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On African violets and Cape primroses-towards a monophyletic Streptocarpus (Gesneriaceae)

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Abstract

Recent phylogenetic studies have shown that Colpogyne, Hovanella, Linnaeopsis, Saintpaulia and Schizoboea (Gesneriaceae) are embedded in Streptocarpus. Saintpaulia had been expanded to over 20 species, but this narrow species concept was challenged by recent studies that showed that most of these taxa were poorly genetically and morphologically differentiated. The number of species in Saintpaulia has been reduced to six, with the majority of former species reduced to subspecies and varieties of S. ionantha. A key to the species in Streptocarpus subgenus Streptocarpella in tropical East Africa, and new combinations in Streptocarpus are provided here.
Accepted by U. Molau: 14 Feb. 2012; published online in PDF: 16 Feb. 2012 3
PHYTOTAXA
ISSN 1179-3155 (print edition)
ISSN 1179-3163 (online edition)
Copyright © 2012 Magnolia Press
Phytotaxa 46: 39 (2012)
www.mapress.com/phytotaxa/Article
On African violets and Cape primroses—towards a monophyletic Streptocarpus
(Gesneriaceae)
MAARTEN J.M. CHRISTENHUSZ
Botany Unit, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: maarten.christenhusz@helsinki.fi
Abstract
Recent phylogenetic studies have shown that Colpogyne, Hovanella, Linnaeopsis, Saintpaulia and
Schizoboea (Gesneriaceae) are embedded in Streptocarpus.Saintpaulia had been expanded to over 20 species,
but this narrow species concept was challenged by recent studies that showed that most of these taxa were
poorly genetically and morphologically differentiated. The number of species in Saintpaulia has been reduced
to six, with the majority of former species reduced to subspecies and varieties of S. ionantha. A key to the
species in Streptocarpus subgenus Streptocarpella in tropical East Africa, and new combinations in
Streptocarpus are provided here.
Introduction
The African violet, Saintpaulia Wendland (1893: 321), is a genus with six species of herbaceous,
subsucculent perennials native to the rain forests in the Eastern Arc Mountain Range and Coastal Forest
biodiversity hotspot in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania, an area with exceptionally high species
richness and endemism (Myers et al. 2000).
The genus Saintpaulia has been promoted as a flagship taxon, and has even been called “the giant panda
of East African plant conservation”, because of the threatened status of the genus as a whole (Eastwood et al.
1998), in combination with familiarity and popularity as a pot plant (Baatvik 1993, Watkins et al. 2002). The
conservation of habitats with Saintpaulia could preserve the entire biodiversity hotspot in the Eastern Arc
which houses a high percentage of endemic species. Additionally protecting the genetic resources of African
violets in their natural populations could contribute to developing new varieties in horticulture and possibly
financially support local communities (Nagoya protocol; CBD 2011a).
African violets are well-known houseplants and are easily cultivated from cuttings. This asexual
propagation, which also occurs freely in the wild, has probably contributed to populations looking identical in
certain areas that are geographically isolated due to topography (Darbyshire 2006). Because most species
were initially described from cultivated material, which was derived from relatively few original accessions,
the ‘species’ recognised were discrete in cultivation due to cloning. When further material from the wild
became available intermediate strains were found, which some authors treated as new species, but
increasingly an appropriate broader concept has been sought. In the floristic treatment of Gesneriaceae for the
Flora of Tropical East Africa, Darbyshire (2006) recognised only six species, and treated the majority of the
remaining taxa as subspecies of S. ionantha Wendland (1893), or placed them in synonymy. This was
supported by molecular and morphological research (e.g. Möller & Cronk 1997a, 1997b, Lindqvist & Albert
1999, 2001) that showed most of the species to be poorly differentiated, if at all.
Moreover molecular research (Möller & Cronk 1997a) showed that Saintpaulia evolved from the
caulescent group of Streptocarpus Lindley (1828) or Cape primproses, better known as Streptocarpus
CHRISTENHUSZ4 Phytotaxa 46 © 2012 Magnolia Press
subgenus Streptocarpella Engler (1921). Therefore Saintpaulia should be merged with Streptocarpus to avoid
paraphyly and the species should be placed in S. subgenus Streptocarpella to make this subgenus
monophyletic. The morphological differences in floral and vegetative characters are the cause of a change in
pollination syndrome, which has also been found in other genera, such as Aesculus L. (e.g. Forest et al. 2001)
and Gomesa R.Br. (Chase et al. 2009). The close relationship between Saintpaulia and Streptocarpus
subgenus Streptocarpella is supported by many morphological features the two have in common. They both
have verrucose seeds, are caulescent (although in some Saintpaulia this is reduced, making the plant appear
rosulate), share similar embryology and pollen type, and they share the same chromosome number (2n=30).
Additional molecular studies of Möller & Cronk (1997a,b, 1999, 2001) and Lindquist & Albert (1999)
indicate that in addition to Saintpaulia also Colpogyne B.L.Burtt, Hovanella A.Weber & B.L.Burtt,
Linnaeopsis Engl. and Schizoboea (Fritsch) B.L.Burtt have arisen from within Streptocarpus.Colpogyne and
Linnaeopsis already have combinations in Streptocarpus (Humbert 1967, Darbyshire 2006), but until now
combinations in Streptocarpus for Hovanella,Schizoboea and Saintpaulia have not been made. The main
character that was used to separate Streptocarpus from the other genera mentioned above is the spirally
twisted fruit. Even though this is generally the case, there are several species of Streptocarpus with untwisted
fruits.
Since 1997 the Botanic Garden at Helsinki University (now part of the Finnish Museum of Natural
History) has cultivated African violets for scientific study (e.g. Kolehmainen & Mutikainen 2006,
Kolehmainen 2008) and in collaboration and exchange with Uppsala University Botanic Garden, the Royal
Botanic Garden Edinburgh and the National Botanical Garden of Belgium in Meise we have maintained a
collection for ex situ conservation (Schulman & Kolehmainen 2004, Miranto 2005), in accordance with the
Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (CBD 2011b). Since 2010 I have been responsible for curating this
collection, and the lack of combinations for these taxa in Streptocarpus, where they doubtlessly belong, has
come to my attention. Below I follow the most recent monograph (Darbyshire 2006) and provide the
necessary combinations.
Recently two additional species were described, which in my opinion are not isolated from species
mentioned in Darbyshire (2006): Saintpaulia ulugurensis Haston (in Haston et al. 2009) matches the
description of Streptocarpus ionanthus subsp. grandifolius, and Saintpaulia watkinsii Haston (in Haston et al.
2009) appears to be a variety of Streptocarpus afroviola.
Key to the tropical East African species of Streptocarpus subgenus Streptocarpella
1. Plants acaulescent, all leaves sprouting directly from the soil surface, the stems underground with no aboveground
branching; leaves solitary or in a rosette, spirally arranged; fruits always conspicuously twisted ................................
..............................................................................................................................................S. subgenus Streptocarpus
-. Plants caulescent, leaves sprouting from aboveground stems, sometimes the internodes reduced and the plant
appearing (sub-)rosulate; leaves opposite or alternate; fruits twisted or not . ................2. S. subgenus Streptocarpella
2. Leaves alternate ............................................................................................................................................................3
-. Leaves opposite (sometimes becoming alternate due to differential growth) ............................................................. 6
3. Leaves subsessile; lateral veins scalariform .................................................................................................. S. bullatus
-. Leaves petiolate; lateral veins ascending......................................................................................................................4
4. Leaf apices acute to short-acuminate; plants subscandent .....................................................................S. subscandens
-. Leaf apices rounded to obtuse; plants subrosulate or creeping ....................................................................................5
5. Plants creeping; petiole more than half as long as the length of the blade........................................ S. heckmannianus
-. Plants subrosulate; petiole less than half the length of the blade ...................................................................... S. albus
6. Corolla tube up to 3 mm long, shorter than the upper lobe; anthers yellow, always exserted ......................................
................................................................................................................................................7. (formerly Saintpaulia)
-. Corolla tube 4–40 mm long, longer than the upper lobe; anthers not yellow, usually included in the tube .............. 12
7. Leaf blades glabrous above.................................................................................................................... S. inconspicuus
-. Leaf blades pubescent above ........................................................................................................................................8
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ON AFRICAN VIOLETS AND CAPE PRIMROSES
8. Upper corolla lobes clearly darker blue to violet, the lower lobes near white; leaf blades usually less than 4 cm long
..................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
-. Upper corolla lobes similarly coloured than the lower lobes, colour various, sometimes with a darker eye; leaf
blades up to 12.5 cm long ..........................................................................................................................................10
9. Corolla lobes with glandular hairs on the margin; leaf blade densely pilose above................................. S. goetzeanus
-. Corolla lobes with non-glandular hairs on the margin; leaf blade sparsely long-pilose above ...................S. afroviola
10. Filaments slender; leaf blades sparsely long-pilose above, mature ones usually less than 5 cm long .......S. shumensis
-. Filaments broad, flattened; leaf blades with variable pubescence, but when as above, usually interspersed with dense
short hairs and mature blades longer than 5 cm ......................................................................................................... 11
11. Mature leaves subpeltate .............................................................................................................................. S. teitensis
-. Mature leaves cordate, obtuse or rounded ...................................................................................................S. ionantha
12. Inflorescences terminal; capsules straight, 15 – 30 mm long...............................................................S. kamerunensis
-. Inflorescences axillary; capsules usually spirally twisted, but if straight, than 5–17 mm long ................................. 13
13. Leaf margins entire.....................................................................................................................................................14
-. Leaf margins crenulate or serrulate ............................................................................................................................ 24
14. Corolla mouth (almost) closed by the upcurved ridged palate, vertically compressed............................................. 15
-. Corolla mouth open, sometimes somewhat laterally compressed .............................................................................20
15. Ovary densely pubescent ........................................................................................................................................... 16
-. Ovary glabrous (sessile glands may be present) ........................................................................................................17
16. Pedicels glandular-hairy; leaves cordate to obtuse at base ............................................................. S. glandulosissimus
-. edicels hairy, not glandular; leaves acute to attenuate at base.................................................................. S. buchananii
17. Floor of the corolla tube strongly ventricose; corolla lobes usually striped with purple........................ S. pallidiflorus
-. Floor of the corolla tube not ventricose; corolla lobes never striped......................................................................... 18
18. Corolla tubes 9 mm or shorter; leaves densely pubescent on both sides ..................................................S. caulescens
-. Corolla tubes 9 mm or longer; leaves sparsely pubescent ......................................................................................... 19
19. Corolla tubes longer than 13 mm, inflated at the base ................................................................................... S. inflatus
-. Corolla tube shorter than 13 mm, not inflated at the base ...............................................................................S. holstii
20. Corolla tube shorter than 10 mm ............................................................................................................................... 21
-. Corolla tube longer than 10 mm................................................................................................................................. 24
21. Stems often swollen at base; corolla longer than 12 mm ....................................................................... S. pallidiflorus
-. Stems not swollen at base; corolla shorter than 14 mm.............................................................................................. 22
22. Corolla tube narrowed towards the mouth, swollen in the middle ............................................................S. gonjaensis
-. Corolla tube wider at the mouth ................................................................................................................................. 23
23. Corolla up to 8.5 mm long, lower lip to 3 mm long, the lobes rounded .................................................S. kimbozanus
-. Corolla 9 mm or longer, lower lip longer than 3.5 mm, the lobes oblong................................................ S. thysanotus
24. Leaf margins shallowly crenulate/serrulate; stamens inserted at the upper part of the corolla tube ..........................25
-. Leaf margins strongly crenate/serrulate; stamens inserted near the base of the corolla tube .................................... 26
25. Corolla tube 10 mm or shorter; lobes of lower lip held forwards ......................................................................S. kirkii
-. Corolla tube longer than 10 mm; lobes of lower lip spreading .............................................................. S. stomandrus
26. Capsules up to 10 mm long ..........................................................................................................................S. parensis
27. Capsules 15 mm or longer .........................................................................................................................S. schliebenii
Taxonomy
Streptocarpus Lindley (1828)
Typ e: Streptocarpus rexii Lindley (1828: 1173)
Synonyms: Colpogyne B.L.Burtt in Burtt & Keraudren-Aymonin (1971: 150), Hovanella Weber & Burtt
(1998: 333), Linnaeopsis Engler (1900: 483), Saintpaulia Wendland (1893: 321), Schizoboea (Fritsch) Burtt
(1974: 266).
Streptocarpus afroviola Christenh., nom nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia pusilla Engler (1900: 481), non Streptocarpus pusillus Harv. ex C.B.Clarke
Type: TANZANIA. Morogoro Distr.: Uluguru-Berge, Lukwangule-Plateau, Urwald an Felsblöcken zwischen
Moos, 1200–1800 m, 22 November 1898, Goetze 205 (holotype B!).
CHRISTENHUSZ6 Phytotaxa 46 © 2012 Magnolia Press
Streptocarpus afroviola var. watkinsii (Haston) Christenh., comb. & stat. nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia watkinsii Haston (in Haston et al. 2009: 278).
Type: TANZANIA. Morogoro Distr.: Uluguru Mountains, 13 December 2005, Haston & Mejissa 99
(holotype NHT, isotype E).
Streptocarpus goetzeanus (Engl.) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia goetzeana Engler (1900: 481).
Type: TANZANIA. Morogoro Distr.: Uluguru-Berge, am Lukwangule-Plateau, Urwald ams Felsbloch
zwischen Moos, 1300–2000 m, 28 November 1898, Goetze 245 (holotype B!).
Streptocarpus inconspicuus (Burtt) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia inconspicua Burtt (1958: 557).
Type: TANZANIA. Morogoro Distr.: Uluguru Mountains, Morogoro, Kisaki Road, moist soil in forest, 18
December 1934, Bruce 328 (holotype K!-000378645).
Streptocarpus ionanthus (H.Wendl.) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia ionantha Wendland (1893: 321, fig. 66, t. 1391).
Type: TANZANIA. About one hour from Tanga, Von Saint-Paul-Illaire, cult. in Herrenhausen, Hannover
(colourplate opposite p. 321 in Wendland 1893).
Epitype (selected by Darbyshire, 2006): TANZANIA. coll. Von Saint-Paul-Illaire, cultivated at R.B.G. Kew,
11 July 1894 (K!-000378664).
Homotypic synonyms: Petrocosmea ionantha (H.Wendl.) Rodigas, Saintpaulia kewensis C.B.Clarke, nom.
superfl.
Heterotypic synonyms: Saintpaulia tongwensis B.L.Burtt,
Unpublished horticultural names: Saintpaulia “Pangani Falls”, S. “Sigi Falls”, S. “White Ionantha”.
Streptocarpus ionanthus subsp. grandifolius (B.L.Burtt) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia grandifolia B.L.Burtt (1958: 560).
Type: TANZANIA. Lushoto Distr.: West Usambara Mountains, Lutindi, 1 July 1955, Punter ref. S, cultivated
at R.B.G. Edinburgh, C1575 (holotype E!, isotype E!).
Homotypic synonym: Saintpaulia ionantha subsp. grandifolia (B.L.Burtt) I.Darbysh.
Heterotypic synonym: Saintpaulia ulugurensis Haston
Streptocarpus ionanthus subsp. grotei (Engl.) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia grotei Engler (1921: 202).
Type: TANZANIA. Lushoto Distr.: E. Usambara Mts, near Amani, 1912, Grote 3708 (holotype B!).
Homotypic synonym: Saintpaulia ionantha subsp. grotei (Engl.) I.Darbysh.
Heterotypic synonym: Saintpaulia amaniensis E.P.Roberts, S. confusa B.L.Burtt, S. difficilis B.L.Burtt, S.
magungensis E.P.Roberts, S.magungensis var. minima B.L.Burtt
Streptocarpus ionanthus subsp. ionanthus var. diplotrichus (B.L.Burtt) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia diplotricha Burtt (1947: 23).
Type: TANZANIA. Lushoto Distr.: Usambara, 1000 m, 26 November 1895, Buchwald 149 (holotype K!-
000378665, isotypes B!, BM, BR).
Homotypic synonym: Saintpaulia ionantha subsp. ionantha var. diplotricha (B.L.Burtt) I.Darbysh.
Streptocarpus ionanthus subsp. mafiensis (I.Darbysh. & Pócs) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia ionantha subsp. mafiensis I.Darbysh. & Pócs in Darbyshire (2006: 70).
Type: TANZANIA. Lushoto Distr.: SW of West Usambara Mts. Submontane rain forest on the plateau of Mafi
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ON AFRICAN VIOLETS AND CAPE PRIMROSES
Hill, near the headwaters of Kwakulonge stream, on shady cliff, 1300 m, 27 January 1985, Mziray & Temu
85286 (holotype UPS, isotype E!).
Homotypic synonym: Saintpaulia ionantha subsp. mafiensis I.Darbysh. & Pócs
Unpublished horticultural names: Saintpaulia “Mafia Hills”, S. “Mafiensis”
Streptocarpus ionanthus subsp. nitidus (B.L.Burtt) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia nitida Burtt (1958: 564).
Type: TANZANIA. Morogoro Distr.: Ngura Mountains, near Morogoro, August 1959, Harvey Cox ref. A,
cultivated at R.B.G. Edinburgh, C1557 (holotype E!, isotypes E!, K! 2 sheets).
Homotypic synonym: Saintpaulia ionantha subsp. nitida (B.L.Burtt) I.Darbysh.
Streptocarpus ionanthus subsp. occidentalis (B.L.Burtt) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia magungensis var. occidentalis Burtt (1964: 195).
Type: TANZANIA. Lushoto Distr.: W. Usambara Mts., Mlalo (Bagai), July 1962, Punter X59 4355, cultivated
at R.B.G. Edinburgh C3854 (holotype E!).
Homotypic synonym: Saintpaulia ionantha subsp. occidentalis (B.L.Burtt) I.Darbysh.
Streptocarpus ionanthus subsp. orbicularis (B.L.Burtt) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia orbicularis Burtt (1947: 23).
Type: TANZANIA. Lushoto Distr.: W. Usambara Mts, Sakarre, Ambangulu, on a wet rock (gneiss) beside a
waterfall at 4000ft, 4 August 1938, Moreau 2 (holotype K!-000378673 and 000378672, 2 sheets).
Homotypic synonym: Saintpaulia ionantha subsp. orbicularis (B.L.Burtt) I.Darbysh.
Heterotypic synonym: Saintpaulia orbicularis var. purpurea B.L.Burtt
Streptocarpus ionanthus subsp. pendulus (B.L.Burtt) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia pendula Burtt (1958: 561).
Type: TANZANIA. Lushoto Distr.: E. Usambara Mts., Mt Mtai, 2 June 1959, Punter ref. U, cultivated in
R.B.G. Edinburgh, C1686 (holotype E, isotypes E!, K! 2 sheets).
Homotypic synonym: Saintpaulia ionantha subsp. pendula (B.L.Burtt) I.Darbysh.
Heterotypic synonyms: Saintpaulia intermedia B.L.Burtt, S. pendula var. kizarae B.L.Burtt.
Streptocarpus ionanthus subsp. rupicola (B.L.Burtt) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia rupicola Burtt (1964: 193).
Type: KENYA. Kilifi Distr.: Kaloleni, on the road from Mariakani to Kilifi, approx. 25 miles NW of
Mombasa, October 1958, Punter ref. X58-3591, cultivated at R.B.G. Edinburgh, C3065 (holotype E!).
Homotypic synonym: Saintpaulia ionantha subsp. rupicola (B.L.Burtt) I.Darbysh.
Unpublished horticultural names: Saintpaulia “Robertson”, S. “Kacharoni”, S. “Mwachi”, S. “Mwache”
Streptocarpus ionanthus subsp. velutinus (B.L.Burtt) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia velutina Burtt (1958: 563).
Type: TANZANIA. Lushoto Distr.: W Usambara Mts, Balangai, 8 km from Sakarre, November 1955, Punter
ref. D, comm. Barker s.n., cultivated at R.B.G. Edinburgh, C1579 (holotype E!, isotype E!).
Homotypic synonyms: Saintpaulia ionantha subsp. velutina (B.L.Burtt) I.Darbysh.
Heterotypic synonym: Saintpaulia brevipilosa B.L.Burtt
Streptocarpus kamerunensis (Engl.) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Didymocarpus kamerunensis Engler (1894: 79).
Type: CAMEROON. Barombistation, Kumba. s. dat., Preuss 951 (holotype B, isotypes BM, K!).
Homotypic synonyms: Roettlera camerunensis (Engl.) Fritsch, Schizoboea kamerunensis (Engl.) B.L.Burtt
CHRISTENHUSZ8 Phytotaxa 46 © 2012 Magnolia Press
Heterotypic synonyms: Didymocarpus stolzii Engl., D. stolzii var. minor Mansf.
Streptocarpus madagascaricus (C.B.Clarke) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Didymocarpus madagascaricus C.B.Clarke (1833: 108).
Type: MADAGASCAR. Central Madagascar, Andrangolaoka, August 1881, Parker s.n. (holotype K).
Homotypic synonym: Hovanella madagascarica (C.B.Clarke) A.Weber & B.L.Burtt
Heterotypic synonym: Didymocarpus pusillus Baker
Streptocarpus shumensis (B.L.Burtt) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia shumensis Burtt (1955: 238).
Type: TANZANIA. Lushoto Distr.: W Usambara Mts, Shume, World’s View, 5 April 1947, Greenway 7934,
cultivated at R.B.G. Kew (holotype K!-000378669, isotype E!).
Streptocarpus teitensis (B.L.Burtt) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Saintpaulia teitensis Burtt (1958: 559).
Lectotype (selected by Darbyshire 2006): KENYA. Teita: Mbololo Hill, in forest near water, October 1938,
Boy Joanna, Coryndon Museum no. 8982 (K! sheet 2, duplicates EA, K! sheet 3).
Streptocarpus vestitus (Baker) Christenh., comb. nov.
Basionym: Didymocarpus vestitus Baker (1886: 427).
Type: MADAGASCAR. Central Madagascar, recd. December 1883, Baron 2655 (holotype K!, isotype P).
Homotypic synonym: Hovanella vestita (Baker) A.Weber & B.L.Burtt
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... Fischer & Darbyshire, New Streptocarpus from Katanga Darbyshire (2006) published new combinations to include Linnaeopsis within Streptocarpus but maintained Saintpaulia and Schizoboea on morphological grounds. Christenhusz (2012) subsequently published new combinations to include Saintpaulia, Schizoboea, and the Malagasy genera Colpogyne B.L.Burtt (Burtt & Keraudren-Aymonin 1971: 150) and Hovanella Weber & B.L.Burtt (Weber & Burtt 1998: 333) to render the genus Streptocarpus monophyletic. Nishii et al. (2015) redefined Streptocarpus to include all Afro-Malagasy Gesneriaceae (except Epithema Blume; Blume 1826: 737) and established an infrageneric classification. ...
... Nishii et al. (2015) redefined Streptocarpus to include all Afro-Malagasy Gesneriaceae (except Epithema Blume; Blume 1826: 737) and established an infrageneric classification. The authors adapt here the broad generic circumscription of Streptocarpus following Christenhusz (2012). ...
... (Engler 1893: 78) and S. kamerunensis (Engl.) Christenhusz (Christenhusz 2012: 7) (= Schizoboea kamerunensis (Engl.) B.L.Burtt (Burtt 1974: 266), Didymocarpus kamerunensis Engl. ...
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... Humbert (1971) treated the genus for the Flore de Madagascar et des Comores, recognizing 41 species, 39 endemic to Madagascar and two also present in the Comoros. However, several recent studies have led to a re-definition of Streptocarpus, which now includes species with nontwisted fruits and thus encompasses all Afro-Malagasy members of Gesneriaceae (Darbyshire, 2006;Christenhusz, 2012;Nishii et al., 2015), including members previously placed in two small Malagasy genera, Colpogyne B. L. Burtt and Hovanella A. Weber & B. L. Burtt, as well as taxa assigned to a number of small African genera, most notably Saintpaulia H. Wendl. A recent molecular phylogenetic study (Nishii et al., 2015) also proposed a new infrageneric classification for the expanded Streptocarpus in which two subgenera are recognized: subgenus Streptocarpus and subgenus Streptocarpella Fritsch, subdivided into five and seven sections, respectively. ...
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... This follows treatments of other large genera such as Euphorbia L. (Bruyns et al. 2006), Blechnum L. (Christenhusz et al. 2011) and Streptocarpus Lindl. (Christenhusz 2012). ...
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... The taxonomy of such important horticultural plants is of interest for horticulturists and botanists alike, for the global trade and the communication of research findings. A recent classification has synonymised Saintpaul ia with Strep to carpus but did not consider the many other African and Madagascan and Comoro Island (Afro-Malagasy ) Gesneriaceae genera (Christenhusz, 2012). A new family classification for the Gesneriaceae was published recently, following molecular phylogenetic relationships (Weber & al., 2013). ...
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... Colpogyne, a monotypic genus endemic to Madagascar, was segregated in 1971 by Burtt (in Humbert, 1971) for C. betsiliensis (Humbert) B. L.Burtt, on the basis of its short, straight, non-twisted fruits (Hilliard & Burtt, 1971 : 115 ;Humbert, 1971 : 150). Later, Weber & Burtt (1998) (Christenhusz, 2012), and the basionym, Streptocarpus betsiliensis Humbert (1967), should be restored for Colpogyne betsiliensis. ...
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