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Codonanthe gibbosa J. Rossini & Chautems (Gesneriaceae), a new species from the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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A new species, Codonanthe gibbosa Rossini & Chautems, is described from remnants of the Atlantic rainforest in central Espírito Santo in Brazil. It differs from the congeneric taxa by the filiform stems, small, glabrous leaves (except margin) and strongly gibbose corolla lacking brown spots in the yellow throat. An illlustration of Codonanthe gibbosa and an identification key to the species of Codonanthe (Mart.) Hanst. occurring in Espírito Santo and nearby areas are provided.
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Abstract
ROSSINI, J. & A. CHAUTEMS (2007). Codonanthe gibbosa J. Rossini &
Chautems (Gesneriaceae), a new species from the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.
Candollea 62: 000-000. In English, English and French abstracts.
A new species, Codonanthe gibbosa J. Rossini & Chautems,
is described from remnants of the Atlantic rainforest in central
Espírito Santo in Brazil. It differs from the congeneric taxa by
the filiform stems, small, glabrous leaves (except margin) and
strongly gibbose corolla lacking brown spots in the yellow throat.
An illlustration of Codonanthe gibbosa and an identification
key to the species of Codonanthe (Mart.) Hanst. occurring in
Espírito Santo and nearby areas are provided.
Key-words
GESNERIACEAE – Codonanthe – Espírito Santo – Brazil
Atlantic Forest
Résumé
ROSSINI, J. & A. CHAUTEMS (2007). Codonanthe gibbosa J. Rossini &
Chautems (Gesneriaceae), une nouvelle espèce de l'état d'Espírito Santo, Brésil.
Candollea 62: 000-000. En anglais, résumés en anglais et français.
Codonanthe gibbosa J. Rossini & Chautems, une nouvelle
espèce découverte dans des fragments de forêt pluviale atlan-
tique du centre de l'Espírito Santo au Brésil est décrite. Elle se
distingue des taxons congénériques par des tiges filiformes, de
petites feuilles glabres (à l'exception de la marge) et une corolle
fortement gibbeuse avec une gorge jaune et sans macules
brunes. Une illustration de Codonanthe gibbosa et une clé des
espèces du genre Codonanthe (Mart.) Hanst. présentes dans
l'Espírito Santo et les zones limitrophes sont fournies.
Codonanthe gibbosa J. Rossini & Chautems (Gesneriaceae),
a new species from the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil
Josiene Rossini & Alain Chautems
© CONSERVATOIRE ET JARDIN BOTANIQUES DE GENÈVE 2007ISSN: 0373-2967 Candollea 62(2): 000-000 (2007)
Addresses of the authors: JR: Museu de Biologia Prof. Mello Leitão, Rua José Ruschi 4, 29650-000 Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil.
Email: josirossini@gmail.com
AC: Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Case postale 60, CH-1292 Chambésy
Received on June 5, 2007. Accepted on August 31, 2007.
During floristic studies of the Gesneriaceae Rich. & Juss.
carried out by the first author in the municipality of Santa
Teresa, Espírito Santo, an unidentified species of Codonanthe
(Mart.) Hanst. was encountered. The species was easily rec-
ognized as new to science based on previous studies of this
genus in Brazil (CHAU TEMS, 1991, 1997, 2003). The genus
comprises now 18 species in the Neotropics, among which
11 are encountered in Brazil. In Espírito Santo 6 species were
registered so far.
Codonanthe gibbosa J. Rossini & Chautems, spec. nova
(Fig. 1)
Typus : BRAZIL. Esrito Santo : Município de Santa
Teresa, Nova Lombardia, Reserva Biológica Augusto
Ruschi, trilha da tronqueira, 8.X.2002, R. R. Vervloet &
al. 1171 (holo-: MBML 17621; iso-: G).
Proxima C. serrulatae Chautems sed caulibus filiformis,
foliis glabris integribus, sepalis minoribus ovato-lan-
ceolatis, corolla magnopere gibbosa, fauce lutea sine
maculis brunneis differt.
Epiphytic herb or subshrub, rarely rupicolous, pendent,
0.3-1.0 m, stem filiform, 0.6-1 mm in diam. (flowering
stage), young stem green turning red-brown at maturity,
pubescent near the apex, puberulent below, nodes bearing
adventicious roots, internodes 1.5-2 cm. Leaves opposite,
slightly anisophyllous, blade 1.2-2 0.8-1 cm, ovate-orbi-
cular, green, paler beneath, fleshy, glabrous except at mar-
gin, apex acute, base obtuse, margin entire, sparsely ciliate,
sometimes reddish, midrib prominent abaxially in fresh
material, lateral veins inconspicuous, petiole 1.5-3 mm,
green, puberulent. Inflorescences axillary, reduced to a sin-
gle-flowered cyme, pedicel 6-12 mm, green, sparsely pubes-
cent, often slightly curved or sigmoid in fresh material. Flo-
wers few on each stem, smaller than the leaves ; calyx lobes
5.5-7 2.5-4 mm, subequal, ovate-lanceolate, green, spar-
sely pubescent, fused at base for 2 mm, the apex acute, mar-
gin entire, reddish; corolla inserted obliquely, forming an
angle of ca. 45° in relation to the calyx main axis, 15-18 mm
long, tubular-ventricose, humped dorsally in the middle sec-
tion, strongly swollen ventrally and thinly one-furrowed late-
rally, tube at base 4,5 mm in diam., briefly narrowed to 2.3
mm and then widened up to 7.6 mm in diam., completely
white externally, throat yellow, glabrous, lobes white with
base yellow (internally) and margin diffusely pinkish; pube-
rulent externally, with short glandular trichomes internally,
the upper and lateral lobes subequal, 3-5 3-5 mm, orbi-
culate, spreading, the lower one 5-8 5-6 mm, erect and
convex ; stamens included, filaments 7-8 mm (free portion),
adnate to base of corolla for ca. 2 mm, white, anthers cohe-
rent by their apices and forming a rectangle, connective
broad ; ovary conical, 2.5-3 mm, white, villous, style 7-8
mm, white, stigma stomatomorphic, disc gland dorsal and
bilobed, 0.5-1 mm long, white. Berry 7-9 mm, globose, yel-
low, pubescent, seeds 1.2 mm, light brown, longitudinally
striate.
Etymology. – From gibba, Latin for swelling referring to
the pouch-like ventral part of the corolla.
Phenology. – Flowers from August to October ; fruits
from December to January (Fig. 2).
Distribution and ecology. – Codonanthe gibbosa is as
yet only known from the region of Alfredo Chaves and from
the area of Santa Teresa, where it thrives in the “Floresta
Ombrófila Densa” between 800 and 900 m. Only a few
populations were observed on trees overlooking small
streams. In the Reserva Ruschi, C. devosiana Lem. and very
likely C. carnosa (Gardner) Hanst. (but only observed so far
in sterile stage) were also registered.
Relationships. – This new species resembles C. serru-
lata Chautems in having a ventricose corolla and C. graci-
lis (Mart.) Hanst. in showing glabrous leaves. However, it
differs from these two taxa in size, shape or color for seve-
ral vegetative and fertile parts. The main differences are
detailed in Table 1.
Aditional material examined. – BRAZIL. Espírito Santo :
Alfredo Chaves, capoeirão meio úmido a 5 km acima de
Carolina, 1000 m., 3.XI.1987, R. Kautsky 952 (G, RB) ;
Santa Teresa, Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia, 3.IX.1998,
L. Kollmann 461 (MBML 8475); Santa Teresa, Nova Lom-
bardia, terreno N. Furlani, 18.XI.2005, L. Kollmann 8463
(MBML 25427); Santa Teresa, Reserva Biológica Augusto
Ruschi, 27.IX.2001, L. Kollmann 4784 (MBML 15320);
ibid., 31.I.2003, J. Rossini 217 (MBML 19466); ibid.,
27.VIII.2003, J. Rossini 500 (MBML 21460); ibid.,
2.IX.2003, J. Rossini 506 (MBML 21453); ibid., 4.IX.2002,
R. R. Vervloet 821 (MBML 17500, G) ; ibid., 3.X.2002, R.
R. Vervloet 1140 (MBML 17857).
Material in cultivation. – Growing in “Casa das epífi-
tas”, Museu de Biologia Mello Leitão, Santa Teresa and in
Mauro Peixoto’s collection, São Paulo (see picture on the
Brazilplant website : http ://mpeixoto.sites.uol.com.br/ges-
neriads/codonanthe/santa-teresa.html).
2– Candollea 62, 2007
Codonanthe gibbosa J. Rossini & Chautems (Gesneriaceae), a new species from the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil
3
Fig. 1. − Codonanthe gibbosa J. Rossini & Chautems. A. Habit; B. Flower, side view; C. Corolla, side view; D. Corolla, upper view; E. coro-
lla opened to show stamens; F. Coherent anthers, front and dorsal view; G. Calyx opened and corolla removed to show ovary and nectary.
[Drawn from live material, cultivated in “casa das epífitas” in the Mello Leitão Museum, vouchers J. Rossini 500 and J. Rossini 506]
[Ilustrator Josiene Rossini]
4– Candollea 62, 2007
Key to the species of Codonanthe occurring in Espírito Santo
or adjacent areas
1. Corolla base spurred, calyx with 5 unequal lobes, 1.5-10
mm, corolla 25-38 mm, fruit a pink, red or purple berry,
sect. Spathuliformae, also occurring in Bahia, Alagoas, Per-
nambuco, Amazonian basin, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru
......................................................................... C. uleana
1a. Corolla base not spurred, calyx with 5 subequal lobes,
3-15 mm, corolla 10-25 mm, fruit an orange or yellow
berry, sect. Codonanthe, occurring only in eastern and
southern Brazil ............................................................. 2
2. Leaf blade margin serrulate.......................... C. serrulata
2a. Leaf blade margin entire ................................................ 3
3. Leaves glabrous (except margin ciliate in some cases), leaf
blade ovate to lanceolate, calyx lobes 5.5-15 mm......... 4
3a. Leaves puberulent or pubescent, leaf blade orbicular or
elliptic, calyx lobes 3-5 mm........................................... 6
4. Leaf blade cordate at base, corolla tube gradually enlarged
..................................................................... C. cordifolia
4a. Leaf blade never cordate at base, corolla tube ventricose
....................................................................................... 5
5. Floriferous stem 1-1.5 mm in diam., corolla 20-25 mm,
throat yellow with brown dots, berries orange
........................................................................ C. gracilis
5a. Floriferous stem 0.6-1 mm in diam., corolla 15-18 mm,
throat yellow lacking brown dots, berries yellow
........................................................................ C. gibbosa
6. Corolla tubular and somewhat sigmoid, 20 25 mm
........................................................................ C. carnosa
6a. Corolla tubular-campanulate, 12 18 mm .... C. devosiana
Table 1. – Comparisons of shape, size and color of vegetative and fertile parts between Codonanthe gibbosa J. Rossini & Chautems
and its most closely related species C. serrulata Chautems and C. gracilis (Mart.) Hanst.
C. gibbosa C. serrulata C. gracilis
Stem (flowering stage) [mm diam.] 0.6-1 1.2-2 1 -1.5
Leaf size [mm] 12-20 x 8-10 10-18(-20) x 8-15 20-60 x 10-30
Leaf pubescence glabrous (except margin) puberulent glabrous
Leaf margin entire serrulate entire
Flower vs. leaf size smaller larger smaller
Calyx lobes size [mm] 5.5-7 x 2.5-4 7-10 x 2-2.5 7-15 x 3-8
Calyx lobes pubescence sparsely pubescent puberulent glabrous
Corolla length [mm] 15-18 20 (15-)20-25
Corolla dorsal side humped slightly arcuate slightly arcuate
Corolla ventral side strongly swollen thinly swollen lacking moderately swollen
1-furrowed laterally lateral furrow
Corolla throat yellow lacking brown dots yellow with brown dots yellow with brown dots
Corolla bottom white white with some white with many brown
wine-red dots and wine-red dots
Corolla outside coloration white white white or white with
brown dots
Corolla lobes coloration yellow for about 1/3 at entirely white entirely white
base and white for the rest,
diffusely pinkish at tip
Corolla lower lobe convex flat or slightly concave flat or slightly concave
Codonanthe gibbosa J. Rossini & Chautems (Gesneriaceae), a new species from the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil
5
Fig. 2. − Codonanthe gibbosa J. Rossini & Chautems. A. Picture of flower, side view; B. Picture of flower, front view.
[Pictures ...]
Acknowledgements
We are grateful to G. Barriera and Fred Stauffer for their
helpful comments on the manuscript. We thank Mauro Peixoto
for providing pictures and observations made on material in
cultivation in his collection. The first author thanks the Museu
de Biologia Mello Leitão in Santa Teresa for assistance in her
research and Helio de Queiroz Boudet Fernandes (MBML
curator) for hosting her in the herbarium. IBAMA (Instituto
Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renová-
veis) is gratefully acknowledged for granting collecting permit
to the project “Biodiversidade da Mata Atlântica (Subprojeto
Flora de Santa Teresa, processo n° 400360/01-2) from August
to December 2002 which included the inventory of the Ges-
neriaceae family in the Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi.
References
CHAUTEMS,A. (1991). A família Gesneriaceae na região cacaueira
do Brasil. Rev. Bras. Bot. 14: 51-59.
CHAUTEMS , A. (1997). New Gesneriaceae from São Paulo, Brazil.
Candollea 52: 159-169.
CHAUTEMS, A. (2003). Gesneriaceae. In: WANDERLEY, M. G. L., G.
J. SHEPHERD, A. M. GIULIETTI & T. S. MELHEM (ed.), Fl. Fanerog.
São Paulo 3: 75-104.
6– Candollea 62, 2007
... Os nomes dos autores de táxons foram citados segundo Brummitt & Powell (1992). A terminologia utilizada para a descrição das espécies e da família baseou-se em revisões, divulgações de novas espécies e floras sobre a família (Araujo et al., 2005;Barros et al., 2010;Blaser et al., 2012;Chautems, 1988;Chautems & Matsuoka, 2003;Chautems et al., 2005;Ferreira et al., 2015;Rossini & Chautems, 2007). ...
... Na Rebio Augusto Ruschi, a espécie é geralmente encontrada próxima a rios e córregos, sua floração ocorre de agosto a outubro e frutifica de dezembro a fevereiro. Codonanthe gibbosa é endêmica do estado ES, e até o momento os registros se restringem aos municípios de Alfredo Chaves e Santa Teresa (Rossini & Chautems, 2007). Dentre as 11 espécies descritas de Codonanthe, C. gibbosa se diferencia facilmente pelo caule filiforme, pela corola com ventre Subarbusto, epifítico ou rupícola, raízes adventícias presentes. ...
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RESUMO: Este trabalho contribui para o conhecimento da flora da Reserva Biológica (Rebio) Augusto Ruschi, Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brasil. A família Gesneriaceae está representada na área de estudo por 12 espécies distribuídas nos gêneros: Codonanthe (2 spp.), Columnea (1 sp.), Nematanthus (5 spp.), Paliavana (2 spp.) e Sinningia (2 spp.). Apresentamos chave para determinação de gêneros e espécies, além de descrições de espécies, ilustrações e comentários ecológicos e de distribuição geográfica. Palavras-chave: Botânica, Taxonomia, Floresta Atlântica. ABSTRACT: (The family Gesneriaceae in the Biological Reserve Augusto Ruschi, Santa Teresa, ES, Brazil). This work contributes to the knowledge of the flora of the Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve, Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil. The family Gesneriaceae is represented in the study area with 12 species distributed in the genera: Codonanthe (2 spp.), Columnea (1 sp.) Nematanthus (5 spp.), Paliavana (2 spp.) and Sinningia (2 spp.). We present a key for genera and species, and species descriptions, illustrations and comments ecological and geographical distribution.
... This expanded circumscription of Codonanthopsis now comprises 13 species and requires 11 new combinations. As a consequence, the genus Codonanthe s.s., is reduced to eight species all endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic forest (Chautems 1997, Rossini andChautems 2007 Epiphytic subshrub, occasionally rupiculous, never growing in ant gardens, stems pendent or creeping or ascending, sparsely branched, often producing adventitious roots. Leaves opposite, isophyllous or moderately anisophyllous, lamina fleshy, entire, sometimes serrulate, glabrous or often pubescent or pilose, foliar nectaries absent, petiole short or nearly lacking. ...
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Recent phylogenetic studies based on molecular data have indicated that the epiphytic genus Codonanthe is not monophyletic, but segregated in two unrelated clades. This result completed with a close examination of biogeographical and morphological features that characterize these lineages led to the redefinition of monophyletic genera Codonanthe and Codonanthopsis. A key to the genera and a taxonomic treatment including revised generic descriptions, a list of the currently accepted species with their complete synonymies and distribution data are provided. Codonanthe is now reduced to eight species that are endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Codonanthopsis has been enlarged from two to 13 species distributed in Central America, the Caribbean, northwestern South-America, and the Amazonian basin. This expanded circumscription of Codonanthopsis requires the transfer of ten taxa traditionally recognized as Codonanthe and one originally described in Paradrymonia. This publication includes 11 new combinations and 9 lectotypifications.
... Following previous accounts on Brazilian Gesneriaceae (CHAUTEMS, 1988(CHAUTEMS, , 1990(CHAUTEMS, , 1991a(CHAUTEMS, , 1991b(CHAUTEMS, , 1995(CHAUTEMS, , 1997(CHAUTEMS, , 2002CHAUTEMS & al., 2000ROSSINI & CHAUTEMS, 2007) and in the course of preparing a treatment of the tribe Sinningieae Fritsch for "Flora Neotropica", six new taxa of Sinningia Nees need to be published. Some of them were included in previously produced phylogenetic studies as Sinningia sp. or Sinningia sp. ...
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CHAUTEMS, A., T. C. COSTA LOPES, M. PEIXOTO & J. ROSSINI (2010). Taxonomic revision of Sinningia Nees (Gesneriaceae) IV: six new species from Brazil and a long overlooked taxon. Candollea 65: 241–266. In English, English and French abstracts. Six new species of Sinningia Nees are described: Sinningia bullata Chautems & M. Peixoto, Sinningia canastrensis Chautems, Sinningia gerdtiana Chautems, Sinningia globulosa Chautems & M. Peixoto, Sinningia helioana Chautems & Rossini, and Sinningia muscicola Chautems, T. Lopes & M. Peixoto. An additional species, thought for some time to be undescribed, was recently identified as Sinningia polyantha (DC.) Wiehler. Comments on phylogenetic relationships within tribe Sinningieae Fritsch, as well as on ecology and conservation status, are also included. Each species is illustrated and a distribution map is provided.
A família Gesneriaceae na região cacaueira do Brasil
CHAUTEMS, A. (1991). A família Gesneriaceae na região cacaueira do Brasil. Rev. Bras. Bot. 14: 51-59.
New Gesneriaceae from São Paulo
  • A Chautems
CHAUTEMS, A. (1997). New Gesneriaceae from São Paulo, Brazil. Candollea 52: 159-169.
  • Santa Teresa
  • Estação Biológica De
  • Santa Lúcia
Santa Teresa, Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia, 3.IX.1998, L. Kollmann 461 (MBML 8475);
  • Santa Teresa
  • Reserva Biológica
  • Augusto Ruschi
Santa Teresa, Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi, 27.IX.2001, L. Kollmann 4784 (MBML 15320) ;
G); ibid., 3.X Material in cultivation. – Growing in " Casa das epífitas
IX.2003, J. Rossini 506 (MBML 21453); ibid., 4.IX.2002, R. R. Vervloet 821 (MBML 17500, G); ibid., 3.X.2002, R. R. Vervloet 1140 (MBML 17857). Material in cultivation. – Growing in " Casa das epífitas ", Museu de Biologia Mello Leitão, Santa Teresa and in Mauro Peixoto's collection, São Paulo (see picture on the Brazilplant website: http://mpeixoto.sites.uol.com.br/gesneriads/codonanthe/santa-teresa.html).