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LEMON BALM (MELISSA OFFICINALIS L.) AN HERBAL MEDICINAL PLANT WITH BROAD THERAPEUTIC USES AND CULTIVATION PRACTICES: A REVIEW

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Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) is an important medicinal plant in herbal medicine. The main constituent of the essential oil of the plant is citral (geranial and neral), citronellal and geraniol. Lemon balm has been traditionally used for different medical purposes as tonic, antispasmodic, carmiative, diaphoretic, surgical dressing for wounds, sedative-hypnotic strengthening the memory and headache. Lemon balm is also used as flavouring in ice cream and herbal teas, often in combination with other herbs such as spearmint. It is also frequently paired with fruit dishes or candies. Lemon balm is also known as a hormonal herb due to its antithyroid activity. The present review is an effort to give the detailed survey of literature on its medicinal properties and cultivation practices of the plant under study.
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REVIEW ARTICLE
LEMON BALM (MELISSA OFFICINALIS L.) AN HERBAL MEDICINAL PLANT WITH BROAD
THERAPEUTIC USES AND CULTIVATION PRACTICES: A REVIEW
1, *Prawal Pratap Singh Verma, 2Anand Singh, 3Laiq-ur-Rahaman and 4Bahl, J. R.
1, 2CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Research Centre Purara,
Post Gagrigole Bageshwar-263641 (Uttrakhand), India
3, 4CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Post cimap, Kukrail Picnic Spot,
Lucknow-226015 (Uttar Pradesh), India
ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT
Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) is an important medicinal plant in herbal medicine. The main
constituent of the essential oil of the plant is citral (geranial and neral), citronellal and geraniol.
Lemon balm has been traditionally used for different medical purposes as tonic, antispasmodic,
carmiative, diaphoretic, surgical dressing for wounds, sedative-hypnotic strengthening the memory
and headache. Lemon balm is also used as flavouring in ice cream and herbal teas, often in
combination with other herbs such as spearmint. It is also frequently paired with fruit dishes or
candies. Lemon balm is also known as a hormonal herb due to its antithyroid activity. The present
review is an effort to give the detailed survey of literature on its medicinal properties and cultivation
practices of the plant under study.
INTRODUCTION
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) belongs to the mint family
and it is indigenous of Southern Europe, Mediterranean region,
Western Asia, and North Africa. Lemon balm is now cultivated
worldwide. Currently in India lemon balm is cultivated in
Kashmir, Uttrakhand and some part of South India. There are
two subspecies, Melissa officinalis subspecies Melissa
officinalis, the common cultivated lemon balm; and Melissa
officinalis sub species altissima, naturalized in New Zealand
and known as bush balm. Although Melissa officinalis sub
species officinalis is known for its lemon fragrance (Tucker,
2000). Melissa refers to honey or the honeybee because the
plant is so attractive to bees, and officinalis means a plant that
is officially used in medicine.
The Greeks called it “melisophyllon” with “meliso” meaning
“bee” and “phyllon”, denoting “leaf.” The Romans referred to
the plant as “apiastrum” from “apias”, to mean simply “bee”.
Sixteenth-century gardeners rubbed the leaves on beehives in
order to promote the production of honey. Lemon balm is a
perennial bushy plant and is upright, reaching a height of about
1 m. The soft, hairy leaves are 2 to 8 cm long and either heart-
shaped (Zargari, 1991). Melissa officinalis is used in herbal
medicine (Meftahizade et al., 2010). Dried or fresh leaves and
top aerial section of the plant which are consumed as a
medicine, perfume, cosmetic and herbal tea industries.
*Corresponding author: Prawal Pratap Singh Verma,
CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Research
Centre Purara, Bageshwar-263641 (Uttrakhand), India
Lemon balm is a versatile culinary herb which can be used to
flavor for different types of dishes, from beverages, to
appetizers, desserts. It can be added to salads, sandwiches,
soups, stews, butters, cheeses, fish, stuffings for poultry, egg
dishes, vegetables, fruit cups, jams, jellies, sauces, herb
vinegar, wine, fruits punch, cakes, custards, ice cream, cookies,
and cheesecakes (Janina, 2003). Lemon balm has medicinal
properties like carminative, digestive, diaphoretic antioxidant,
antiviral, antidepressant and stimulant activity. (Belsinger,
2007) Externally, it is used to treat herpes, sores, gout, insect
bites and other skin disease. Lemon balm is also used as an
insect repellent (Belsinger, 2002). It is a prominent
antimicrobial agent against food-borne pathogens and spoilage
bacteria. In vitro testing has identified its anti-HIV activity
against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and antitumor activity
(Bown, 2006).
Lemon balm is also used for treatment depression and sleeping
disorder. Lemon balm has been used to treat irritability and
nervousness in young girls and women, boost a lack of interest
and energy. Typically, 20–50 g of the dried leaves are infused
in 1.0 L of boiled water for 5–15 minutes, and three to four
cups of this tea are taken daily (Araujo, 2003). Essential oil of
lemon balm which is used in aromatherapy, oil of lemon balm
is considered the therapeutic principle mainly responsible for
most of the activities mentioned, but plant phenolics, especially
rosmarinic acid, are also considered to contribute to the
therapeutic potential of M. officinalis. The essential oil content
in lemon balm ranged from 0.02% to 0.30%, which is quite
low compared with other members of the Lamiaceae family.
Article History:
Received 27th, August 2015
Received in revised form
15th, September 2015
Accepted 24th, October 2015
Published online 30th, November 2015
www.ijramr.com
International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Research
Vol. 02, Issue 11, pp.0928-0933, November, 2015
Keywords:
Lemon Balm, Cultivation,
Pharmacognosy,
Photochemistry,
Pharmacology.
Because of this, the production cost and price of the essential
oil is very high in the market (Brickell, 1997). Lemon balm oil
has contain potentially active components primarily include
monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenes, in particular geranial,
neral, citronellal, geranyl acetate, β-caryophyllene,
caryophyllene oxide and 1, 8-cineole (Davis, 1997).
Botanical Description
Lemon balm is an erect herbaceous perennial plant with
opposite pairs of toothed, ovate leaves growing on square,
branching stems. Plant has a bushy appearance, its height can
range from just under 8 inches to nearly 5 feet, and plant has a
width of 12 to 24 inches (Small, 1997). Leaves may be
smoothing hairy and plant’s fruit is a tiny nutlet (Turhan,
2006). Lemon balm’s small flowers are 2-lipped, grow in
whorled clusters, and may be pale yellow, white, pinkish and
infrequently purplish or bluish and non glandular hairs
(Brickell, 1997). The plant is taxonomically classified as.
Kingdom Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Order Lamiales
Family Lamiaceae
Genus Melissa
Species M. officinalis
Binominal name Melissa officinalis
Fig. 1. Leaves of Melissa officinalis
Indian Names
Hindi Billilotan
Urdu Baranjiboya
English name Balm, lemon Balm
Pharmacognosy
Roots
Lemon balm is a spreading herb with short roots. The top of the
plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial in nature.
Leaves
Lemon balm has pairs of broadly ovate or heart shaped toothed
leaves at each node. The leaves are 30 to 50 mm long, shiny on
top, wrinkled and deeply veined.
Flower
Lemon balm has small, white or yellowish to pale blue flowers
in loose, small bunches emerging from the axils of the leaves
that appear in late spring to mid summer.
Phyto-chemistry
Lemon balm essential oil, obtained from fresh or dried flower,
leaf, and branches of this plant by water steam distillation or
chemical extraction, is characteristic with fresh lemon odor,
and light yellow colored. Its viscosity is lighter than that of
water. The main components of the essential oil are 39%
citronellal, 33% citral (citronellol, linalool) and 2% geranial. In
addition, this oil contains three terpinene, phenol carbon-acid
(rosmarinic acid), and flavonglychoside acids in low ratio.
There are also caffeic acid, several flavonoids (luteolin-7-O-
glucoside, isoquercitrin, apigenin-7-Oglucoside and
rhamnocitrin), rosmarinic acid, ferulic acid, methyl carnosoate,
hydroxycinnamic acid, and 2- (3', 4'-dihydroxyphenyl)- 1,3-
benzodioxole-5-aldehyde and some other aldehydes: beta-
caryophyllene, neral, and geranyl acetate. Shalaby (1995)
reported that the highest essential oil’s ratio (0.14%) was
obtained from the plants, cut in the beginning of blooming.
Pharmacology
Antiviral activity
Lemon balm has anti viral activity against herpes simplex virus
type 2, influenza virus A2, influenza viruses and myxoviruses
in vitro and vaccinia virus 1. In a study where tannin isolated
from aqueous extract of the lemon balm leaves inhibited
haemagglutination induced by newcastle disease virus or
mumps virus. Aqueous extracts of the leaves have been
reported to have activity against semliki forest virus (Burgett,
1980).
Antispasmodic activity
Antispasmodic activity has been found in lemon balm is due to
presence of ethanol extract of leaves and essential oil. Lemon
balm oil is very useful for mussels and joint pain. Lemon balm
oil is also used for curing arthritis (Brendler, 2005).
Psychoneurological activity
Lemon balm has Psychoneurological activity. Treatment with
lemon balm had shown to improve cognitive performance and
mood reduces induced stress and anxiolytic effects in humans
(Cunningham, 2000).
Gastrointestinal Tract
Traditionally lemon balm has been used for gastrointestinal
tract disorders, to promote digestion. According to the German
commission E monograph Melissa is indicated in functional
gastrointestinal complaints especially for spasm in the
digestive tract and flatulent dyspepsia and carminative
properties (De Sousa, 2004.)
Antioxidant Property
Essential oil of lemon balm has been shown to have
antioxidant properties which are due to the presence of mono
and sesquiterpenes components, caffeic acid and flavonoids
(Dobelis, 1986). Rosmarinic acid had an activity to protect the
liver from damage with its antioxidant action. In some recent
studies on lemon balm has shown that, it is useful in treating
hyperthyroidism and Graves disease.
International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Research 0929
Cultivation
Climate and soil
Lemon balm is require sunny days for best growth and
development. Plant performs well in moderate temperature.
Lemon balm should be cultivated in temperate and subtropical
region, it can survive moderate frost. It is required 300 to 1300
mm per annum range of rainfall for survival. Lemon balm
grows well in fertile sandy loamy soil with rich organic matter.
It is required well-drained soil with a pH of 5 to 7.5 for best
performance of crop.
Propagation
Lemon balm can be propagated from soft wood cutting and
seed. However, in commercial propagation, only soft wood
cutting is used in practice. When raising sapling, cuttings are
treated with IBA for 15 to 20 minuts. Cutting should be planted
in mixture of soil, FYM and vermicompost in bed. These are
kept in 60% shade. Cuttings are watered regularly. Saplings are
ready for transplanting in 4-5 weeks. Study has shown that the
combination of soil+ FYM+ vermicompost (1:1:1) is good for
sapling preparation. It has been observed that the combination
of soil+ FYM + vermicompost (1:1:1) is helpful for improving
survival of cutting (85 %), number of branches (6), plant height
(36 cm), number of leaves/plant (38), fresh weight/plant (1.95
g), dry weight/plant ( 0.98 g), number of root/plant (6) and root
length (11.2 cm).
Fig. 2. Transplanting of lemon balm
Fig. 3. After one month of transplanting
Transplanting
The ideal time for planting of lemon balm is February to March
in temperate region of India. Transplanting of Cuttings in the
field with the spacing of 20-30 cm apart in the row, and 50-60
cm between the plants. In some study it has been observed that
the Closer spacing will allow plants to cover the area sooner
and will result in the highest yields with fewer weed problems.
In another experiment conducted by C. Saglam et al. (2004) in
Turkey, they found that the 40 cm distance between plant to
plant and 20 cm distance between line to line are best for
plantation. Lemon balm is perennial nature crop so it has about
10 years of life, but is usually replaced every 5 years with crop
rotation with a legume crop to rejuvenate the soil.
Fertilizer requirements
Although, recommendations are not available for fertilization
of lemon balm in India. In some study yield and oil content
may be increased with nitrogen application several times
during the growing season. Lemon balm responds well to
additional applications of nitrogen during the growing season,
usually applied after harvest to promote new shoot growth.
Abbaszadeh, B et al. (2009) in Iran, the found that the nitrogen
fertilizer had significant effect on biological yield, essential oil
percentage, essential oil content, plant height and tiller number.
Highest biological yield (6788 kg /ha) and plant height (61.63
cm) were produced by application of 90 kg N /ha and highest
tiller number (32.6 tiller/plant), essential oil percentage
(0.2577%) and essential oil content (16.05 kg/ ha) were
obtained under application of 60 kg N/ha.
Irrigation
Weekly irrigation should be done for successfully growing of
crop because of the water requirement of crop is very high.
Always avoid water stagnation in the field and if possible the
crop is irrigated with sprinkler system of irrigation.
Plant protection
Weed control
Effective weed control is essential for getting good yield. 5 to 6
weeding and hoeing are required for keeping the crop free from
weeds. Some weed species are more harmful and can reduce
the quality of the crop. Amaranthus spp. and Datura spp. can
contaminate the crop severely.
Pest control
The major pest of this crop is whitefly, spider mite and thrips
are observed. White fly suck the sap from the leaves of plant
and excrete large quantity of honey dew which serves as a
growth medium for sooty mould. Spider mites feed
preferentially on the lower stem, and then move on to the upper
section of the plant and on leaves. Leaves may later turn yellow
and drop. Silk webbing may be present when the infestation is
severe. Thrips also suck the sap of leaves, causing browning
and dropping of leaves. They can also be performing as vectors
of viral diseases. All above pest are controlled by spraying of
Malathion 50 EC or Indosulphon 35 EC @ 1.50 liter per 1000
liter of water.
Fig. 4. Intercultural operation for weed management
International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Research 0930
Disease control
Lemon balm is susceptible to powdery mildew, which appears
as a dusty-white to grey coating over leaf surfaces or other
plant parts. It can be reduce by applying of wettable Sulphur or
Dinocap (Kerathan or Thiowet) can also be used to control the
disease @ 20-25 g per 10 liter of water at the initial stage of
this disease. If needed two more sprays should be given at an
interval of 15 days after first spray.
Harvesting
The aerial parts of plant are harvested after 6 month of
transplanting. Best time for harvesting just before the flowers
open when the concentration of volatile oil is at its highest.
Harvesting is done by hand on a clear and warm day. Quality
will be reduced if the leaves turn brown. In commercial
cultivation foliage can also be cut with a mechanical cutter.
Fig. 5. Manual harvesting of plants
Fig. 6. Data collection after harvesting
Postharvest and handling
Drying and distillation
Ghasemi et al. (2013), they found that the the maximum
essential oil content (0.43%) obtained in 48 hrs oven-drying
while minimum content (0.03%) obtained from drying under
microwave with the power of 500 W. Citral and Citronellal
content percentage in shade-drying with an air flow fan were
more than other drying methods, Finally they suggested that
oven-drying method has better results compared to the other
methods.
Generally lemon balm dry herb is dried in the shade to preserve
the chemical composition of the plant. Too much direct
sunlight will cause volatile oils to disappear. The volatile oil is
obtained by steam distillation of the dried herb. The chemical
properties of the dried plant material are also extracted by
different methods. The crop can be steam distilled immediately
after harvest.
Packaging
Dry leaves of lemon balm are stored in bags that allow air
flow. Plastic bags can cause fungous growth if too much
moisture is present. Essential oils can be packaged in bulk or
smaller quantities. Smaller quantities are usually more
expensive as extra handling and packaging materials are
needed. Ceramic, dark-colored glass, fluorinated plastic and
epoxy-coated aluminum containers are used. Essential oils are
volatile and as such have to be handled with care.
Storage
The oil is subject to oxidation, and as a result, it should be
stored in filled, sealed containers, out of light and kept cool.
Keep it air tight and do not expose it to heat or heavy metals.
Fig. 7. Washing of plant with fresh water before drying
Fig. 8. Drying of leaves in shade
Marketing
This plant is mostly marketed for medicinal purposes and
herbal tea as a dried product. The end producer will market it
as medicinal extracts or as herbal tea. Fresh lemon balm is
marketed as culinary herb.
Utilization
Lemon balm is one of the most expensive of the essential oils;
Essential oils are sold in bulk to wholesalers, where it is
packaged in smaller quantities, which are marketed to the
aromatherapy, perfume and cosmetic industries. Uses of
essential oil and dry herb are given below.
Cosmetic
The herb is used for skin and body care. Lemon balm hydrosol
is added to clay masks for skin healing.
International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Research 0931
Culinary
Fresh leaves of lemon balm add a magical flavour to many
dishes, oils, vinegars and herbal liqueurs. Fresh or dried leaves
make a refreshing tea, either cold or hot. The fresh leaves and
flowers are used for stuffing of vegetable, fruit salads, bean
dishes, meat and fish.
Industrial
Lemon balm is used as an herbal tea other tea blends. Oil is
used in perfume, leaves and flowers are also used in wine-
making. Lemon balm is a traditional ingredient in Herbal
liqueurs.
Fig. 9. Fresh lemon balm tea
Fig. 10. Dry leaves of lemon balm
Other
Lemon balm attracts bees, and if it is rubbed on inside of
empty beehives it will attract new bee swarms.
It also attracts beneficial insects such as parasitic wasps and
tachinid flies that prey on many common garden insect
pests.
Conclusion
Medicinal plant is the most exclusive source of life saving
drugs for majority of the world’s population. They continue to
be an important therapeutic aid for alleviating the ailments of
human kinds. Lemon balm has been traditionally used for
different medical purposes as tonic, antispasmodic,
carminative, diaphoretic, surgical dressing for wounds,
sedative-hypnotic, strengthening the memory, relief of stress
and reduce headache, but in modern pharmacology is value in
the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s, against
migraine and rheumatism, antitumor and antioxidant activities.
Very little work has been done on the biological activity and
plausible medicinal applications of the compounds and hence
extensive investigation is needed to exploit their therapeutic
utility to combat diseases. Although crude extracts of Melissa
officinalis have good medicinal properties. Modern drugs can
be developed only after extensive investigation of their
bioactivity, mechanism of action, pharmacotherapeutics,
toxicity, proper standardization and clinical trials.
Acknowledgements
The author is also thankful to Director CSIR-Central Institute
of Medicinal an Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Lucknow, for their
kind support. More over The authors are also grateful to the
authors/editors of all those articles, journals and books from
where the matter for this article has been reviewed and
discussed.
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Araujo, C., et al. 2003. Activity of essential oils from
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Belsinger, Susan and Kathleen Fisher. 2002. Encyclopedia of
gourmet herbs. In Hanson, Beth, editor Gourmet herbs:
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Bown, Deni, 2006. Personal communication. December 8 and
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American Horticultural Society A-Z encyclopedia of
garden plants. New York: DK.
Burgett, Michael 1980. The use of lemon balm (Melissa
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Cunningham, Scott. 2000. Cunningham's encyclopedia of
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International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Research 0933
... Currently, this most popular and known species, the M. officinalis, is cultivated around the world [11][12][13]. Even if the M. officinalis is indigenous to Southern Europe, the Mediterranean region, Western Asia, and North Africa, this species is now cultivated worldwide. ...
... There are two subspecies: M. officinalis subspecies M. officinalis, the commonly cultivated lemon balm; and M. officinalis subspecies altissima, naturalized in New Zealand and known as the bush balm. The M. officinalis subspecies officinalis is known for its lemon fragrance [12,14]. ...
... Fresh or dried leaves are used to prepare a refreshing tea, consumed either cold or hot. The fresh leaves and flowers are used for the stuffing of vegetables, fruit salads, bean dishes, meat, and fish [12]. It is noteworthy that the traditional use of this plant is similar in different cultures: for example, treatment of mental disorders, especially anxiety and depression, memory improvement, and relief of heart disease. ...
Article
Full-text available
Melissa officinalis has long been used in folk medicine as an integrated pharmacy, used in the treatment of many diseases since ancient times, as a remedy for headaches, indigestion, abdominal cramps, and heart failure. Lemon balm is characterized by antibacterial, antiviral and antidiabetic properties. The therapeutic benefit of this species is that it contains a wide variety of secondary metabolites such as essential oils, flavonoids, phenolic acid, and terpenes. Lemon balm contains many secondary metabolites such as eugenol, octinol, octyin, octinone, citral, hexenol and haramin, in addition to high levels of rosmarinic acid, which is used to treat many diseases in the field of alternative medicine. Lemon balm essential oils are concentrated hydrophobic oils that contain volatile chemicals that are used in food processing, where they are added to food, and in the cosmetics and perfumery industry. Despite the enormous benefits of M. officinalis aromatic oils, they do have side effects if not used properly. They can cause skin irritations, especially in children. The essential oils of this plant are effective against many types of bacteria, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and have an effective antifungal activity, especially against Candida and yeasts.
... Currently, this most popular and known species, the M. officinalis, is cultivated around the world [11][12][13]. Even if the M. officinalis is indigenous to Southern Europe, the Mediterranean region, Western Asia, and North Africa, this species is now cultivated worldwide. ...
... There are two subspecies: M. officinalis subspecies M. officinalis, the commonly cultivated lemon balm; and M. officinalis subspecies altissima, naturalized in New Zealand and known as the bush balm. The M. officinalis subspecies officinalis is known for its lemon fragrance [12,14]. ...
... Fresh or dried leaves are used to prepare a refreshing tea, consumed either cold or hot. The fresh leaves and flowers are used for the stuffing of vegetables, fruit salads, bean dishes, meat, and fish [12]. It is noteworthy that the traditional use of this plant is similar in different cultures: for example, treatment of mental disorders, especially anxiety and depression, memory improvement, and relief of heart disease. ...
Article
Full-text available
Medicinal plants are being used worldwide for centuries for their beneficial properties. Some of the most popular medicinal plants belong to the Melissa genus, and different health beneficial effects have already been identified for this genus. Among these species, in particular, the Melissa officinalis L. has been reported as having many biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumour, antiviral, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and also flatulence inhibiting effects. The beneficial properties of the Melissa officinalis, also known as “lemon balm herb”, can be related to the bioactive compounds such as terpenoids, alcohols, rosmarinic acid, and phenolic antioxidants which are present in the plant. In this updated review, the botanical, geographical, nutritional, phytochemical, and traditional medical aspects of M. officinalis have been considered as well as in vitro and in vivo and clinically proven therapeutic properties have been reviewed with a special focus on health-promoting effects and possible perspective nutraceutical applications. To evidence the relevance of this plant in the research and completely assess the context, a literature quantitative research analysis has been performed indicating the great interest towards this plant for its beneficial properties.
... Currently, this most popular and known species, the M. officinalis, is cultivated around the world [11][12][13]. Even if the M. officinalis is indigenous to Southern Europe, the Mediterranean region, Western Asia, and North Africa, this species is now cultivated worldwide. ...
... There are two subspecies: M. officinalis subspecies M. officinalis, the commonly cultivated lemon balm; and M. officinalis subspecies altissima, naturalized in New Zealand and known as the bush balm. The M. officinalis subspecies officinalis is known for its lemon fragrance [12,14]. ...
... Fresh or dried leaves are used to prepare a refreshing tea, consumed either cold or hot. The fresh leaves and flowers are used for the stuffing of vegetables, fruit salads, bean dishes, meat, and fish [12]. It is noteworthy that the traditional use of this plant is similar in different cultures: for example, treatment of mental disorders, especially anxiety and depression, memory improvement, and relief of heart disease. ...
... A moderate temperature of 15e35 C and rainfall between 500 and 600 mm well distributed over the season are required for good growth. It is particularly sensitive to drought (Moradkhani et al., 2010;Verma et al., 2015). ...
... Several studies have reported folk medicinal use of MO for memory enhancement, menstrual-inducing, cardiotonic, anxiolytic agent, nervousness and stress-induced headaches, antigas, fever-reducing, antiseptic, antimicrobial, antifungal, antispasmodic, antiparasitic, carminative, hypotensive, diaphoretic, sedative-hypnotic, hepatoprotective, effects and as surgical dressing for wounds (Moradkhani et al., 2010;Verma et al., 2015;Jalal et al., 2015;Shakeri et al., 2016;Moradpour et al., 2017). Besides, it is effective in the treatment of indigestion, colic, rheumatism, vertigo, malaise, insomnia, nausea, epilepsy, anemia, migraine, syncope, depression, hysteria, and Alzheimer's psychosis (Jalal et al., 2015;Miraj et al., 2016Miraj et al., , 2017. ...
Chapter
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common disease of the older population around the world. It causes a progressive neurodegenerative disorder linked to age. The undesirable effects of treatments for this disease limit the use of conventional drugs. However, currently scientists are interested in researching more effective natural medicines. Various plants and herbal preparations have been traditionally used for their memory and cognition enhancing abilities; many of which were extensively studied for therapeutic potential in Alzheimer’s disease. Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a medicinal plant that has a long history of use in the treatment of diseases, especially nervous system disorders. This review is aimed to present this plant (taxonomy, cultivation, phytochemical profile, traditional usages and pharmacology, treatment, mechanism of action, and safety) and also to summarize its neuroprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory characteristics in Alzheimer’s disease.
... (Lamiaceae) is a perennial edible herb commonly called lemon balm. In India; lemon balm is cultivated in Jammu and Kashmir, Uttrakhand, and some parts of South India (Prawal Verma, Anand Singh et al. 2015). MO is traditionally used as an antispasmodic, anti-insomnia tonic, carminative, painkiller, for digestion, antidepressant, memory booster, antibacterial, antiviral (Prawal Verma, Anand Singh et al. 2015). ...
... In India; lemon balm is cultivated in Jammu and Kashmir, Uttrakhand, and some parts of South India (Prawal Verma, Anand Singh et al. 2015). MO is traditionally used as an antispasmodic, anti-insomnia tonic, carminative, painkiller, for digestion, antidepressant, memory booster, antibacterial, antiviral (Prawal Verma, Anand Singh et al. 2015). MO essential oil possesses antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects (Moacă, Farcaş et al. 2018). ...
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The people in Kashmir customarily practice traditional medicines for curing various ailments. 3 nutritious herbs; Melissa officinalis L (Lamiaceae, MO), Taraxacum officinale L (Compositae, TO), and Urtica dioica L (Urticaceae, UD) were selected based on their ingestion as a folklore remedy for the treating various illness, including infections, inflammation, and cancer. We aimed to scientifically validate indigenous usage. Plant extracts were prepared by extraction in 95% methanol and subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening, total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid content (TFC), and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In vitro, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities were determined. For in vivo study; 56 Wister rats were randomly assorted into 8 groups. Rats in the control group received saline, toxicity group received Acetaminophen/paracetamol (APAP, 2 g/kg b.w) orally for 7 days. Treatment groups received 300 mg/kg of MO, TO, or UD, respectively for 7 days after APAP (2 g/kg b.w) administration. Serum inflammation markers, antioxidant parameters, and histopathology were investigated. The GC-MS of methanol extracts indicated 16 compounds in MO (21.6% 1-nitro-β-d-arabinofuranos, as major compound), 19 compounds in TO (30.06% rutin, as major compound) and 15 compounds in UD (29.86% saponin, as major compound). TO exhibited more significant antiradical capacity in DPPH assay (IC50 29.6 ± 1.12 µg/mL) and antioxidant activity in CUPRAC assay (889.34 ± 5.65 μM Trolox/g DW of extract) compared to MO (657.77 ± 5.21) and UD (534.45 ± 4.56). MO, TO and UD exhibited potent anti-proliferative potency against HT 29 and HCT 116 cancer cells, while no cytotoxicity against normal Vero cell lines. MO, TO, and UD ameliorated (p < 0.001) APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by improving elevated ALT, AST, and ALP levels and significantly (p < 0.001) decreasing TNF-α and IL-6 levels in serum. Histological examinations confirmed the biochemical findings. The present study confirmed the scientific basis for the application of (selected) medicinal herbs (studied). Plant extracts revealed antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential against APAP-induced liver injury. Further investigations to understand the mechanism of action and use in clinical trials is recommended.
... The fundamental oil substance in Melissa officinalis L. was ranged from 0.02 -0.30% (Prawal, et al. 2015), which utilized in fragrant healing. Fundamental oil substance relies upon different natural and hereditary elements, just as postharvest handling factors and the proportion between various oil constituents assume a job in their bioactivity (Lemos et al. 2017). ...
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The objective of this study was to evaluation the quality properties of Melissa leaves by different drying methods on contents of total phenolic, total flavonoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total carotenoids, total color density, browning index and essential oils, results showed that all methods of drying used (ventilated oven, microwave & shade and shade-drying) significantly decreased in content of these properties when compared with fresh leaves. The less effect was observed using microwave & Shade followed by Shade-drying while the greatest effect was observed using ventilated oven. Different drying methods which used had effect on the content of Melissa leaves essential oil. The main components of the essential oil of microwave & Shade were 4-hydroxy-7-methylcoumarin and β Carotene, while in shade-drying were 3, 2, 4, 5-Tetramethoxyflavone, iso Vitexin and4-hydroxy-7-methylcoumarin but in ventilated oven were 4-hydroxy-7-methylcoumarin and Petunidin cation.
... The profile of lemon balm-infused yoghurt was characterised with very intensive dark cream colour, uniform, dense and melting consistency, but also very intensive herbs and green tea odour and flavour, as well as bitter and astringent taste and citrus odour. Such a yoghurt profile might result from the addition of lemon balm, which was characterised by lemon taste and odour [31] and light yellow colour [54], but probably their composition might influence changes in the profile during the yoghurt production process. ...
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In the present study, the potential to design natural tea-infused set yoghurt was investigated. Three types of tea (Camellia sinensis): black, green and oolong tea as well as lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) were used to produce set yoghurt. The sensory quality (using Quantitative Descriptive Profile analysis and consumer hedonic test) and texture analysis, yield stress, physical stability and colour analysis were assessed to describe the profile of the yoghurt and influence of quality attributes of the product on the consumer acceptability of infused yoghurts in comparison with plain yoghurt. Among the analyzed plant additives for yoghurt, addition of 2% oolong tea to the yoghurt allows a functional food to be obtained with satisfactory texture and sensory properties, accepted by consumers at the same level as for control yoghurt. Both types of yoghurt were also characterised by high consumer willingness to buy, which confirms the legitimacy of using oolong tea as a natural, functional yoghurt additive that improves the sensory quality of the product. The high overall quality of yoghurt with oolong tea in comparison to other plant extracts was associated with the intensive peach flavour and odour, nectar and sweet odour and flavour, and the highest creaminess and thickness. That was confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA) where the overall sensory quality of yoghurts was mainly positively correlated with peach flavour and odour, sweet odour and yoghurt odour, while it was negatively correlated with herbs flavor and odour, and green tea flavour and odour. The sensory profile confirmed no differences in textural profile between plain yoghurt and the tea-infused one measured in the mouth, which corresponds to the result of textural properties such as firmness and adhesiveness.
... It is known as a hormonal herb because of its antithyroid activity. In the food industry, it is used as a flavoring compound in combination with other herbs such as spearmint (Verma et al., 2015). ...
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Water potential is an important factor for a successful germination. The hydrotime model can help quantify the seed germination response to water potential (ψ). This present study aimed to investigate the response of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) seed emergence rate to water deficit with six levels (−0.165, −0.35, −0.45, −0.85, −1.25, and Field Capacity (FC) with -0.03 MPa) as a pot experiment. In addition, the germination behavior was studied in six water potentials in PEG solution (0, −0.2, −0.4, −0.6, −0.8 and −1 MPa) as the completely randomized design in 2018. The data were analyzed through the hydrotime model and five distribution functions (Normal, Gumbel, Weibull, Logistic and Loglogistic) were fitted to data for lemon balm. According to the model criteria, the Logistic distribution gave the best fit by the highest adjusted R² of 0.921 and 0.989, and the lowest Akaike index (AICc) of −1677.855 and −471.777 in the germination and emergence experiments, respectively. According to the results, hydrotime constant (θH) in the two experiments were estimated to be 49.891 and 83.991 MPa h, respectively, which were significantly different (P < .001). However, there was no significant difference between the mean base water potential (ψb(50)), which were estimated as −0.340 and −0.439 MPa in the germination and emergence experiments respectively. The suggested hydrotime modeling in the present study may help predict lemon balm seed germination and emergence in soil under water deficit conditions.
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The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 has turned into a serious public health concern around the globe. Due to its high adaptability in every environment, this novel virus has outspread like fire as compared to SARS and MERS but the fatality rate is lower. This outbreak has caused illness to many people worldwide. Specially, people with lung problems and other chronic diseases are at high risk. Although there has been a convincing result in the use of chemically synthesis drugs, it has various limitations and needs performance for the treatment of the novel coronavirus. Therefore, a medicinal plant might provide a solution for the novel virus along with the recent advancement in computational methods that have paved a new path to operate complex molecules which will ultimately result in discovering new and advanced drugs. In this review, we have summarized and analyze plant-based natural product which can be used to boost the immune system or act as a remedy for patients suffering from a novel virus. This review also focuses on the structure of COVID-19, various diagnostics tools, preventive measures, and data analysis of the novel Coronavirus of India.
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The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a major public health concern around the globe. This pandemic has caused illness to many people worldwide. COVID-19 has spread more rapidly as compared to SARS and MERS due to its adaptability in every environment but the fatality rate is lower. It is more vulnerable to people having lung problems and other chronic diseases. Although there has been a convincing result in the use of chemical drugs, it has various drawbacks and required performance for the treatment of the novel coronavirus. Therefore, a medicinal plant might provide a solution for the novel virus along with the recent advancement in analytical and computational techniques that has opened new avenues to process complex natural products and to use their structures to derive new and innovative drugs. This review aimed to summarize and analyze the herbal formulae or plant-based natural product which can be used to boost the immune system or to treat patients with COVID-19. Here, we have also discussed the structure of COVID-19, various diagnostics tools, preventive methods, and data analysis of COVID-19 of India.
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Melissa officinalis L., due to its useful application in medicine, is being paid more attention. In order to establish a stable regeneration system with 4 landraces collected from different climate in Iran, major parameters such as regeneration rate, rooting percentage, shooting induction, proliferation rate, fresh and dry weight as a biomass of cells were investigated. Statistical analysis of results showed that BAP in combination with NAA had the highest regeneration in shoot tips explants. NAA in combination with IAA and kinetin had the best response to callus induction. Also 1 mgl/l NAA had a higher response to rooting than other auxins used. 2,4-D at 1.0 mg/l and BAP at 0.5 mg/l showed the highest production of fresh and dry weight, 5.48 and 0.407 g, respectively, that is approximately 20 times the initial weight of callus. 2,4-D (1 mg/l) and BAP (0.5 mg/l) had the highest cells number.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of cultivation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) in the Thrace region of north‐western Turkey, which has a rich flora with many medicinal and aromatic plants. The study evaluated two propagation methods (cuttings with roots and seedlings) and three row spacings (40 × 20 cm, 40 × 30 cm, and 50 × 30 cm). Measurement of herb fresh and dry weight, leaf dry weight, and essential oil content helped to determine the effect of propagation method and row spacing on lemon balm yield. Yields were higher in the second year than the first year. Propagation from seedlings was better than cuttings. The highest dry herb yield (11167 kg/ha) was obtained in the second year of production at 40 × 20 row spacing using seedling propagation. Essential oil percentage (0.20–0.28%) did not significantly vary with treatments and years. Therefore, 40 × 20 cm row spacing and propagation from seedlings are recommended to optimise production in the Thrace region.
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Essential oil — authenticity, production and pharmacological activity — a review.
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The essential oils of the fresh and dried herb Melissa officinalis L., grown in Egypt were subjected to GC/MS investigation. Among the 60 constituents separated, 21 were identified. The oil consisted mainly of geranial, neral, citronellal, caryophyllene oxide, β-caryophyllene and geraniol. Drying the herb prior to distillation did not change the qualitative composition of the oil, but the relative amount of some constituents was affected. Storage of the oil for one year under different conditions influenced die proportional content of some constituents. The most noticeable change was the increase in neral and geranial, while a decrease in β-caryphellyene, caryophyllene oxide and citronellal was experienced.
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An experiment was carried out using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications to study the nitrogenous fertilizer influence on quantity and quality values of balm (Melissa officinalis L.) at Iran Research Institute of Forest and Rangelands during 2005. The factor studied included nitrogenous fertilizer of ourea (0, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 kg ha -1). The analysis of variance showed that N fertilizer had significant effect on biological yield, essential oil percentage, essetial oil content, plant height and tiller number (P 0.01). Highest biological yield (6788 kg ha -1) and plant height (61.63 cm) were produced by application of 90 kg N ha -1 and highest tiller number (32.6 tiller/plant), essetial oil percentage (0.2577%) and essetial oil content (16.05 kg ha -1) were obtained under application of 60 kg N ha -1 . The results showed that optimal application of N fertilizer increased quantity and quality values of balm, but application of inordinate N fertilizer reduced all plant values. Consequently, our finding may give applicable advice to farmers and medicinal and aromatic plants researches for management and proper use of N fertilizer in farming of balm.
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The essential oils from aerial parts of Melissa officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Salvia officinalis, and Mentha piperita were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their antimicrobial activities were evaluated against five food spoilage yeasts, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Pichia membranifaciens, Dekkera anomala, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also used as a reference. The oils were preliminarily screened by a disc diffusion technique, with the most active being the oil from M. officinalis. MICs were determined by the broth dilution method, and the main components of the oils were also tested by this method. The essential oil of M. officinalis at 500 microg/ml completely inhibited the growth of all yeast species. The main component of the oil of M. officinalis is citral (neral plus geranial) (58.3%), which showed a marked fungitoxic effect, contributing to its high activity.