Article

Antibacterial activity of elder (Sambucus nigra L.) flower or berry against hospital pathogens

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

An evidence-based scientific scrutiny of Irish traditional medicines for their antimicrobial potency is urgently required for combating antibiotic resistant common nosocomial pathogens. We now report our seminal findings on the major constituents including terpenes identified in native, historically significant herbal medicinal plant Elder (Sambucus nigra L.) flower and elder berry in particular and their concomitant strong antimicrobial effects exhibited on various nosocomial pathogens notably upon methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA, recognised globally as a clinically significant pathogen, associated with skin and soft tissue infections.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... In our data, S. aureus (MRSA and MSSA) was not inhibited using Rubini elderberry liquid extract using disc diffusion assays. This strongly suggests that, compared to the elderberry extract prepared by membrane filtration used in our study, the extracts prepared by the method of Hearst and colleagues [19] may be significantly different. We speculate that the reasons for the different antimicrobial activities of the two elderberry extracts could depend on their chemical compositions or varying concentrations of antibacterial compounds within the extracts. ...
... The antimicrobial activity of an extract of elderberries (S. nigra L.) has been demonstrated against the growth of 13 common nosocomial Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens (e.g. S. aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) using the disc diffusion technique [19]. Intriguingly, the authors reported that all noscomial strains, including S. aureus treated with an aqueous extract of the leaves at 10-fold dilution, failed to show any growth inhibitory activity, whereas 100-fold dilutions of freeze-dried, concentrates of ethanol extracts of the flowers or berries inhibited all the bacteria tested [19]. In our data, S. aureus (MRSA and MSSA) was not inhibited using Rubini elderberry liquid extract using disc diffusion assays. ...
... The antimicrobial activity of an extract of elderberries (S. nigra L.) has been demonstrated against the growth of 13 common nosocomial Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens (e.g. S. aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) using the disc diffusion technique [19]. Intriguingly, the authors reported that all noscomial strains, including S. aureus treated with an aqueous extract of the leaves at 10-fold dilution, failed to show any growth inhibitory activity, whereas 100-fold dilutions of freeze-dried, concentrates of ethanol extracts of the flowers or berries inhibited all the bacteria tested [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Black elderberries (Sambucus nigra L.) are well known as supportive agents against common cold and influenza. It is further known that bacterial super-infection during an influenza virus (IV) infection can lead to severe pneumonia. We have analyzed a standardized elderberry extract (Rubini, BerryPharma AG) for its antimicrobial and antiviral activity using the microtitre broth micro-dilution assay against three Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative bacteria responsible for infections of the upper respiratory tract, as well as cell culture experiments for two different strains of influenza virus. The antimicrobial activity of the elderberry extract was determined by bacterial growth experiments in liquid cultures using the extract at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The inhibitory effects were determined by plating the bacteria on agar plates. In addition, the inhibitory potential of the extract on the propagation of human pathogenic H5N1-type influenza A virus isolated from a patient and an influenza B virus strain was investigated using MTT and focus assays. For the first time, it was shown that a standardized elderberry liquid extract possesses antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria of Streptococcus pyogenes and group C and G Streptococci, and the Gram-negative bacterium Branhamella catarrhalis in liquid cultures. The liquid extract also displays an inhibitory effect on the propagation of human pathogenic influenza viruses. Rubini elderberry liquid extract is active against human pathogenic bacteria as well as influenza viruses. The activities shown suggest that additional and alternative approaches to combat infections might be provided by this natural product.
... Two compounds (5,7,3´4´-tetra-Omethylquercetin and 5,7-dihydroxy-4-oxo-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl) chroman-3-yl-3,4,5trihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylate) were identified as H1N1-binding molecules (Roschek et al., 2009). Other compounds identified in extracts of elderberries are phenolic acids and flavonoids (Christensen et al., 2008), volatile substances (Kaack, 2008a) and pentacyclic triterpenes (Hearst et al., 2010). Several different anthocyanins have been isolated from elderberries and identified (Rieger et al., 2008;Veberic et al., 2009). ...
... In vitro data show that flowers of black elder have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and insulin-like activity, and animal experiments show anti-inflammatory, diuretic and secretolytic activity (Fossum et al., 2008;Barros et al., 2011). Phytochemicals identified in elder flower or berry were toxic to nosocomial pathogens, particularly S. aureus (MRSA) (Hearst et al., 2010). ...
... Compounds identified in extracts of elderflowers are phenolic acids and flavonoids (Christensen et al., 2008;Barros et al., 2011), volatile substances (Kaack, 2008b) and pentacyclic triterpenes (Hearst et al., 2010). There is no single identified compound in S. nigra preparations that can be associated with the medicinal effects. ...
... Sambucus nigra (elderflower) is recommended by the German Commission E for upper respiratory tract infections (25). In the meantime, however, promising elderberry properties such as antioxidative, antibacterial (26), antiviral (27), and antiinflammatory (28) actions have been detected. ...
... Similarly, Borchardt et al. (45) reported that M. lupulina was not active against the bacteria species used. In contrast, Hearst et al. (26) indicated strong antimicrobial effects of flowers and berries of S. nigra on various pathogens. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bioassays of 2 types (antibacterial and antitumor) were performed to show the biological activities of 16 different plants grown in Bolu, Turkey: Clinopodium vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L., Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca (Frey & Bornm.) Bornm., Salvia tomentosa Mill., Mentha pulegium L., Melilotus officinalis (L.) Desr., Melilotus alba Desr., Medicago lupulina L., Galega officinalis L., Xeranthemum annuum L., Cichorium intybus L., Plantago lanceolata L., Plantago major L. subsp. major, Fumaria officinalis L., Galium palustre L., Echium vulgare L., and Sambucus nigra L. For each plant, 3 different extracts (aqueous, ethanol, and methanol) were obtained, and a total of 48 extracts were evaluated. Antibacterial activity was evaluated with 10 bacteria, including Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia marcescens, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae by disk diffusion method. All plants except M. alba, M. lupulina, X. annuum, G. palustre, and S. nigra showed inhibitory activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The best inhibitory activity was observed with aqueous extract of M. officinalis (22.5 mm); it performed better than all positive controls (erythromycin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol; 7-20 mm) against P. aeruginosa. Antitumor activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced potato disk tumor assay. The best antitumor activity was obtained with the methanolic extract of M. alba and aqueous extract of F. officinalis (100% tumor inhibition).
... Although multiple studies have demonstrated the therapeutic value of many botanical preparations and the active constituents extracted [5][6][7][8][9], only limited research has profiled the microbiological populations present in the raw plant preparations. Some previous research has addressed concerns of fungal contamination in raw plant materials used for medicinal extractions [10,11], however potential bacterial contaminants remain largely uninvestigated. ...
... These results may suggest that anti-microbial constituents are likely being extracted from the plant material at these low ethanolic extractions leading to the reduction in bacterial cell numbers. In support of this, a 2010 study established the antiseptic qualities of multiple phytochemicals present in the elderflower and illustrated the ability of S nigra elderflowers to inhibit a wide range of bacteria [9]. The absence of bacteria in the 35% ethanolic extraction of S nigra is consistent with previous research and supports the extraction of bactericidal active constituents in low ethanolic concentrations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Botanical-based therapeutics are often prepared as either water, ethanol or glycerin-based extractions of the harvested plant material. The raw botanical material is not grown in a sterile environment and as such, may contain a variety of microbial flora. This research evaluated the level of microbial flora present in common botanical extractions prepared under different methodologies and did basic characterization to determine if these microbial populations may include potential human pathogens. The results indicated that significant bacterial flora is commonly present in botanical extracts, including potential human pathogens and that the extraction process utilized will alter the level of microbes present. This research is encouraged help physicians be aware of potential microbial contaminants present in herbal preparations and to use proper care and follow-up when treating patients.
... and C. albicans. However, those extracts were not obtained by SFE[42][43][44][45] or the type of berries was different. This activity is strongly dependent of the time of collecting, the part of the plant and the specie involved. ...
... catarrhalis)47 . Moreover, the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products published in EMA 7 reported that the freeze-dried powder formulations with elderberry presented antibacterium activity against hospital bacteria methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA)7,45 . Although different bacterial species were used in these reports, the antibacterial activity of S. nigra berries extract could not be confirmed in our results, which requires further information. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sambucus nigra L. i s a well well-known species with a wide range of medicinal properties. In this work, supercritical fluids extracts were obtained from fresh and dried elderberries of S. nigra L.: A (dried berries, ethanol absolute), B (dried berries, ethanol 96%), C (dried berries, ethanol 70%) and D (fresh berries, ethanol 96%). In vitro enzymatic activities of those extracts, antioxidant activity (AA) and preliminary safety assessment were evaluated. The most promising extracts were selected for encapsulation in polymeric nano particles (NPs). All extracts demonstrated low to moderate AA and they did not reveal any antimicrobial activity for the bacteria and yeasts tested. No toxic effect in Artemia salina model was observed. Due to the antioxidant, anti-collagenase and anti anti-elastase activities, A and C extracts were successfully encapsulated into PLGA NPs. According to morphology analysis, empty PLGA NPs had a rounded irregular shape and seemed somewhat collapsed, while PLGA NPs loaded with extract A or C exhibited a spherical shape with a smooth surface. The encapsulation process produced a slight increase in the NPs’ size. Further studies will include the optimization of extract conditions to improve the yield of extraction as well as the in vivo evaluation of these nanocarriers.
... In the studies of Mohammadsadeghi, et al. and Hearst, et al., elderberry extracts exhibit strong antibacterial activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria such us P. aeruginosa, E. coli, Salmonella spp., S. aureus and B. cereus. It was also demonstrated that S. nigra inhibits the growth of the yeast C. albicans [108,109]. Our study on the antibacterial activity of the elderberry flower ethanolic extract against A. lannensis and A. bogorensis showed that the tested extract had the strongest activity against these strains. ...
... Antimicrobial activity Antimicrobial properties of extracts from different parts of elderberry (S. nigrum) have been documented against B. cereus, Serratia marcescens, E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa Salmonella spp. as well as B. subtilis, B. megaterium, and yeasts: D. hansenii, Z. rouxii, Rhodotorula rubra, Candida shehatae and C. tropicalis [107,109]. Commercially standardized extracts of elderberry such as 'Rubini' showed antimicrobial activities against human pathogens: S. pyogenes and Branhamella catarrhalis [167]. Extract from elderberry showed inhibitory effect of the growth of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
It has long been shown that phytochemicals protect plants against viruses, bacteria, fungi and herbivores, but only relatively recently we have learnt that they are also critical in pro‐ tecting humans against diseases. A significant amount of medicinal plants is consumed by humans. As food‐related products, they additionally improve human health and general well‐being. This chapter deals with plant‐derived food preservatives. Particular attention has been paid to the following berry fruits: cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), black currant (Ribes nigrum), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) and açaí (Euterpe oleracea), as well as the following herbs and spices: peppermint (Mentha piperita), basil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), nettle (Urtica dioica), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeyl‐ anicum) bark, cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) as alternative sources of natural antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents with potential use in food indus‐ try. Moreover, we present an overview of the most recent information on the positive effect of bioactive compounds of these plants on human health. This chapter is a collec‐ tion of essential and valuable information for food producers willing to use plant‐derived bioactive substances for ensuring the microbiological safety of products.
... Similar results were found in our study as well. Hearst et al. [29] claimed that the ethanolic S. nigra extract was more effective to all bacteria than the other used plant extracts. Roy et al. [30] tested the ethanolic extract of A. hippocastanum to some oral microbes by the disc diffusion method and they determined a very good antibacterial activity (100 µg/disc=range from 8 to 14 mm inhibition zone, 200 µg/disc=range from 12 to 20 mm inhibition zone). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the methanol extracts of Tussilago farfara (T. farfara), Equisetum arvense, Sambucus nigra (S. nigra) and Aesculus hippocastanum. Methods The antimicrobial activities of the extracts against Enterococcus raffinosus, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia rubidaea, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Staphylococcus epidermis were determined by the microbroth dilution method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, while the concentrations of main phenolic acids and flavonoids in the form of trimethylsilyl ethers were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The probit analysis was used for statistical evaluation. Results Of the 4 plant tested, all extracts showed a significant antimicrobial activity against one or more species of examined microorganisms. The most active antimicrobial plant extract was gathered from T. farfara, followed by Aesculus hippocastanum and Equisetum arvense. The extract from S. nigra showed no antimicrobial effects. The flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol, as well as several phenolic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid) were identified in all extracts. The highest concentrations of bioactive compounds were detected in the extracts of T. farfara (9 587.6 μg/mg quercetin and 4 875.3 μg/mg caffeic acid) as well as S. nigra (4788.8 μg/mg kaempferol). Conclusions We can state that the methanolic plant extract of T. farfara showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as other tested microorganisms. At the same time, a good antimicrobial activity was found in the other medical plant extracts as well. No antimicrobial effect of the S. nigra extract was found with respect to the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus raffinosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
... Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic molecules from plant source with many biological properties already studied [22,23]. The flavonoids antibacterial capacity is based on their ability to complex with extracellular and soluble proteins and to destroy the bacteria cell wall by interacting with essential enzymes responsible for maintaining the stability of this structure [7,19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present work aims to assess the antibacterial potential of phenolic extracts, recovered from plants obtained on the North East of Portugal, and of their phenolic compounds (ellagic, caffeic, and gallic acids, quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin), against bacteria commonly found on skin infections. The disk diffusion and the susceptibility assays were used to identify the most active extracts and phenolic compounds. The effect of selected phenolic compounds on animal cells was assessed by determination of cellular metabolic activity. Gallic acid had a higher activity, against gram-positive (S. epidermidis and S. aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (K. pneumoniae) at lower concentrations, than the other compounds. The caffeic acid, also, showed good antibacterial activity against the 3 bacteria used. The gallic acid was effective against the 3 bacteria without causing harm to the animal cells. Gallic and caffeic acid showed a promising applicability as antibacterial agents for the treatment of infected wounds.
... Fruits of these species may have additional health benefits as they are rich in phytochemicals such as anthocyanins which are responsible for their red, purple and blue colours. Previous studies demonstrated that plants with high content of anthocyanins, had significant antibacterial effect (Hearst et al., 2010). In vitro studies indicate that anthocyanins and other polyphenols in berries could be substantial in the treatment of heart disease (Basu et al., 2010;Routray and Orsat, 2011), including antioxidant (Denev et al., 2010) and antiadhesion activity against bacteria (Huttunen et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Antibacterial and antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations of water, ethanol and ethyl acetate extract of fruits and leaves of Vaccinium myrtillus L. were studied. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) have been determined. Testing was performed on 30 clinical isolates, including strains of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus vulgaris. The values for MIC were in the range from 5 to 40 mg/ml. The most sensitive bacterial strain was Enterococcus faecalis MF-Ef8 strain. The ethanol extract of fruits of V. myrtillus was found the most active. The total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and ranged between 31.44 to 119.17 mg GAE/g. The concentration of flavonoids in extracts was determined and the highest amount was in ethyl acetate extract of leaves of V. myrtillus. Antioxidant activity was monitored spectrophotometrically using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reagent. The highest capacity to neutralize DPPH radicals (94%RSA) was found in the ethanol extract from fruits and in the water extract from leaves of V. myrtillus. The results of the total phenolic content determination of the examined extracts indicate that bilberry extracts are a rich source of phenolic compounds and also possess a significant antioxidant activity and moderate antibacterial activity.
... The results indicated that three extracts of leaf ،flower and fruits of S. ebulus showed inhibition zones against S. aureus ATCC 1341 about 10-12mm ،11-14mm and 11-13mm, respectively and no inhibition zones were observed against P. aeruginosa ATCC 2785. Hearst et al, reported that Elder (Sambucus nigra L.) flower and elder berry in particular and their concomitant, exhibited strong antimicrobial effects on various nosocomial pathogens notably upon methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Hearst et al. 2010). Also, the results obtained from the present research showed antimicrobial potential of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica extracts against skin and wound infections isolates of methicillin resistant S.aureus. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Increase in the emergence of drug -resistant pathogens led to the development of natural antimicrobials. In this study the antimicrobial effect of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica on 16 skin and wound infections isolates of methicillin resistant S. aureus have been studied. Material and methods: Solvent extraction procedure was done using soxhlet apparatus for extracting antimicrobial agents from freeze dried plants. Antibacterial activity was measured using agar well diffusion method. Results: The MIC of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica extracts against the standard strain of S. aureus ATCC 6538 were determined using the micro dilution method at 15 mg and 20 mg respectively. All the test bacteria were found sensitive to the Sambucus ebulus extract and only one isolate was resistant to Urtica dioica extract. Conclusion: Extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica possess antibacterial potency against MRSA isolates and may be used as a natural antiseptics and antimicrobial agents in medicine.
... In fact, several wounds have been successfully re-surfaced by culturing autogenic keratinocytes cells678. The extensive uses of chives (Allium schoenoprasum), introduced sage (Salvia pratensis, Lamiaceae), European elderberry (Sambucus nigra, Caprifoliaceae) and common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) range from culinary for flavouring dishes to medical purposes, such as antitussives, antiseptics, antifungals, antispasmodics, and anti-inflammatories, amongst other properties9101112. These pharmaceutical uses are associated with the rich amount of polyphenols which are found in these plants [13,14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The phenolic extract of chives flowers (Allium schoenoprasum, Liliaceae), introduced Sage (Salvia pratensis, Lamiaceae), European elderberry (Sambucus nigra, Caprifoliaceae) and common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, Asteraceae) were characterised by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and incorporated in different concentrations onto atelocollagen thin films. In order to assess the biological impact of these phenolic compounds on cell viability, human immortalised non-tumorigenic keratinocyte cell line was seeded on the thin films and cell proliferation was determined by using an MTT assay. In addition, their antimicrobial activity was estimated by using an agar diffusion test. Data indicated the concomitance between cell viability and concentration of polyphenols. These findings suggest that these phenolic-endowed atelocollagen films might be suitable for tissue engineering applications, on account of the combined activity of polyphenols and collagen.
... In a various phytochemical study performed of Sambucus nigra were found to contain flavonoids (Wach et al., 2007), anthocyanins and tannins (Denev et al., 2010; Veberic et al., 2009a Veberic et al., , 2009b), triterpenoids and volatile compounds (Jäger et al., 2009). These compounds are secondary metabolites widely distributed in the higher plant kingdom and are known to show diverse biological and pharmacological actions and its have been evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant (Barros et al., 2011; Kolodziej and Drozdzal, 2011; Srabovic et al., 2011), antiviral (Uncini Manganelli et al., 2005), anti-inflammatory (Barak et al., 2002), antibacterial (Hearst et al., 2010) and antifungal (Farcasanu et al., 2006; Soares et al., 2000) activity. Hylotelephium maximum is a medicinal plant used to cure many types of inflammatory skin diseases. ...
Article
This paper provides significant ethnopharmacological information on plant used in dermatological affections in Navarra. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews with 667 informants (mean age 72; 55.47% women, 44.53% men) in 265 locations. In order to confirm the pharmacological validation of the uses reports, the European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), German Commission E, World Health Organization (WHO), European Medicines Agency (EMA), European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and Real Farmacopea Española (RFE) monographs have been revised. A literature review has been carried out with the plants without monograph and high frequency citations, using a new tool of the University of Navarra, UNIKA. A total of 982 pharmaceutical uses are reported from the informants, belonging to 91 plants and 42 families, mainly represented by Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Crassulaceae. The most frequently used parts of the plants are aerial parts followed by leaves and inflorescences. Seventeen out of 91 plants (19%) and 148 of 982 popular uses (15%), have already been pharmacologically validated. The authors propose seven species for their validation (Allium cepa, Sambucus nigra, Hylotelephium maximum, Chelidonium majus, Ficus carica, Allium sativum and Anagallis arvensis).
... Elderberry extracts exhibited antibacterial properties in relation to nosocomial pathogens, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (Hearst et al., 2010). The antimicrobial activity of flower extracts was higher as compared to fruit extracts. ...
Article
Elderberry plant (Sambucus nigra) is a good source of protein, free and conjugated forms of amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, fibre fractions, vitamins, antioxidants and minerals. Analysis of elderberry showed that it contains high biological activity components, primarily polyphenols, mostly anthocyanins, flavonols, phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins, as well as terpenes and lectins. In folk medicine, elderberry has been used in the treatment of many diseases and ailments. Elderberry has medicinal properties associated with the presence of polyphenols, which are compounds with potential antioxidant properties. They can greatly affect the course of disease processes by counteracting oxidative stress, exerting beneficial effects on blood pressure, glycaemia reduction, immune system stimulation, antitumour potential, increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the blood plasma, including also glutathione, and the reduction of uric acid levels.
... 8 Of great importance are the antiviral activity 9 and the antibacterial activity against hospital pathogens. 10 The antioxidant capacity of plants, food and chemical compounds can be measured by various assays. 11 The various chemical mechanisms of these assays can be divided into two basic groups, the HAT (hydrogen atom transfer) or the SET (single electron transfer) mechanism. ...
Article
Full-text available
Near-infrared diffuse reflectance (NIR) and attenuated-total-reflectance mid-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy techniques in hyphenation with multivariate analysis were utilized to determine the antioxidant capacity of ground Sambuci flos samples. Folin–Ciocalteu (FC), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) were optimized and performed as reference methods. To remove systematic errors several spectral pretreatments like 1st and 2nd derivative Savitzky–Golay, standard normal variate (SNV) or multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were applied. Cross-validations and test-set validations were performed for all assays. The quality parameters, standard error of prediction (SEP) and the ratio performance deviation (RPD), were calculated. An acceptable quality of the calibration can be confirmed for ATR-IR spectroscopy (e.g. for the CUPRAC assay: R2: 0.85, RPDcorr: 2.68, SECV: 0.13% GAE for cross-validation; R2: 0.81, RPDcorr: 2.20, SEP: 0.15% GAE for test-set validation). Surprisingly all models calculated for NIR spectroscopy were of poor quality and point to unpredictability of the antioxidative capacity. Further investigations of extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) coupled to mass spectroscopy (MS) were performed to analyze the principal compounds. Thus, rutin and chlorogenic acid were confirmed to be the main components in the samples. This study demonstrates that ATR-IR spectroscopy is suitable to determine the antioxidative capacity in ground Sambuci flos samples and can be used for quality control.
... The antibacterial activity of flavonoids has also been documented in many studies. Crude extracts from plants with a history of use in folk medicine have been screened in vitro for antibacterial activity by many research groups (25,47,55,68). Some researchers have reported synergy between naturally occurring flavonoids and other antibacterial agents against resistant strains of bacteria (13). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and antiadhesive activities of ethanol extracts from five edible plant parts: cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), licorice root (Glycyrrhiza radix), nettle leaves (Urtica dioica), green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis), and elderberry flowers (Sambucus nigra). The chemical constituents of the extracts were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography plus mass spectrometry. Six strains of Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis bacteria isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored noncarbonated mineral water were used. Bacterial adhesion to polystyrene as an attachment substrate in culture media supplemented with 10% plant extract was evaluated using luminometric measurement of the ATP extracted from adhered cells. The viability of the adhered and planktonic cells was assessed using the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. All tested crude extracts contained flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, and their derivatives), flavanols (catechin and derivatives), flavanones (glabrol, licorice glycoside A, and liquiritin), and phenolic acids (gallic, quinic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, caffeic, coumaric, and ferulic). The culture medium with 10% elderberry extract provided the least favorable environment for all tested bacterial strains. Extracts from green tea, cinnamon, and licorice also had significant inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the tested bacterial strains. This research suggests that the addition of selected edible plant extracts could improve the microbial stability of noncarbonated soft drinks
... The influenza A virus subtype H1N1 inhibition activities of the elder flavonoids compare favorably to the known anti-influenza activities of oseltamivir and amantadine [23]. The terpenes extracted from elder flower show notably strong antimicrobial effects in vitro upon methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [24]. Moreover elder flower could improve bone properties by inhibiting the process of bone resorption and stimulating the process of bone formation [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Hereinwe investigated the effect of elderflower extracts (EFE) and of enterolactone/enterodiol on hormone production and proliferation of trophoblast tumor cell lines JEG-3 and BeWo, as well as MCF7 breast cancer cells. The EFE was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Cells were incubated with various concentrations of EFE. Untreated cells served as controls. Supernatants were tested for estradiol production with an ELISA method. Furthermore, the effect of the EFE on ERα/ERβ/PR expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry. EFE contains a substantial amount of lignans. Estradiol production was inhibited in all cells in a concentration-dependent manner. EFE upregulated ERα in JEG-3 cell lines. In MCF7 cells, a significant ERα downregulation and PR upregulation were observed. The control substances enterolactone and enterodiol in contrast inhibited the expression of both ER and of PR in MCF7 cells. In addition, the production of estradiol was upregulated in BeWo and MCF7 cells in a concentration dependent manner. The downregulating effect of EFE on ERα expression and the upregulation of the PR expression in MFC-7 cells are promising results. Therefore, additional unknown substances might be responsible for ERα downregulation and PR upregulation. These findings suggest potential use of EFE in breast cancer prevention and/or treatment and warrant further investigation.
... Thus, the antibacterial activity exhibited by S. australis extracts could be associated to the significant phenolic content present in the leaves and bark. Corroborating with our results, previous studies have found that S. ebulus extracts were active against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ghesmati 2008); S. nigra flower exhibited strong antimicrobial effects on various nosocomial pathogens, notably methicillinresistant S. aureus (Hearst et al. 2010). ...
Article
Context: Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. (Adoxaceae) is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders. Objective: To evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of S. australis. Materials and methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extracts of the leaf and bark of S. australis (1-100 μg/mL) were studied in lipopolysaccharide/interferon γ stimulated murine macrophages RAW 264.7 cells (24 h incubation) by investigating the release of nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and in the TNF-α-induced nuclear factor kappa (NF-κB) assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution test (24 h incubation). Antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the NO scavenging assays. Chemical composition was assessed by LC-MS/MS. Results: Antioxidant activities in the DPPH (IC50 43.5 and 66.2 μg/mL), FRAP (IC50 312.6 and 568.3 μg/mL) and NO radical scavenging assays (IC50 285.0 and 972.6 μg/mL) were observed in the leaf and bark ethanol extracts, respectively. Solely the leaf extract showed significant inhibition of NO and TNF-α production in RAW264.7 cells at concentrations of 2 and 100 μg/mL, respectively, and suppression of TNF-α inhibition of NF-κB by 12.8 and 20.4% at concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/mL, respectively. The extract also exhibited antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 250 μg/mL) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC 250 μg/mL). LC-MS/MS revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid and rutin as major compounds. Discussion and conclusion: The results indicate that the ethanol leaf extract of S. australis exhibit prominent anti-inflammatory effects.
... ria), and Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative bacteria) with dimethyl sulphoxide as a control for inhibitory effect. The extracts showed promising antibacterial activities with the best MIC values (25, 50, 100, and 100 mg/ml) against S. epidermidis, S. aureus, B. subtilis, and K. pneumonia respectively.Hearst et al. (2010) evaluated the antibacterial activity of aqueous leaf extract obtained from S. nigra against 13 common nosocomial pathogens with 5 μg ciprofloxacin as both positive and negative control. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ethnopharmacological relevance The genus Sambucus L. (Viburnaceae) consists of about 29 recognized species distributed in all regions of the world except the extremely cold and desert areas. Some species have been used as traditional medicines to treat various disorders such as bone fractures, rheumatism, diabetes, respiratory and pulmonary disorders, skin diseases, inflammatory ailments, diarrhea, and others. However, the currently available data on traditional and pharmacological uses have not been comprehensively reviewed. Study aim The present review is designed to provide information on the ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry, toxicity, and the known biological properties of Sambucus, to understand their connotations and provide a scientific basis and gaps for further research. Materials and methods The information was obtained from different bibliographic databases, Google Scholar, Springer Link, Web of Science, PubMed, and Science Direct along with other literature sources such as dissertation before August 2021. The scientific names were validated using The Plant List and World Flora Online websites. Results Twelve Sambucus species were found to be frequently mentioned in ethnomedical uses recorded in China, Korea, Turkey, Iran, and other countries. Traditionally, they have been used as remedies to numerous health complications among others, bone fractures and rheumatism, diabetes, wounds, inflammatory diseases, diarrhea, menstrual pains, respiratory and pulmonary complaints, skin disorders, headaches, snakebites, and urinary tract infections. To date, only eleven species have been studied for their chemical compounds and a total of 425 bioactive constituents, including phenolic compounds, terpenoids, fatty acids, cyanogenic glycosides, phytosterols, lectins, organic acids, alkaloid, coumarin, anthraquinone, and others have been reported. The crude extracts and the isolated chemical constituents exhibited diverse outstanding pharmacological activities including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, analgesic, anti-giardial, immunomodulatory, scolicidal, anti-ulcerogenic, antiradical, bone-protective, anti-glycemic, antiosteoporotic, hypolipidemic, anti-glycation, and wound-healing properties. Conclusion This study summarized and scrutinized the data on traditional uses, pharmacological activities, phytochemicals, and toxicity of Sambucus species, which indicate they have interesting chemical compounds with diverse biological activities. Many traditional uses of some species from this genus have now been confirmed by pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, bone-protective, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. However, the currently available data has several gaps in understanding the traditional uses of all Sambucus species. Thus, we strongly recommend further investigations into the scientific connotations between traditional medicinal uses and pharmacological activities, mode of action of the isolated bioactive constituents, and toxicity of other Sambucus species to unravel their efficacy and therapeutic potential for safe clinical application. The current extensive study avails valuable information on therapeutic use of Sambucus species and paves way for further investigations of other useful species, as well as drug discovery.
... Some publications have shown that elderflower extract contains bioactive compounds that are able to metabolize glucose and lipids, which leads to a reduction in fat accumulation [12,13]. Other studies have reported strong antimicrobial effects of elderflower on various nosocomial pathogens, especially on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA /clinically significant pathogen/ [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the current study was to investigate some bioactive compounds from Sambucus nigra L. blossoms and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the obtained extracts. In this study, samples from four different regions of Bulgaria /Rhodopes, Plovdiv, Strandzha and Dobrich region/ from Sambucus nigra L. were collected and analyzed for total phenols, flavonoids, sugars and amino acids. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by four assays based on different mechanisms. The sweetness index and total sweetness index of the extracts were also evaluated. The carbohydrate composition of the leaves and the blossoms was determined, with glucose and fructose predominating in both cases, as their contents were not above 3%. Nineteen amino acids have been identified in the composition of Sambucus nigra L., and glutamic, leucine and asparagine acids are predominant. The highest antioxidant activity and total content of phenols (49.2 ± 1 mg GAE/g) and flavonols (18.6 ± 0.5 mgQE/g) were found in the sample from the Rhodope region. Therefore, the higher altitude and lower temperature in mountains could influence the accumulation of secondary metabolites in blossoms of Sambucus nigra L., which improves the antioxidant potential of the samples.
... There are many studies supporting the idea that Sambucus nigra L. is a true pharmacy, considered to be rich in biologically active components, which it is available in modern medicine (Kovalenko, 1994). The consumption of elder helps in the prevention and therapy for a number of diseases, such as diabetes (Bhattacharya et al., 2013;Fowler, 2010;Folmer et al., 2014;Gray et al., 2000;Kashyap and DeFronzo, 2007;Netzel et al., 2005;Song et al., 2014), obesity (Christensen et al., 2010;Chrubasik et al., 2008), antibacterial and antifungal activity (Hearst et al., 2010;Kinoshita et al., 2012;Kong, 2009;Krawitz et al., 2011), antitumour activity (Pehlivan Karakas et al., 2012;Thole et al., 2006), immune system stimulation (Ciocoiu et al., 2012;Frøkiaer et al., 2012;Groza et al., 2010), protection against UV radiation (Chen et al., 2012;Jarzycka et al., 2013), diuretic and laxative activity (Beaux et al., 1999;Picon et al., 2010). The composition of all plant parts of black elder it depends in fact, of degree of ripeness, the variety, climatic conditions and environmental (Sidor and Gramza-Michałowska, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: All plant parts of elderberry (leaves, berries, inflorescences, roots, shoots, bark) have a long history of use in herbal remedy or lots of culinary uses, widespread in almost every continent of the world (1). Pro-health properties indicated a role of elderberry products intake in the prevention of cancer and diabetes. Aims: This paper presents an overview of the evaluation of biochemical compounds (sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, antioxidative activity, flavonoids, flavor and volatile compounds), found in flowers, berries and leaves of Sambucus nigra L. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic profiling, spectrophotometric evaluation, DPPH antioxidant assay, ABTS radical scavenging activity. Results: The variability of concentration compounds are found by uniform maturity of each phenophase of elderberry, hence the need varieties improve the quantity and quality of its yield. Elderberry has food industry properties associated with the presence of increased nutritive and decreased caloric value at fruits best correlated with the content of sugars and organic acids of flower, organic acids as a important metabolic pathway of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates. Several studies have confirmed that Sambucus nigra L. is a valuable raw material with many nutrients and bioactive substances, being extraordinarily rich in antioxidants, and the leaves are remarked as easily available source of antioxidant preparations in different domains (food products, pharmaceutics, or cosmetics). Conclusion: A bush of Sambucus nigra L. in the garden is our true handy pharmacy, a food market like as functional ingredient, a spot of color with unmistakable smell.
... The results of this study show that methanol extract of S. nigra berries can be used to treat various health problems, including the healing of wounds caused by the tested microorganisms. Hearst et al. (2010) reported findings on the major constituents, including terpenes, identified in S. nigra fresh flower and berry extracts and their concomitant strong antimicrobial effects exhibited on various nosocomial pathogens, notably upon methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, recognised globally as a clinically significant pathogen, associated with skin and soft tissue infections. Fresh flowers or berries were used to obtain aqueous or ethanol extract for testing. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: The geographical and ecological specificity of the Balkan Peninsula has resulted in the development of a distinct diversity of medicinal plants. In the traditional culture of the Balkan peoples, plants have medicinal, economic and anthropological/cultural importance, which is reflected in the sound knowledge of their diversity and use. This study analyses the traditional use of medicinal plants in the treatment of wounds and the pharmacological characteristics of the most frequently used species. Materials and methods: A detailed analysis of the literature related to ethnobhe uses of medicinal plants in the Balkan region was carried out. Twenty-five studies were analysed and those plants used for the treatment of wounds were singled out. Result: An ethnobotanical analysis showed that 128 plant species (105 wild, 22 cultivated and 1 wild/cultivated) are used in the treatment of wounds. Their application is external, in the form of infusions, decoctions, tinctures, syrups, oils, ointments, and balms, or direct to the skin. Among those plants recorded, the most commonly used are Plantago major, Hypericum perforatum, Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Calendula officinalis, Sambucus nigra, Tussilago farfara and Prunus domestica. The study showed that the traditional use of plants in wound healing is confirmed by in vitro and/or in vivo studies for P. major and P. lanceolata (3 laboratory studies for P. major and 2 for P. lanceolata), H. perforatum (5 laboratory studies and 3 clinical trials), A. millefolium (3 laboratory studies and one clinical trial), C. officinalis (6 laboratory studies and 1 clinical trial), S. nigra (3 laboratory studies) and T. farfara (one laboratory study). Conclusion: The beneficial effects of using medicinal plants from the Balkan region to heal wounds according to traditional practices have been proven in many scientific studies. However, information on the quantitative benefits to human health of using herbal medicines to heal wounds is still scarce or fragmented, hindering a proper evaluation. Therefore, further studies should be aimed at isolating and identifying specific active substances from plant extracts, which could also reveal compounds with more valuable therapeutic properties. Furthermore, additional reliable clinical trials are needed to confirm those experiences encountered when using traditional medicines. A combination of traditional and modern knowledge could result in new wound-healing drugs with a significant reduction in unwanted side effects.
... Elderflower extracts displayed a higher antimicrobial efficacy and larger zones of inhibition against a broad range of bacteria, particularly MRSA (17 mm) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9 mm), than other extracts. A ten-fold diluted aqueous extract of elder leaves showed moderate activity against the development of Bacillus cereus and Serratia marcescens (6 mm), but was not able to inhibit the growth of any crucial nosocomial pathogens (Hearst et al., 2010). Sambucus nigra fruit possesses antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria that cause infections of the upper respiratory tract. ...
Research
European black elderberry naturally occurs in most of Europe and has been introduced into various parts of the world for fruit and flower production. Elderberry is rich in nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, fatty acids, organic acids, minerals, vitamins and essential oils. Elderberry also contains cyanogenic glycosides which are potentially toxic. Polyphenols, known for their free radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity, are the most important group of bioactive compounds present in elderberry in relatively high concentration. The high antioxidant activity of elderberry fruit and flowers is associated with their therapeutic properties. Elderberry has for a long time been used in folk medicine as a diaphoretic, antipyretic and diuretic agent. In recent years it was also found to have antibacterial, antiviral antidepressant and antitumour and hypoglycemic properties, and to reduce body fat and lipid concentration. Due to its health-promoting and sensory properties, elderberry is used primarily in food and pharmaceutical industry.
... Elderflower extracts displayed a higher antimicrobial efficacy and larger zones of inhibition against a broad range of bacteria, particularly MRSA (17 mm) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9 mm), than other extracts. A ten-fold diluted aqueous extract of elder leaves showed moderate activity against the development of Bacillus cereus and Serratia marcescens (6 mm), but was not able to inhibit the growth of any crucial nosocomial pathogens (Hearst et al., 2010). Sambucus nigra fruit possesses antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria that cause infections of the upper respiratory tract. ...
Article
Full-text available
European black elderberry naturally occurs in most of Europe and has been introduced into various parts of the world for fruit and flower production. Elderberry is rich in nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, fatty acids, organic acids, minerals, vitamins and essential oils. Elderberry also contains cyanogenic glycosides which are potentially toxic. Polyphenols, known for their free radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity, are the most important group of bioactive compounds present in elderberry in relatively high concentration. The high antioxidant activity of elderberry fruit and flowers is associated with their therapeutic properties. Elderberry has for a long time been used in folk medicine as a diaphoretic, antipyretic and diuretic agent. In recent years it was also found to have antibacterial, antiviral antidepressant and antitumour and hypoglycemic properties, and to reduce body fat and lipid concentration. Due to its health-promoting and sensory properties, elderberry is used primarily in food and pharmaceutical industry.
... In a previous study, it was proven that elderflower extract had an inhibitory activity against a wide range of nosocomial pathogens, namely Gram-positive (Staphylococcus sp., B. cereus) and Gram-negative (Salmonella Poona, P. aeruginosa) pathogens, and the highest inhibitory activity towards methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [158]. To our knowledge, no studies have been conducted to date on GM and elderflower extract association. ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of gentamicin (GM) is limited due to its nephrotoxicity mediated by oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of a flavonoid-rich extract of Sambucus nigra L. elderflower (SN) to inhibit lipoperoxidation in GM-induced nephrotoxicity. The HPLC analysis of the SN extract recorded high contents of rutin (463.2 ± 0.0 mg mL−1), epicatechin (9.0 ± 1.1 µg mL−1), and ferulic (1.5 ± 0.3 µg mL−1) and caffeic acid (3.6 ± 0.1 µg mL−1). Thirty-two Wistar male rats were randomized into four groups: a control group (C) (no treatment), GM group (100 mg kg−1 bw day−1 GM), GM+SN group (100 mg kg−1 bw day−1 GM and 1 mL SN extract day−1), and SN group (1 mL SN extract day−1). Lipid peroxidation, evaluated by malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzymes activity—superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)—were recorded in renal tissue after ten days of experimental treatment. The MDA level was significantly higher in the GM group compared to the control group (p < 0.0001), and was significantly reduced by SN in the GM+SN group compared to the GM group (p = 0.021). SN extract failed to improve SOD, CAT, and GPX activity in the GM+SN group compared to the GM group (p > 0.05), and its action was most probably due to the ability of flavonoids (rutin, epicatechin) and ferulic and caffeic acids to inhibit synthesis and neutralize reactive species, to reduce the redox-active iron pool, and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. In this study, we propose an innovative method for counteracting GM nephrotoxicity with a high efficiency and low cost, but with the disadvantage of the multifactorial environmental variability of the content of SN extracts.
... The flowers, leaves, stem bark, fruit, and root extracts of Sambucus nigra are used in cough, bronchitis, upper respiratory cold infection, and fever (Manganelli et al. 2005;Mohammadsadeghi et al. 2013;Harokopakis et al. 2006). Sambucus nigra fruits and flowers were used internally as a way of treating respiratory, digestive, gastrointestinal tract diseases, viral infection, influenza, and skin disorders in traditional Austrian medicines (Dawidowicz et al. 2006;Abuja et al. 1998;Veberic et al. 2009;Zakay-Rones et al. 1995;Hearst et al. 2010;Serkedjieva et al. 1990). Elderberry has shown to treat many different diseases due to its different properties such as Antioxidant effect (Ciocoiu et al. 2016;Kaack and Austed 1998), Photoprotective effect (Jarzycka et al. 2013), anti-inflammatory, antiglycosylation activity, antiosteoporosis effects (Badescu et al. 2012), Antivirus effect (Gregorio-Jauregui et al. 2014), Anti-allergy effect (Förster-Waldl et al. 2003), Antiurolithiasic effect (Crescenti et al. 2015), Anti-Toxoplasma activities effect (Daryani et al. 2015), and Anti-diabetic activity effect (Coupe et al. 1995). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Gurez is situated along the Kishanganga river in Kashmir valley. It is remotely located but the most beautiful valley. Owing to connectivity problems, this valley has largely remained unexplored and thereby its various features have generally gone unnoticed. This beautiful valley harbors a diversity of the medicinal plants. These medicinal plants are not only used in traditional health care system for the treatment of various diseases but also provide an edge for socio-economic upliftment for households. The socio-economic profile of the people of this remote area depicts that these people live in underprivileged conditions. The medicinal plants indigenous to Gurez, like Bunium persicum, Achillea Millefolium, and Carum carvi besides others, have high commercial value and can be utilized as a source of income. These phytochemically rich plant species can contribute to the development of various formulations of herbal therapies. However, overexploitation of these plant species has caused a decline in the frequency of these species in the past few years. Planned cultivation, proper exploitation, and the commercialization of these medicinal plants can serve as a primary source of income to the people of this downtrodden community of Gurez, particularly marginalized farmers and landless poor people. These plants have the potential to broaden livelihood opportunities of these people by framing proper policy that can give topmost priority to proper exploration of these plants.
... Flavonons, flavonols dihydroflavonols present in many flowers may be responsible for their antimicrobial pro perties. Furthermore, they can contain lecithin, pep tides and oligosaccharides which are inhibitors of trans cription and metabolism of the bacterial cells (Hearst et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The scope of the experiments included analysis of the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous extracts against bacterial and fungal cultures and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration of plant extracts tested microbial growth. Analysis of the antifungal and antibacterial activity was carried out by the disc diffusion method using paper discs. In the experiment 11 species of microorganisms – 8 bacterial and 3 fungal strains were used. The highest antimicrobial activity against the tested strains was demonstrated by black elder (Sambucus nigra L.), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) extracts. The study showed the diverse morphological activity of specific parts of elderberry and quince, which is the effect of different polyphenolic profile of these plants. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis showed the highest sensitivity to the effect of extracts of the analysed plants. As a positive control three antibiotics – amphotericin B, vancomycin and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid were used.
... However S. cerevisia was sensitive to P. granatum, E. globules and According to the results, prokaryotes were found to be more sensitive to dye extracts than eukaryotic microorganisms. No activity was observed with R. lutea, S. nigra and P.orientalis, but some antimicrobial properties were reported for these plants [19,20,21] ( Kumarasamy et al. 2002, Hearts et al. 2010, Jing 2011). This could be because of the differences in used parts, the extraction methods, and tested microorganisms between laboratories. ...
Article
Full-text available
Natural dyes gained increasing attention due to environmental considerations. Many of the dye plants have also medicinal values. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 25 plants as dye and their dyed wool yarns against microorganisms. Prokaryotes were found to be more sensitive to dye extracts than eukaryotic microorganisms and dyestuff from Punica granatum, Berberis vulgaris, Agrimonia eupatoria, Rhus coriaria were effective against all bacteria. Sarcina lutea, Bacillus subtilis, MRSA and Enterococcus faecalis were sensitive to almost all dye extracts even at low concentrations. The dyed wool material tested with microorganisms, and maximum inhibition rates were obtained against S. lutea and MRSA of wool samples dyed with P. granatum and R. coriaria, respectively, while there was a drastic decrease in E. faecalis growth with the A. cepa and R. petiolaris.
... Elderberry has strong antimicrobial effects exhibited on various nosocomial pathogens notably upon methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA, recognized globally as a clinically significant pathogen, associated with skin and soft tissue infections [45]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the centuries, humanity has known and utilized some sacred oils extracted from their medicinal plants for therapeutic purpose. They are considered as good source of bioactive compounds having a wide range of vital biological activities. Aromatic oils have been a part of human history for more than 3,500 years BC and appeared with regularity throughout all major civilizations down the ages, with uses ranging from religious ritual, food flavoring, medicines, perfumery and the masking of bad odors. It is impossible to date exactly when plants were first used medicinally, since such a development would have taken place over thousands of years. During recent decades, many researchers have investigated the mechanisms of action and the therapeutic use of essential oils as physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. This review, highlights on some sacred essential oils extracted from important traditional medicinal plants that possesses several pharmacological properties, considering that the safety and versatility of this these supplement should allow for its use in numerous pathological conditions.
Article
Full-text available
Due to the health-promoting properties of elderberry fruits, which result from their rich chemical composition, this raw material is widely used in herbal medicine and the food industry. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the antibacterial activity of the elderberry fruit extracts. The research showed that the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts determined their antibacterial activity. The research showed that the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts determined their antibacterial activity. The following phenolic acids were predominant: chlorogenic acid, sinapic acid, and t-cinnamic acid. Their average content was, respectively, 139.09, 72.84, 51.29 mg/g extract. Rutin and quercetin (their average content was 1105.39 and 306.6 mg/g extract, respectively) were the dominant flavonoids. The research showed that the elderberry polyphenol extracts exhibited activity against selected strains of bacteria within the concentration range of 0.5–0.05%. The following bacteria were the most sensitive to the extracts: Micrococcus luteus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas fragii, and Escherichia coli. Of the compounds under analysis, apigenin, kaempferol and ferulic, protocatechuic, and p-coumarin acids had the greatest influence on the high antibacterial activity of elderberry extracts. The results of the microbiological and chemical analyses of the composition of the extracts were analyzed statistically to indicate the bioactive compounds of the greatest antimicrobial significance.
Article
Full-text available
Protein extracts of either native or exotic rare mushroom fungi and plants that are normally known for novel therapeutics including immune modulation were investigated for their potential antimicrobial effects. Data obtained using the Kirby-Bauer's disc-diffusion assay methods showed that a number of locally sourced wild mushroom fungi (e.g. Ganoderma resinaceum, Russula fragilis and Inocybe grammata) had proteins with inherent antimicrobial properties against a number of typical hospital pathogens. The wild type fungus Mycena pura exhibited strong antagonism against Escherichia coli, an organism often commonly associated with nosocomial infections both locally and worldwide. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of protein extracts revealed unique protein banding patterns for the exotic fungal species and possessed significant inhibitory effects against a range of nosocomial pathogens including MRSA, Salmonella, Candida and Aspergillus species. This small-scale study revealed the occurrence of wild fungal peptides of potential therapeutic significance and antimicrobial potential for exploitation in complementary therapies in clinical and veterinary medicine.
Article
Full-text available
Background Mycoplasmosis is a common infection in human and veterinary medicine, and is associated with chronic inflammation and high morbidity. Mycoplasma species are often intrinsically resistant to many conventional antimicrobial therapies, and the resistance patterns of pathogenic mycoplasmas to commonly used medicinal (antimicrobial) plant extracts are currently unknown. Methods Aqueous extracts, ethanol extracts, or oils of the targeted plant species and colloidal silver were prepared or purchased. Activity against the wall-less bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri was determined and compared to activities measured against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution assays. The lethal or inhibitory nature of each extract was determined by subculture into neat growth medium. Results Growth of M. mycoides capri, E. coli, and B. subtilis was inhibited by elderberry extract, oregano oil, ethanol extract of oregano leaves, and ethanol extract of goldenseal root. No inhibition was seen with aqueous extract of astragalus or calendula oil. Growth of M. mycoides capri and B. subtilis was inhibited by ethanol extract of astragalus, whereas growth of E. coli was not. Similarly, M. mycoides capri and E. coli were inhibited by aqueous extract of thyme, but B. subtilis was unaffected. Only B. subtilis was inhibited by colloidal silver. Measured MICs ranged from 0.0003 mg/mL to 3.8 mg/mL. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects differed by species and extract. Conclusions The atypical pathogen M. mycoides capri was sensitive to extracts from many medicinal plants commonly used as antimicrobials in states of preparation and concentrations currently available for purchase in the United States and Europe. Variation in bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities between species and extracts indicates that multiple effecter compounds are present in these plant species.
Article
Full-text available
Natural substances have traditionally been used in skin care for centuries. There is now an ongoing search for new natural bioactives that not only promote skin health but also protect the skin against various harmful factors, including ultraviolet radiation and free radicals. Free radicals, by disrupting defence and restoration mechanisms, significantly contribute to skin damage and accelerate ageing. Natural compounds present in plants exhibit antioxidant properties and the ability to scavenge free radicals. The increased interest in plant chemistry is linked to the growing interest in plant materials as natural antioxidants. This review focuses on aromatic and medicinal plants as a source of antioxidant substances, such as polyphenols, tocopherols, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and macromolecules (including polysaccharides and peptides) as well as components of essential oils, and their role in skin health and the ageing process.
Thesis
In recent years, the scientific community has seen an increasing interest in the use of natural compounds in medicines, food supplements, cosmetics and dermatological products. An important example is Sambucus nigra L. whose flowers (elderflowers) and berries (elderberries) have been widely used in traditional medicine. The traditional use of elderflowers in the relief of early symptoms of common cold has been officially recognised by the European Union, where several products in the form of herbal tea, tincture or liquid extract, are available on the market. Elderberries have also been traditionally used in the form of herbal tea, syrup or juice. Nevertheless, no single herbal substance/herbal preparation is registered as medicine. In line with the need for comprehensive pharmacological studies to validate the traditional use of S. nigra, namely its anti-inflammatory activity, one of the aims of this PhD thesis was to screen and characterize biological activities of S. nigra L. extracts obtained using different extraction methodologies. Then, to optimize the biological activity of the best extract (i.e. with high interest for therapeutic uses), different extract-loaded nanocarriers were prepared. Different materials were applied in this task such as polymeric and lipid-based materials. In this specific context, the purpose of using nanotechnology as strategy was to increase the stability of bioactive compounds and to modulate their release, creating a potential topical formulation. Due to the harvesting time of elderflowers and elderberries, in a first part of this PhD thesis, initial nanoencapsulation studies were performed using hyaluronic acid as model drug. Hyaluronic acid is commonly used through intraarticular administration for viscosupplementation in osteoarthritis and other inflammation disorders. Therefore, the first studies consisted of producing an characterising polymeric nanoparticles made of poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were prepared with and without hyaluronic acid. The inclusion of hyaluronic acid was achieved with an efficiency higher than 70%, but resulted in a marked particle size increase. Particles revealed an in vitro sustained release profile and in vitro cell compatibility, as well as a risk of haemolysis less than 1%, ensuring their safety. In vivo antiinflammatory studies showed a higher inhibition for hyaluronic acid-loaded PLGA particles when compared to hyaluronic acid suspension (78% versus 60%). Results were not so different from the positive control, clearly suggesting that this formulation may be a promising alternative to the current hyaluronic acid injectable dosage form. Having characterised the intended particulate carrier, different extraction methods were studied to obtain the S. nigra extracts from elderflowers and elderberries. For this purpose, fresh flowers, and fresh and dried berries were considered, resulting in eighteen S. nigra extracts. Several parameters were considered for selecting the extraction method, i.e. yield of extraction, type of solvent, flavonoid content and biological activity of the resultant extracts (antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content, collagenase, elastase, tyrosinase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition). The most promising extracts were characterized for in vitro and in vivo antiinflammatory activity and cytotoxicity (skin and monocytic cells). The most promising extracts were those obtained from fresh flowers using ultrasounds method with methanol. Specifically, these extracts showed results similar to positive controls, particularly the antioxidant activity (75 ± 2%), collagenase inhibition (94 ± 1%) and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (97 ± 3%). Nevertheless, extracts of fresh flowers using ultrasounds/ethanol presented higher collagenase inhibition (88 ± 3%) and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (102 ± 2%). Cytotoxicity testing confirmed their safety. The second aim of the present PhD thesis was to optimize the activity of the resultant methanolic extracts through encapsulation in different types of nanocarriers: polymeric nanoparticles based on PLGA and poly-Ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) and lipid-based nanoparticles (ethosomes). The so obtained nanoparticulate formulations were analysed in terms of particle size and morphology, physicochemical stability over the time, extract encapsulation efficiency, release profile and biological activities (e.g., anti-inflammatory activity, collagenase inhibition, antioxidant activity). Small and well-defined polymeric nanoparticles and ethosomes were prepared. The highest encapsulation efficiency (76%) was found in PLGA nanoparticles. The same happened for the anti-inflammatory activity (60.7 ± 9.0%). On the other hand, ethosomes presented a very promising value of collagenase inhibition. At the end, this thesis validates and supports the scientific evidence of potential uses of S. nigra as a therapeutic agent, in the case of polymeric nanoparticles, or as cosmetic ingredient, in the case of ethosomes. However, further studies should be carried out, hopefully attracting interest from pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.
Article
Full-text available
p>Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de los extractos de las plantas Bauhinia sp., Sambucus nigra, Eichhornia crassipes y Taraxacum officinale frente a patógenos de importancia clínica. Método. La metodología incluyó la adquisición, secado, maceración, molienda, preparación de los extractos crudos etanólicos y concentración por rotaevaporación, análisis fitoquimico y se separaron las fracciones por cromatografía en capa fina. Las pruebas antimicrobianas se realizaron con diferentes concentraciones de los extractos según las indicaciones de Clinical and Laboratory Standars Institute. Los microorganismos utilizados fueron Enterococcus faecium resistente a vancomicina, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae con presencia de KPC, Providencia rettgeri con presencia de ESBLs, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus β-lisina y Candida albicans. Resultados. Las cromatografías permitieron comprobar la presencia de flavonoides, terpenos, saponinas, fenoles, quinonas y alcaloides que han sido reportados con actividad antimicrobiana. En los ensayos de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se encontró que los extractos presentaban diversos grados de inhibición frente a los microrganismos de estudio, siendo el más eficaz los tallos de T. officinale. Conclusión. Se puede concluir que los extractos vegetales podrían ser una alternativa de tratamiento para infecciones nosocomiales.</p
Thesis
Full-text available
Elderberry extract from fruit and flowers appears to show some inhibitory effect against many microorganisms including those found as nosocomial pathogens (hospital “super-bugs”) e.g. MRSA; HIV; Mycoplasmae; IBV coronavirus (an envelope virus), and influenza (and its bacterial super-infections). These effects may be stronger in-vivo than in-vitro. The immunomodulatory effects of S. nigra have been investigated and appear to show that the plant would be likely to stimulate the immune systems of the weak or immune-compromised. It has also been investigated to see whether it would exacerbate or mitigate a cytokine storm, and does not seem to make one worse and might dampen it. Elderberry is also shown to have potential as an ingredient in a hospital disinfectant for which in-vitro trials are sufficient, and without effective disinfectants modern medicine will become impossible. The S. nigra inactivates two distinct envelope viruses and should be tested on Ebola, also an envelope virus, as it is likely that it may inactivate that too. It should also be tested on SARS and other novel coronaviruses such as COVID-19 which are all envelope viruses. Other species of Sambucus appear to have very similar properties including inhibiting coronaviruses. Elderberry seems to have potential as a useful medicine, particularly since there are reasons to believe resistance to it is unlikely to ever develop. It might be possible to use it in combination with leeks (Gallium porrum) which are also anti-viral. Elderberry has been shown to be effective against upper respiratory tract diseases including some Coronaviruses, and has potential against the current pandemic of Covid-19. Two case studies, included here, suggest it to be effective against Covid-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2, and clinical trials are under way. In-vitro trials are planned to test it against other viral possible future pandemics.
Article
Full-text available
The EC Regulation for Organic Farming states that organic livestock should be treated preferably with phytotherapeutic products. In spite of the high importance of organic livestock in Europe, primarily ruminants, today almost no phytotherapeutic product is registered for livestock. Also, information regarding veterinary phytotherapy is rare. The aim of this paper is to find approaches to cope with health problems of organic ruminants in Europe on the basis of findings from the European ethnoveterinary medicine (EuEVM). A systematic review of ethno-biomedicinal papers was conducted with the aid of the Scopus database, and 75 papers, from European countries were analyzed regarding ethnoveterinary information. A total of 590 plant species referring to 102 different plant families are reported to be used for animal treatment, with Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Lamiaceae being the most important families. The traditional use of some plant species (e.g. mallow, chamomile, wormwood) corresponds with findings from recent scientific literature. The large number of less studied plant species, such as white lupin as an antiparasitic herb, and Helleborus spp. as potential immunostimulatory agent, opens an interesting field for future research. In general, EuEVM provides interesting treatment approaches for gastrointestinal and dermatological disorders as well as parasitosis. Findings regarding disorders of female genital or respiratory tract are less consistent. Nevertheless, EuEVM offers a solid basis for stimulating research in veterinary phytotherapy in Europe with a perspective to solve animal health problems in organic or even nonorganic ruminant production. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Freiburg.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Combined approaches to local knowledge and folk plant use improve awareness and promote effective strategies for the conservation of significant biocultural patrimony. Moreover, the information reported might be the basis for further appropriate phytochemical and pharmacological research. Therefore we provide an insight into traditional herbal remedies and practices for healing bite injuries in humans and domestic animals caused by the Iberian wolf. Wolf bites are associated with inflammatory processes and rabies is a potential complication AIMS: This paper describes and summarises the medicinal-veterinary empirical and ritual uses of the Iberian flora for wolf injuries and reviews the ethnopharmacological data of specific plants that are already published. The Iberian wolf is a critically endangered subspecies of the grey wolf. Livestock attacks attributed to wolves are increasingly frequent in the Iberian Peninsula, resulting in serious social problems. Interesting strategies for Iberian wolf conservation might be related to traditional grazing practices that are deeply linked with empirical knowledge and local practices passed on by oral tradition, which are also vulnerable now. Materials and methods: Based on documentary sources from the beginning of the twentieth century to the present, we systematically searched old monographs, regional documents, technical papers, project reports, as well as the international and national databases and the available scientific literature, without restrictions regarding the language of the publications consulted. Results: A total of 39 remedies for healing wolf bite injuries in humans and domestic animals was reported, highlighting the medicinal use of 33 species of vascular plants, mostly wild herbs, belonging to 18 botanical families. The use of wood ashes was also reported. The number of use-reports found represents a very high number considering similar European studies. Leaves were the predominant plant part mentioned. Boiling plant materials in water for topical uses was the most frequent method of preparation found. Some traditional remedies combined two or more plant species in order to potentiate their effects. Moreover, some plant-based traditional practices and rituals to ward off wolves and to prevent wolf attacks were also documented. In these practices eleven other species (belonging to seven more families) were used. Conclusions: Despite the decline of the Iberian wolf over the last few decades, wolves are still in the imaginary of rural communities that perceive this large carnivore as both a diabolic creature and a mythic and benign animal. Wolf-related cultural heritage is of great interest in terms of conservation strategies. This review emphasises the importance of local knowledge and provides useful information about several potential sources of phytochemicals and their claimed therapeutic effects, aiming at contributing to the conservation and appreciation of the Iberian biocultural heritage.
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN Introducción: Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM) es una cepa bacteriana resistente a una gran variedad de antibióticos, incluidos los carbapenems y la vancomicina. Actualmente se cuenta con muy pocas opciones terapéuticas para el tratamiento de la infección por SARM, por lo tanto el enfoque hacia las plantas como fuente de moléculas con acción antibacteriana es una buena opción para investigar posibles compuestos activos. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de extractos metanólicos y diclorometánicos de plantas (reportadas por la población rural de Soracá-Colombia como tratamiento empírico para las infecciones) contra SARM. Métodos: Estudio experimental en el cual se aplicaron 16 tratamientos (extractos) a una cepa de SARM. Los extractos provinieron de siete plantas y se obtuvieron por medio de extracción continua con solventes (metanol y diclorometano) usando Soxhlet. El método de microdilución en caldo fue usado para determinar la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) de los extractos, realizando inicialmente un tamizaje a una concentración de 10 mg/mL y luego hallando la CMI de los extractos que tuvieron actividad a tal concentración. La inhibición se verificó por lectura visual después de aplicar 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolio (MTT). Resultados: De los 16 extractos probados, seis inhibieron al SARM en concentración de 10 mg/mL. Tales extractos tuvieron efecto a una CMI de 1,25 mg/mL. Conclusión: Los seis extractos de las plantas que tuvieron acción inhibitoria frente a SARM son fuentes potenciales de moléculas que deben ser estudiadas más a fondo con el fin de aportar al estudio de posibles alternativas contra la resistencia bacteriana.
Book
La revista Salud y Sociedad Uptc, es el medio oficial de difusión científica de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. La revista publica semestralmente manuscritos que tengan su fundamentación en disciplinas relacionadas con el campo de la salud y la psicología. Los tipos de publicación que ofrece la revista son entre otros: artículos originales, revisiones de tema, artículos de reflexión, artículos cortos, ensayos, casos clínicos y cartas al editor. El objetivo principal de la publicación es difundir trabajos de investigación u otros tipos de trabajos que aporten al conocimiento y avance en el campo de las ciencias de la salud. Esta revista provee acceso libre inmediato a su contenido a través de su página web, bajo el principio de globalización del conocimiento.
Article
Full-text available
RESUMO O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar a triagem fitoquímica e avaliar a atividade antibacteriana de extratos das flores de Sambucus nigraL. Os extratos; aquoso (10 %), etanólico (5 %) e Acetato de etila (5 %) foram submetidos a testes colorimétricos para triagem fitoquímica e a avaliação da atividade antibacteriana foi realizada pelo método de disco-difusão em ágar. Os resultados mostraram que nas concentrações de 6 e 12 mg o extrato aquoso apresentou halos significativos de inibição para Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Streptococcus pyogenes, porém, quando comparado aos medicamentos usados como referência a atividade não foi satisfatória, e, ainda, evidenciou a ausência de inibição para todas as cepas testadas com o aumento da concentração para 18 e 24 mg. A análise da triagem fitoquímica evidenciou a presença de flavonoides com intensa reação de cor no extrato aquoso e etanólico, e de fraca intensidade no extrato acetato de etila. Nos mesmos extratos, pelos testes realizados, não foram detectados taninos, saponinas, antraquinonas e alcaloides. Concluiu-se que o extrato aquoso apresentou melhor efeito inibitório para Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Streptococcus pyogenes, porém insuficiente para promover a inativação eficiente quando comparado aos controles.
Article
Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de los extractos de las plantas Bauhinia sp., Sambucus nigra, Eichhornia crassipes y Taraxacum officinale frente a patógenos de importancia clínica. Método. La metodología incluyó la adquisición, secado, maceración, molienda, preparación de los extractos crudos etanólicos y concentración por rotaevaporación, análisis fitoquimico y se separaron las fracciones por cromatografía en capa fina. Las pruebas antimicrobianas se realizaron con diferentes concentraciones de los extractos según las indicaciones de Clinical and Laboratory Standars Institute. Los microorganismos utilizados fueron Enterococcus faecium resistente a vancomicina, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae con presencia de KPC, Providencia rettgeri con presencia de ESBLs, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus (3-lisina y Candida albicans. Resultados. Las cromatografías permitieron comprobar la presencia de flavonoides, terpenos, saponinas, fenoles, quinonas y alcaloides que han sido reportados con actividad antimicrobiana. En los ensayos de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se encontró que los extractos presentaban diversos grados de inhibición frente a los microrganismos de estudio, siendo el más eficaz los tallos de T. officinale. Conclusión. Se puede concluir que los extractos vegetales podrían ser una alternativa de tratamiento para infecciones nosocomiales.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to determine the basic morphological characteristics (weight, length) and antioxidant activity (using DPPH method) of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) inflorescences as well as some elderberry-derived food products prepared from fresh (honey, alcoholic extract, tea infusions) and dried inflorescences (syrup). For the study of problematic, it was used 113 wild-growing genotypes of elderberry from 56 locations in Slovakia growing at an altitude of 98.15-712.32 m. The weight of fresh inflorescences ranged from 0.45 to 57.59 g (75.65% coefficient of variation value), the total length of inflorescences ranged from 19.0 to 282.0 mm (22.42%), the length of inflorescence´s stems from 9.0 to 197.0 mm (31.51%), a number of petals predominated pentanumerous petals. Variability in primary and secondary branching reported a low to high degree of variability among as well as within the genotypes. Results showed significant differences in the shape of inflorescences and the colour of flowers among each genotype. Antioxidant activity by DPPH method in elderberry inflorescence water extract was between 85.12 and 89.29%. Activation of tea infusions and beverages was ensured using a mechanism Kalyxx based on galvanic effect. In beverages made from 10% diluted honey prepared from fresh inflorescences in the carbohydrate-based extract, anti-radical activity was determined in the range of 16.81-24.16%. In an alcoholic extract from fresh inflorescences, anti-radical activity was between 90.99 and 93.16%. In beverages acquired from the syrup of flowers, we identified antioxidant activity ranging from 37.92 (10%) to 62.82% (40%). Results indicated that elderberry inflorescences and elderberry-derived food products can be attractive to consumers and in future can increase the assortments of healthy products.
Article
Full-text available
Pentacyclic triterpenes are secondary plant metabolites widespread in fruit peel, leaves and stem bark. In particular the lupane-, oleanane-, and ursane triterpenes display various pharmacological effects while being devoid of prominent toxicity. Therefore, these triterpenes are promising leading compounds for the development of new multi-targeting bioactive agents. Screening of 39 plant materials identified triterpene rich (> 0.1% dry matter) plant parts. Plant materials with high triterpene concentrations were then used to obtain dry extracts by accelerated solvent extraction resulting in a triterpene content of 50 - 90%. Depending on the plant material, betulin (birch bark), betulinic acid (plane bark), oleanolic acid (olive leaves, olive pomace, mistletoe sprouts, clove flowers), ursolic acid (apple pomace) or an equal mixture of the three triterpene acids (rosemary leaves) are the main components of these dry extracts. They are quantitatively characterised plant extracts supplying a high concentration of actives and therefore can be used for development of phytopharmaceutical formulations.
Article
Full-text available
Traditional herbal cures and remedies have played an important historical role in the treatment of a variety of illnesses and diseases in Northern Ireland for the last three hundred years. Recently, these have been reviewed in the publication by Linda Ballard from the Ulster Folk and Transport Museum at Cultra, Co. Down, which details the variety of local plants used and for what purpose. From this publication and another related publication, we note the description of several plant species that consistently appear in traditional cures and remedies, particularly used to treat infections and infectious diseases. Unfortunately, although these plants have strong associations with the local historical evidence base, there are very limited and mainly no formal publications in the medical/scientific evidence base, examining their scientific background and clinical efficacy.
Article
Antibiotic agents have been in widespread and largely effective therapeutic use since their discovery in the 20th century. However, the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens now presents an increasing global challenge to both human and veterinary medicine. It is now widely acknowledged that there is a need to develop novel antimicrobial agents to minimize the threat of further antimicrobial resistance. With this in mind, a study was undertaken to examine the antimicrobial properties of aqueous extracts of 'exotic' Shiitake and Oyster mushrooms on a range of environmental and clinically important microorganisms. Several batches of Shiitake and oyster mushrooms were purchased fresh from a local supermarket and underwent aqueous extraction of potential antimicrobial components. After reconstitution, aqueous extracts were tested qualitatively against a panel of 29 bacterial and 10 fungal pathogens, for the demonstration of microbial inhibition. Our data quantitatively showed that Shiitake mushroom extract had extensive antimicrobial activity against 85% of the organisms it was tested on, including 50% of the yeast and mould species in the trial. This compared favourably with the results from both the Positive control (Ciprofloxacin) and Oyster mushroom, in terms of the number of species inhibited by the activity of the metabolite(s) inherent to the Shiitake mushroom. This small scale study shows the potential antimicrobial effects of Shitake extracts, however further work to isolate and identify the active compound(s) now requires to be undertaken. Once these have been identified, suitable pharmaceutical delivery systems should be explored to allow concentrated extracts to be prepared and delivered optimally, rather than crude ingestion of raw material, which could promote further bacterial resistance.
Article
Background: Antibiotic agents have been in widespread and largely effective therapeutic use since their discovery in the 20th century. However, the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens now presents an increasing global challenge to both human and veterinary medicine. It is now widely acknowledged that there is a need to develop novel antimicrobial agents to minimize the threat of further antimicrobial resistance. With this in mind, a study was undertaken to examine the antimicrobial properties of aqueous extracts of 'exotic' Shiitake and Oyster mushrooms on a range of environmental and clinically important microorganisms. Method: Several batches of Shiitake and oyster mushrooms were purchased fresh from a local supermarket and underwent aqueous extraction of potential antimicrobial components. After reconstitution, aqueous extracts were tested qualitatively against a panel of 29 bacterial and 10 fungal pathogens, for the demonstration of microbial inhibition. Results: Our data quantitatively showed that Shiitake mushroom extract had extensive antimicrobial activity against 85% of the organisms it was tested on, including 50% of the yeast and mould species in the trial. This compared favourably with the results from both the Positive control (Ciprofloxacin) and Oyster mushroom, in terms of the number of species inhibited by the activity of the metabolite(s) inherent to the Shiitake mushroom. Conclusions: This small scale study shows the potential antimicrobial effects of Shitake extracts, however further work to isolate and identify the active compound(s) now requires to be undertaken. Once these have been identified, suitable pharmaceutical delivery systems should be explored to allow concentrated extracts to be prepared and delivered optimally, rather than crude ingestion of raw material, which could promote further bacterial resistance.
Article
Isolation of lectins from extracts of the Sambucus nigra inflorescences and of pollen material have been performed using isoelectric focusing without carrier ampholytes (autofocusing). Fractions active in agglutination tests with different carbohydrate specificity were subjected to SDS-PAGE. The major lectin found in whole inflores-cences was GalNAc specific and is proposed to be a heterotetramer with subunits of about 30 and 33 kDa. It was called SNAflu-I. At least two other lectins were present in the pollen material and supposed to consist of identical subunits. Major positively charged lectin was Glc/Man specific with subunit of 26 kDa and called SNApol-I. Other pollen component (SNApol-II) was Gal specific with subunit of about 20 kDa. In order to elucidate cell targets sensitive for the S. nigra lectin's activity the combined effects of the lectins and transcriptional of phenazine origin on B. subtilis cells growth have been studied. Only SNApol-I demonstrated the antagonistic activity against these inhibitors in vivo. This lectin but not the SNAflu-I can also inhibit transcription in vitro. It is supposed that lectins from the same source may act in different directions on cell metabolism. Particularly one of the common targets may be the DNA-dependent synthesis of RNA.
Article
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has now been described globally, as a clinically significant pathogen, particularly associated with skin and soft tissue infections, including abscesses, cellulitis and furunculosis. The recent emergence of CA-MRSA combined with its predominant presentation associated with skin and soft tissue infection, the previous literature indicating honey as an effective treatment of healthcare-associated HA-MRSA-related wound infection, as well as honey's ease of topical application, make the current study timely and of interest to healthcare practitioners involved with wound management. Although previous studies have examined the antimicrobial activity of honey against HA-MRSA, such data are limited regarding the activity of honey against this emerging type of MRSA. CA-MRSA (n=6 isolates), was examined for its susceptibility to natural honey (n=3 honey produced from bees in Northern Ireland and one commercial French honey). Results demonstrated that all honey was able to reduce the cultural count of all CA-MRSA from approximately 10(6) colony-forming units (cfus) (mean = 6.46 log10 cfu/g) to none detectable within 24h of co-culture of separate CA-MRSA organisms individually with all four-honey types examined. Subsequent non-selective enrichment of honey demonstrated that inoculated honey remained positive for CA-MRSA until 72h postinoculation, after which point no culturable organisms could be detected. This study demonstrated that, in vitro, these natural products had an antimicrobial activity against the CA-MRSA organisms tested. Further studies are now required to demonstrate if this antimicrobial activity has any clinical application.
Article
One-third of botanical remedies from southern Italy are used to treat skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of SSTI, has generated increasing concern due to drug resistance. Many plants possess antimicrobial agents and provide effective remedies for SSTI. Our aim was to investigate plants from different ethnobotanical usage groups for inhibition of growth and biofilms in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Three groups were assessed: plant remedies for SSTI, plant remedies not involving the skin, and plants with no ethnomedical application. We screened 168 extracts, representing 104 botanical species, for activity against MRSA (ATCC 33593). We employed broth dilution methods to determine the MIC after 18 h growth using an optical density (OD 600 nm) reading. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by growing biofilms for 40 h, then fixing and staining with crystal violet. After washing, 10% Tween 80 was added and OD 570 nm readings were taken. Extracts from 10 plants exhibited an IC50<or=32 microg/ml for biofilm inhibition: Lonicera alpigena, Castanea sativa, Juglans regia, Ballota nigra, Rosmarinus officinalis, Leopoldia comosa, Malva sylvestris, Cyclamen hederifolium, Rosa canina, and Rubus ulmifolius. Limited bacteriostatic activity was evident. This study has demonstrated that the anti-biofilm activity of medicinal plants used for SSTI is significantly greater than plants without any ethnomedical applications.