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Study the biological activities of tribulus terrestris extracts

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Abstract

In this study the extracts of the Iraqi herb Tribulus terrestris (Al-Hassage or Al-Kutub) was done by using of polar and non polar solvents, then the biological activity of these extractants was studied in three fields, First, the antibacterial activity (in vitro) on gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), and gram negative bacteria (E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aerugiuosa, and Klebsiella), all extracts showed considerable activity against all bacteria. Second, the effect of extracts on free serum testosterone level in male mice (in vivo), the alcoholic, and acetonitrilic extracts showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in free serum testosterone level, and we found that the extracts contained compounds with less genotoxic effects in mice germ cells. 3 rd, was to study the effect of methanolic extract of T. terrestris in diabetes management.

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... [8][9][10] Tribulus terrestris is one of these herbs used in Iranian folkloric medicine as a diuretic, analgesic, astringent, appetizer, and sexual tonic. [11][12][13][14] In traditional Persian medicine manuscripts such as The Canon of Medicine by Ibn-e-Sina or Avicenna (AD 980-1037) 15 and the Storehouse of Medicaments of Aghili (written in AD 1772), 16 T terrestris is considered for the properties such as antinephrolithiatic, antiseptic, diuretic, analgesic, and tonic to improve sexual ability. Also, it is used in Turkish, Indian, and Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including skin and liver diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, renal stones, fungal infections, and impaired sexual function, single or in combination with other herbs. ...
... Also it was shown that the T terresteis can significantly inhibit the gluconeogenesis, influence glycometabolism in normal mice and cause a significant decrease in the blood glucose level of diabetic mice. 12,21 Saponins are one of the main components of the T terresteis and previous studies have shown that saponins can significantly reduce the serum glucose and inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis. 14,20,26 In addition, it is alleged that oral administration of the T terrestris saponins in rats can delay the absorption of glucose by inhibiting aglucosidase in the small intestine and lowering the postprandial glucose. ...
... Hussain and colleagues 12 in an animal study concluded that treatment of diabetic mice by T terrestris extract resulted in a significant reduction in triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol compared with the untreated diabetic mice. 12 Also, Tuncer et al 28 indicated that dietary intake of T terrestris can significantly lower the serum lipid profiles in rabbits on a high-cholesterol diet. But the point in some studies is that the HDL level reduced along with other lipid profile. ...
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Background: Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. Results: T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (P<0.05). Also, the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein of the T. terrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women.
... [8][9][10] Tribulus terrestris is one of these herbs used in Iranian folkloric medicine as a diuretic, analgesic, astringent, appetizer, and sexual tonic. [11][12][13][14] In traditional Persian medicine manuscripts such as The Canon of Medicine by Ibn-e-Sina or Avicenna (AD 980-1037) 15 and the Storehouse of Medicaments of Aghili (written in AD 1772), 16 T terrestris is considered for the properties such as antinephrolithiatic, antiseptic, diuretic, analgesic, and tonic to improve sexual ability. Also, it is used in Turkish, Indian, and Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including skin and liver diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, renal stones, fungal infections, and impaired sexual function, single or in combination with other herbs. ...
... Also it was shown that the T terresteis can significantly inhibit the gluconeogenesis, influence glycometabolism in normal mice and cause a significant decrease in the blood glucose level of diabetic mice. 12,21 Saponins are one of the main components of the T terresteis and previous studies have shown that saponins can significantly reduce the serum glucose and inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis. 14,20,26 In addition, it is alleged that oral administration of the T terrestris saponins in rats can delay the absorption of glucose by inhibiting aglucosidase in the small intestine and lowering the postprandial glucose. ...
... Hussain and colleagues 12 in an animal study concluded that treatment of diabetic mice by T terrestris extract resulted in a significant reduction in triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol compared with the untreated diabetic mice. 12 Also, Tuncer et al 28 indicated that dietary intake of T terrestris can significantly lower the serum lipid profiles in rabbits on a high-cholesterol diet. But the point in some studies is that the HDL level reduced along with other lipid profile. ...
Article
Aim: Considering traditional use of Tribulus terrestris in diabetes and proven antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of T terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydroalcoholic extract of T terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Methods: Ninety-eight women with diabetes mellitus type 2 were randomly allocated to receive the T terrestris (1000 mg/d) or placebo for 3 months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and lipid profile. Results: Tribulus terrestris showed a significant blood glucose-lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (P < .05). Also, the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein of T terrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusions: The study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T terrestris in women with diabetes mellitus type 2.
... A. Officinalis showed activity against only Gram-negative organisms. [38] states that the saponins in T. terrestris play a crucial role in antimicrobial property of the plant. While not all saponins are antimicrobial, the one found in T. terrestris is found to disturb bacteria's cell membrane [39]. ...
... While the MBC from our study matches their findings, the MIC is quite high. The MBC of T. terrestris against E. coli and S. aureus was 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml, respectively, according toUsman et al. (2007) [37] but their MIC was relatively lower (1.563 mg/ml and 3.125 mg/ml respectively).Batoei et al. (2016) [36] andHussain et al. (2009) ...
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Ethnomedicine and actinomycetes can be the potential sources of novel antimicrobial compounds to tackle increasing multidrug resistance among uropathogens. We evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extracts of three plants viz. Ocimum sanctum, Asparagus officinalis, and Tribulus terrestris, along with actinomycetes isolated from the root vicinity of the first two plants against three multi-drug resistant uropathogens. Phytochemical extraction was performed by cold maceration and actinomycetes were isolated using Actinomycetes Isolation Agar. After perpendicular streaking assay, isolated actinomycetes were subjected to submerged state fermentation followed by ethyl acetate extraction of secondary metabolites. After primary assays, MIC and MBC of both plant and associated actinomycetes extracts were figured out. All three plant extracts inhibited Escherichia coli. Only A. officinalis exhibited effect over Klebsiella oxytoca. Extract of O. sanctum and T. terrestris prevented the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. A. officinalis was more effective against Gram-negative pathogens, and O. sanctum was more effective against Gram-positive pathogen. Five of the 13 ethyl acetate extracts had an inhibiting effect over at least one Gram-negative pathogen, and ten extracts had an effect against S. aureus. Crude extract of MK1, actinomycetes, isolated from soil of T. terrestris had the lowest MIC against all three test organisms. From the results, it can be suggested that both plant extracts and actinomycetes can be potent sources of bioactive compounds.
... T. terrestr is commonly known as caltrop, is an annual species with opposite and pinnate leaves and yellow petals that grow up to 10-60cm in height (Ganzera Bedir et al., 2001;Chhatre Nesari et al., 2014). This plant is widely distributed in tropical, mild temperate areas and desert climates such as Asia, the Mediterranean region and Mexico (Dinchev Janda et al., 2008;Hussain et al., 2009;Martino-Andrade et al., 2010;Hashim et al., 2014). ...
... There is a document which shows that T. terrestris was used for bladder disorders and urinary stone (Chhatre Nesari et al., 2014). T. terrestris is used in Persian and Chinese folk medicine as a remedy for various disorders (Chhatre et al., 2014) including cough, polyuria, and dysuria and as a gastric stimulant and aphrodisiac (Ukani et al., 1997;Hussain et al., 2009). ...
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Objective: Hypertension is an important cause of cardiovascular disorders. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in hypertension; therefore, inhibition of ACE in treatment of chronically elevated blood pressure is an important therapeutic approach. In the current review, we have provided information from Persian Traditional Plants described by Avicenna in the Canon of Medicine and a number of more current scientific databases, with a focus on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity of the following six plants: Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Jasminum grandiflorum, Tribulus terrestris, Vaccinium myrtillus and Vitis vinifera. Materials and methods: A literature search was conducted and information on different traditional plants used for hypertension was collected from the Canon of Medicine and several other databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Web of Science. Results: The present article highlights the antihypertensive potential of the above-noted six plants. Administered doses, manner of consumption, types of extracts, preparations and derivatives, personal habits, and other geographic and epidemiologic variables have an important role in the potential efficacy of these plants. Conclusion: Recent studies indicated a significant correlation between the traditional use of Persian plants to reduce blood pressure and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity.
... The extract of TT has found no impacts on organs sensitivity to endocrine glands i.e. prostate and seminal vesicle in male rats (Martino et al., 2010). It is also used for the treatment of various other diseases such as cardiac edema, skin disorders, eye trouble and stones in bladder (Hussain et al., 2009). ...
... Group 'E' served as amelioration group having TT (20 mg/kg/ day) in addition to treatment of group C and TT at the same time. The aforementioned dosages were given orally for four weeks and the quantity of BPA was selected by following the method given by Korkmaz et al. (2010) and Saied and Darwish (2015), whereas, TT dose was selected on the basis of recommendation of (Hussain et al., 2009) and for olive oil (Sangai, Verma, 2011). Rat was caught by catching its tail and then it was placed on the cage and lowered until the rat grasps the wire with its forefeet. ...
Article
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This study was conducted to find out the ameliorative properties of Tribulus terristeris L (TT) on BPA induced spermatotoxicity in male albino rats. Mature male albino rats were divided into five groups, Group A was taken as control for comparison group, whereas the other four groups namely B(vehicle control), C (toxic), D (preventive control) and Group E (amelioration group) received distilled water, olive oil, BPA, TT, TT and BPA simultaneously. Macroscopic results revealed increased body weight of rats, decreased weight of testes, and the relative tissue weight index (RTWI) in BPA induced group. Hormonal (testosterone) assay results revealed the decreased values of BPA treated group. Microscopic examination of testis of BPA treated rats showed reduction in leydig cells, decreased diameter of seminiferous tubules and low values of Johnsen's scoring. Histological examination showed discontinuity and irregularity of basement membrane and sloughing of the germinal cell linage. Group E showed the body weights of rats were decreased while weight of testes, RTWI increased, reduced level of testosterone, reduced number of Leydig cells, decreased diameter of seminiferous tubules and low values of Johnsen's scoring were restored near to normal. These results demonstrate that TT might be beneficial in combating the spermatotoxicity, induced by BPA.
... Another study from Iraq assessed the biological activity of TT in male mice. It was shown that treatment with TT saponins fraction extracted by polar solvents acetonitrile, ethanol, and methanol, but not non-polar hexane increased free serum testosterone level in experimental group (n¼3) compared to control group (n¼ 2) (Hussain et al., 2009). However, while these results supported authors' conception that TT supposedly acts as a natural testosterone enhancer through increased LH, they not only did not evaluate LH, but also did not provide statistical methods or results analysis. ...
... Although the design of these earlier studies fell far short of modern scientific standards and their inconsistent results did not find support in recent randomized controlled studies, even today, many investigators work under the premise that TT effects are due to its testosterone increasing activity. This premise is evident from experimental studies in humans and animals that focus exclusively on TT androgen activity, and reviews that only summarize evidence related to its testosterone increasing characteristics (Adimoelja, 2000;Akram et al., 2011;Gauthaman et al., 2000;Hussain et al., 2009;Saini, 2011). It is further evident from animal and human studies in which authors claim that treatment with TT caused elevation of serum androgen levels even when hormonal levels fluctuated in both directions and remained within normal limits (Adimoelja and Adaikan, 1997;Adimoelja, 1997;Gauthaman and Ganesan, 2008;Milanov et al., 1985;Milasius et al., 2009). ...
... [47,55] Allium minutiflorum produced a compound minutosides A-C which showed antifungal activity based on the concentration-dependent manner on listed fungus: Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium solani, T. harzianum T39, Alternaria porri, Botrytis cinerea, Trichoderma harzianum P1, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. [17,19] Antibacterial Mohammed (2009) studied that the antibacterial activity of saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris against the microorganisms examined showed inhibiting effect on both types of Gram bacteria, which show the broad-spectrum antibiotic presence or simply metabolic toxin produced by the plant. Saponins contribute to antibacterial activity maybe via membrane lysis, rather than changing the surface tension of the extracellular fluid, hence being affected by microbial population density. ...
Article
The plant is a rich repository of useful secondary metabolites with profound medicinal potential. Saponins, one type of bioactive compound, are amphitheatric glycosides with one and more hydrophilic sugar and hydrophobic steroidal and terpenoid part. The former is known as steroidal saponin, and the latter is called terpenoid saponins. Steroidal saponin is mostly distributed among monocotyledon families such as Asparagaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Smilacaceae, and Liliaceae. Even though it is unusual, it could also be detected to some extent by dicotyledonous angiosperms, such as Plantaginaceae, Zygophyllaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, and Solanaceae. It exhibits diverse pharmacological ability including antimicrobic, anti-inflammatory, cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitory, antiadipogenic, bactericide, cardioprotective, antitumor, antidiabetic, cytotoxic activity, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective. Steroidal saponin timosaponin AIII from Anemarrhena asphodeloides has been found to possess antitumor activity. Diosgenin, another steroidal sapogenin, has the potential of preventing neurological diseases by affecting different signaling pathways, increasing bone formation, and increasing antithrombotic activity. Spicatoside A from Liriope platyphylla possesses anti-inflammatory, antiasthma, and antiosteoclastogenic activities. TTB2 from Trillium tschonoskii exhibits anticancer potential. The cell cycle arrest and ROS-dependent autophagy are induced by polyphyllin I. These diverse biological activities of steroidal saponins are attributed to the variability of their structural features. Analysis of steroidal saponins in plant materials mainly utilizes classically and advances thin layer chromatography (TLC) on normal and reverses-phase (high-performance thin-layer chromatography, densitometric TLC), gas chromatography, LC, UPLC, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), supercritical fluid chromatography, and HPLC coupled to ultraviolet detector and diode array detector. HPLC coupled with MS and Nuclear magnetic resonance is used for online identification of separated saponins. The present review aims to furnish a comprehensive account of the recent advances in analytical methods of determination and medicinal applications of steroidal saponins. © 2022 World Journal of Traditonal Chinese Medicine Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.
... The plant materials were washed in sterile distilled water, shade dried, and powdered. Basella alba leaves, Mucuna pruriens seed, and Tribulus terrestris seed powders were extracted with ethanol, methanol, and ethanol respectively (sample to solvent ratio 1:2, w/v) in a percolator (Hussain et al. 2009). The choice of solvents for extraction of plant materials was considered based on the results of our earlier study (Ghosal, Mukherjee, and Chakraborty 2021). ...
Article
The comparative efficacy of three plant extracts to enhance the immune and pigmentation status of ornamental fish Botia ros-trata (Günther, 1868) was analyzed. Juvenile fish (Wt 3.6 ± 0.5 g, n = 72, three replicates) were fed separate diets containing Mucuna pruriens seed methanol (0.25 g/kg), Tribulus terrestris seed ethanol (0.5 g/kg), and Basella alba leaves ethanol (1.0 g/ kg) extracts for 1 month. Control fish were fed only the basal diet. After 1 month, liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in all plant extract-fed groups compared to the control. Mucuna seed extract-fed fish showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in malondialde-hyde; the glutathione level decreased in Tribulus seed extract-and Basella leaves extract-fed fish compared to the control. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in phagocytotic, sera lysozyme, and respiratory burst activities was noticed in plant extracts-fed fish. Basella leaves extract-fed fish showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in skin pigmentation pattern. Basella leaves ethanol extract (1.0 g/kg) appeared more potent than the other two plant extracts in enhancing the innate immunity and skin coloration of Botia rostrata.
... The molecules that formed from the reaction between substituted benzaldehydes (1) and monoaminocarboxylic acid (2) or diaminocarboxylic acid (3). As shown in Scheme 1, these molecules can be classified into two series: mono-Schiff bases (4) and di-Schiff bases (5), as shown in Scheme 3. The synthesized Schiff bases compounds have been optimized to study their theoretical properties using the Hyperchem program by the PM3 method. ...
Article
Schiff bases (SB) are an important type of organic compounds and have a wide range of biological activities due to commercial and pharmaceutical trading uses. The different activities of these compounds induced the researchers to synthesized and studied new types of these compounds. Two series of Schiff base derivatives were synthesized by the condensation reactions of substituted aldehydes salicylaldehyde, 4-(N,Ndimethylamino) benzaldehyde or 2,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde with 2-amino-5-iodobenzoic acid (1:1) or with 3,5- diamenobenzoic acid (1:2) in ethanol absolute as a solvent. Different analytical techniques characterized the structure of the synthesized Schiff bases; for instance, Fourier transform infrared FT-IR and proton nuclear magnetic resonance 1H-NMR. The purity of the synthesized compounds was tested by elemental microanalysis CHN and thin layer chromatography TLC. The structural properties of the studied molecules were investigated theoretically by performing density functional theory (DFT) using the HyperChem software. The lipophilicity of the tested compounds showed that the compounds 2c, 2b, 2a, and 1c have logP values less than (5), 2.90, 3.78, 3.82 and 4.57, respectively, whereas, 1b and 1a have logP values higher than (5), 5.01 and 5.03, respectively. The Mulliken charge distribution showed that the carbonyl oxygen atom of the carboxylic group is more negative (~ - 0.4) as compared to other oxygen atoms (~ -0.3) in all selected compounds. Frontier molecular orbitals energy diagram and their bandgap provided indications about chemical reactivity and kinetic stability of the molecules. The synthesized compounds were tested for antifungal effects against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans, which indicated that the compounds had good antifungal activity.
... It is known that the imine group has the tendency to make the BTC act as a powerful and potent bactericidal factor, thus killing more of the bacteria than the two compounds which form the BTC. It has been shown that, in a BTC molecule, the positive partial charge is partially shared with the double bonds present in the BTC molecule, and there may be πelectron delocalization over the whole BTC molecule space [37,38]. This would increase the lipophilic parameter of the BTC molecule and favors its permeation through the lipid layer of the bacterial membrane. ...
Article
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In general, the diminish of corrosion is controlled by different techniques. Typically, the applied corrosion inhibitor was proved to be a simple and inexpensive technique for corrosion prevention and protection in a corrosive environment. Herein we synthesized a new corrosion inhibitor namely “Benzyl 2-(1-(5-methyl-1-(p-tolyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-yl)-ethylidene) hydrazine-1-carbodithioate” (BTC). The chemical structure of the tested inhibitor has been elucidating by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopically methods and the number of carbons hydrogen and nitrogen atoms for chemical formula was detected through using CHN analysis. BTC was investigated as a novel inhibitor for mild steel (MS) in an HCl environment, and the inhibition efficiency has been tested gravimetric technique. The results showed that the corrosion rate (CR) and inhibition efficiency (IE%) are in an inverse relationship with each other, as the IE increases with increasing the inhibitor concentration while the CR decreases with increasing concentration. The inhibition efficiency was up to 93.4% at 303.0K in presence of BTC (0.5 mM). The IE decreases with increasing temperature especially at 333 K. The adsorption of BTC on the MS surface was obeyed the adsorption of Langmuir isotherm. In a parallel study, the BTC was examined as an antibacterial compound for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that the new substance has the significant potential to inhibit the growth of bacterial.
... The genus Tribulus contains about 20 species which increase as bushes around 10-60 cm high. [9] [14], [15] . In India, there are three species of common occurrence Tribulus, Tribulus terrestris, Tribulus alatus, and Tribulus cistoides [16] . ...
... The high selenium content in the raw material probably determines the antioxidant effect. Moreover, consumption of the herb is possible with thyroid disease [52][53][54][55][56][57][58]. ...
Article
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The genus Tribulus L. (Zygophyllaceae) includes 12 species, the most important of which is Tribulus terrestris L. This annual herb grows in temperate and tropical climates, and has a rich chemical composition of biologically active substances and chemical elements. Medicinal plants, and the phytopreparations obtained from them, are becoming more and more popular in world practice as they are used to successfully treat human diseases. Their therapeutic effect is due to the presence in them, of a variety of natural compounds and biologically important trace elements, especially in higher concentrations present in higher doses. T. terrestris is becoming more and more popular for the treatment of diseases of the human genital area and sexual dysfunctions. The elemental content in the tissues of leaf, flower, and fruit of T. terrestris was determined by using multi-element instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis. For the first time, 26 essential and trace elements were observed in the plant species collected in Russia (from cultivated) and China (wild growing). It was confirmed that the elemental composition of T. terrestris grass varies depending on the habitat (geographic zones). The place of growth affects the accumulation of elements by the plant.
... At any time, over 1.4 billion people worldwide suffer from infectious complications acquired in hospital. Microorganisms often implicated in these infections include E. coli and S. aureus [34,35]. ...
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The inhibitive performance of N-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)methanimine Schiff base on mild steel corrosion in one molar hydrochloric acid environment was investigated by utilizing weight loss techniques. N-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)methanimine has significant inhibitive performance on the mild steel corrosion in the corrosive medium. The effect of immersion time (1-24 h) and temperature (303 to 333 K) on the behavior of mild steel corrosion in the absence and presence of the N-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)methanimine have also been investigated. The adsorption of N-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)methanimine molecules on the surface of mild steel follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The surface morphology of the mild steel coupon was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The antibacterial efficiencies of N-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)methanimine for gram-negative bacteria, namely Escherichia coli, and gram-positive bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus was studied. The antibacterial activity findings exhibited that the N-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)methanimine has significant antibacterial efficiencies against tested microorganisms.
... Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a member of the family Zygophyllaceae. TT has been used medicinally to cure a range of health-associated problems such as high blood pressure, stomach problems, and urinary infections [209]. The plant has also been used to boost male sexual desire and mating behaviour [189,190]. ...
Article
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Male erectile dysfunction (ED) refers to incompetency to reaching and retaining adequate penile tumescence for sexual intercourse. Over 152 million men globally suffer from ED and by 2025, the number of affected individuals is anticipated to be around 322 million. Pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies such as phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, alprostadil, penile prosthesis surgery, and hormonal replacement are available for management and recuperation of ED. Nevertheless, such therapies are reported to have adverse effects as well as life-threatening. Accordingly, diversity of medicinal plant species and bioactive active compounds are preferred as therapeutic options because they are natural, abundant, available, low-cost and cause fewer or no side effects. This current review will emphasise the aetiology, risk factors, mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of ED, treatments of ED as well as their side effects. It also provides medicinal plants that are proven effective in vivo and in vitro for the mitigation and treatment of male ED. This knowledge could be used in the future in drug discovery for the development of more natural drugs with no side effects.
... The molecules that formed from the reaction between substituted benzaldehydes (1) and monoaminocarboxylic acid (2) or diaminocarboxylic acid (3). As shown in Scheme 1, these molecules can be classified into two series: mono-Schiff bases (4) and di-Schiff bases (5), as shown in Scheme 3. The synthesized Schiff bases compounds have been optimized to study their theoretical properties using the Hyperchem program by the PM3 method. ...
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RESUMO As bases de Schiff (SB) são tipos importantes de compostos orgânicos e possuem ampla gama de atividades biológicas devido ao uso comercial e farmacêutico. As diferentes atividades desses compostos chamaram a atenção de pesquisadores e os induziram a sintetizar e estudar novos tipos desses compostos. Duas séries de derivados da base Schiff foram sintetizadas pelas reações de condensação de aldeídos salicilaldeído substituído, 4-(N, N-dimetilamino) benzaldeído ou 2,4-dimetoxibenzaldeído com ácido 2-amino-5-iodobenzóico (1:1) ou com 3 Ácido 5-diamenobenzóico (1:2) em etanol absoluto como solvente. Diferentes técnicas analíticas caracterizaram a estrutura das bases de Schiff sintetizadas como, por exemplo, Transformada de Fourrier por Infravermelho (FT-IR), e Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Próton 1 H-NMR. A pureza dos compostos sintetizados foi testada por microanálise elementar (CHN) e cromatografia em camada delagada (TLC). As propriedades estruturais das moléculas estudadas foram investigadas teoricamente através da realização da teoria funcional da densidade (DFT) usando o software HyperChem. A lipofilicidade dos compostos testados mostrou que os compostos 2c, 2b, 2a e 1c apresentam valores de logP inferiores a (5), 2,90, 3,78, 3,82 e 4,57, respectivamente, enquanto 1b e 1a possuem valores de logP superiores a (5), 5,01 e 5,03, respectivamente. A distribuição de carga de Mulliken mostrou que o átomo de oxigênio carbonílico do grupo carboxílico é mais negativo (~-0,4) em comparação com outros átomos de oxigênio (~-0,3) em todos os compostos selecionados. O diagrama de energia dos orbitais moleculares de fronteira e seu intervalo de banda forneceram indicações sobre a reatividade química e a estabilidade cinética das moléculas. Os compostos sintetizados foram testados quanto a efeitos antifúngicos contra Aspergillus niger e Candida albicans, o que indicou que os compostos apresentavam boa atividade antifúngica. ABSTRACT Schiff bases (SB) are an important type of organic compounds and have a wide range of biological activities due to commercial and pharmaceutical trading uses. The different activities of these compounds induced the researchers to synthesized and studied new types of these compounds. Two series of Schiff base derivatives were synthesized by the condensation reactions of substituted aldehydes salicylaldehyde, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzaldehyde or 2,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde with 2-amino-5-iodobenzoic acid (1:1) or with 3,5-diamenobenzoic acid (1:2) in ethanol absolute as a solvent. Different analytical techniques characterized the structure of the synthesized Schiff bases; for instance, Fourier transform infrared FT-IR and proton nuclear magnetic resonance 1 H-NMR. The purity of the synthesized compounds was tested by elemental microanalysis CHN and thin layer chromatography TLC. The structural properties of the studied molecules were investigated theoretically by performing density functional theory (DFT) using the HyperChem software. The lipophilicity of the tested compounds showed that the compounds 2c, 2b, 2a, and 1c have logP values less than (5), 2.90, 3.78, 3.82 and 4.57, respectively, whereas, 1b and 1a have logP values higher than (5), 5.01 and 5.03, respectively. The Mulliken charge distribution showed that the carbonyl oxygen atom of the carboxylic group is more negative (~-0.4) as compared to other oxygen atoms (~-0.3) in all selected compounds. Frontier molecular orbitals energy Periódico Tchê Química. ISSN 2179-0302. (2020); vol.17 (n°34) Downloaded from www.periodico.tchequimica.com 529 diagram and their bandgap provided indications about chemical reactivity and kinetic stability of the molecules. The synthesized compounds were tested for antifungal effects against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans, which indicated that the compounds had good antifungal activity.
... The molecules that formed from the reaction between substituted benzaldehydes (1) and monoaminocarboxylic acid (2) or diaminocarboxylic acid (3). As shown in Scheme 1, these molecules can be classified into two series: mono-Schiff bases (4) and di-Schiff bases (5), as shown in Scheme 3. The synthesized Schiff bases compounds have been optimized to study their theoretical properties using the Hyperchem program by the PM3 method. ...
... Plant powder (250 g) was individually extracted with 500 mL of different solvents (hexane, methylene chloride, methanol, ethanol, water) in a percolator. Each extract was dried under pressure at 45oC using a rotary vacuum evaporator and stored at -20oC in amber glass bottle (Hussain et al., 2009). For successive methanol extraction, plant powder (200 g) was extracted by maceration under gentle agitation in a glass vessel for 48 h at room temperature, using successively hexane (200 mL for 5 h, 3 times), dichloromethane (200 mL for 5 h, 3 times) and methanol (200 mL for 5 h, 3 times) (Moundipa et al., 2005). ...
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Efficacy of ethanol and methanol extracts of medicinal herb Withania somnifera roots was evaluated in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus on immunostimulation and growth. Withania roots were extracted with water, ethanol, methanol, methylene chloride, hexane, successive methanol. Phenol, flavonoid content and antiradical activity of all the extracts were measured. Ethanol extract showed the highest phenol, flavonoid content and antiradical activity followed by methanol extract. Subsequently, Nile tilapia (n = 126) were fed diets containing different concentrations (0.0, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 g kg ⁻¹ feed) of ethanol and methanol extracts of W. somnifera roots for 30 days (3 replicates). Fish fed plant extract fortified diets showed significantly better ( P<0.05 ) immunological, haematological, biochemical and growth parameters compared to the fish fed control diet. Fish fed diet containing ethanol extract at the concentration of 0.7 g kg ⁻¹ feed showed the highest immunological (phagocytotic activity, respiratory burst activity, serum lysozyme, total protein, total immunoglobulin), haematological (total red blood cells, haemoglobin, hematocrit, total white blood cells, lymphocyte), biochemical (reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase activity) and growth (final weight, weight gain, daily weight gain, specific growth rate) parameters. The plant extract might act as potent free radical scavenger in fish tissues and have tissue protecting ability, thus increasing fish health.
... • Formation of a hydrogen bond through the azomethine group with the active centers of various cellular constituents, resulting in interference with normal cellular processes [24]. ...
Research Proposal
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Background: Adverse antimicrobial activities of thiosemicarbazone (TSC) and Schiff base derivatives have widely been studied by using different kinds of microbes, in addition different methods were used to assay the antioxidant activities using DPPH, peroxids, or ntrosyl methods. However, there are no studies describing the synthesis of TSC derived from creatinine. Results: In this study, 2-(2-imino-1-methylimidazolidin-4-ylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide (IMHC) was synthesized by the reaction of creatinine with thiosemicarbazide. The novel molecule was characterized by FT-IR, UV-VIS, and NMR spectra in addition of the elemental analysis. The free radical scavenging ability of the IMHC was determined by it interaction with the stable-free radical 2,2"-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (or nitric oxide or hydrogen peroxide) and showed encouraging antioxidant activities. Density functional theory calculations of the IMHC performed using molecular structures with optimized geometries. Molecular orbital calculations provide a detailed description of the orbitals, including spatial characteristics, nodal patterns, and the contributions of individual atoms. Highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies and structures are shown.
... 24,46 Karimi et al 47 in their study on the effect of T. terrestris L. extract on early spermatocytes of mouse, found that 10 mg/kg of body weight of this plant`s extract increase the mean number of primary spermatocytes. In a study conducted by Hussain et al, 48 T. terrestris L. extract increased the serum level of testosterone in male rats. Gauthaman et al 24 examined the hormonal effects of T. terrestris L. on erectile dysfunction in sterilized primates, rabbits and rats. ...
... The fruit of TT was purchased from the local market of Varanasi and got identified from the Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University (Voucher No. Zygo-2013-1). The extract of the fruit was prepared by adopting the method of Hussain and co-authors 10 and dissolved in distilled water for administration. ...
Article
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Introduction Fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris (TT) bears aphrodisiac and antioxidative properties. Antimicrobial drug, metronidazole (MTZ) impairs the spermatogenic activity and fertility in males. Objective Validation of the use of fruit extract of TT as a supplement against MTZ-induced fertility impairment in males. Methods Adult Swiss strain male mice were administered with 500mg/kgBW/day of MTZ for 28 days. Low (100mg/kgBW/day) and high (200mg/kgBW/day) doses of TT were administered simultaneously with MTZ (500mg/kgBW/day) for same duration. All males were cohabited with virgin proestrus females. Vaginal plug formation was observed to calculate the libido index. Cohabited females were sacrificed on fifteenth day of gestation to dissect out the ovaries and uteri. Fertility index, quantal pregnancy, pre-implantation and post-implantation losses were calculated. Results MTZ-treated males showed unaltered mating ability, however, the females impregnated by such males exhibited marked alterations in the fertility index, quantal pregnancy and pre- and post-implantation losses. Supplementation with low dose of TT failed to restore such reproductive toxicities exhibited by administration of MTZ. However, the altered reproductive toxicities were reinstated to control values following supplementation with high dose of TT. Conclusion The fruit extract of TT may emerge as an effective herbal remedy, correcting the drug-induced fertility impairments in males.
... Tribulus terrestris samples are collected from the natural habitats during flowering; then the plant samples are air dried followed by rinsing with water and dried. After the solvent is evaporated, the residues are powdered (250 mg) and extracted with 500 ml of 70% ethanol (or methanol or acetonitril or hexane) in a Soxhlet apparatus, and a rotary evaporator is used to evaporate the extract to dryness (Hussain et al., 2009). One of the preliminary studies conducted by Xu and colleagues (2003) pointed to the emerging beneficial effect of traditional Chinese medicine in male infertility and the necessity to investigate the role of this medicine in male infertility on a wide scale. ...
Article
Tribulus terrestris is an annual herb of the Zygophyllaceae family and is commonly known as Gokshur, Gokharu, or puncturevine. Flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, lignin, amides, and glycosides are the main active phytoconstituents of this plant. Infertility is defined by the failure to conceive a child after one year or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Infertility affects society at large and has a negative impact on the social and emotional aspects of the patient. This in-depth review presents several studies that evaluate the role of Tribulus terrestris in a chronological order to help us better understand the exact mechanism by which this herbal medicine acts in male infertility. In conclusion, the exact role of Tribulus terrestris in male infertility is still controversial and needs future double-blind placebo-controlled studies that deploy larger cohorts.
... Tribulus terrestris seeds were procured from the local plant market, washed in sterile distilled water, air-dried in shade and powdered. These powdered plant materials (250 g) were extracted with 500 ml ethanol in a Soxhlet apparatus and the extract was evaporated to dryness under pressure at 45°C using a rotary evaporator and stored at -20°C in amber glass bottle until further use (Hussain et al. 2009). ...
Article
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Mixed sex juveniles of Nile tilapia (mean weight 0.025 ± 0.009 g; mean length 1.25 ± 0.012 cm) were subjected to dietary treatment (commercial fish feed, Tokyu, Japan, 30% crude protein) with ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris seeds at different concentrations (0.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 g/kg feed) to evaluate the efficacy of the plant seed extract for induction of masculinisation in fish. Treatment with plant extract at different concentrations have resulted in significantly higher (P < 0.05) survival percentage compared to control indicating no adverse health effect of the plant extract. Fish fed diets containing the plant extract showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) percentage of males compared to fish fed control diet. Dietary supplementation with the plant extract at the concentration of 2.0 g/kg feed showed the highest percentage (91.53 ± 0.38) of males and may be considered to be the best concentration among the selected concentrations for monosex tilapia production with T. terrestris seeds extract. The result of the study indicates that ethanolic extract of T. terrestris seeds may have potential for inducing sex reversal in fish and this biodegradable natural plant material may be used for monosex tilapia production instead of synthetic steroids.
... Tribulus terrestris L. is an annual creeping herb of the family Zygophyllaceae (1). Since ancient times, it has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, edema, eye problems, sexual dysfunction and rheumatoid arthritis (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8). Previously, it was reported that T. terrestris contains steroidal saponins, alkaloids and flavonoids (9) and that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of T. terrestris contain alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, quinines and phenolic compounds (10). ...
Article
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Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including inflammation, edema and hypertension. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of T. terrestris contain alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, quinines and phenolic compounds. Tribulusamide D is a compound that has been isolated from the ethanol extract of T. terrestris. The present study investigated the anti‑inflammatory effect of tribulusamide D on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Tribulusamide D inhibited the production of LPS‑induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, by reducing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase‑2 expression, respectively. The expression of these genes associated with inflammation was determined using reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Furthermore, tribulusamide D reduced the expression of LPS‑induced inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑10 and tumor necrosis factor‑α. They were quantified using an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, the present study confirmed that the inhibitory effects of tribulusamide D on the inflammatory response were mediated through inactivation of mitogen‑activated protein kinase p38 and inhibition of nuclear localization of nuclear factor‑B, which were also determined by western blot analysis. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the first to demonstrate that tribulusamide D exerts anti‑inflammatory activity by altering the expression of inflammatory mediators and cytokines, indicating that tribulusamide D could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.
... Chenopodium album, Datura stramonium and Tribulus terrestris were common at sites III and IV. Hussain et al., (2009) andNawaz et al., (2012) reported that dry climate and slightly acidic soils favoured these species which was true in this study. ...
Article
Wild flora along crop field boundaries in farmlands not only increases habitat heterogeneity but also serves multiple beneficial functions. We collected baseline data on wild flora bordering the crop fields of Pothwar plateau. Overall we selected four study sites including two sites of wheat-maize/millet and two of wheat-groundnut cropping system. We recorded 51 species of plants including 12 species of trees, 14 species of shrubs and 25 species of grasses/herbs. Two tree species namely Acacia modesta and Zizyphus mauritiana and two shrub species namely Calotropis procera and Ziziphus nummularia were common indicating their widespread presence in the area. Among herbs/grasses Abutilon indicum, Amaranthus spp., Cyperus rotundus and Erogrostis poroles were common at sites with wheat-maize/millet cropping pattern while Chenopodium album, Datura stramonium and Tribulus terrestris were common at sites with wheat-groundnut cropping system. The tree and shrub densities did not differ significantly among the study sites. Wheat-groundnut cropping system had higher populations/diversity/species of shrubs as compared to wheat-maize/millet cropping system. Density of grasses/herbs significantly differed across the study sites but there was no association of herb/grass density with cropping practice.
... Meanwhile, recent human studies that evaluated the role of Tribulus terrestris in male infertility are few. In addition, protodioscin also stimulates the hypothalamus secretion of LH but not of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), which is thought to be through the stimulation of the anterior pituitary gland and can lead to an increase in the unbound, free-testosterone levels (Hussain et al., 2009;Arsyad, 1996;Bashir et al., 2009). In addition, Roaiah et al. (2015) stated that Tribulus terrestris might be a promising medicine for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in aging patients suffering from partial androgen deficiency (Bashir et al., 2009). ...
Article
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We evaluated the role of Tribulus terrestris in males with unexplained infertility and its effect on serum testosterone and semen parameters. Thirty randomized male patients presenting to Andrology outpatient clinic complaining of idiopathic infertility were selected. They were given Tribulus terrestris (750 mg) in three divided doses for three months. The effect of Tribulus terrestris on serum testosterone (total and free) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as its impact on semen parameters in those patients, was studied. No statistically significant difference was observed in the levels of testosterone (total and free) and LH and semen parameters (sperm concentration or motility, or abnormal forms) before and after the treatment. In addition, no statistically significant correlations were observed between testosterone (free and total) and LH and semen parameters before and after the treatment. Tribulus terrestris was ineffective in the treatment of idiopathic infertility.
... The herb Tribulus terrestris was done by using of polar and non polar solvents. The antibacterial activity on gram positive bacteria S. aureus, and gram negative bacteria (E.coli, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella), all extracts showed considerable activity against all bacteria 1 . The ethanolic extracts of Yemeni, Tribules terrestris has demonstrated no detectable antibacterial activity against any of the reference bacteria 4 . ...
... The media with bacteria was poured into sterilized Petri dishes under aseptic condition. [23] Extract discs were then placed on the seeded agar plates. Each extract was tested in triplicate with gentamycin (10mcg/disc) and ketoconazole (10mcg/disc) as standard for bacteria and fungi, respectively. ...
Article
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Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed) of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358) and (Unripen fruit, ripen fruit and calyx) of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668) were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their Biological activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Raoultella planticola) and one yeast (Candida albicans) by disc diffusion assay. Serial dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/ fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC). Water extract of Unripen fruit of W. somnifera showed highest antibacterial activity (IZ-13.33±0.24 mm, AI-0.833) and highest antifungal activity (IZ-18.67±0.22 mm, AI-2.667) against E. coli and C. albicans respectively as well as chloroform extract of stem (IZ-12.50±0.64 mm, AI-1.042) and seeds (IZ-10.67±0.23 mm, AI-0.821) of C. ciliaris against C. albicans and S. aureus.
... A bacterial suspension was prepared and inoculum size 1×10 8 CFU/ml was added for bacteria and 1×10 7 cell/ml for fungi to the sterilized medium before solidification. The media with bacteria was poured into sterilized Petri dishes under aseptic condition 26 . Extract discs were then placed on the seeded agar plates. ...
Article
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Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed) of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358) and (root, stem, leaf and flower) of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668) and were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents (water, chloroform and benzene) using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their antimicrobial activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobactor aerogens) and one fungus (Aspergillus flavus) by disc diffusion assay. Serial dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC). Chloroform extract of leaves of both the plants showed highest activity, by W. somnifera (IZ-20.83±0.21 mm, AI- 1.389) and (IZ-20.67±0.24 mm, AI- 1.148) by C. ciliaris against B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa respectively.
... A bacterial suspension was prepared and inoculum size 1×10 8 CFU/ml was added for bacteria and 1×10 7 cell/ml for yeast 23 to the sterilized medium before solidification. The media with bacteria was poured into sterilized Petri dishes under aseptic condition 24 . Extract discs were then placed on the seeded agar plates. ...
Article
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Crude extracts of different parts of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668) and Cenchrus setigerus (CAZRI-76) were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their Biological activity in-vitro against one Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Raoultella planticola) and one yeast (Candida albicans) by disc diffusion assay. Serial dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC). Water extract of leaves of W. somnifera showed highest activity against R. planticola and chloroform extract of stem of C. setigerus showed highest activity against S. aureus.
... The in vitro antibacterial effect of ligand and its Cu complex was evaluated against Grampositive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria by the disc diffusion method [26] were carried out using DMSO as negative control and it showed no activity against any bacterial strains. Streptomycin was used as a Standard drug. ...
Article
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New complex of copper (II) with ciprofloxacin & thiosemicarbazide Schiff base has been synthesized, Schiff base ligand and its Cu(II) complex were characterized by various physico-chemical techniques like elemental analysis, m.pt. , TLC, molar conductance measurement, magnetic susceptibility measurement, LC-MS, H 1 NMR, FT-IR and electronic spectral studies. The magnetic moment and electronic spectra studies suggested distorted octahedral geometry for Cu (II) complex. The monoanionic thiosemicarbazonate ligand act in a tridentate mode, binding through azo-methine nitrogen and sulfur atom. The synthesized ligand and its Cu (II) complex were screened for their invitro antibacterial activity using disc diffusion method against the gram positive and gram negative bacterial strain E. coli and S. aureus using nutrient agar medium. Streptomycin was used as standard in the test. Both the compounds showed remarkable antibacterial activity in comparison to antibiotics. Antioxidant activity of the ligand and its Cu (II) complex was screened using the DPPH scavenging assay. Both the compounds showed potent antioxidant activity in the range 80 – 97%. copper chloride, anti oxidant activity. W WO OR RL LD D J JO OU UR RN NA AL L O OF F P PH HA AR RM MA AC CY Y A AN ND D P PH HA AR RM MA AC CE EU UT TI IC CA AL L S SC CI IE EN NC CE ES S S SJ JI IF F I Im mp pa ac ct t F Fa ac ct to or r 5 5. .2 21 10 0 V Vo ol lu um me e 4 4, , I Is ss su ue e 0 06 6, , 6 69 96 6-7 70 07 7.. R Re es se ea ar rc ch h A Ar rt ti ic cl le e I IS SS SN N 2278 – 4357
... The serious medical problem of bacterial and fungal resistance and the rapid rate of its development has led to increasing levels of resistance to classical antibiotics (Rice et al., 1999;Al-Amiery et al., 2009;Kadhum et al., 2011), and the discovery and development of effective antibacterial and antifungal drugs with novel mechanisms of action have become urgent tasks for infectious disease research programs (Kumar et al., 2011b). All the synthesized compounds were analyzed on what concerns their antimicrobial inhibition ( Table 4). ...
Article
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Considering the potential interest of heterocyclic compounds, the aim of the present study is to synthesize new coumarin derivatives, to provide their full chemical characterization and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. The reaction of ethyl 2-(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy) acetate 2 with sodium hydroxide afforded the corresponding 2-(2-oxo-4-methyl-2H-chromen-7-yloxy) acetic acid 3 which was esterified using a series of alcohols in the presence of iodine to yield a new series of coumarin esters 4a-j. On the other hand, treatment of the key intermediate 2 with an aqueous solution of hydrazine in ethanol at reflux gave the corresponding hydrazide 5 which further converted into coumarin derivatives 6a-f and 7a-c by condensation with a series of aromatic aldehydes and cyclic anhydrides, respectively. The synthesized compounds were completely characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and HRMS. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the new synthesized compounds were evaluated using the disc diffusion method and seemed to be significant.
... Studies show that TT contains steroids, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, tannins, resins, nitrate potassium, aspartic acid and glutamic acid (Karimi et al., 2012). This plant has several advantages including antimicrobial, antibacterial, antioxidant and antitoxic activities used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, tumors, articular pains and respiratory diseases (Abbas et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Cisplatin is an anti-cancer drug used in chemotherapy. One of the limiting side effects of cisplatin is decreasing genital gland function, azoospermia and oligospermia. Tribulus terrestris (TT) has been used as an aphrodisiac. The present study amid to investigate protective effect of TT hydroalcoholic extract against cisplatin-induced apoptosis on testis in mice. Male adult mice (n=30) were divided into control and 4 experimental groups (n=6). Control group received saline, first experimental group received cisplatin (5.5 mg/kg) and other three experimental group received cisplatin (5.5 mg/kg) and different doses of hydroalcoholic extact of TT (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg/i.p) respectively. Day after the last injection, histopathology and histomorphic analysis and also TUNEL assay on mice testis were performed. Weights of body and testis, seminiferous tubules diameter and apoptotic index were assessed. Data analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukeys' test. The results showed that cisplatin lead to a reduction in the weight of body and testes, and significantly increased apoptotic index compared to the control group (P<0.001), while in treated groups with TT, the weights of body and testis and seminiferous tubules diameter were significantly higher compared with cisplatin group (P<0.001), but apoptotic index did not show significant differences. The study demonstrates that extract of TT could protective effect of on cisplatin-induced apoptosis of testis and seminiferous tubules diameter that may be related to the presence of antioxidant components acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms
... Tribulus terrestris samples were collected from the natural habitats during flowering; then the air-dried plant sample was rinsed with water and dried. After evaporation of the solvent, the residues were powdered (250 mg) and extracted with 500 ml of 70% ethanol (or methanol or acetonitril or hexane) in a Soxhlet apparatus and the extracts were evaporated to dryness by a rotatory evaporator (Hussain, Abbas, Heba, & Amir, 2009). All patients were given Tribulus terrestris at a dose of 750 mg/day in 3 divided doses for duration of 3 months with estimation of testosterone (total and free) and LH, in addition to evaluation of erection,which was done by IIEF-5 before and after treatment. ...
Article
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This study was conducted on (30) consecutive male patients presenting to Kasr-Al Ainy Andrology outpatient clinic complaining of manifestations of Partial Androgen Deficiency in Aging Males (PADAM). Here in this study (750 mg/day) of Tribulus terrestris in 3 divided doses, each of (250 mg/dose) as an endogenous testosterone enhancer had been tried for (3 months) duration and the evaluation of its effect had been monitored for each patient concerning its effect on serum testosterone (Total & Free) & LH, as well as its Impact on erectile function that was evaluated by International index of erectile function -5 (IIEF-5) Questionnaire for those patients. Results showed statistically significant difference in the level of testosterone (Total & Free) & IIEF-5, but no statistically significant difference in the level of LH before & after treatment. Also, it showed statistically significant correlation between Testosterone (Total & Free) & IIEF-5, but no statistically significant correlation between the level of LH & IIEF-5 before & after treatment.
... Previous phytochemical studies have reported the isolation of flavonols, triterpenoids, steroids, tannins and alkaloids being few of its important constituents. Taking into consideration the folklore uses and the active constituents present, the present study aims at pharmacological evaluation of hydro alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris (gokhru) along with a diet for anti-urolithic activity [12,13]. ...
Article
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Tribulus terrestris grows widely in the the warmer region of India including west Rajasthan and Gujarat. It contains many active constituents like flavonoids, steroids, terpinoids, phenols, alkaloids and tannins. It is reported to have hepatoprotective, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, diuretic, and urinary anti-infectives. The present study was aimed at evaluating the hydroalcoholic extract of fruits of Tribulus terrestris (Gokhru, HAEG), at dose of 50mg/kg and also along with the comestible for anti-urolithic activity. Anti-urolithic activity of the the hydroalcoholic extract of okhru at dose of 50mg/kg along with comestible was evaluated by ethylene glycol (0.75% W/V) induced hyperoxalurea in group II, III, IV and V animals. Group I was taken as normal, group II was taken as control, group III as standard group, group IV and V received HAEG and HAEG along with diet. BUN and creatinine were estimated in serum. Oxalate, calcium, phosphate, magnesium and uric acid were estimated in urine. Histopathological studies were also done for all the groups. The hydroalcoholic extract of Gokhru (HAEG) at dose of 50mg/kg along with comestible was evaluated by ethylene glycol induced hyperoxalurea in rats. Interpretation of the results was done after subjecting the data obtained from various studies to statistical analysis which included one way ANOVA followed by post test (Tukey’s). The results suggest that the group that was treated with HAEG along with comestible had shown better protective activity when compared to alone HAEG
... Studies from other laboratories have previously indicated the endocrine disrupting potential of T. terrestris, particularly, the water, methanol, and ethanol extracts of T. terrestris. Hussain et al. (2009) showed that methanol extracts of T. terrestris increased free serum testosterone levels in male mice. Gauthaman et al. (2003) reported that the pro-erectile, aphrodisiac property of the water extracts of T. terrestris might result from an increase in androgen production and a subsequent release of nitric oxide from the nerve endings innervating the corpus cavernosum. ...
Article
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Context: Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) has been commonly used to energize, vitalize, and improve sexual function and physical performance in men. Objective: This study investigates the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic, and endocrine disrupting activities of T. terrestris in vitro. Materials and methods: The whole T. terrestris plant was extracted with water, methanol, and chloroform. The genotoxic potential of T. terrestris extracts at 3-2400 µg/mL was assessed by Comet assay in a rat kidney cell line (NRK-52E) and by Ames assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. Endocrine disrupting effects of the extracts at concentrations of 0.22-25 000 µg/mL were assessed by YES/YAS assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cytotoxic activity of the extracts was determined by the MTT test in NRK-52E cells. The different exposure times were used for four tests (3-48 h). Results: The methanol extract of T. terrestris IC50 value was 160 µg/mL. The other extracts did not show cytotoxic effects. In the Comet and Ames genotoxicity assays, none of the extracts possessed genotoxic activities at concentrations of 0-2400 µg/mL. Only the water extract of T. terrestris induced frame shift mutations after metabolic activation. The water extract also showed estrogenic activity by YES/YAS assay in S. cerevisiae at concentrations ≥27 µg/mL (≥2.6-fold), while the other T. terrestris extracts had anti-estrogenic properties. Conclusion: Tribulus terrestris had estrogenic and genotoxic activities. The study was useful in determining its toxicological effects and the precautions regarding consumption.
... In agreement with this hypothesis, El-Thaher et al. [43] reported that chronic administration of F. hermonis exerted unwanted and toxic effects such as decrease in total body weight, hepatomegaly and atrophy of testis. Hussain et al. [44] indicated that the plant extract could lead to cell death through inhibition of chromosomal protein synthesis Table 4 show that ethanolic plant extract of C. vulgaris had a significant effect against most pathogenic bacteria (Ag. tumefaciens, Erwinia sp., K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa) in comparison to the other extracts from Ferula sp. or Tribulus sp. ...
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2014): In vitro screening for anti-acetylcholiesterase, anti-oxidant, anti-glucosidase, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effect of three traditional medicinal plants, Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the "Content") contained in the publications on our platform. Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Versions of published Taylor & Francis and Routledge Open articles and Taylor & Francis and Routledge Open Select articles posted to institutional or subject repositories or any other third-party website are without warranty from Taylor & Francis of any kind, either expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement. Any opinions and views expressed in this article are the opinions and views of the authors, and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor & Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use of the Content.
... After 24 h under aerobic condition, growth on agitation shaking (150 rpm) at 37°C, 10 7 colony formed unit (CFU) of culture was transferred into the petri dish containing nutrient agar and was distributed by L-loop. A 30 to 60 min time leaving before toxicity test was considered (Kadhum et al., 2011a;Al-Amiery et al., 2009Kadhum et al., 2011b). ...
Article
Photo catalytic degradation of chlorophenols in aqueous solution by ZnO nanoparticles under sunlight was investigated. The toxicity of chlorophenols was evaluated by agar plates technique with paper discs in the presence of Escherichia coli. The relative toxicity data of chlorophenols, before and after degradation, was used in comparing between them. The degree of toxicity was estimated by clear zone around each paper disc of chlorophenols. Results show toxicity of chlorophenols as PCP>TeCP>2,4,6-TCP>2,4-DCP>2-CP before photocatalytic degradation. After degradation, no more toxicity was observed by clear zone around each paper disc. The toxicity test indicates that higher degradation of chlorophenols occurred by ZnO nanoparticles under sunlight as alternative method for treatment.
... The media with bacteria was poured into sterilized Petri dishes under aseptic condition. [19] Extract discs were then placed on the seeded agar plates. Each extract was tested in triplicate with gentamycin (10mcg/disc) and ketoconazole (10 mcg/disc) as standard for bacteria and fungi, respectively. ...
Article
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Introduction: The aim of present study is to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Withania somnifera (RUBL20668) and Cenchrus setigerus (CAZRI-76) extracts in order to use it as a possible source for new antimicrobial substances against important human pathogens. Method: The crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed) of C. setigerus and (Unripen fruit, ripen fruit, calyx) of W. somnifera and were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their antimicrobial activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobactor aerogens) and one fungus (Aspergillus flavus) by disc diffusion assay. Serial dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC). Result: Water extract of stems of C. setigerus (IZ-21.83 ± 0.24 mm, AI- 0.780) and chloroform extract of calyx of W. somnifera (IZ-16.17 ± 0.24 mm, AI- 1.078) showed highest activity against B. subtilis. Conclusion: The demonstration of broad spectrum of W. somnifera and C. setigerus may help to discover new chemical classes of antibiotic substances that could serve as selective agents for infectious disease chemotherapy and control.
... The serious medical problem of bacterial and fungal resistance and the rapid rate at which this resistance develops has led to increasing the levels of resistance to classical antibiotics (Rice et al., 1999;Ironmonger et al., 2007;Al-Amiery et al., 2009). Therefore, the discovery and development of effective antibacterial and antifungal drugs with novel mechanisms of action have become urgent goals for infectious disease research programs (Kumar et al., 2011;Kadhum et al., 2011). ...
Article
The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of quinazolinones have widely been studied. However, there have been no studies on the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of synthetic quinazolinones derived from anthranilic acid. The antimicrobial activities of newly synthesized compounds against a number of medically relevant bacteria and fungi were investigated. In addition, the free-radical scavenging activities of these compounds were measured using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and nitroxyl radical assays and were compared with the activity of ascorbic acid. All compounds exhibited significant antimicrobial activity. In addition, these compounds were found to be superior to ascorbic acid in terms of their antioxidant activities. Theoretical calculations of the synthesized compounds were performed using molecular structures with optimized geometries. The molecular orbital calculations provide a detailed description of the orbitals, including the spatial characteristics, nodal patterns, and the contributions of individual atoms. The energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the structures of the compounds are shown.
... However, data concerning the effect of T. terrestris extract on poultry are not present. [6] One of the uses of T. terrestris is in urinary infections. The ethanolic extract of Yemeni T. terrestris has demonstrated no detectable anti-bacterial activity against any of the reference bacteria. ...
Conference Paper
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Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE.3.1.1.7), the key enzyme in the breakdown of acetylcholine, is considered as a promi sing strategy for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herbs, spices and medicinal plants (HSMP) have been cherished for their use in curing common ailments and promoting good health by many ancient cultures. Therefore, in the present study the effect of three plants extracts (Calluna Vulgaris, Ferula Hermonis and Tribulus Terrestris) on the activity of AChE were carried out in an in vitro study to achieve this aim, the ethanolic extracts of plants were examined for their phytochemical active ingredients, then the inhibitory effect of these extracts toward AChE activity was carried out in vitro according to Ellemen reaction. Our results showed that all tested extracts had alkaloid and flavonides. The three extracts inhibited the enzyme activity in concentration dependent manner. Furthermore the most potent inhibitor was Calluna Vulgaris while the less one was Tribulus Terrestris. The RBC lysis assay was run to estimate the extracts toxic effect and we found that Calluna Vulgaris extract was safe till high doses while Tribulus Terrestris extract was toxic in dose higher that ………………. In conclusion; the Calluna extract can be used as new treatment for AD disease as it is potent AChE inhibitor. Determination of AChE activity AChE activity was measured according to the method of Ellman et al. (1961).
... The crude ethanol and fractioned extracts were dissolved in 6% dimethylformamide (DMF) to give strength of 40mg/ml from which further dilutions were made in the same solvent. Ampicilin was used as reference standard (positive control) in same strength/concentration while 6% DMF (Hussain et al., 2009;Sahu et al., 2008) used as negative control. ...
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Fruit of Prunus domestica was extracted in ethanol. The ethanol extract was further extracted with two solvents ethyl acetate and chloroform. The crude ethanol extract and two fractions (ethyl acetate and chloroform) were screened for their antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method .They were tested against nine bacteria; five Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcuc intermedius, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus) and four Gram negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Proteus mirabilis Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiela pneumoniae). The susceptibility of microorganisms to all three fractions was compared with each other and with standard antibiotic (Ampicillin) Among all fractions ethyl acetate exhibited highest antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 34.57mm ± 1.3) while ethyl alcohol exhibited least antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 17.42mm ± 3.3). Minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions was found in the range of 78 μ g/ml to 2500 μ gl/ml against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
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The present study included 98 bovine ovary collected from AL-Shulla slaughter house immediately after the animal was slaughtered. Ovaries were preserved in physiological saline at 37 C o and transport to the laboratory within 3-4 hrs. Diameters of the follicles were measured and divided into large (6-10 mm) and small (1-5 mm) follicles. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from large and small follicles using a 18 G needle connected to a 10 ml syringe COCs surrounded by compact and thick cumulus cell were cultured in an integrated culture media RPMI-1640 , than were divided in to two groups , the first group (control media) using integrated culture media only , the second group alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris (Tt) plant was added to the culture media RPMI-1640 once a concentration of 50µg/ml , and the other a concentration of 25µ/ml. The results of the current study demonstrated superiority of alcoholic extract of 50µg/ml in the percentage of oocytes maturation which optended or drawn from large and small follicles compared with a concentration of 25µg/ml of the alcoholic extract it was observable the effect of adding alcoholic extract of T. t. plant in two concentrations of 25µg/ml and or 50µg/ml on the percentage of mature oocytes compared to control media (culture media RPMI-1640) .The present results indicated that the oocytes retrieved from larger follicles is better than small follicles in maturing oocytes maturation. In conclusion, alcoholic concentration of 50µg/ml preference extracted first and then the concentration of 25µg/ml T. t. plant extract that was added to culture media RPMI-1640 , superiority in percentage of the mature oocytes compared to control culture media RPMI-1640 , also the large follicle were better than small follicles in terms of equality suitable for mature oocytes. 1 1 ‫فرع‬ ‫والتوليد‬ ‫الجراحة‬-‫الطب‬ ‫كلية‬ ‫البيطري‬-‫جامعة‬ ‫بغداد‬ 2 ‫العلوم‬ ‫كلية‬-‫النهرين‬ ‫جامعة‬-‫العراق‬ ‫الخالصة‬ ‫الحالية‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫شملت‬ 89 ، ‫الحيوان‬ ‫ذبح‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫مباشرة‬ ‫الشعلة‬ ‫مجزره‬ ‫من‬ ‫جمعت‬ ، ‫مبيضا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫المبايض‬ ‫فضت‬ ‫المحلول‬ ‫في‬ ‫أل‬ ‫حرارة‬ ‫بدرجة‬ ‫فسلجي‬ 73 ‫ونقلت‬ ‫م‬ ‫المختبر‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫خالل‬ 7-4 ‫قي‬ ‫تم‬ ، ‫ساعات‬ ‫الجر‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫اس‬ ‫المبايض‬ ‫على‬ ‫المتواجدة‬ ‫يبات‬ (‫الحجم‬ ‫كبيرة‬ ‫جريبات‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫وقسمت‬ 6-01 (‫الحجم‬ ‫وصفيره‬ ‫مليمتر‬) 0-5 ‫بالركمه‬ ‫المحاطة‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫سحبت‬. ‫)مليمتر‬ ‫المبيضة‬ ‫الجر‬ ‫من‬ ‫الشفط‬ ‫بطريقه‬ ‫الكبيرة‬ ‫يبات‬ ‫والصفيرة‬ ‫ابره‬ ‫بواسطة‬ ‫قياس‬ 09 ‫سعة‬ ‫بسرنجة‬ ‫موصولة‬ ‫كيج‬ 01. ‫ملمتر‬ ‫المتكامل‬ ‫ألزرعي‬ ‫الوسط‬ ‫في‬ ‫زرعت‬ ‫المبيضة‬ ‫الركمة‬ ‫خاليا‬ ‫من‬ ‫ثخينة‬ ‫بطبقه‬ ‫والمحاطة‬ ‫لإلنضاج‬ ‫المالئمة‬ ‫البويضات‬ 0641 RPMI-‫إلى‬ ‫قسمت‬ ‫وقد‬ ، ‫مجموعتين‬ (‫السيطرة‬ ‫األولى‬ ‫المجموعة‬ ، control media ‫ما‬ ‫أي‬ ‫يضاف‬ ‫لم‬) ‫ده‬ ‫ألزرعي‬ ‫للوسط‬ ‫أضيف‬ ‫فقد‬ ‫الثانية‬ ‫المجموعة‬ ‫إما‬ ، ‫المتكامل‬ ‫ألزرعي‬ ‫للوسط‬ RPM1-1640 ‫المتكامل‬ ‫الكحولي‬ ‫المستخلص‬ ‫الكطب‬ ‫لنبات‬ ‫بتركيز‬ 51 ‫وتركيز‬ ‫مابكروغرام/مللتر‬ 55 ‫مللتر‬ ‫مايكروغرام/‬. ‫البويضات‬ ‫زرع‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫نتائج‬ ‫أظهرت‬ ‫تفوق‬ ‫الكطب‬ ‫لنبات‬ ‫الكحولي‬ ‫المستخلص‬ ‫بتركيز‬ 51 ‫المسحوبة‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫إلنضاج‬ ‫المئوية‬ ‫النسبة‬ ‫في‬ ‫مللتر‬ / ‫مايكروغرام‬ ‫بتركيز‬ ‫مقارنة‬ ‫والصغيرة‬ ‫الكبيرة‬ ‫الجريبات‬ ‫من‬ 55 ، ‫الكطب‬ ‫نبات‬ ‫لمستخلص‬ ‫مللتر‬ / ‫مايكروغرام‬ ‫وسجل‬ ‫أضافه‬ ‫تأثير‬ ‫وبالتركيزيين‬ ‫الكطب‬ ‫لنبات‬ ‫الكحولي‬ ‫المستخلص‬ 51 , 55 ‫النسبة‬ ‫في‬ ‫مللتر‬ / ‫مايكروغرام‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫إلنضاج‬ ‫المئوية‬ .) ‫السيطرة‬ (‫ألزرعي‬ ‫بالوسط‬ ‫مقارنه‬ ‫أوضحت‬ ‫كما‬ ‫نتائج‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫الحالية‬ ‫الكبيرة‬ ‫الجريبات‬ ‫من‬ ‫المسحوبة‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫بان‬ ‫أضافه‬ ‫عند‬ ‫الناضجة‬ ‫غير‬ ‫للبويضات‬ ‫المئوية‬ ‫النسبة‬ ‫وتدني‬ ‫والحيوية‬ ‫اإلنضاج‬ ‫في‬ ‫القطر‬ ‫الضفيرة‬ ‫الجريبات‬ ‫من‬ ‫أفضل‬ ‫القطر‬ The Iraqi J. Vet. Med. 36 (2):199-203; 2012 222 ‫الكحول‬ ‫المستخلص‬ ‫ي‬. ‫ألزرعي‬ ‫للوسط‬ ‫المضاف‬ ‫الكطب‬ ‫لنبات‬ ‫الكحولي‬ ‫المستخلص‬ ‫أفضلية‬ ‫الحالية‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫من‬ ‫نستنتج‬ RPMI-1640 ‫الجريبات‬ ‫إن‬ ‫كما‬ ، ‫السيطرة)‬ (‫ألزرعي‬ ‫بالوسط‬ ‫مقارنة‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫لإلنضاج‬ ‫المئوية‬ ‫النسبة‬ ‫تفوق‬ ‫في‬ ‫من‬ ‫أفضل‬ ‫القطر‬ ‫الكبيرة‬ ‫حيث‬ ‫من‬ ‫القطر‬ ‫ألصفيره‬ ‫الجريبات‬ ‫ال‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫نوعية‬. ‫وحيويتها‬ ‫لإلنضاج‬ ‫مالئمة‬ ‫ال‬ ‫كلمات‬ ‫ال‬ ‫مفتاحية‬ ‫االبقار‬ , ‫البيوض‬ ‫انضاج‬ , ‫الكطب‬ ‫نبات‬ ‫مستخلص‬ : .
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2, 4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde reacts for ethyl acetoacetate yielded 3-acetyl-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (1), which was then cyclized with ethyl acetoacetate in the presence of ammonium acetate to give compound 3-acetyl-4-(4-(dimethylamino) phenyl) -6-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)pyridin-2(1H)-one (2). Melting point, TLC, FT-IR spectroscopy, and ¹ H-NMR were used to characterize the newly synthesized compound. Pyridine (2) is a synthetic compound. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., and Candida albicans were chosen for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. Compounds 2 demonstrated strong antibacterial activity when compared to the regular drug Ampicillin using the diffusion process. Compound 2 showed high antifungal efficacy as compared to the standard medication fluconazole. The results demonstrated that the tested compounds 1 and 2 have substantially stronger antioxidant activity than the well-known antioxidant ascorbic acid. They had a high ability for scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. Quantum chemical parameters for the highest occupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (ELUMO) were determined and presented.
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Schiff base ligand (HL) derived from ciprofloxacin and 2-aminopyridine was successfully synthesized and complexed with cobalt(II) chloride and zinc(II) acetate. The characterization was done base on molar conductance, infrared and electronic spectra. 1 H NMR was also used for the ligands. The complexes were formed in moderate yields. The ligand and complexes are stable at room temperature. They are soluble in polar solvents (distilled water, ethanol and methanol) but slightly soluble in non-polar solvents (acetone, chloroform and n-hexane). The ligand has sharp melting point of 150 0 C while the range of those of the complexes indicate their purity. The molar conductivity measurements are in the range of 0.006-0.193 Scm 2 mol-1 indicating that the complexes are non-electrolytes. The percentage of the metals determined in the complexes are in close agreement with the theoretical values. Infrared spectra of the complexes agree with the coordination to the central metal atom through the nitrogen of the azomethine (C=N), pyridinium (azine) nitrogen hence the ligands are tridentate. The electronic spectra reveals the π-π* and n-π* transitions of the ligand while the 1 H-NMR spectra of the ligand suggests the formation of the azomethine bond. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of all the compounds at different concentrations was screened against four bacterial pathogens, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli and also on fungal strain; Aspergillusniger and Aspergillusfumigatus. The complexes showed better activity of antibacterial strain compared to the parent and control drug but no activity on fungal strain. This is an indication that the synthesized compounds have broad spectrum activity.
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Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) (puncturevine) is a common weed that grows in many countries worldwide and in some places is considered as a noxious weed. The plant has been used in traditional Chinese and Indian medicines and is now considered as one of the most popular aphrodisiacs. It is known for its healing properties for sexual difficulties, impotence, and human and animal hormonal imbalance. It is also used as a sexual booster. Because of the plant’s active substances that can be used for curing sexual and other disorders, interest in it is increasing, and it is currently one of the most studied medicinal plants. The products and preparations manufactured from the aboveground plant parts are especially popular among athletes and people with health issues and diseases such as hormonal imbalance, sexual problems, heart problems, and various kidney and skin diseases. The aim of this review is a comprehensive and critical assessment of the scientific publications involving TT, with special reference to its chemical constituents and biological properties that may facilitate current understanding and future studies of this fascinating plant species. The objectives of this review were (1) to find knowledge gaps, (2) to discuss critically relevant publications and issues with materials and methods that may be prerequisites for contradictory results, and (3) to identify research and development areas. It was found that some of the studies on TT extracts as aphrodisiacs are controversial. A significant number of research publications claim that TT extracts and nutritional supplements containing TT improve muscle tone, have a common biostimulating effect, and improve spermogenesis. However, there are a growing number of publications that dispute these claims, as there are no empirical data on commonly accepted mechanisms of action. The main biologically active substances in TT are steroidal saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and lignan amides, the most studied being the steroidal saponins. Multiyear data on the metabolic profile of the species are generally lacking. There are a variety of methods used for extracting plant material, differences in methodologies and saponin analyses, and scientific instruments that were used. Lack of common standards could be a reason for differences in the pharmacological activity and composition of the TT preparations. Development of standard procedures and methods for collection of plant material and analyses are recommended. Selection and breeding efforts and agronomic studies of promising clones of TT would need to be conducted in order to develop TT as a new crop. This will provide consistency of supply and quality of the feedstock for the pharmaceutical industry and could provide a new cash crop for growers.
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Objectives: to evaluate the effectiveness of a natural compound made of Ecklonia bicyclis Seaweed, Tribulus terrestris and water-soluble chitosan oligosaccharide, in the male sexual asthenia with mild or mild-moderate erectile dysfunction and serum testosterone levels between 280 and 350 ng/dl. Materials and Methods: 84 male patients affected by reduced libido and serum testosterone levels at the lower limit of normal, were recruited. We have separated patients in three different age groups: group A (18 - 45 years), group B (45 - 59 years), group C (>60 years). All subjects answered the International index of erectile function questionnaire (IIEF-5) and underwent determination of serum total testosterone before and after 30 days of treatment. Results: Before treatment, the group A showed mean (± standard deviation) total testosterone 321.9 ± 19.2 ng/dl and mean IIEF-5 18.6 ± 1.97, in the group B it was 318.5 ± 18.1 ng/dl and 16.3 ± 2.66, and finally in the group C it was 305.4 ± 13.1 ng/dl and 14.2 ± 1.95 respectively. After treatment mean total testosterone and mean IIEF-5 were respectively: group A (448 ± 111.46 ng/dl and 21.84 ± 3.41); group B (453.8 ± 105.23 ng/dl and 20.4 ± 3.81); group C (385.8 ± 87.29 ng/dl and 16.7 ± 3.84). Conclusions: The treatment with Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris and water-soluble chitosan oligosaccharide might represent a safe and effective option on the improvement of libido and erectile function in man with testosterone level at the lower limit of normal.
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The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of the fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on the metronidazole (MTZ)-induced alterations in spermatogenesis, sperm count, testicular functions, and oxidative stress. Thirty adult Swiss strain mice were divided into six groups. Animals of Groups I and II served as untreated and vehicle-treated controls, while that of Groups III and IV were administered with MTZ (500 mg/kg BW/day) and TT (200 mg/kg BW/day) alone for 28 days, respectively. Low (100 mg/kg BW/day) and high (200 mg/kg BW/day) doses of TT along with MTZ (500 mg/kg BW/day) were administered for 28 days in the mice of Groups V and VI, respectively. Twenty four hours after the last treatment, all the animals were euthanized to study the histological changes in the testis and sperm count in the epididymis. Testicular functional markers, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, were also assessed in the mice of all the groups. Metronidazole caused marked alterations in the testicular weight, spermatogenesis, activities of antioxidant enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and the level of LPO. The epididymal sperm count also declined significantly in MTZ-treated group. These changes were partially restored following co-administration of 500 mg/kg BW/day of MTZ and 100 mg/kg BW/day of TT. However, in the mice co-administered with 500 mg/kg BW/day of MTZ and 200 mg/kg BW/day of TT, the changes reverted back completely, similar to that of the controls. The fruit extract of TT ameliorates the MTZ-induced alterations in the testis.
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Two new furostanol glycosides, named terrestrinones A1/A2 (1a/1b), were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. together with four known compounds, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR experiments. All of the isolates (1-5) were evaluated for their potential to inhibit the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Of these, compounds 2 and 3 inhibited nitric oxide production with IC50 values of 7.1 and 46.6 μM.
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(E)-3-((5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylimino)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol (LH) has been synthesized and used as a ligand for the formation of V(IV), Cr(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) complexes. The chemical structures were characterized using different spectroscopic methods. The elemental analyses revealed that the complexes have the general formula [ML2(H2O)2] [where M = Mn(II), Co(II), and Cu(II)], while the Cr(III) complex has the formula [CrL2(H2O)2]Cl, V(IV) complex has the formula [VO2L2], and Ni(II) complex has the formula [NiL2]. The molar conductance data revealed that all the metal chelates except the Cr(III) are non-electrolytes. From the magnetic susceptibility measurement and UV–Visible spectra, it is found that the structures of Cr(III), Mn(II), Co(II), and Cu(II) complexes are octahedral, V(IV), complex is square pyramid and Ni(II) complex is square planar. The stability of the prepared complexes was studied theoretically using density function theory. The total energy for the complexes was calculated and it was shown that the copper complex is the most stable. Complexes were tested against selected types of microbial organisms and showed significant activities. The free radical scavenging activity of metal complexes have been determined by their interaction with the stable DPPH-free radicals. All the compounds have shown encouraging antioxidant activities.
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This study investigated whether chemotherapy using fludarabine (FLU) caused testicular damage and if cytotoxicity could be detected as sperm DNA damage in the single cell Comet assay. A patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia requesting preservation of fertility was treated with seven monthly cycles of fludarabine (45.8 mg total dose per cycle). Testicular assessments, serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone measurements, semen analysis and sperm Comet assays were carried out at presentation (pre-FLU therapy), after 1 and 7 months of FLU treatment, and finally at 11 months after completion of chemotherapy. We found that testicular damage occurred within a month, as indicated by reduced testicular volume, oligozoospermia, elevated FSH and LH, and lower testosterone concentrations. Spermatozoa with a large range of DNA damage were detected in the samples from both the control and treated men. DNA damage in the spermatozoa was marked by 7 months of FLU treatment. The high levels of sperm DNA damage seen during and possibly persisting after treatment suggests that caution should be exercised if the ejaculates from these men are used for in-vitro fertility treatment. Further experiments are needed to assess the biological significance of these DNA changes; it may, however, be prudent at present to be cautious when counselling these patients.
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The effectiveness of an androgenic nutritional supplement designed to enhance serum testosterone concentrations and prevent the formation of dihydrotestosterone and estrogen was investigated in healthy 3 to 58 year old men. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume a nutritional supplement (AND-HB) containing 300-mg androstenediol, 480-mg saw palmetto, 450-mg indole-3-carbinol, 300-mg chrysin, 1,500 mg gamma-linolenic acid and 1.350-mg Tribulus terrestris per day (n = 28), or placebo (n = 27) for 28 days. Subjects were stratified into age groups to represent the fourth (30 year olds, n = 20), fifth (40 year olds, n = 20) and sixth (50 year olds, n = 16) decades of life. Serum free testosterone, total testosterone, androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, prostate specific antigen and lipid concentrations were measured before supplementation and weekly for four weeks. Basal serum total testosterone, estradiol, and prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentrations were not different between age groups. Basal serum free testosterone concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) in the 30- (70.5 +/- 3.6 pmol/L) than in the 50 year olds (50.8 +/- 4.5 pmol/L). Basal serum androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations were significantly higher in the 30- (for androstenedione and DHT, respectively, 10.4 +/- 0.6 nmol/L and 2198.2 +/- 166.5 pmol/L) than in the 40- (6.8 +/- 0.5 nmol/L and 1736.8 +/- 152.0 pmol/L) or 50 year olds (6.0 +/- 0.7 nmol/L and 1983.7 +/- 147.8 pmol/L). Basal serum hormone concentrations did not differ between the treatment groups. Serum concentrations of total testosterone and PSA were unchanged by supplementation. Ingestion of AND-HB resulted in increased (p < 0.05) serum androstenedione (174%), free testosterone (37%), DHT (57%) and estradiol (86%) throughout the four weeks. There was no relationship between the increases in serum free testosterone, androstenedione, DHT, or estradiol and age (r2 = 0.08, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.02, respectively). Serum HDL-C concentrations were reduced (p < 0.05) by 0.14 mmol/L in AND-HB. These data indicate that ingestion of androstenediol combined with herbal products does not prevent the formation of estradiol and dihydrotestosterone.
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For centuries green tea has been a widely consumed beverage throughout the world. It is known to contain a number of pharmacologically active compounds. In this study water extracts of green tea (WEGT) and their major constituents, green tea polyphenols (GTP), were examined for antimutagenic activity. WEGT and GTP were found to significantly inhibit the reverse mutation induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BP), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 2-aminofluorene, and methanol extracts of coal tar pitch in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and/or TA98 in the presence of a rat-liver microsomal activation system. GTP also inhibited gene forward mutation in V79 cells treated with AFB1 and BP, and also decreased the frequency of sister-chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in V79 cells treated with AFB1. The addition of GTP during and after nitrosation of methylurea resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of mutagenicity. Studies to define the mechanism of the antimutagenic activity of GTP suggest that it may affect carcinogen metabolism, DNA adduct formation, the interaction of ultimate carcinogen or the scavenging of free radicals.
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The fungal flora of 6 Asian medicinal plants, Aerva lanata (Linn.) Juss. Alyssicarpus vaginalis D.C., Tribulus terrestris Linn. Adhatoda vasica Nees., Centella asciatica (L.) Urb., Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. was determined. After surface disinfection Aspergillus spp. were most frequently observed. Aspergillus flavus, isolated from Alyssicarpus vaginalis and Aerva lanata produced aflatoxins in culture. Aflatoxin B1 was also detected in a sample of Aerra lanata at a level of 0.5 micrograms/g. Plant material destined for medicinal use should be stored carefully prior to its use to prevent growth of naturally occurring toxigenic mold fungi.
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Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant Thymus capitatus exhibited the presence of saponins, resins, flavonoids, essential and fixed oils. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts (10-200 mg/ml) as well as saponin, resin and essential oil of the plant (10-5000 micrograms/ml inhibited the growth of several bacteria and fungi.
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Further studies on the constituents of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris led to the isolation of five new steroidal saponins (terrestrosin A-E), (25R,S)-5 alpha-spirostan-3 beta-ol-3 -O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1-2)-beta-D- glucopyranosyl(1-4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside, (25R,S)-5 alpha-spirostan-3 beta-ol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)-[alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl(1-2)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside, (25R,S)-5 alpha-spirostan-12-on-3 beta-ol-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1-2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside, hecogenin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)1-2)-[beta-D- xylopyranosyl(1-3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside and (25R,S)-5 alpha-spirostane-2 alpha, 3 beta-diol-3- O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1-2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)-beta-D- galactopyranoside, together with five known steroidal saponins, desgalactotigonin, F-gitonin, desglucolanatigonin, gitonin and tigogenin 3-O-beta-D- xylopyranosyl)1-2)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl)1-3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)1-4 )- [alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-2)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside. The structures of the new saponins were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques, and chemical reactions.
Article
Three new steroidal saponins (1-3) were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic methods (IR, HRESIMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR) as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5beta-furost-20(22)-en-3bet a, 26-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1-->4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5beta-furost-20(22)-en-3bet a, 26-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 -->4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2), and 25(S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-( 1-->2)-[b eta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (3). Compound 3 showed cytotoxicity against a human malignant melanoma cell line (SK-MEL).
Article
The steroidal saponin constituents obtained from Tribulus terrestris were tested for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects. The spirostanol-based steroidal saponins 1-3 exhibited remarkable activity against fungal organisms (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans) and cancer cell lines [human malignant melanoma (SK-MEL), human oral epidermoid carcinoma (KB), human breast ductal carcinoma (BT-549), and human ovary carcinoma (SK-OV-3)], while none of the compounds possessing the furostanol framework 4-7 showed activity. The most active spirostanol glycoside, compound 3 exhibited a broad range of anticancer activity against cell lines, SK-MEL, KB, BT-549 and SK-OV-3 at IC50s of 6.0, 7.0, 6.0 and 8.2 micrograms/ml, respectively, while compounds 1 and 2 showed selective cytotoxicity against SK-MEL at 6.7 and 9.1 micrograms/ml, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in antifungal bioassay for compounds 1-3 varied from 1.5 to 6.2 micrograms/ml, which prompted to conclude certain structural features are required for these bioactivities.
Article
The inhibitory effect of saponins from Tribulus terrestris (STT) on Bcap37 breast cancer cell line were determined by cell growth curve, MTT assay, protein content assay and morphological observation. The results showed that STT had potent inhibitory effect on Bcap-37 cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. Bcap-37 cell exhibited morphological alteration, namely, cells got round and shrunk, nuclei contracted after treating with STT.
Article
Apart from its claims for improvement of sexual functions in men, the puncturevine plant (Tribulus terrestris: TT) has long been considered as an energizer and vitalizer in the indigenous system of medicine. Sexual behavior and intracavernous pressure (ICP) measurements were taken in rats to scientifically validate the claim of TT [containing protodioscin (PTN)] as an aphrodisiac. Forty sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each. Group I served as a control group and groups II, III, and IV were treated with three different doses of TT extract (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight, respectively), orally, once daily for 8 weeks. Weight was recorded and the rats from all four groups were subjected to sexual behavior studies with primed females and various parameters namely mount and intromission frequencies (MF and IF, respectively), mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies (ML, IL, and EL, respectively) as well as postejaculatory interval (PEI) were recorded. In addition, blood pressure and ICP were recorded for all rats at the end of study. Increases in body weight (by 9, 23, and 18% for groups II, III & IV) and ICP (by 43% and 26% for groups III and IV) were statistically significant compared to the control group. Increases in MF (by 27% and 24%) and IF (by 19% and 22%) for the groups III and IV were statistically significant. Decreases in ML (by 16%, 23%, and 22% for groups II, III, and IV) and PEI (by 20% for group III) were statistically significant compared to the control. The weight gain and improvement in sexual behavior parameters observed in rats could be secondary to the androgen increasing property of TT (PTN) that was observed in our earlier study on primates. The increase in ICP which confirms the proerectile aphrodisiac property of TT could possibly be the result of an increase in androgen and subsequent release of nitric oxide from the nerve endings innervating the corpus cavernosum.
Article
The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists, and natural-products chemists are combing the Earth for phytochemicals and "leads" which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. While 25 to 50% of current pharmaceuticals are derived from plants, none are used as antimicrobials. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infectious conditions; Western medicine is trying to duplicate their successes. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, which have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial properties. This review attempts to summarize the current status of botanical screening efforts, as well as in vivo studies of their effectiveness and toxicity. The structure and antimicrobial properties of phytochemicals are also addressed. Since many of these compounds are currently available as unregulated botanical preparations and their use by the public is increasing rapidly, clinicians need to consider the consequences of patients self-medicating with these preparations.
Article
A suspension is made in isotonic (2.2&percnt;) sodium citrate solution from the contents of the tubules from a whole testis or a testicular biopsy specimen. The germinal cells are sedimented by centrifuging, leaving most of the sperm in the supernatant fluid, which is discarded. The cells are resuspended in hypo-tonic (1&percnt;) sodium citrate solution and left to stand at room temperature for 12 minutes, after which they are sedimented again and fixed as a concentrated suspension in a mixture of 3 parts absolute ethyl alcohol to 1 part glacial acetic acid plus a trace of chloroform. Two quick changes into fresh fixative follow. Air-dried preparations are made from the final fixed suspension and stained in lactic-acetic-orcein. The method is suitable for stages of male meiosis in which the chromosomes are condensed. Its principle advantage is the separation of the clumps of spermatogonia and spermatocytes into individual cells which are randomly dispersed over the preparations. Compared with squash techniques, the air-drying method gives improved spreading of the chromosomes and less cell breakage.Copyright © 1964 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article
Twenty-five selected plants belonging to 19 families were collected from different localities of the island Soqotra, dried and extracted with the solvents chloroform, methanol and hot water to yield 80 extracts. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and against one yeast species using agar diffusion method. Antibacterial activity was demonstrated especially against Gram-positive bacteria including multiresistant Staphylococcus strains. The greatest activity was exhibited by the methanolic extracts of Boswellia elongata, Boswellia ameero, Buxus hildebrandtii, Commiphora parvifolia, Jatropha unicostata, Kalanchoe farinacea, Pulicaria stephanocarpa, Punica protopunica, Withania adunensis and Withania riebeckii. Only the methanolic extract of Buxus hildebrandtii displayed significant antifungal activity.
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