ&Śºţ&ƹ&[Śºƿō&ƶĩ&ŵƺƃ&ƆŴƄƯ&Śţ&ŶƿŚƯŻō
İƯ&Ŷƴĩ
.ƶŝ&&[įŶƤƳ&źĪƠŤƯ&ƱřƺƴƗƱō&Żř&žě&Źřżĭ&ơŶƇ&ƁźƿŸě&ƶŝ&Ʊō&Śŝ&ƶĩ&řŹ&İƃƹŹ&ƲƯ&ƶĩƵŶǀſŹ&Ƶ&&Żř&[ƭŵźĩ&İſŚƴƃŻŚŝ&ƭř
İƯ&ŵƺų&&řŹ&ŹƹŚŝ&Ʊō&ƁƹŹ&Ʊō&Śƿō&ƶĩ&ƮſźěİƸƿŶŝ&İƯ&ŵŻŚſ&ƶƳ&ŚƿƪưŤŰƯ&řŹ&ŹƹŚŝ&Ʊō&ƁƹŹ&Ʊō&Śƿō&Śƿ&„
2
&İƯ&Ŷƴĩ&ƶƳ&Śƿ&&Ʊō&Śƿō
ƖƳŚƣ&ƹ&[ŵŚưŤƗř&ƪŝŚƣ&[ƎŞţźƯ&ƵřŹ&Ĩƿ&ƁƹŹ&„ƶƳ&Śƿ&ŢƀƷ&ŹƹŚŝ&Ʊō&ƶŝ&ƱŶǀſŹ&įřźŝ&ƵŶƴƴĩ
İƯ&űŹ&Ʋǀƴģ&ŜƬƛř&ĩ&İƃƹŹ&ƶĩ&İƯŚĮƴƷ&ƶĩ&ŶƷŵ&ƱŶǀſŹ&įřźŝ&ƶ&&ƵŶºƃ&ƵŵŚƠŤºſř&ƉƹźƠƯ&ŹƹŚŝ&Ĩƿ&ƶŝ&&&ݺſŚƴƃŻŚŝ
İƯ&İƸƿŶŝ&Ʊō&ŢƿŚƠĩ&ƭŶƗ&[Ŷƃ&Ʊō&ƹ&ŵƺƃ&ƶŝ&įŹŚŞƛ&Ʊƺģ&ŹƹŚŝ&İƯ&řƺƷ&ŵƹŹ&İƯ&Ʃżƴţ&ƶǀƋźƟ&Ĩƿ&ƶŝ&ƹ&ŹƹŚŝ&Ʊō&[ŶŝŚƿ[ ƶŝ&&įŚū
ƵŹřżĭ&Ţſř&ƭƺƬƘƯ&Ʊō&ƞǀƬĪţ&ƶĩ&įř[ ƵŹřżĭ&ƶŝ&ƩŶŝ&İƯ&įř&Ţſř&ƵŵŚƯō&ƩŚƘƟ&ƪƯŐţ&Ĩƿ&įřźŝ&ƶĩ&ŵƺƃ .&ƶºŝ&&&Ʋºƿř&ƊºŰƯ&&&ƶºĩ
&ŹƹŚŝ&Ĩƿ&ƶĩ&ŶŝŚƿŹŵ&ƆŴƃƶŤƄĭ&ŹřƺŤſř&İŞſŚƴƯŚƳ&įŚƴŞƯźŝ&[ƪĪƄƯ&źĮƿŵ&ŵźĩ&ƒƠů&řŹ&ƩřƹŻ&ƶŝ&ƹŹ&ŹƹŚŝ&ƱřƺŤŝ .&ƶºŝ&&&ƱřƺºƴƗ
[ƩŚŨƯ &ƶŝ&ƵŹřżĭ&Żř&ÅŚƤƐƴƯ&ƲƯ&ŹƹŚŝ&ƶĩ&ƮưƸƠŝ&ƲƯ&ƶĩ&Ʋƿř&ƊŰƯ&&&ƶºŤƟŚƿŹŵ&Ʊō&Żř&žºě&ƶĩ&ŵƺŝ&ƵŶƃ&ũŚŤƴŤſř&įř&&&&śŷŚºĩ&ƶºĩ&ƭř
İưƳ&ƒƠů&řŹ&ŹƹŚŝ&Ʊō&źĮƿŵ&[Ţſř&Ʈƴĩ .ƶŝ&ƊŰƯ&ÊİƷřƺĭ&ƲƯ&ŹƹŚŝ&įŚƴŞƯ&ƶĩ&ƮưƸƠŝ&ƲƯ&ƶĩ&Ʋƿř
3
&&&&&ƶºĩ&Ţºſř&Ƶŵƺºŝ&įŶƷŚƃ
ƶŤƟŚƿŹŵ&Ʊō&Żř&žě&İƯ&ƙƹŹŵ&ƶĩ&ƭř&İƯ&ƊƤƳ&řŹ&ŵƺų&ƲŴſ&Śƿ&[Ŷƿƺĭ&[Ŷƴĩ &İƯ&ƱƺĮƳźſ&ŹƹŚŝ&Ʊō&źĮƿŵ&ŵƺƃ.
İƯ&űŹ&Ʋǀƴģ&[ŵŹřƺƯ&ŜƬƛř&Źŵ&ŶƿŚƃ&[ŚƯř&ƪĪƃ&ƁƹŹ&ŢƿŚƠĩ&ƭŶƗ&ƞƄĩ&ƶĩ&ŶƷŵ&&İƿƺŬŤƀū&ƶŝ&źŬƴƯ&ŹƹŚŝ&ƶŝ&ƵŶƴƷŵ
Ź&Ĩƿ&įřźŝƱŚƷźŝ&Ĩƿ&İŤů&ƹ&[źţŶƯōŹŚĩ&Ɓƹ[&İƯ&ŢƀƷ&ƮƷ&ƢƟƺƯ&İƷŚĭ&ƶĩ&ŵƺƃ .İƯ&ƱŚƷźŝ&ƶŤŞƫř&&&&źºŝ&ƱŚºƷźŝ&Ĩƿ&ŶƳřƺţ
ƵŹřżĭ&ř&įİƬƇ&&ƱŚƷźŝ&Ĩƿ&Śƿ&ŶƃŚŝƱō&ƊǀƤƳ&źŝ.
ƱƺƯŻō&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&ƶĩ&ƮƿŶƿŵ&ŚŬƴƿř&Śţ&İƯ&ƩŚưƗÊř&źĪƠţ&źŝ&řŹ&İƿŚƷ&Ŷƴĩ .ƶŝ&&&źºĪƠţ&ƶĩ&Ƃſźě&Ʋƿř&ƶŝ&ŲſŚě&Źŵ&[ƵƹLjƗ
İƯ&řŹ&ƾƿŚƷżǀģ&ƶģ&įŶƤƳ&ƮƿŶƿŵ&řŹ&İƫŚưŤůř&ŢſźƸƟ&Żř&Ʃƹř&ŵŹƺƯ&ƹŵ&[ŶƿŚƯŻō
:ƁƹŹ&ƹ&ŚƷŹƹŚŝ&ŚƷ .&&ƭŚŬºƀƳř&ŢƸū&Żř&řŹ&ŚƷŹƹŚŝ
İƯ&ơŶƇ&ŢƸū&Żř&ƹ&ƮǀŬƴſ
.ƁƹŹ&ƺƳř&ŢƸū&Żř&řŹ&ŚƷ[ƍŚŞţŹř&ƞƬŤŴƯ&ƕř &ƖƳŚƣ&ƹ&[ŵŚưŤƗř&ŢǀƬŝŚƣ&İƯ&İĭŶƴƴĩ&ƮǀŬƴſ.&&ºƯ&Ʋƿř
İƯ&ƱƺưƴƷŹ&ŦŰŞƯ&ƭƹŵ&Ţưƀƣ&ƶŝ&řŹ&[ŵƺƃ &İƃŻƺƯō&ŻƺŬƯ&ƶŝ
4
.
İŤƣƹ&Ƃſźě&Ʋƿř&ƶŝ&İƯ &ƶĩ&ƮǀſŹ&Żř&ŦŰŝƁƹŹ&ƶģ&&İƿŚƷĨƿ&Źŵ&ƵŹƹŵ&&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&įŢſř&ŶǀƠƯ&&Ţºſř&ƲºĪưƯ&[&
ŜƫŚū &Ʈǀƴĩ&İſŹźŝ&Ʃƹř&ƶĩ&ŶƃŚŝƁƹŹ&ƶģ&ƶĩ&ƺţ&ŜƬƛř&ƾƿŚƷ&&ƱŚƿƺŬºƄƳřŵ&Ǝºſ&&&&&&&ƵŵŚƠŤºſř&ƱŚºƄƿŚƷŹƹŚŝ&ƶºŝ&ƱŶǀºſŹ&įřźºŝ
İƯ&ŵƺƃ.&İƯ&ÅŚƘƐƣ&ƶƳřŵŚƤƳ&İſŹźŝ&ƶĩ&Ţƃřŵ&ŹŚƔŤƳř&Ʊřƺţ&
Ʋƿř
&ƁƹŹ&&İƬưƗ&ƍŚŞţŹř&ƵŹƹŵ&Ʋƿř&ƶŝ&ŚƷŝŶƷŶ .&&ƱŚƿƺŬºƄƳřŵ&İŤƣƹ
ƁƹŹ&Żř&ŚƷƿŶƳƺƃ&ƵŚĭō&Ţſř&Ƶŵřŵ&ƪĪƃ&ƱŚƃŹƹŚŝ&ƶŝ&ƶĩ&İƯ&Ƃǀě&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&įƺſ&ƶŝ&ŶƳƹŹ.
ŝ&Żř&įŵŚƿŻ&ŵřŶƘţ&įŚƴŞƯƶŤƟźĭźŝ&řŹ&ŚƸƳō&ŪƫŚĩ&ƱŚƿƺŬƄƳřŵ&ƶĩ&İƿŚƷŹƹŚ&ƁŻƺƯō&ŶƳř&&İƷŚƠƃ&ƶģ&[ŢſŚƸƳō&ƱŚưƬƘƯ&įŚƷ
İŞŤĩ&ƶģ&ƹ .ƶŝ&ŚƸƳō&ƱŚưƬƘƯ&ƶĩ&ŶƳŹřŵ&ƾƿŚƷŹƹŚŝ&ƁźƿŸě&ƶŝ&ƪǀƯ&ƱŚƿƺŬƄƳřŵ&&&ݺƯ&ƶºƋźƗ&ơŵŚƇ&ƱřƺƴƗ&&Ŷºƴƴĩ.&&&&įżºǀģ&ƶºģ
İƯ&ƖƳŚƣ&ƹ&ŵŚưŤƗř&ŢǀƬŝŚƣ&İſŹźŝ&Żř&ŶƳřƺţ&Ƃǀě&ÊƁƹŹ&Ʋƿř&İĭŶƴƴĩ&ƹŹ&ŹƹŚŝ&Ŝƀĩ&ÊįŶƤƳ„ŶƃŚŝ&źţźĮƴƃ
İƯ&ŭźƐƯ&ŹŚŝ&Ʋǀƫƹř&įřźŝ&ƕƺƋƺƯ&Ʋƿř&İŤƣƹ&İƯ&ƲƃƹŹ&ŵƺƃ&&įźǀĭŵŚƿ&ƶĩ&ŵƺƃ
Żř
&&&&ŵŹřŵ&źºŝ&Źŵ&źºƐų&Ŷºƴģ&ƱŚưƬƘƯ .
ŶƃŚŝ&ƵŶǀưƸƟ&Ŷŝ&řŹ&ƮƬƘƯ&ƱŚƴŴſ&ƺŬƄƳřŵ&Ţſř&ƲĪưƯ .&źĭř&İŤůſ&ƺŬƄƳřŵ&&&ŶºƃŚŝ&ƵŶºǀưƸƟ&śƺºų&řŹ&ƮƬƘƯ&ƱŚƴŴ&&&&ƮºƷ&ŻŚºŝ
&Ţſř&ƲĪưƯŶŝ&řŹ&ƲŴſ&ƮƬƘƯ&řźƿŻ&[Ŷſźŝ&śŷŚĩ&ŹƹŚŝ&Ĩƿ&ƶŝ&ſř&Ƶŵźĩ&řŵř&ƶºŗřŹř&Źŵ&Śƿ&Ţ&&ŜºƬƐƯ&į&&&&Ţºſř&Ƶŵźºĩ&ŚºƐų .&&ŚºƯř
ŵŹřŵ&ŵŚưŤƗř&ŢǀƬŝŚƣ&ƭŶƗ&įřźŝ&źĮƿŵ&ŐƄƴƯ&Ĩƿ&ƮƬƘƯ&Żř&įźǀĭŵŚƿ&ŶƴƿřźƟ
:
ƵŚĭŶƿŵ&ÅŚƯƺưƗ&ƱŚưƬƘƯ&&&&ŭźºƐƯ&ŽLjºĩ&Źŵ&řŹ&İƿŚƷ
İƯ&İƯ&ƎƬƛ&řŹ&Ʊō&ŚƸƳō&ŵƺų&ƶĩ&Ŷƴƴĩ&ŶƴƳřŵ
.
1
ƶŤĪƳ&Ʋƿř&ŹƺƔƴƯ&ƶĩ&Ţſř&İƋŚƿŹ&į :
2
231
&
2
3531
&
2
47531
&...
2
probable
3
testimony
4
pedagogical license
&&&İƃŻƺƯō&ŻƺŬƯ&ƹ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ
4
&ǀƤů&ƞƣƹ&řŹ&ŵƺų&ƶĩ&[ƱŚưƬƘƯ&ƶƳƺĮģ&„Ţſř&ƲĪưƯ&įżǀģ&Ʋǀƴģ&ƶƳƺĮģƵŵźĩ&ŢƤ&İƯ&ƵŻŚūř&ŵƺų&ƶŝ&[ŶƳř&&&ƶºĩ&ŶƴƷŵ
İưƳ&ơŵŚƇ&řŹ&Ʊō&ƱŚƃŵƺų&ƶĩ&Ŷƴƴĩ&ŭźƐƯ&řŹ&įżǀģ&ƶƳřŶƯŚƗ&&„ŶƴƳřŵŪƫŚĩ&ƶƳƺĮģ&&&ŚºƸƳō&ƶŝ&ƁŻƺƯō&ŢƸū&ƱŚƿƺŬƄƳřŵ&ƶĩ&[ŚƷ
ƵŶƃ&ƵŵźĜſ&İƯ&ƵŻŚūř&ƱŚưƬƘƯ&ƶŝ&[ŶƳř&ŤƀƳřŵ&ƶĩ&ŶƴƷŵƂƳřŵ&ƶ&ř&ŲſŚě&ŶǀƬĩ&„ŶƴƷŵ&ŜƿźƟ&řŹ&ƱřŻƺƯōŢſř&Ʋƿ
:
İƃŻƺƯō&ŻƺŬƯ
.
ƺƯō&ŻƺŬƯįźƗŚƃ&ŻƺŬƯ&ƶǀŞƃ&İƃŻ
1
&Ţſř .ƱŚƴģ&[įźƗŚƃ&ŻƺŬƯ&İƯ&ƶĩ&&&Ƶŵřŵ&ƱřźƗŚºƃ&ƶŝ&ƶĩ&Ţſř&įŹŚǀŤųř&[ŶǀƳřŵ
Ưİ&İƯ&ŻŚŬƯ&řŹ&ŚƸƳō&ƶĩ&ŵƺƃ&ŵŹřŵ&&&&&ŻŚºŬƯźǀƛ&šŹƺºƇ&Ʋºƿř&źǀƛ&Źŵ&ƶĩ&Ŷƴƴĩ&ƵŵŚƠŤſř&įźƴƷ&źŧř&ƶŝ&ƱŶǀſŹ&įřźŝ&İƿŚƷŹřżŝř&Żř
İƯ&ŵƺŝ
.ƩŚŨƯ&&ƖƿŚƃ&įŚƷŻř&ŶƴţŹŚŞƗ&ƶƐƤƳ&ŶƗřƺƣ&Żř&İƐŴţ&Ɲƹźů&[įŹřŸĭ&Ĩģƺĩ&ƹ&īŹżŝ
2
&&&[ƱŚºŝŻ&ŹƺŤºſŵ&[šŚưƬĩ&įLjƯř&[
ƹ&ŹƺƯř&[ƭŚŬƀƳř[šŚǀƋŚƿŹ&[Ɩƣř &ƢƐƴƯ&İŤů&Śƿ.&&&&&&Żř&Ţºſř&ƪºƿŚƯ&ƶºĩ&Ţºſř&ƪŗŚƣ&įźƴƷ&ŹŚŧō&įřźŝ&İƿLJŚŝ&ƁŻŹř&ƱŚƴģ&ƶƘƯŚū
&İƌƘŝƁƹŹ&&İƿŚƷ&ƶĩ&ŚƸƳō&Ŷǀƫƺţ&įřźŝİƯ&ƵŵŚƠŤſř&ƺƃƮƄģ&&Ŷºƴĩ&İƃƺěƁƹŹ&[&&İƿŚºƷ&&&&&&&ŢƯŸºƯ&šŹƺºƇ&Ʋºƿř&źºǀƛ&Źŵ&ƶºĩ
İƯ&ŶƳŶƃ.&ƗŚƃ&ŻƺŬƯįź&ƫŚŨƯŢſř&İƿřŶŤŝř&İ&İƯ&ƶǀūƺţ&řŹ&ƪŗŚſƹ&ƝŶƷ&ƶĩ&Ʋƿř&įřźŝ&Ŷƴĩ .&[Ţſř&İƃŻƺƯō&ŻƺŬƯ&ƶǀŞƃ&Ʋƿř
İƯ&Ƶŵřŵ&ƱŚưƬƘƯ&ƶŝ&ƶĩ&įŹŚǀŤųř&ƁƹŹ&Żř&ƵŵŚƠŤſř&Żřƺū&ŚƸƳō&ƶŝ&ƶĩ&ŵƺƃ
&&ݺƯ&ݺƃŻƺƯō&ƝřŶƷř&ƶŝ&ƱŶǀſŹ&įřźŝ&řŹ&İƿŚƷ&&&ŶºƷŵ
ŶƳŵƺŝ&ŻŚŬƯźǀƛ&šŹƺƇ&Ʋƿř&źǀƛ&Źŵ&ƶĩ.
İƘǀſƹ&ƞǀƏ&Źŵ&İƃŻƺƯō&ƝřŶƷř&Źřźƣ&İƯ&ŵźǀĭ&&ƺſ&Ĩƿ&Żř&ƶĩ&ƶŝ&ݺưǀƬƘţ&ƝřŶƷř
3
&&&&&&ƝřŶºƷř&ƶºŝ&źºĮƿŵ&įƺºſ&Żř&ƹ
İƴǀƤƬţ
4
&İƯ&İƸŤƴƯ&ŵƺƃ .ƵŹƹŵ&źŤƄǀŝ&Ư&ƶĩ&İƿŚƷŚ &ƶŗřŹřİƯ&Ţĩźƃ&ŚƸƳō&Źŵ&Śƿ&Ʈǀƴĩ&ƶŝ&ƿŚūŶƳŹřŵ&ƢƬƘţ&ƞǀƏ&Ʋƿř&ƱŚǀƯ&Źŵ&İ &
İưǀƬƘţ&źŤƄǀŝ&İƌƘŝ&ţ&ŶƳřİƴǀƤƬţ&źŤƄǀŝ&İƌƘŝ&[İƴǀƤƬţ&Ś&İưǀƬƘţ&Śţ&ŶƳř .&&ƶºŝ&[ƮǀºƬƘţ&&&ƫŚºų&šŹƺºƇ&&&[ƆǀŴºƄţ&ƪƯŚºƃ&[Ʊō&Ɔ
ƶƘſƺţ&ƹ&[İƷŶƳŚƯŚſ&ƿƺŬƄƳřŵ&ŵƺų&ƩŚƘƟ&ƁƺƷ&įİƯ&ƱŚ&ŵƺƃ :šŹŚƸƯ&šŹŶƣ&[ŚƷ&ƌƟ&[ŚƷŢƬǀ&Ƶźǀƛ&ƹ&[ŚƷ .&&ƶºŝ&[ƲǀºƤƬţ&&&šŹƺºƇ
&ƹ&ŭŚƌƿř&[ƶŗřŹř&ƪƯŚƃ&[Ʊō&ƆƫŚųŢſř&ƕƺƋƺƯ&ŌŚƤƫř .İƯ&İƋŚƿŹ&İƃŻƺƯō&ƵŚĭŹŚĩ&Ĩƿ&Śƿ&İƠƀƬƟ&ŹŚƴǀưſ&Ĩƿ&&ºŞƿźƤţ&ŶƳřƺţ
ŶƃŚŝ&ƆƫŚų&ƮǀƬƘţ&İƳŚƯŹō&ŢƫŚů&Żř
.&&Ĩƿ&ƶŤºƃŹ&įřźŝ&ƱŚŝŚƀů&ŽLjĩ&Ĩƿ&Śƿ&İƷŚĮƄƿŚƯŻō&źǀƛ&İƯƺţŚƳō&ŽLjĩ&&&ºǀƛ&įŚºƷ
İƯ&İƋŚƿŹ&ŶƃŚŝ&ƆƫŚų&ƲǀƤƬţ&İƳŚƯŹō&ŢƫŚů&Żř&İŞƿźƤţ&ŶƳřƺţ.
İƯ&ƭŚŬƳř&ƺŬƄƳřŵ&Ǝſƺţ&ƶĩ&Ţſř&įŹŚĩ&ƮǀƬƘţ&ŵƺƃ .İƯ&ƭŚŬƳř&ƮƬƘƯ&Ǝſƺţ&ƶĩ&Ţſř&įŹŚĩ&ƲǀƤƬţ&ŵƺƃ .&&źºſ&ƮǀƬƘţ
&ƶĩ&Ʋƿř&Śŝ&ŵŹřŵ&ŹŚĩ&ƹ
ƶƳƺĮģ
&Ƭţ&hƮǀƴĩ&źĪƟ&ƶĩ&Ʋƿř&Śŝ&ŵŹřŵ&ŹŚĩ&ƹ&źſ&ƲǀƤ&ƶŝ
&ƶºģ
&&&Ʈǀºƴĩ&źºĪƟ .&&&ŬºƄƳřŵ&Żř&řŹ&įżºǀģ&ƮǀºƬƘţ
İƯ&Ʊƹźǀŝ&İƯ&ŵŹřƹ&ƺŬƄƳřŵ&Źŵ&řŹ&įżǀģ&ƲǀƤƬţ&hŵŹƹō&Ŷƴĩ.
&ŵŹƺƯ&Źŵ&Ʊō&šŹƹźƋ&ŶƿŚƃ&ƹ&İƃŻƺƯō&ŻƺŬƯ&źŧřřŶƷƹ&İưǀƬƘţ&Ɲř&&İƴǀƤƬţŵŹřŶƳ&İţƹŚƠţ. ƶƯŚƳźŝ&Ĩƿ&Źŵ&&&[ݺưǀƬƘţ&į
&ƱŚƿƺŬƄƳřŵ&Ţſř&ƲĪưƯŶƳźƿŸĜŝ&řŹ&İƷŚĭŶƿŵ&ƶĩ&&&&źǀŧŐºţ&Ţºſř&ƲĪưƯ&Śƿ&[Ţſř&Ƶŵƺŝ&śŷŚĩ&ƶĩ&Ŷƃ&ŶƴƷřƺų&ƶūƺŤƯ&ƭŚŬƳřźſ
ŶƳŻƺƯŚǀŝ&ŵƺƃ&řźūř&ŚƸƳō&ŵƺų&įƹŹ&ƱƺƴƟ&Ʊō&ƶĩ&Ʋƿř&ŹŸĮƷŹ&Żř&řŹ&İƳŚǀŝ&ƱƺƴƟ&źĮƿŵ&ƹ&[ơřźƛř&[İƿŚưƴĭŹżŝ
.&&ƶºƯŚƳźŝ&Ĩƿ&Źŵ&į&
ƁƹŹ&ƶŝ&řŹ&ŢƤǀƤů&Ţſř&ƲĪưƯ&ƮƬƘƯ&[İƴǀƤƬţ&ƶŝ&Ŷƴĩ&ƞƿźŰţ&ƱƺĭŚƳƺĭ&įŚƷ&&&&&Ź&įżºǀģ&ƶºĩ&Ʋºƿř&ŹƺºƔƴƯ&ƪºŝŚƣ&ř&&ƮºƸƟ&&&ƹ&źºţ
ƶŝ&İƳŵźĜſźƏŚų&ƢƟřƺƯ&ƹ&ŵŻŚſ&źţ&ŵŹřŵ&řŹ&Ʊō&ƁźƿŸě&İĭŵŚƯō&ƺŬƄƳřŵ&ƶĩ&ƶĤƳō&Śŝ&źţ.
ƶƳƺĭ&ƞƿźŰţ&Żř&İƠƬŤŴƯ&įŚƷ
5
&ƵŹƹŵ&Źŵ&ƶŝ&İƃŻƺƯō&įŚƷ&ŢƠĮƃ&ŹƺƏ&Ţſř&ŪƿřŹ&įŹƹō .İƯ&ƲƯ&İŤƣƹ&İƷŚĭ&&ƮƷřƺų
&&ƵŹŚºŝŹŵ&ƺŬºƄƳřŵ&&&&&&&&&&ºƯ&ƒºƠƬţ&Ŷºŝ&řŹ&Ƶĥřƹ&ƱōřŶºưƗ&ŵƺºƃ&ƲŘºưƐƯ&Ƶĥřƹ&Ĩºƿ&ŢºſŹŵ&ƒºƠƬţ&įİ&&Ʈƴºĩ .&Ƶĥřƹ&Ɩººưū&ƪĪºƃ&
hypothesis&İƯ&ƺƃhypotheSEES .İƷŚĭ&ƱŚưƬƘƯ&İƯ&ƵƺƬū&Ʈĩ&İƯ&ơřźƛř&İƷŚĭ&[ŶƴƷŵ&&[Ŷƴƴĩ&&Żř&İƷŚºĭ
ƶƴǀƯŻ&Żř&ũŹŚų&İƯ&İƫƺƣ&ƪƤƳ&ŦŰŝ&į&Ŷƴƴĩ .ƵŶƿŶě&Żř&İƯŚĮƴƷ&ƱŚƿƺŬƄƳřŵ&&ݺƯ&ƵŚĭō&İƃŻƺƯō&ŻƺŬƯ&į&&&&&źǀºƀƯ&Źŵ&ƶºĩ&ŶƳƺºƃ
ƶƘſƺţ&Ĩƿ&į ŢƟŚƿŹŵ
6
ƶŝ İƬĩ ģ&Ĩƿ&[ŶƿŶūƮƄ&ƶŝźŬţ&ƶŝ&ŶƿŶū&ŵźĪƿƹŹ&Ĩƿ&[ŶƿŶū&ŻřŶƳř&&ƶºŝźŬţ&ƹ&Ʊŵźĩ&İƳřźƴŴſ&į&
ŶƳŹřŵ&Źřźƣ&Ʊŵźĩ&ƶƘƫŚƐƯ .Ʋƿř&ƭŶƣ &İƌƘŝ&įřźŝƭŶƣ&Ʋǀƫƹř&ƶŝ&ƖƏŚƣ&&&&įŶºƤƳ&źºĪƠţ&ƶĩ&ŵƺŝ&ŶƷřƺų&Ʋƿř&ŢƟŚƿŹŵ&ƹ&ħŹŵ&įƺſ
İƯ&ƆŴƃ&įźĪƟ&İĭŶƳŻ&Źŵ&řŹ&İƄƤƳ&ƶģ&ƹ&Ţƀǀģ&Ŷƴĩ&įŻŚŝ&ŶƳřƺţ
.
1
poetic license
2
ŵŹřŵ&ŢǀƗƺƋƺƯ&İƀǀƬĮƳř&ƱŚŝŻ&Źŵ&ƶƬŘƀƯ&Ʋƿř.
3
educational
4
indoctrinational
5
distortion
6
take
&&&İƃŻƺƯō&ŻƺŬƯ&ƹ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ
5
ƶĩ&ŶƴŝŚƿŹŵ&ƱŚƿƺŬƄƳřŵ&İŤƣƹ &ƶƄǀưƷƳİư&&&&&Ŷºƴƴĩ&ŚºĪţř&šŚºƗLjƏř&Ţºƣŵ&ŢƸū&Żř&ƱŚƄƳŚưƬƘƯ&ƶŝ&ŶƴƳřƺţ&&&ƶºĩ&Ʋºƿř&ƹ&[
İưƳ&ƶƄǀưƷ&&[Ŷƴƴĩ&ƒƠƬţ&ŢſŹŵ&řŹ&šŚưƬĩ&ŚƸƳō&ƱŚưƬƘƯ&ƶĩ&ŶƴƃŚŝ&ƶŤƃřŵ&ŹŚƔŤƳř&ŶƴƳřƺţ
ƵŚĮƳō
&&&&&&ƞºƄĩ&įƺºſ&ƶºŝ&İƯŚºĭ&ŶƿŚƃ
ƢǀưƗ&ţ&İƷřƺĭ&ƶĩ&ŶƳŹřŵźŝ&ƶŤĪƳ&Ʋƿř&źţƤŰƢǀ&ƵŶƄƳ
1
&&ƖºƬƐƯ&ŶƴģźƷ&[ƱřźĮƿŵ&İƷřƺĭ&ƶĩ&Ʋƿř&ƹ&[ŢƀǀƳ&ƂƳřŵ
2
&ơŵŚºƇ&[
3
&ƹ&[
Ƣǀƣŵ
4
&Ʊō&źĮƯ&ŢƀǀƳ&ƂƳřŵ&żĭźƷ&[ŶƴƃŚŝ&ƤŰţ&ÅŚƈŴƃ&ƵŶƴƴĩŹƹŚŝ&ŵƺų&Ǝſƺţ&ƶĩƢǀ
5
&ŶƃŚŝ&ƵŶƃ .&ƶĤƳō&ƱŚƿƺŬƄƳřŵ&ƶģ&źƷ
&řŹİƯ&ƶƋźƗ&ŽLjĩ&Źŵ&ƶĩ&ƤŰţ&źŤƄǀŝ&ŵƺƃƁŻƺƯō&Ŷƴƴĩ&Ƣǀ&įŚƷ&Ŷƃ&ŶƷřƺų&İƸŤƴƯ&ƂƳřŵ&ƶŝ&źŤƄǀŝ&ŽLjĩ&Ʊō.
ƶƄƿŹ&źƔƳ&Żř&Ƶĥřƹ&[İſŚƴƃ&pedagogueƮƷ&ƶĩ&İưſř&[&ƳŚųƵŵřƺ&&&ŢƠºƇ&įpedagogical&&&&ƶºŝ&[Ţºſř
&įŚƴƘƯŚưƴƷřŹ
6
ƱŚƳřƺū&į&Ţſř .ƶƿƹŹ&ƶĩ&Ţſř&ƶŤƠƸƳ&ŢǀƘƣřƹ&Ʋƿř&Źŵ&įżƴƏ&&ƶĩ&Ţſř&Ʋƿř&ƱřŹŚĭŻƺƯō&į
Ƶřźưĭ
&&ݺƯ&&&Ŷºƴƴĩ
ƶŝ&&ƶĩ&Ʋƿř&ŹƺƔƴƯ
İƿŚưƴƷřŹ
&&ƶĩ&Ʋƿř&ƹ&[Ŷƴƴĩ
Ʊŵźĩ&Ƶřźưĭ
&&Źŵ&İŤƣƹ
&&Ʊŵźºĩ&İƿŚºưƴƷřŹ
&&&&&Ţºſř&ƉŚºưƛř&ƪºŝŚƣ&ŵŹřŵ&İưƸºſ.&
Ƅǀŝ&żƴƏ&İŤů&ƲƯ&ƵŚĭŶƿŵŵŹřŵ&źŝ&Źŵ&įźŤ .ƶĩ&Ţſř&Ʋƿř&ƲƯ&ƵŚĭŶƿŵ&&&ƶºŝ&ƶºūƺţ &&ƶºŤĪƳ&ŹŚºƸģ&&&ݺƯ&ƱŚºƄƳ&&&ƶºĩ&ŶºƷŵ
&ƮǀºƬƘţ
&
ƶŝ&ƱŚƿƺŬƄƳřŵ&ƶƬǀſƹ&
ƲǀƤƬţ
&İƯ&Ƃǀě&ŵƹŹ :ƱƺƯŻō&ƩŚưƗÊř&ƲưƌŤƯ&įŶƤƳ&źĪƠţ&ƶĩ&Ʋƿř&ƁƹŹ&ƹ&ŚƷŹƹŚŝ&źŝ&İƿŚƷ&&Ʋƿř&[ŢſŚƷ
ƵŶưƗ&ƶĩ&ƵŹƹŵ&į&&İƏƺƬŴƯ&ƪƯŚƃ&ŪƫŚĩ&įŚƷ&Żř&[ŶƴŤƀƷ&İƴǀƤƬţ&ƝřŶƷř&ƹ&İưǀƬƘţ&ƝřŶƷřƵŹƹŵ&ƶĩ&Ʋƿř&&&Źŵ&įŶºƤƳ&źĪƠţ&įŚƷ
İưǀƬƘţ&ƞǀƏ&ƱŚǀƯ&İƿŚū İƯ&Ɩƣřƹ&İƴǀƤƬţ&º&&&&ݺƯ&ƪºƇŚů&ŽŹŵ&ŽLjºĩ&Źŵ&ƶĩ&İƿŚƷŹƹŚŝ&źŤƄǀŝ&ƶĩ&Ʋƿř&ƹ&[ŶƳƺƃ&&&Źŵ&ŶƳƺºƃ
&ƹ&ŶƳŹřŶƳ&ŢƯƹŚƤƯ&śŚţ&įŶƤƳ&İƟŚĪƃƺƯ&ƪŝŚƤƯ&ƶŤŞƫřİưƳ&Źřźƣ&Ʊō&ƉźƘƯ&Źŵ&řŹ&ŚƸƳō&İƀĩ&ÅLJƺưƘƯ&ŶƷŵ
.
Ƴ&Ǝƿřźƃ&ƲƿźŤƸŝ&Źŵ&ƱŚưƬƘƯ&ƲƿźŤƸŝ&ƶŝ&İŤůİư&ĩ&ƶŗřŹř&řŹ&ŢƤǀƤů&ƶĩ&ŵźĩ&ŵŚưŤƗř&ƱřƺţƴŶƴ .&&&&ƶºĩ&İƳŚºưƬƘƯ&ƲƿźºŤƸŝ
İƯ&&ŵŚưŤƗř&ƲƿźŤƄǀŝ&ƮǀƳřƺţƾƯ&ƁLjţ&ƮǀƴĪŝ&ŚƸƳō&ƶŝ&řŹ&Ŷƴƴĩ&ƵŚĭŶƿŵ&İſŹźŝ&ƁŻŹř&ƶĩ&Ŷƴƴĩ&ƶŗřŹř&řŹ&İƿŚƷ&ƢǀƤŰţ&ƹ&&ƶŤƃřŵ&řŹ
ŶƴƃŚŝ&źŤƄǀŝ&ƶƳ&ƹ .ƶŤƠĭ&Ʋƿř&ƶŝ&įŶƿŶū&įŚƴƘƯ&Ʋƿř&ưƿŶƣ&įİ&İƯ&ƶĩ&ŶƷŵ :ŵƺų&ŚƯř&[Ʋĩ&ŵŚưŤƗř&ƢǀƤŰţ&šƲĩ.
1
unverified
2
well-informed
3
sincere
4
careful
5
verify
6
leader
... Some incoherencies can be poetic. 21 Uncomfortable Numbers: A Poem. ...
... First, sentences are ambiguous, or polysemous: rarely if ever is a sentence unambiguous, or monosemous. Second, propositions are about something and it 21 There are several fallacies that arise in discussions of incoherencies, i.e. incoherent messages. Perhaps the most common is to think that there are sentences that somehow by nature can only be used to express incoherencies. ...
... A sentence can be used poetically or fictionally where the speaker is not responsible for the accuracy of what is expressed, but only for its poetic or literary qualities. The "pedagogical license" enjoyed by the teacher is warranted by the fact that the teacher's role demands combining the role of witness responsible for accuracy with the role of poet or storyteller responsible for something else (Corcoran 1999 ). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The �five ambiguous words--sentence, proposition, judgment, statement, and fact--each have meanings that are vague in the sense of admitting borderline cases. This paper discusses several senses of these and related words used in logic. It focuses on a constellation of recommended primary senses. A judgment is a private epistemic act that results in a new belief; a statement is a public pragmatic event involving an utterance. Each is executed by a unique person at a unique time and place. Propositions and sentences are timeless and placeless abstractions. A proposition is an intensional entity; it is a meaning composed of concepts. A sentence is a linguistic entity. A written sentence is a string of characters. A sentence can be used by a person to express meanings, but no sentence is intrinsically meaningful. Only propositions are properly said to be true or to be false--in virtue of facts, which are subsystems of the universe. The fact that two is even is timeless; the fact that Socrates was murdered is semi-eternal; the most general facts of physics--in virtue of which propositions of physics are true or false--are eternal. As suggested by the title, this paper is meant to be read aloud.
... A sentence can be used poetically or fictionally where the speaker is not responsible for the accuracy of what is expressed, but only for its poetic or literary qualities. The " pedagogical license " enjoyed by the teacher is warranted by the fact that the teacher's role demands combining the role of witness responsible for accuracy with the role of poet or storyteller responsible for something else (Corcoran 1999 ). In fact, of all the topics in logic suitable for discussion with an audience of logicians and non-logicians, this topic, despite its attractiveness, even its fascination, is hardly ever discussed. ...
Article
Full-text available
The five ambiguous words – sentence, proposition, judgment, statement, and fact – each have meanings that are vague in the sense of admitting borderline cases. This paper discusses several senses of these and related words used in logic. It focuses on a constellation of recommended primary senses. A judgment is a private epistemic act that results in a new belief; a statement is a public pragmatic event involving an utterance. Each is executed by a unique person at a unique time and place. Propositions and sentences are timeless and placeless abstractions. A proposition is an intensional entity; it is a meaning composed of concepts. A sentence is a linguistic entity. A written sentence is a string of characters. A sentence can be used by a person to express meanings, but no sentence is intrinsically meagingful. Only propositions are properly said to be true or to be false – in virtue of facts, which are subsystems of the universe. The fact that two is even is timeless; the fact that Socrates was murdered is semi-eternal; the most general facts of physics – in virtue of which propositions of physics are true or false – are eternal. As suggested by the title, this paper is meant to be read aloud.
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