Article

Assessing the Physiological Cost of Active Videogames (Xbox Kinect) Versus Sedentary Videogames in Young Healthy Males

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Abstract

Objectives: The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to compare the physiological costs of active videogames (AVGs) and sedentary videogames (SVGs) and (2) to compare the exercise intensities attained during AVGs with the exercise intensity criteria for moderate and vigorous physical activity, as stated in current physical activity recommendations for improving public health. Materials and methods: Nineteen young males participated in the study (age, 23 ± 3 years; height, 178 ± 6 cm; weight, 78 ± 15 kg). Participants completed a maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) test and a gaming session, including AVGs ("Reflex Ridge," "River Rush," and "Boxing" for the Microsoft [Redmond, WA] Kinect™) and SVGs ("FIFA 14" [Electronic Arts, Burnaby, BC, Canada] and "Call of Duty" [Activision, Santa Monica, CA]). Heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake [Formula: see text]) were recorded continuously during all videogames. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was taken every 3 minutes during AVGs and SVGs. Energy expenditure (EE), expressed as metabolic equivalents (METs), was calculated. One MET was defined as the volume of oxygen consumed at rest in a seated position and is equal to 3.5 mL of O2/kg of body mass/minute. The exercise intensity for each game was expressed as a percentage of [Formula: see text] and percentage of age-predicted maximum HR (HRmax). Results: Exercise intensity (percentage HRmax, percentage [Formula: see text], and RPE) and EE (METs) were significantly higher during active gaming compared with sedentary gameplay (P < 0.01). AVGs elicited moderate levels of exercise intensity (64-72 percent HRmax) in line with current recommended physical activity guidelines. Conclusions: Our results indicate AVGs provoke physiological responses equivalent to a moderate-intensity physical activity.

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... Research showed that AVGs can significantly increase energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity compared to sedentary video games (Graves, et al., 2010), proving to be a suitable alternative to traditional play or moderate-intensity physical activity in teen (Clevenger & Howe, 2015) and young men (Barry, et al., 2016). Considering the popularity of Zumba ® Classes (ZC) among fitness activities (Thompson, 2011(Thompson, , 2012, several AVGs and DVDs have been developed. ...
... In particular, considering that sedentary video games elicit EE about one MET (Barry, et al., 2016;Graves, et al., 2010), researchers (Ainsworth, et al., 2011;Barry, et al., 2016;Graves, et al., 2010) highlighted that AVGs can be classified as light intensity (<3.0 MET, i.e., Wii Fit ® balance, Wii Fit ® boxing, Wii Fit ® yoga, Wii Fit ® muscle conditioning), moderate intensity (3.0-5.9 MET, i.e., Wii Fit ® aerobic exercise, Wii Fit ® resistance exercise, Wii Fit ® strength exercise, Dance Dance Revolution ® for novice people, bike for Xrtainment Zone, boxing for Xrtainment Zone, 3-Kick for Xrtainment Zone) and vigorous intensity (>6.0 MET, i.e., Boxing for Xbox Kinect, Reflex Ridge for Xbox Kinect, River Rush for Xbox Kinect, Dance Dance Revolution ® with self-selected or level four difficulty) activities according to ACSM's guidelines (ACSM, 2014). ...
... In particular, considering that sedentary video games elicit EE about one MET (Barry, et al., 2016;Graves, et al., 2010), researchers (Ainsworth, et al., 2011;Barry, et al., 2016;Graves, et al., 2010) highlighted that AVGs can be classified as light intensity (<3.0 MET, i.e., Wii Fit ® balance, Wii Fit ® boxing, Wii Fit ® yoga, Wii Fit ® muscle conditioning), moderate intensity (3.0-5.9 MET, i.e., Wii Fit ® aerobic exercise, Wii Fit ® resistance exercise, Wii Fit ® strength exercise, Dance Dance Revolution ® for novice people, bike for Xrtainment Zone, boxing for Xrtainment Zone, 3-Kick for Xrtainment Zone) and vigorous intensity (>6.0 MET, i.e., Boxing for Xbox Kinect, Reflex Ridge for Xbox Kinect, River Rush for Xbox Kinect, Dance Dance Revolution ® with self-selected or level four difficulty) activities according to ACSM's guidelines (ACSM, 2014). ...
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Active video games (AVG) increase energy expenditure (EE) with respect to sedentary video games. Although several AVG consoles allow playing in single-player (SP) or multiplayer (MP) mode, few studies investigated differences in relation to game modality in men and women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate gender-related psycho-physiological responses during Zumba Fitness Rush (ZFR) played in SP vs. MP mode. Twenty-four college students (women: 14, men: 10; age: 24.6±2.0 years; body weight: 60.2±12.5 kg; body height: 167.8±11.5 cm; BMI: 21.2±2.1 kg·m-2) participated in two experimental sessions: SP (a subject playing ZFR alone) and MP (two subjects playing ZFR simultaneously). Heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2) and EE (MET and kcal∙min-1) were continuously measured and averaged every 10 seconds, while Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) was recorded 30 minutes after the end of each session. A two (gender: women vs. men) by two (modality: SP vs. MP) ANOVA for repeated measures was applied. No differences emerged in relation to gender and game mode for %HRmax, VO2, MET, and RPE. Conversely, a main effect (p=.0007) for gender was found in EE, with significantly (p<.004) higher values in men in SP (women: 5.5±0.6 kcal·min-1; men: 8.3±1.4 kcal·min-1) and MP (women: 5.3±0.7 kcal·min-1; men: 7.6±1.9 kcal·min-1). Present findings suggest that ZFR could be classified as a moderate physical activity, proving to be an alternative form to traditional exercise. Although an effect of number of players could be expected, different player modes did not affect EE, probably because the rhythm of the music imposes a time constraint, independently of the presence of other players.
... The main findings of this review show exergaming has the potential to elicit moderate. 6,7,[15][16][17]21,24,34 and vigorous. 12,16,22,34 exercise intensities and could potentially be substituted for traditional exercise. ...
... 6,7,[15][16][17]21,24,34 and vigorous. 12,16,22,34 exercise intensities and could potentially be substituted for traditional exercise. While not all exergame activities met recommended intensity levels, they are still preferred to being sedentary. ...
Article
Objective: This review evaluates current literature on intensity selection, perceptual responses, activity enjoyment and adherence rates of exergaming. Methods: The literature search identified manuscripts that investigated exercise intensity, perceptual responses, or exercise adherence of exergaming in young adults. Results: Based on results of 29 studies, the current review suggest some exergaming activities have the potential to elicit moderate to vigorous exercise intensity and could potentially be substituted for traditional exercise. Additionally, exergame activities may aid in the start of exercise adherence by lowering the individual's perceived exertion when playing exergames. Exergaming not only has the potential to enhance enjoyment through an exercise objective but also through the distracting nature of video games. Conclusions: Exergaming shows potential to be substituted for traditional exercise and could offer a new, varied form of exercise for sedentary individuals. Future research should examine the influence of exergaming experience on intensity selection and adherence rates.
... Overall, the available data tend to show that there are no or only minor stress reactions in CG. A similar inconsistency was seen in metabolic parameters, where the existing studies on CG found no or only a slight increase in oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) and EE (Lanningham-Foster et al., 2009;Lyons et al., 2011;Barry et al., 2016). At the same time, the respiration rate in the non-competitive setting decreased during the game (Staude-Müller et al., 2008). ...
... At the moment, there is no literature data in the competitive esports area for comparison, but in the CG sector, the same tendencies can be observed in the metabolic reaction, as shown in this study. In chess as well as in CG players, there were no or only minimal increases in respiration rate,VO 2 and EE (Staude-Müller et al., 2008;Lanningham-Foster et al., 2009;Lyons et al., 2011;Barry et al., 2016). As the only study to date that investigated metabolism and EE in esports, the case study by Haupt et al. likewise did not detect an increase in metabolic response or EE. ...
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Introduction: Esports is practiced by millions of people worldwide every day. On a professional level, esports has been proven to have a high stress potential and is sometimes considered equivalent to traditional sporting activities. While traditional sports have health-promoting effects through muscle activity and increased energy expenditure, amateur esports could represent a purely sedentary activity, which would carry potentially harmful effects when practiced regularly. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the acute effects of esports on the cardiovascular system and energy expenditure in amateur esports players to show whether esports can be considered as physical strain or mental stress or whether amateur esports has to be seen as purely sedentary behavior. Methods: Thirty male subjects participated in a 30-min gaming session, playing the soccer simulation game FIFA 20 or the tactical, first-person multiplayer shooter Counter-Strike: Global Offensive. Respiratory and cardiovascular parameters, as well as energy expenditure, blood glucose, lactate, and cortisol, were determined pre-, during, and post-gaming. Results: There were no significant changes in oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, energy expenditure, stroke volume, or lactate levels. Heart rate, blood glucose and cortisol decreased through the intervention until reaching their minimum levels 10 min post-gaming (Cortisol pre : 3.1 ± 2.9 ng/ml, Cortisol post : 2.2 ± 2.3 ng/ml, p < 0.01; HR min0.5 : 82 ± 11 bpm, HR post : 74 ± 13 bpm, p < 0.01). Conclusion: A 30-min esports intervention does not positively affect energy expenditure or metabolism in amateur esports players. Therefore, it cannot provide the same health-promoting effects as traditional sports participation, but could in the long-term rather cause the same potentially health-damaging effects as purely sedentary behavior. However, it does not trigger a negative stress response in the players. Deliberate physical activity and exercise routines adapted to these demands should therefore be part of the daily life of amateur esports players.
... The results are similar to study by Wu et al. 29 , but in several other studies, the intensity of boxing exergames using Nintendo Wii and XBOX Kinect lies within mild to moderate category. 26,30 This difference in relative intensity between Borg's RPE and %HRmax can be caused by the fact that the Borg's RPE is more subjective and was obtained after playing, while the %HRmax is more objective because the heart rate was monitored continuously during playing. Another possibility was because playing EXG VR "Fitness Boxing" is fun, as stated by Perusek et al. 31 32,33 Although the results of this study support the potential use of the EXG VR "Fitness Boxing" using the popular Nintendo Switch ™ commercial videogame console as an alternative option in an effort to increase physical activities, there are several limitations, such as: (1) The research setting is conducted on a laboratory basis so that it may produce different results when conducted in the actual environment/condition; ...
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Background: Physical activity (PA) has been associated with multiple health benefits. However, the global population does not meet the PA recommendations. Virtual reality exergaming (VR EXG) can become an option to increase PA because it is fun, relatively easy to access and affordable through popular commercial devices.Aim: To investigate the immediate cardiovascular responses(blood pressure, heart rate), quantification of PA intensity(percentage of maximum heart rate (%HRmax), Borg’s rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and the level of enjoyment using visual analog scale (VAS) while playing VR EXG.Material and Methods: Fifteen healthy men (aged 31.87±3.14 years old, body mass index 23.77±2.47 kg/m2) undergone three“Fitness Boxing” Nintendo Switch™ playing modes in the same order: (1) single player-normal tempo, (2) single player-fast tempo and (3) versus. During playing, participant’s HR was monitored using Polar H10 heart rate sensor. Blood pressure was measured before and after playing. Borg’s RPE and VAS were collected after playing.Results: Our results showed significant heart rate and systolic blood pressure increase (p = 0.001) in all three playing conditions, whereas diastolic blood pressure was relatively constant (p > 0.05). The Borg’s RPE were in 12-13 range (moderate) and %HRmax range between 72- 81% (vigorous). The enjoyment level was found greatest in versus mode compared to other playing modes.Conclusion: VR EXG Nintendo Switch™ “Fitness Boxing” can elicit immediate cardiovascular responses and provides an enjoyable moderate to vigorous PA intensity in healthy male adults, and can be used to meet the weekly PA recommendations.
... In relation to the physical conditioning potential, Brito-Gomes et al., (2015) carried out a study in which the subjects of the EXG group trained during 6 weeks, 3 weekly sessions of 30 minutes with improvement of the physical capacity in relation to the control. The intensity, based on the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM), was classified as moderate, that is, reaching 40% to 60% of the RRF or 3 to 6 METs, as demonstrated in the study by Barry et al., (2016) and in a published meta-analysis by Peng, Lin and Crouse (2011). Many works also used, among the EXG, dance games such as Dance Dance Revolution® and Just Dance (Staianoet al., 2016, Lin, 2015, Peng, Lin and Crouse, 2011, Trout and Zamora, 2008. ...
... AVG are a genre of serious games and games for health with a high level of enjoyment (LE) to play it that requires body movement to move the game forward, assisting to improve fitness levels and develop motivation and self-efficacy for PA [6][7][8] . Despite AVG share common physiological responses with other forms of exercise 6,9 , little attention is given to blood glucose (BG) and other cardiovascular parameters in response to AVG, which could be an alternative to analyzing the physical effort at home. ...
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Objetivo: Analisar glicemia aguda, variáveis cardiovasculares e nível de satisfação à prática (LE) de adultos saudáveis em resposta aos videogames ativos (AVG).Métodos: Quatorze adultos realizaram uma sessão de AVG de 30 minutos. Frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD), duplo produto (DP) e glicemia foram registrados em repouso, imediatamente após e 30 minutos após sessão de AVG. Ao final, os participantes relataram percepção subjetiva de esforço (PSE, escala 6-20) e LE (escala 0-10).Resultados: Os participantes alcançaram 55,5% da reserva da FC e PSE elevada (Média=15). A glicemia reduziu (−10,3 mg·dL−1) e FC (+85 bpm), PAS (+23,8 mm Hg) e DP (+12852 mm Hg × bpm) aumentaram imediatamente após a sessão e retornaram aos valores de repouso após 30 minutos. A PAD não apresentou alterações significantes ao longo do tempo. Níveis elevados de LE foram encontrados (Média=8,6).Conclusão: Uma sessão de 30 minutos de AVG em intensidade moderada reduziu a glicose sanguínea e promoveu alterações hemodinâmicas seguras e alto nível de satisfação em adultos.
... Clinical populations, especially individuals with functional limitations have shown improvements in energy efficiency and expenditure using AG [10]. However, in healthy populations, most forms of AG have not been found to elicit levels of energy expenditure comparable to conventional exercises (walking, cycling) [5,6,11,12] and therefore, may not be suitable for health promotion [13,14]. Only whole-body AG performed on various commercially-available platforms has been shown to elicit substantial energy expenditure ranging −18-30 kJ/min·kg, matching or even exceeding levels of energy expenditure induced by treadmill walking at −5 km/h [15]. ...
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Virtual reality using head-mounted displays (HMD) could provide enhanced physical load during active gaming (AG) compared to traditional displays. We aimed to compare the physical load elicited by conventional exercise and AG with an HMD. We measured energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate (HR) in nine healthy men (age: 27 ± 5 years) performing three testing components in a randomised order: walking at 6 km/h (W6), AG, and AG with an additional constraint (AGW; wrist-worn weights). Although we found that HR was not significantly different between W6 and the two modes of AG, actual energy expenditure was consistently lower in AG and AGW compared to W6. We observed that playing AG with wrist-worn weights could be used as a means of increasing energy expenditure only at maximum game level, but ineffective otherwise. Our findings indicate that AG in an HMD may not provide a sufficient stimulus to meet recommended physical activity levels despite increased psychophysiological load. The differential outcomes of measures of HR and EE indicates that HR should not be used as an indicator of EE in AG. Yet, adding a simple constraint (wrist-worn weights) proved to be a simple and effective measure to increase EE during AG.
... Exergaming, defined as the combination of exercise and gaming, is a relatively new intervention idea, whereby the user must use physical movements in order to interact with a game [24]. Such games can be played through hand-held controllers (Nintendo Wii), physical movement captured through video-cameras (Sony EyeToy and Microsoft Xbox Kinect) or weight-sensing platforms (Dance Dance Revolution [DDR] and Nintendo Wii Fit) [25]. Exergaming has been found to be an acceptable method for exercising among older adults [26,27]. ...
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Background Individuals with cancer have reduced quality of life, functionality, range of motion, strength, and an increase in pain and fatigue. Exergaming appears to be an effective rehabilitation tool for Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and post-stroke patients to improve functionality, balance and quality of life; however, the usefulness of exergaming in individuals with cancer is unknown. The aim of this systematic review is to describe exergaming interventions delivered to adults with a current or previous cancer diagnosis and to report the feasibility, acceptability and outcomes of such interventions. Methods Studies reporting on exergaming interventions delivered to individuals with a current or previous cancer diagnosis were included. 12 electronic databases were searched. Eight articles (seven interventions) were identified. Data were extracted and assessed for quality by two reviewers. Results Three interventions were delivered at hospital, two at home, one at a clinical laboratory, and one did not report. Two interventions were delivered by a physiotherapist, two by an occupational therapist, and one by a nurse, research staff and an exercise physiologist. The Nintendo Wii was used in four of seven studies, whilst the remaining three used the IREX system, BrightArm Duo Rehabilitation System or a custom made exergame. Studies showed that most participants enjoyed the exergaming intervention, and would recommend their use, with some preferring exergaming over standard care interventions. Adherence rates and enjoyment appear greater during exergaming than standard care. Exergaming interventions appear to support improvements balance, function, physical activity levels, strength, fatigue, emotions, cognition and pain. Conclusion Exergaming interventions delivered to individuals with cancer show great heterogeneity; differing in duration, frequency and gaming platform. The disease stage and severity of those included, and the outcome measures assessed also vary widely making it difficult to conclude its effectiveness at this time. However, adherence rates and enjoyment appear greater during exergaming compared to standard care, supporting the feasibility and acceptability of this type of intervention delivery for adults with cancer.
... These investigators observed improvements in VO 2 for any given workload without a change in peak VO 2 and hypothesized that this was due to improved movement efficiency. Kinect-based gaming has been shown to provide moderate to vigorous cardiovascular exercise in healthy [41,42], post-stroke, and cystic fibrosis [43] populations. Work by Sampaio et al. [20] found improved measures of HR variability to correlate with improved VO 2 max in individuals post-stoke who reached ACSM guidelines for physical activity when exercising with commercial Xbox Kinect games. ...
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Full text: https://archivesphysiotherapy.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40945-017-0033-9; Motion capture virtual reality-based rehabilitation has become more common. However, therapists face challenges to the implementation of virtual reality (VR) in clinical settings. Use of motion capture technology such as the Xbox Kinect may provide a useful rehabilitation tool for the treatment of postural instability and cardiovascular deconditioning in individuals with chronic severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a Kinect-based VR intervention using commercially available motion capture games on balance outcomes for an individual with chronic TBI. The secondary purpose was to assess the feasibility of this intervention for eliciting cardiovascular adaptations.
... These results suggest that games requiring more dynamic movement (jogging and Kinect games) demand greater physiological response and energy expenditure. This also reflects Barry et al. [42] who found that young males achieved moderate intensity exercise [64-72 % HRmax] for exergaming using the XBOX Kinect™. The results indicate that moderate intensity exercise is achievable using the XBOX Kinect in young healthy adults. ...
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Background The use of exergaming is a potential alternative to traditional methods of balance training, which can be repetitive and somewhat monotonous. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exergaming using XBOX Kinect™ versus traditional gym-based exercise with no virtual stimuli (TGB) on postural control, technology acceptance, flow experience and exercise intensity, in young healthy adults. Methods Fifty healthy active adults (age: 33.8 ± 12.7 years, height: 172.9 ± 11.9 cm, weight: 75 ± 15.8 kg) were recruited; 44 completed both baseline and post-intervention data collection. Participants were randomised (blind card) allocation to one of two groups: (1) received balance training using the XBOX Kinect™ and (2) performed traditional gym-based exercise. Exercises were matched for intensity, duration and movement patterns across groups. All participants completed three, 30-minute, exercise sessions a week for four weeks. Postural sway was measured using a Kistler™ Force platform during unipedal standing. Mean heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected during each exercise session to determine and verify that intensity of exercise was matched between groups. Technology acceptance was measured with the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and flow experience with the Flow State Scale (FSS). ResultsHeart rate was matched between groups and BORG RPE was significantly lower in the Kinect™ group. There were significant between-group differences in postural sway in the medial-lateral direction and CoP. There were also significant differences in technology acceptance between groups for performance expectancy, social influence and behavioral intention, with higher values in the Kinect exercise group. The flow state scale showed significant differences between the groups on several dimensions, with higher values in the Kinect exercise group. Conclusion Objective physiological demand of exercise (HR) was matched across groups, but the exergaming group perceived it as being less demanding and of lower intensity. This suggests that exergaming may offer an alternative method of rehabilitation exercise through improved concordance. Balance training in healthy adults using the Kinect is both accepted and intrinsically motivating. Trial registrationRetrospectively registered on 27th July 2016. Trial number NCT02851017.
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Introduction: Technology based on active video games is an attractive tool for the realization of physical activity, adding this technology to a functional circuit promotes the integration of visual, auditory, proprioceptive stimuli and generates an aerobic response. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular response of university students, through a functional circuit that includes activities with X-box Kinect and Fitlight trainer™. Materials and methods: Descriptive study which included by open call, students of a university institution between 18 and 25 years old, apparently healthy, who made a circuit consisting of 4 stations, which repeated three times with one minute of recovery, for a total duration of 38 minutes. The variables of heart rate (HR), perceived effort and percentage of HR achieved with respect to maximum HR were evaluated. Results: 13 participants, 8 men and 5 women, classified as active and sedentary, achieved moderate to high intensity levels during training, close to 90% of maximum HR; In terms of perceived effort, both groups classified the activity as “intense”. Conclusions: The proposed functional circuit stimulates the aerobic threshold in active and sedentary population. This may be related to the high intensity handled in the circuit in a short period of time, in addition to the muscular requirement during the use of virtual elements such as the X-box Kinect. It is possible to generate exercise programs with the use of technology that are novel and attractive in young population, to reduce sedentary lifestyle.
Article
Objective: Studies investigating the effects of exergaming in available platforms are still limited. This review aims to systematically identify available studies on physiological intensities of exergaming boxing in able-bodied adults and recategorize them based on different platforms or environments. The meta-analysis further analyzes the physiological responses during exergaming boxing into a set of pooled data for any evidence of outliers, heterogeneity, or publication bias. Materials and Methods: A systematic search was conducted by using databases from Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science. Population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) and preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used in the study selection process for the review. Results: From the 1534 articles examined, 16 articles were included for further analyses. Results indicated that exergaming boxing exhibits a wide range of metabolic equivalent of task (MET) values and intensity, from very light to vigorous, with elements of heterogeneity and bias detected. The Xbox® Kinect boxing platform produced higher MET (mean = 5.3) compared with the Nintendo® Wii™ boxing (mean = 3.8). Conclusion: The results of this review suggest that boxing exergames can produce intensity-adequate physical activity among younger adults that are beneficial for cardiometabolic improvements, regardless of platforms used. Exergaming boxing may be employed as an effective exercise tool to increase energy expenditure and physical activity level in young adults.
Article
Background: Individuals with mild cognitive impairment and dementia have impaired physical and cognitive functions, leading to a reduced quality of life compared with those without such impairment. Exergaming, which is defined as a combination of exercise and gaming, is an innovative, fun, and relatively safe way to exercise in a virtual reality or gaming environment. Therefore, exergaming may help people living with mild cognitive impairment or dementia to overcome obstacles that they may experience regarding regular exercise and activities. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to review studies on exergaming interventions administered to elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment and dementia, and to summarize the results related to physical and cognitive functions such as balance, gait, executive function, and episodic memory. Methods: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Amed, and Nursing Database for articles published from the inception of the respective databases to January 2019. We included all clinical trials of exergaming interventions in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and dementia for review. The risk of bias was independently evaluated by two reviewers using the Cochrane Collaboration and Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions tools. Results: Ten studies involving 702 participants were included for review. There was consistent evidence from 7 studies with a low risk of bias showing statistically significant effects of exergaming on cognitive functioning in people with mild cognitive impairment and dementia. With respect to physical function, 3 of 5 full-scale studies found positive results, and the intensity of most games was classified as moderate. Conclusions: Overall, exergaming is an innovative tool for improving physical and cognitive function in people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia, although there is high heterogeneity among studies in terms of the duration, frequency, and gaming platform used. The quality of the included articles was moderate to high. More high-quality studies with more accurate outcome indicators are needed for further exploration and validation of the benefits of exergaming for this population.
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O envelhecimento populacional é considerado um fenômeno de amplitude mundial. Diversas alterações são provocadas pelo envelhecimento, entre elas, o aumento da prevalência de transtornos do humor, como a depressão e a ansiedade. Evidências científicas demonstram efeito positivo de diversos tipos de exercício físico na redução desses sintomas. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: a) avaliar o efeito agudo de atividades realizadas no Xbox Kinect sobre o estado de humor de idosos destreinados; b) verificar as possíveis relações entre o grau de diversão da atividade e a melhora no humor. Foram selecionados vinte e nove idosos (15 homens e 14 mulheres), com idade de 66,4 ± 0,8 anos (média ± erro padrão). Os participantes foram avaliados em duas condições: Condição Controle (CC), na qual os participantes assistiram ao filme “A Marcha dos Pinguins” (60 minutos) e Condição Experimental (CE), que consistiu em uma sessão de atividades no Xbox Kinect com duração de 60 minutos. A ordem das condições foi definida de forma aleatória. O estado de humor foi avaliado nos momentos de pré e pós-intervenções através da aplicação do questionário de POMS (Profile of Mood States). A Escala de PACES (Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale) foi utilizada para avaliar o grau de diversão das atividades. Para ambas as condições, houve uma redução significante dos escores de tensão-ansiedade, de depressão e do distúrbio total de humor (p ≤ 0,05). Não foram observadas diferenças significantes entre as condições nas variáveis estudadas. Houve uma significante correlação negativa, na CE, entre o percentual de diversão e os deltas dos escores de tensão-ansiedade (r= -0,40), depressão (r= -0,40) e o distúrbio total de humor (r= -0,49), avaliado pelo POMS (p ≤ 0,05). Por outro lado, não foram encontradas correlações significantes na CC, para as mesmas variáveis. Assim, pode-se concluir que a sessão aguda de atividade no Xbox Kinect, bem como a condição controle (filme) promoveram melhoras no estado de humor de idosos destreinados, no entanto, os tamanhos de efeito observados após a CC foram inferiores (pequenos) aos observados após a CE (médios), indicando efeitos clínicos mais significantes na CE. Além disso, quanto maior foi a diversão durante a atividade realizada no Xbox Kinect, maior foi a melhora no estado de humor.
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Electronic games (e-games) are widely used by children, often for substantial durations, yet to date there are no evidence-based guidelines regarding their use. The aim of this paper is to present guidelines for the wise use of e-games by children based on a narrative review of the research. This paper proposes a model of factors that influence child-e-games interaction. It summarises the evidence on positive and negative effects of use of e-games on physical activity and sedentary behaviour, cardio-metabolic health, musculoskeletal health, motor coordination, vision, cognitive development and psychosocial health. Available guidelines and the role of guidelines are discussed. Finally, this information is compiled into a clear set of evidence-based guidelines, about wise use of e-games by children, targeting children, parents, professionals and the e-game industry. These guidelines provide an accessible synthesis of available knowledge and pragmatic guidelines based on e-game specific evidence and related research.
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To explore the outcomes of an Xbox Kinect intervention on balance ability, enjoyment and compliance for previously injured young competitive male athletes. Experimental pre-/post-test design with random assignment. Sixty-three previously injured young competitive male athletes, aged 16 ± 1 years. Participants were divided into three groups: one group received Xbox Kinect (XbK) training, one group received Traditional physiotherapy (TP) training, and one group did not receive any balance training (Control). Intervention involved a 24 min session, twice weekly for 10 weeks. Overall stability index (OSI) and limits of stability (LOS) scores using the Biodex Stability System. Enjoyment using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. Self-reported compliance. Both experimental groups demonstrated an improvement in OSI and LOS mean scores for the right and the left limb after the intervention. In addition, the results revealed important differences between the experimental groups and the control group on balance test indices. Group enjoyment rating was greater for XbK compared with TP, while the compliance rating was not. These findings suggest that the use of XbK intervention is a valuable, feasible and pleasant approach in order to improve balance ability of previously injured young competitive male athletes.
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There is growing interest in the role of sedentary behavior as a risk factor for poor health, independent of physical activity (PA). To guide the spectrum of descriptive, analytic, and intervention studies on sedentary behavior, the authors advocate a behavioral epidemiology framework. This 5-phase framework is useful because it outlines a series of sequential stages important for developing, evaluating, and diffusing interventions to reduce sedentary behavior and improve population health. Studies of sedentary behavior and health outcomes (phase I) have found consistent evidence that excessive use of screen-based media is linked to overweight and obesity in children, and there is some evidence among adults that overall sedentary time is associated with risk factors for cardiometabolic disease, some cancers, and mortality. Biological mechanisms to explain possible relationships have started to emerge but are mostly based on animal models. Obtaining valid and reliable measurements of sedentary behavior (phase II) remains a research priority because self-reports are prone to recall bias, and it appears that sedentary habits do not appear to be well represented by measures of individual behaviors such as TV viewing. Studies have identified few modifiable correlates of sedentary behavior (phase III), although research appears to be limited to studies of TV viewing or to scenarios in which sedentary behavior is defined as an absence of PA. Rigorous intervention research (phase IV) has focused almost exclusively on reducing self-reported TV viewing among children and adolescents, and there is consistent evidence that these interventions are efficacious. There appear to be no interventions focused exclusively on reducing sedentary behavior of adults. Translation studies (phase V) are absent because the underlying evidence is still emerging. Future research should focus on examining causal associations between sedentary behavior and health, developing objective measures of domain-specific sitting time, and identifying modifiable correlates of sedentary behavior that can be used as leverage points for behavioral interventions.
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Objective To evaluate the physiologic responses and energy expenditure of active video gaming using Kinect for the Xbox 360. Design Comparison study. Setting Kirkby Sports College Centre for Learning, Liverpool, England. Participants Eighteen schoolchildren (10 boys and 8 girls) aged 11 to 15 years. Main Exposure A comparison of a traditional sedentary video game and 2 Kinect activity-promoting video games, Dance Central and Kinect Sports Boxing, each played for 15 minutes. Physiologic responses and energy expenditure were measured using a metabolic analyzer. Main Outcome Measures Heart rate, oxygen uptake, and energy expenditure. Results Heart rate, oxygen uptake, and energy expenditure were considerably higher (P < .05) during activity-promoting video game play compared with rest and sedentary video game play. The mean (SD) corresponding oxygen uptake values for the sedentary, dance, and boxing video games were 6.1 (1.3), 12.8 (3.3), and 17.7 (5.1) mL · min–1 · kg–1, respectively. Energy expenditures were 1.5 (0.3), 3.0 (1.0), and 4.4 (1.6) kcal · min–1, respectively. Conclusions Dance Central and Kinect Sports Boxing increased energy expenditure by 150% and 263%, respectively, above resting values and were 103% and 194% higher than traditional video gaming. This equates to an increased energy expenditure of up to 172 kcal · h–1 compared with traditional sedentary video game play. Played regularly, active gaming using Kinect for the Xbox 360 could prove to be an effective means for increasing physical activity and energy expenditure in children.
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The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide guidance to professionals who counsel and prescribe individualized exercise to apparently healthy adults of all ages. These recommendations also may apply to adults with certain chronic diseases or disabilities, when appropriately evaluated and advised by a health professional. This document supersedes the 1998 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Position Stand, "The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults." The scientific evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of exercise is indisputable, and the benefits of exercise far outweigh the risks in most adults. A program of regular exercise that includes cardiorespiratory, resistance, flexibility, and neuromotor exercise training beyond activities of daily living to improve and maintain physical fitness and health is essential for most adults. The ACSM recommends that most adults engage in moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥30 min·d on ≥5 d·wk for a total of ≥150 min·wk, vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥20 min·d on ≥3 d·wk (≥75 min·wk), or a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise to achieve a total energy expenditure of ≥500-1000 MET·min·wk. On 2-3 d·wk, adults should also perform resistance exercises for each of the major muscle groups, and neuromotor exercise involving balance, agility, and coordination. Crucial to maintaining joint range of movement, completing a series of flexibility exercises for each the major muscle-tendon groups (a total of 60 s per exercise) on ≥2 d·wk is recommended. The exercise program should be modified according to an individual's habitual physical activity, physical function, health status, exercise responses, and stated goals. Adults who are unable or unwilling to meet the exercise targets outlined here still can benefit from engaging in amounts of exercise less than recommended. In addition to exercising regularly, there are health benefits in concurrently reducing total time engaged in sedentary pursuits and also by interspersing frequent, short bouts of standing and physical activity between periods of sedentary activity, even in physically active adults. Behaviorally based exercise interventions, the use of behavior change strategies, supervision by an experienced fitness instructor, and exercise that is pleasant and enjoyable can improve adoption and adherence to prescribed exercise programs. Educating adults about and screening for signs and symptoms of CHD and gradual progression of exercise intensity and volume may reduce the risks of exercise. Consultations with a medical professional and diagnostic exercise testing for CHD are useful when clinically indicated but are not recommended for universal screening to enhance the safety of exercise.
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Computer use by children at home and school is now common in many countries. Child computer exposure varies with the type of computer technology available and the child's age, gender and social group. This paper reviews the current exposure data and the evidence for positive and negative effects of computer use by children. Potential positive effects of computer use by children include enhanced cognitive development and school achievement, reduced barriers to social interaction, enhanced fine motor skills and visual processing and effective rehabilitation. Potential negative effects include threats to child safety, inappropriate content, exposure to violence, bullying, Internet 'addiction', displacement of moderate/vigorous physical activity, exposure to junk food advertising, sleep displacement, vision problems and musculoskeletal problems. The case for child specific evidence-based guidelines for wise use of computers is presented based on children using computers differently to adults, being physically, cognitively and socially different to adults, being in a state of change and development and the potential to impact on later adult risk. Progress towards child-specific guidelines is reported. Finally, a set of guideline principles is presented as the basis for more detailed guidelines on the physical, cognitive and social impact of computer use by children. The principles cover computer literacy, technology safety, child safety and privacy and appropriate social, cognitive and physical development. The majority of children in affluent communities now have substantial exposure to computers. This is likely to have significant effects on child physical, cognitive and social development. Ergonomics can provide and promote guidelines for wise use of computers by children and by doing so promote the positive effects and reduce the negative effects of computer-child, and subsequent computer-adult, interaction.
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To compare energy expenditure rates in children playing the physically active video games, Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) and Nintendo's Wii Sports in relation to treadmill walking. Energy expenditure, heart rate, step rate, and perceived exertion were measured in 14 boys and 9 girls (ages 10-13 years; BMI at 3-98th percentile for age and gender) while watching television at rest, playing DDR at 2 skill levels, playing Wii bowling and boxing, and walking at 2.6, 4.2, and 5.7 km/h. Arterial elasticity was measured at rest and immediately after gaming. Compared with watching television, energy expenditure while gaming or walking increased 2- to 3-fold. Similarly, high rates of energy expenditure, heart rate, and perceived exertion were elicited from playing Wii boxing, DDR level 2, or walking at 5.7 km/h. This occurred despite variations in step rate among activities, reflecting greater use of upper body during Wii play (lowest step rate) than during walking (highest step rate) or DDR play. Wii bowling and beginner level DDR elicited a 2-fold increase in energy expenditure compared to television watching. Large-artery elasticity declined immediately after both DDR and Wii. The change was inversely related to the increment in energy expenditure above rest achieved during the activity. Energy expenditure during active video game play is comparable to moderate-intensity walking. Thus, for children who spend considerable time playing electronic screen games for entertainment, physically active games seem to be a safe, fun, and valuable means of promoting energy expenditure.
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships of physical activity types and sedentary behaviour with BMI and waist circumference (WC). The sample comprised 6215 adults (2775 men, 3440 women) aged 16 years and over living in Scotland. Self-reported physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity (MVIA) included domestic activity, walking, and sports and exercises. MVIA levels were classified as being inactive, being insufficiently active, being sufficiently active for general health benefits and being sufficiently active for obesity prevention. Sedentary time was defined as television and other screen-based entertainment time (TVSE). Dependent variables were BMI-defined obesity (BMI-OB) and WC-defined obesity (WC-OB). TVSE was positively related to both WC-OB (adjusted OR 1.69 (95 % CI 1.39, 2.05) for > or = 4 h of TVSE per d compared with < 2 h/d) and BMI-OB (OR 1.88; 95 % CI 1.51, 2.35) independently of MVIA. Those classified as most active who reported > or = 4 h/d of TVSE had higher prevalence of BMI-OB (18.9 v. 8.3 %; P < 0.05) and WC-OB (28.0 v. 10.0 %; P < 0.01) than those equally active with < 2 h/d of TVSE. Sports and walking were related inversely to WC-OB (OR for no time compared with > or = 30 min/d: 1.55 (95 % CI 1.24, 1.94); 2.06 (95 % CI 1.64, 2.58)), but only walking was related to BMI-OB (OR 1.94; 95 % CI 1.58, 2.37). Domestic physical activity was not related to BMI-OB or WC-OB. In conclusion, physical activity and sedentary behaviour are independently related to obesity. Public health recommendations should both promote physical activity and discourage engagement in sedentary pursuits.
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When running indoors on a treadmill, the lack of air resistance results in a lower energy cost compared with running outdoors at the same velocity. A slight incline of the treadmill gradient can be used to increase the energy cost in compensation. The aim of this study was to determine the treadmill gradient that most accurately reflects the energy cost of outdoor running. Nine trained male runners, thoroughly habituated to treadmill running, ran for 6 min at six different velocities (2.92, 3.33, 3.75, 4.17, 4.58 and 5.0 m s-1) with 6 min recovery between runs. This routine was repeated six times, five times on a treadmill set at different grades (0%, 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%) and once outdoors along a level road. Duplicate collections of expired air were taken during the final 2 min of each run to determine oxygen consumption. The repeatability of the methodology was confirmed by high correlations (r = 0.99) and non-significant differences between the duplicate expired air collections and between the repeated runs at 0% grade. The relationship between oxygen uptake (VO2) and velocity for each grade was highly linear (r > 0.99). At the two lowest velocities, VO2 during road running was not significantly different from treadmill running at 0% or 1% grade, but was significantly less than 2% and 3% grade. For 3.75 m s-1, the VO2 during road running was significantly different from treadmill running at 0%, 2% and 3% grades but not from 1% grade. For 4.17 and 4.58 m s-1, the VO2 during road running was not significantly different from that at 1% or 2% grade but was significantly greater than 0% grade and significantly less than 3% grade. At 5.0 m s-1, the VO2 for road running fell between the VO2 value for 1% and 2% grade treadmill running but was not significantly different from any of the treadmill grade conditions. This study demonstrates equality of the energetic cost of treadmill and outdoor running with the use of a 1% treadmill grade over a duration of approximately 5 min and at velocities between 2.92 and 5.0 m s-1.
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To compare the energy expenditure of adolescents when playing sedentary and new generation active computer games. Cross sectional comparison of four computer games. Research laboratories. Six boys and five girls aged 13-15 years. Procedure Participants were fitted with a monitoring device validated to predict energy expenditure. They played four computer games for 15 minutes each. One of the games was sedentary (XBOX 360) and the other three were active (Wii Sports). Predicted energy expenditure, compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Mean (standard deviation) predicted energy expenditure when playing Wii Sports bowling (190.6 (22.2) kJ/kg/min), tennis (202.5 (31.5) kJ/kg/min), and boxing (198.1 (33.9) kJ/kg/min) was significantly greater than when playing sedentary games (125.5 (13.7) kJ/kg/min) (P<0.001). Predicted energy expenditure was at least 65.1 (95% confidence interval 47.3 to 82.9) kJ/kg/min greater when playing active rather than sedentary games. Playing new generation active computer games uses significantly more energy than playing sedentary computer games but not as much energy as playing the sport itself. The energy used when playing active Wii Sports games was not of high enough intensity to contribute towards the recommended daily amount of exercise in children.
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Researchers have yet to explore the effect of physically interactive video game playing on energy expenditure, despite its potential for meeting current minimal daily activity and energy expenditure recommendations. Nineteen male college students -- 12 experienced Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) players and 7 inexperienced players -- completed maximal oxygen uptake assessments and a 30-minute DDR gaming session. The authors recorded heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), respiratory exchange rate (RER), oxygen consumption (VO2), and total steps (TS30). Experienced participants showed higher exercise HR, RPE, RER, VO2, total and relative energy expenditure, exercise intensity, TS30, and average steps per minute, and less time and steps to expend 150 kilocalories (p < .05). Participants with greater playing experience can work at higher intensities, promoting greater energy expenditure.
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Regular physical activity is thought to be associated with better mental health, although there is a lack of consensus regarding the optimal amount and type of activity to achieve these benefits. The association between mental health and physical activity behaviours was examined among a representative sample of men and women from the Scottish Health Surveys. Self-reported physical activity was measured and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was administered in order to obtain information on current mental health. Participants were 19 842 men and women. Risk estimates per category of physical activity sessions per week were calculated using logistic regression models. Psychological distress (based on a score of 4 or more on the GHQ-12) was evident in 3200 participants. Any form of daily physical activity was associated with a lower risk of psychological distress after adjustment for age, gender, social economic group, marital status, body mass index, long-standing illness, smoking and survey year (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.66, p<0.001). A dose-response relationship was apparent, with moderate reductions in psychological distress with less frequent activity (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.75). Different types of activities including domestic (housework and gardening), walking and sports were all independently associated with lower odds of psychological distress, although the strongest effects were observed for sports (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.82). Mental health benefits were observed at a minimal level of at least 20 min/week of any physical activity, although a dose-response pattern was demonstrated with greater risk reduction for activity at a higher volume and/or intensity.
Article
The energy required to play active videogames (AVGs) has been reported on in the literature; however, little is known about how children use such games in their home environment. The aim of this study was to investigate children's use of AVGs and the association among AVG use, other screen-based activities, and physical activity levels. Eight hundred and twenty children 12.1 (0.6) years of age participated. Physical activity levels, sedentary screen-based activities, and AVG use were investigated. Differences across genders and deprivation indices were also analyzed. Fifty-eight percent of children met minimal physical activity guidelines. Forty-seven percent of children exceeded screen time recommendations. Of those who had access to AVGs, more children played sedentary games (or active games in a sedentary manner [68 percent]) than active games (55 percent) on AVG consoles. Furthermore, sedentary games were played for longer than active games. AVG play was positively correlated with reported time spent watching television (P=0.02). In free-living conditions AVG consoles are being used by more children and for longer durations as sedentary screen-based devices rather than active screen-based devices.
Article
Objectives: The current study was designed to evaluate the intensity levels of three exergames and determine the association with physical activity recommendations that correspond to specific outcomes. The variation in cardiovascular responses between the three exergames was also examined. Design: We employed a cross-sectional laboratory design. Methods: We recruited 18 girls to participate in a peak VO2 test and to play Gamercize, Kinect River Rush, XaviX J-Mat at three separate exergaming sessions. Linear regression equations of heart rate and percentage of peak VO2 were calculated for each participant to determine the intensity of exergame play. Differences in intensity between the three exergames and time spent in the recommended moderate (heart rate at ≥ 55% peak VO2) and vigorous (heart rate at ≥ 75% peak VO2) intensity levels were analyzed. We calculated the coefficient of variation for the mean heart rate to determine the difference in variance in heart rate values for the three exergames. Results: When playing Gamercize and Kinect the girls did not play at recommended moderate or vigorous levels. Although the girls did not play at vigorous levels when playing XaviX J-Mat, our results showed that when playing XaviX J-Mat they did play at moderate intensity levels. No significant differences in the coefficient of variation between the three exergames were apparent. Conclusions: If active gaming is to be used to increase physical activity levels then individual differences in levels of exertion and specific activity recommendations need to be taken into consideration.
Article
It has been reported that a higher galvanic skin response is seen when playing video games against another human player than when playing alone, which suggests increased effort. The objectives of this study were to compare energy expenditure when playing two popular active video game consoles, and to compare energy expenditure when playing in single and multiplayer modes. Crossover trial with randomised playing order. Fourteen healthy adults with a mean age of 21 [standard deviation (SD) 3] years. Energy expenditure was measured using an indirect calorimeter at rest, during 10 minutes of play on Xbox Kinect™ Reflex Ridge in both single and multiplayer modes, and during 10 minutes of play on Wii™ Sports Boxing in both single and multiplayer modes. Metabolic equivalents (METs), heart rate, oxygen consumption and kilocalories expended. The energy expenditure during all gaming conditions was of a light intensity. Playing on the Xbox Kinect elicited greater energy expenditure than playing on the Wii [mean difference=0.9 METs, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2 to 1.5]. Playing games in multiplayer mode led to greater energy expenditure (mean difference=0.5 METs, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.9) and heart rate (mean difference=7.9 beats/minute, 95% CI 2.0 to 13.8) than playing in single player mode. No gaming condition required moderate-intensity activity in this group of young healthy adults. Potential explanations for the difference in energy expenditure seen between consoles and modes are discussed.
Article
To examine the energy expenditure and heart rate response while playing active video games, and the effect of gaming experience on energy expenditure. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-eight healthy participants (18 male, age 19 to 27 years) played either Wii Sports Boxing, Tennis and Baseball, or Wii Sports Boxing and Wii Fit Free Jogging. Percentage maximal heart rate (%HRmax) and metabolic equivalents (METs) were measured during 15 minutes of rest and during each game. Mean %HRmax and METs while playing each of the four games were as follows: Wii Fit Free Jogging 71% [standard deviation (SD) 13%], 5.9 (SD 1.8); Wii Sports Boxing 58% (SD 13%), 3.2 (SD 1.1); Wii Sports Baseball 42% (SD 6%), 2.0 (SD 0.5); and Wii Sports Tennis 42% (SD 7%), 2.0 (SD 0.4). Subjects with gaming experience achieved a lower heart rate playing Wii Sports Tennis compared with subjects without gaming experience. Wii Sports Boxing, Tennis and Baseball are light-intensity activities, and Wii Fit Free Jogging is a moderate-intensity activity. Experience of gaming may affect the exercise intensity of games requiring controller skill.
Article
Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population is inactive, this link presents a major public health issue. We aimed to quantify the eff ect of physical inactivity on these major non-communicable diseases by estimating how much disease could be averted if inactive people were to become active and to estimate gain in life expectancy at the population level. For our analysis of burden of disease, we calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with physical inactivity using conservative assumptions for each of the major non-communicable diseases, by country, to estimate how much disease could be averted if physical inactivity were eliminated. We used life-table analysis to estimate gains in life expectancy of the population. Worldwide, we estimate that physical inactivity causes 6% (ranging from 3·2% in southeast Asia to 7·8% in the eastern Mediterranean region) of the burden of disease from coronary heart disease, 7% (3·9-9·6) of type 2 diabetes, 10% (5·6-14·1) of breast cancer, and 10% (5·7-13·8) of colon cancer. Inactivity causes 9% (range 5·1-12·5) of premature mortality, or more than 5·3 million of the 57 million deaths that occurred worldwide in 2008. If inactivity were not eliminated, but decreased instead by 10% or 25%, more than 533 000 and more than 1·3 million deaths, respectively, could be averted every year. We estimated that elimination of physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy of the world's population by 0·68 (range 0·41-0·95) years. Physical inactivity has a major health eff ect worldwide. Decrease in or removal of this unhealthy behaviour could improve health substantially. None.
Article
Unlabelled: Tayl Objectives: To quantify energy expenditure in older adults playing interactive video games while standing and seated, and secondarily to determine whether participants' balance status influenced the energy cost associated with active video game play. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University research center. Participants: Community-dwelling adults (N=19) aged 70.7±6.4 years. Intervention: Participants played 9 active video games, each for 5 minutes, in random order. Two games (boxing and bowling) were played in both seated and standing positions. Main outcome measures: Energy expenditure was assessed using indirect calorimetry while at rest and during game play. Energy expenditure was expressed in kilojoules per minute and metabolic equivalents (METs). Balance was assessed using the mini-BESTest, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and the Timed Up and Go (TUG). Results: Mean ± SD energy expenditure was significantly greater for all game conditions compared with rest (all P≤.01) and ranged from 1.46±.41 METs to 2.97±1.16 METs. There was no significant difference in energy expenditure, activity counts, or perceived exertion between equivalent games played while standing and seated. No significant correlations were observed between energy expenditure or activity counts and balance status. Conclusions: Active video games provide light-intensity exercise in community-dwelling older people, whether played while seated or standing. People who are unable to stand may derive equivalent benefits from active video games played while seated. Further research is required to determine whether sustained use of active video games alters physical activity levels in community settings for this population.
Article
The aim of this review was to evaluate the reliability and validity of methods used to assess the multiple components of sedentary behaviour (i.e. screen time, sitting, not moving and existing at low energy expenditure) in children and adolescents. Twenty-six studies met our inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Thirteen studies reported the reliability of self- and proxy-report measures of sedentary behaviour and seven of these were found to have acceptable test-retest reliability. Evidence for the criterion validity of self- and proxy-report measures was examined in three studies with mixed results. Seven studies examined the reliability and/or validity of direct observation and the findings were generally positive. Five studies demonstrated the utility of accelerometers to accurately classify sedentary behaviour. Self-report measures provide reliable estimates of screen time, yet their validity remains largely untested. While accelerometers can accurately classify participants' behaviour as sedentary, they do not provide information about type of sedentary behaviour or context. Studies utilizing measures of sedentary behaviour need to more adequately report on the validity and reliability of the measures used. We recommend the use of objective measures of sedentary behaviour such as accelerometers, in conjunction with subjective measures (e.g. self-report), to assess type and context of behaviour.
Article
The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine energy expenditure (EE) during a range of active video games (AVGs) and (2) determine whether EE during AVGs is influenced by gaming experience or fitness. Twenty-six boys (11.4±0.8 years) participated and performed a range of sedentary activities (resting, watching television and sedentary gaming), playing AVGs (Nintendo® Wii Bowling, Boxing, Tennis, and Wii Fit Skiing and Step), walking and running including a maximal fitness test. During all activities, oxygen uptake, heart rate and EE were determined. The AVGs resulted in a significantly higher EE compared to rest (63-190%, p≤0.001) and sedentary screen-time activities (56-184%, p≤0.001). No significant differences in EE were found between the most active video games and walking. There was no evidence to suggest that gaming experience or aerobic fitness influenced EE when playing AVGs. In conclusion, boys expended more energy during active gaming compared to sedentary activities. Whilst EE during AVG is game-specific, AVGs are not intense enough to contribute towards the 60min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that is currently recommended for children.
Article
To test the hypothesis that both children and adults would expend more calories and move more while playing activity-promoting video games compared with sedentary video games. In this single-group study, 22 healthy children (12 +/- 2 years; 11 male, 11 female) and 20 adults (34 +/- 11 years; 10 male, 10 female) were recruited. Energy expenditure and physical activity were measured while participants were resting, standing, watching television seated, sitting and playing a traditional sedentary video game, and while playing an activity-promoting video game (Nintendo Wii Boxing). Physical activity was measured with accelerometers, and energy expenditure was measured with an indirect calorimeter. Energy expenditure was significantly greater than all other activities when children or adults played Nintendo Wii (mean increase over resting, 189 +/- 63 kcal/hr, P < .001, and 148 +/- 71 kcal/hr, P < .001, respectively). When examining movement with accelerometry, children moved significantly more than adults (55 +/- 5 arbitrary acceleration units and 23 +/- 2 arbitrary acceleration units, respectively, P < .001) while playing Nintendo Wii. Activity-promoting video games have the potential to increase movement and energy expenditure in children and adults.
Article
As the number of elderly persons in our country increases, more attention is being given to geriatric healthcare needs and successful ageing is becoming an important topic in medical literature. Concept of successful ageing is in first line on a preventive approach of care for older people. Promotion of regular physical activity is one of the main non-pharmaceutical measures proposed to older subjects as low rate of physical activity is frequently noticed in this age group. Moderate but regular physical activity is associated with a reduction in total mortality among older people, a positive effect on primary prevention of coronary heart disease and a significant benefit on the lipid profile. Improving body composition with a reduction in fat mass, reducing blood pressure and prevention of stroke, as well as type 2 diabetes, are also well established. Prevention of some cancers (especially that of breast and colon), increasing bone density and prevention of falls are also reported. Moreover, some longitudinal studies suggest that physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of developing dementia and Alzheimer's disease in particular.
Article
Studies that did not directly measure sedentary behavior often have been used to draw conclusions about the health effects of sedentariness. Future claims about the effects of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous activities on health outcomes should be supported by data from studies in which all levels of physical activity are differentiated clearly and measured independently.
Article
There is a general belief that physical activity and exercise have positive effects on mood and anxiety and a great number of studies describe an association of physical activity and general well-being, mood and anxiety. In line, intervention studies describe an anxiolytic and antidepressive activity of exercise in healthy subjects and patients. However, the majority of published studies have substantial methodological shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to critically review the currently available literature with respect to (1) the association of physical activity, exercise and the prevalence and incidence of depression and anxiety disorders and (2) the potential therapeutic activity of exercise training in patients with depression or anxiety disorders. Although the association of physical activity and the prevalence of mental disorders, including depression and anxiety disorders have been repeatedly described, only few studies examined the association of physical activity and mental disorders prospectively. Reduced incidence rates of depression and (some) anxiety disorders in exercising subjects raise the question whether exercise may be used in the prevention of some mental disorders. Besides case series and small uncontrolled studies, recent well controlled studies suggest that exercise training may be clinically effective, at least in major depression and panic disorder. Although, the evidence for positive effects of exercise and exercise training on depression and anxiety is growing, the clinical use, at least as an adjunct to established treatment approaches like psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy, is still at the beginning. Further studies on the clinical effects of exercise, interaction with standard treatment approaches and details on the optimal type, intensity, frequency and duration may further support the clinical administration in patients. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge on how to best deal with depression and anxiety related symptoms which hinder patients to participate and benefit from exercise training.
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PhD Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Northumbria University Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, United Kingdom E-mail: gill.barry@northumbria.ac
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Address correspondence to: Gillian Barry, PhD Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Northumbria University Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, United Kingdom E-mail: gill.barry@northumbria.ac.uk G4H-2015-0036-ver9-Barry_1P.3d 11/25/15 2:12pm Page 7