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Impetus for the intervention, early stages of planning, and funding The first thing we should say about educational programmes against bullying in Spain is that, in the beginning, they ran up against the absence of information about the nature of bullying in our culture. Spanish schools, which are mainly public, have developed a very academic educational tradition that has left the aspects of social and emotional development to one side. They have taken little account of interpersonal relationships and the problems that arise within them (including bullying). Teachers were trained to focus their work on the teaching of basic disciplines, such as languages, sciences, or mathematics, within the compulsory education period from 6 to 14 years. As a result, neither our teachers nor our society had been sensitive to the interpersonal problems that we now recognise in our schools. In fact, theword bullying still does not have an accepted translation in our language. This has been one of the most serious problems that we have encountered: the need to explain to teachers and students what constitutes this type of violence, which some students can exercise over others. However, in recent years we have been attempting to develop a global education where socio-emotional aspects and concern for the world of interpersonal relationships have a place, even though this process is still unfinished.

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... To provide more information on the whole-school antibullying approach, this review comprehensively discusses this intervention approach with information on its origin, and key components and different factors that may contribute to the effective implementation of the whole-school approach in preventing and reducing bullying behaviors among children and adolescents. Although the whole-school anti-bullying intervention approach has been applied and evaluated in different research projects over the years; however, these research projects are primarily sampled the Western populations (e.g., the OBPP in Bergen, Norway[Olweus, 1994]; the DFE Anti-bullying Project in Sheffield, U.K.Sullivan, 2000]; the SAVE in Andalucía, Spain[Ortega & Lera, 2000;Ortega et al., 2004]; the Friendly Schools Whole-of-school Project in Australia[Cross et al., 2003[Cross et al., , 2004; the project in Rogaland, Norway[Roland, 1989]; the project in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany[Hanewinkel, 2004]; the project in Flanders region, Belgium[Stevens et al., 2000]; and the project in southeastern U.S.[Bauer et al., 2007;Limber et al., 2004]). The application and evaluation of this intervention approach that conducted on populations in the East, particularly in the Chinese societies, is limited. ...
... Over the years, a number of anti-bullying programs have demonstrated the effectiveness of the whole-school intervention approach in tackling school bullying. These programs include the " DFE Anti-bullying Project " in Sheffield, U.K. (seeSmith, Ananiadou, & Cowie, 2003;Sullivan, 2000), the " Seville Anti-bullying in School Project " (SAVE) in Andaluciá, Spain (see Ortega, del Rey, & MoraMerchan, 2004;Ortega & Lera, 2000), and the " Friendly Schools Whole-of-school Project " in Australia (seeCross et al., 2003;Cross et al., 2004Cross et al., , 2011). These programs have reported significant decrease in rates of bullying perpetration and victimization in primary and secondary schools. ...
... To provide more information on the whole-school anti-bullying approach, this review comprehensively discusses this intervention approach with information on its origin, and key components and different factors that may contribute to the effective implementation of the whole-school approach in preventing and reducing bullying behaviors among children and adolescents. Although the whole-school anti-bullying intervention approach has been applied and evaluated in different research projects over the years; however, these research projects are primarily sampled the Western populations (e.g., the OBPP in Bergen, Norway[Olweus, 1994]; the DFE Anti-bullying Project in Sheffield, U.K.Sullivan, 2000]; the SAVE in Andaluciá, Spain[Ortega & Lera, 2000;Ortega et al., 2004]; the Friendly Schools Whole-ofschool Project in Australia[Cross et al., 2003[Cross et al., , 2004; the project in Rogaland, Norway[Roland, 1989]; the project in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany[Hanewinkel, 2004]; the project in Flanders region, Belgium[Stevens et al., 2000]; and the project in southeast-ern U.S.[Bauer et al., 2007;Limber et al., 2004]). The application and evaluation of this intervention approach that conducted on populations in the East, particularly in the Chinese societies, is limited. ...
Article
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Traditional school bullying and cyberbullying have been a growing concern globally. In this review, we first review the prevalence of traditional school bullying and cyberbullying in selected major Chinese societies, namely the Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau. Empirical findings on the characteristics of bullying perpetrators, victims, and the offense circumstances are described. As an intervention strategy, we then comprehensively review the whole-school intervention approach in tackling traditional school bullying and cyberbullying. Its origin, key components, and different factors that may contribute to the effective implementation of the whole-school approach in preventing and reducing bullying behaviors among children and adolescents are discussed. We conclude the review with potential implications for the application of this intervention approach in tackling traditional school bullying and cyberbullying in Chinese societies.
... A detailed description of the OBPP program as well as a review of the mixed evidence regarding program effectiveness can be found in Limber (2012). The Seville Anti-Bullying in School Project (SAVE model; Ortega, Del-Rey, & Mora-Mercan, 2004). The SAVE project adopts a Note. ...
... Moreover, this program stresses the importance of SECD and attempts to foster this through curricular changes as well as cooperative group work. The program relies heavily on teacher training and requires that teachers develop their own antibullying materials on a yearly basis (Ortega et al., 2004 ). Though not explicitly stated in the publications by Ortega and colleagues (2004; Ortega & Lera, 2000), two conclusions may be implicitly drawn due to the requirement of this time-consuming task: (a) Leadership support is necessary to provide teachers with the time and resources necessary to prepare their antibullying materials, and (b) since materials are created or refined on a yearly basis, the work is more likely to be developmentally appropriate. ...
... According to Ortega and colleagues (2004), the SAVE model views the school as a community. This is founded on the Spanish term convivencia, which espouses a " spirit of solidarity, fraternity, co-operation, harmony , a desire for mutual understanding, the desire to get on well with others, and the resolution of conflict through dialogue or other non-violent means " (Ortega et al., 2004, p. 169). ...
Article
This article synthesizes the current research on bullying prevention and intervention in order to provide guidance to schools seeking to select and implement antibullying strategies. Evidence-based best practices that are shared across generally effective antibullying approaches are elucidated, and these strategies are grounded in examples garnered from model antibullying programs as implemented in contemporary schools. Future directions for practice, research, and policy are also explicated.
... Este programa toma un modelo integral, preventivo, ecológico y comunitario e involucra a los alumnos, profesores, familia y comunidad. El programa no solo disminuyó las conductas de Bullying, sino que logró promover las relaciones interpersonales como un factor protector frente a la violencia escolar (Ortega, Del Rey, & Mora-Merchán, 2004). ...
... El propósito del artículo fue evaluar la efectividad de un programa específico de prevención e intervención de Bullying y Ciberbullying, denominado Programa Vínculos, el cual fue diseñado e implementado siguiendo los lineamientos de los programas que han demostrado ser empíricamente efectivos (Minton & O´Moore, 2008;Olweus, 1993Olweus, , 2004Olweus, , 2006Ortega, Del Rey & Mora-merchán, 2004;Smith et al., 2003Smith et al., , 2011Smith, Pepler & Ribgby, 2004;Sprague & Golly, 2005;Varela & Tijmes, 2008). Estos lineamientos básicos son la consideración del Bullying como un fenómeno multicausado, que requiere de intervenciones preventivas, sistemáticas, integrales y dirigidas a los distintos niveles del sistema escolar (Orpinas, 2009;Varela & Lecannelier, 2010). ...
Article
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Bullying, by its nature and consequences, has become a central concern in schools, which have developed different ways of facing it. The main objective of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of a prevention and intervention program of bullying and cyberbullying in a sample of 320 students in a school for girls in Santiago de Chile, through a pre-post design. The program used preventive and comprehensive strategies aimed to perform interventions at the different levels in the school system: school, classroom, individual and family. Results showed that the program is effective in diminishing the report of witnessing bullying and victimization from bullying via Internet. The effectiveness of the program could be due to the multi-level targets of the program that taps different aspects, actors and domain of this pervasive problem.
... Este programa toma un modelo integral, preventivo, ecológico y comunitario e involucra a los alumnos, profesores , familia y comunidad. El programa no solo disminuyó las conductas de Bullying, sino que logró promover las relaciones interpersonales como un factor protector frente a la violencia escolar (Ortega, Del Rey, & Mora-Merchán, 2004). Por otra parte, Finlandia cuenta con el " Programa Anti-bullying Kiva " desarrollado en la Universidad de Turku cual presenta estrategias universales para prevenir situaciones de intimidación y, a su vez, detener la intimidación en curso. ...
... El propósito del artículo fue evaluar la efectividad Bullying y Ciberbullying, denominado Programa Vínculos, el cual fue diseñado e implementado siguiendo los lineamientos de los programas que han demostrado ser Ortega, Del Rey & Mora-merchán, 2004; Smith et al., 2003 Smith et al., , 2011 Smith, Pepler & Ribgby, 2004; Sprague & Golly, 2005; Varela & Tijmes, 2008). Estos lineamientos básicos son la consideración del Bullying como un fenómeno multicausado, que requiere de intervenciones preventivas, sistemáticas, integrales y dirigidas a los distintos niveles del sistema escolar (Orpinas, 2009; Varela & Lecannelier, 2010). ...
Article
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Resumen El Bullying, por sus características y consecuencias, se ha transformado en una preocupación central en los colegios, los cuales han desarrollado diferentes formas de afrontarlo. El objetivo principal de este artículo es evaluar la efectividad de un programa de prevención e intervención de Bullying y Ciberbullying, en una muestra de 320 alumnas en un colegio de Santiago de Chile, a través de un diseño pre-post. El programa utilizó estrategias preventivas e integrales orientadas a realizar intervenciones en los distintos niveles del sistema escolar: colegio, sala de clases, individuo y familia. Los resultados demostraron que el programa es efectivo en disminuir el reporte de ser testigos de Bullying y la victimización de manotaje a través de internet. La efectividad del programa se debería a que se respetaron los lineamientos de los programas que han demostrado ser efectivos.
... This approach differentiates between the work done at different levels: at the level of the school, as in educating the school community about bullying and developing an appropriate anti-bullying policy; at the level of the classroom, as in conducting discussions with students to develop acceptable rules relaing to their behaviour with other students; and at the level of individual children, as in dealing with children who have become involved in bully/victim problems. In some programs, a further dimension has been recognized, that of engagement with the wider community and especially with families whose children are at risk of involvement in conflicts at school (6). ...
Article
Recognizing the potential heath risk of bullying in schools, numerous anti-bullying interventions have been developed. These measures have been designed to prevent bullying from happening and/or to stop bullying from continuing once it has occurred. Evaluations of the effectiveness of such interventions indicate several positive effects in reducing the level of bullying in schools and in stopping cases from continuing. Alternative approaches and intervention methods are reviewed and their reported effectiveness examined. Factors considered relevant in the choice of method are discussed, such as the severity of the bullying, the age of the child and the thoroughness of program implementation.
... For example, in the UK it has been reported that 50% of primary (elementary) and secondary (high) schools now use a peer support system Jessel 2009, Smith andSamara 2003). Additionally, peer support programs have also been reported in Australia (Lodge and Frydenberg 2005), Canada (Pepler, Craig, Ziegler and Charach 1994), Finland (Salmivalli, Kärnä andPoskiparta 2010, Salmivalli 2001), Italy (Menesini, Codecasa, Benelli and Cowie 2003), Spain (Ortega, Del Rey and Mora-Merchán 2004), and the US (Lane-Garon and Richardson 2003). ...
Chapter
Given the detrimental short- and long-term effects of peer-victimisation (Hawker & Boulton, 2000), it is not surprising that bullying has become a central topic for multiple parties; including stake-holders, the media, educators, and researchers. In addition to examining the effect that peer-victimisation can have on a child, researchers have also focused on associated risk and protective factors (e.g., Ttofi & Farrington, 2012) that exacerbate or ameliorate the effects of peer-victimisation respectively. Over the last few decades a wide-range of risk and protective factors have been identified, including poor academic achievement (Spriggs, Iannotti, Nansel, & Haynie, 2007), mental health issues (Sourander, Helstelä, Helenius, & Piha, 2000; Yang, Kim, Kim, Shin, & Yoon, 2006), exposure to child abuse and domestic violence (Bowes et al., 2009) and lack of parental involvement (Shields & Cicchetti, 2001). The following chapter will focus on one protective factor that has received increasing attention: friendship. This chapter will begin by briefly presenting an overview as to the function of friendship in childhood before discussing evidence that suggests for some children, friendship can serve to protect against the experience of victimisation, and alleviate symptoms associated with peer-victimisation. In particular, the chapter will focus upon the different facets of friendship including: (1) the number of friends a child has, (2) the quality of these friendships, and (3) the individual characteristics of friends. The extent to which each of these three facets of friendship serve as a protective factor against peer-victimisation will be explored in turn. Paradoxically, friendship does not always function as a protective factor, but rather a child can be bullied by their friends. The ‘darker’ side of friendship will also be discussed, including why some children choose to stay friends with their perpetrator. Finally, this chapter will debate the effectiveness of peer support programs in schools and highlight areas that require further empirical focus.
... Aunque el MPC fue desarrollado para ser aplicado de manera aislada y autocontenida, varios programas lo han unido con estrategias de prevención, con el fin de desarrollar intervenciones mucho más comprensivas (Cross, Hall, Hamilton, Pintabona y Erceg, 2004;Ortega, Del Rey y Mora-Merchán, 2004;Salmivalli, Kaukiainen, Voeten y Sinisammal, 2004;Smith, Sharp, Eslea y Thompson, 2004). El hecho de que esta intervención se realice de manera conjunta con otras ha dificultado evaluar sus resultados. ...
Article
La intimidación escolar (bullying), aquella agresión repetida y sistemática que usualmente refleja un desbalance de poder, es frecuente en prácticamente todas las instituciones educativas. Dado que la intimidación tiene consecuencias muy negativas para todos los involucrados, es fundamental identificar las mejores maneras para disminuir su prevalencia. Existen diversos programas para prevenir el surgimiento de la intimidación. Sin embargo, es relativamente poco lo que se sabe sobre cuáles son las mejores maneras de manejar la intimidación cuando ya ha surgido. El presente estudio exploratorio evaluó cualitativamente el Método de Preocupación Compartida, una estrategia para el manejo de casos de intimidación escolar basada en una serie de reuniones individuales y grupales con los involucrados. La evaluación mostró que el Método parece tener mejores efectos para algunos intimidadores que para otros, por lo que más investigación es requerida, incluyendo análisis de posibles variaciones.
... Des approches plus indirectes et plus généralistes (Galloway & Roland, 2004) ou qui partent de l'analyse de situations concrètes pour favoriser l'émergence d'un projet collectif et l'implication des acteurs (Lewis, Perry & Murata, 2006), ont peut-être plus de chance de s'implanter de manière durable. Plusieurs interventions réussies se caractérisent en tout cas par un accompagnement sur le long terme de groupes d'enseignants dans le choix, l'élaboration, la mise en oeuvre et la régulation d'actions de préven-tion (Mooij, 1999 ;Pepler, Craig, O'Connell, Atlas & Charach, 2004 ;Ortega, Del Rey & Mora-Merchan, 2004). Des études plus qualitatives suggèrent également des pistes pour aider les enseignants et les équipes éducatives à réfléchir à leurs pratiques quotidiennes et au fonctionnement de leurs institutions, sans nécessairement s'embarquer dans de grands programmes d'intervention (Casanova, 2004 ;Delannoy, 2000 ;Galand, 2008Galand, , 2009). ...
Article
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Cet article s'interroge sur le rôle potentiel de l'école dans l'évolution des comportements violents des enfants et des adolescents qui la fréquente. Plus précisément, il s'agit, à travers une revue de la littérature internationale, de faire le point sur trois questions. Premièrement, quels sont les facteurs individuels de risque et de protection pour l'engagement dans des comportements violents sur lesquels le contexte scolaire pourrait avoir un effet ? Deuxièmement, ces facteurs de risque et de protection varient-ils suivant la classe ou l'établissement et quels sont les éléments de l'environnement scolaire qui sont liés à ces variations ? Troisièmement, des interventions axées sur la modification du contexte scolaire ont-elle un impact sur les comportements violents ? Les limites et les implications des recherches existantes sont discutées.
... Finally, it must be emphasised that particular methods of intervention are implemented in the wider context what the school is doing proactively as well as reactively. Examples of how this can be done may be found in the highly successful anti-bullying programmes devised and implemented in Spain (Ortega et al., 2004) and in Finland (Salmivalli et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Reports from schoolchildren across a range of countries indicate that interventions by teachers in cases of bullying are commonly unsuccessful, especially with older students. This article pro-vides a brief description and critical examination of six major intervention strategies employed in schools and points to the need for better training of teachers in this area and the development of judgement about which methods to employ in particular cases.
... Second Step; Committee for Children, 2008 ); y, por último, el programa español " Sevilla anti-violencia escolar " (SAVE; Ortega, 1997; Ortega, Del Rey y Mora Merchán, 2004). El programa de Ortega et al. (2004) es, probablemente, la intervención española más conocida internacionalmente. El objetivo de la intervención se basa en que los escolares con una cierta sensibilidad prosocial actúen de amigos y consejeros de otros que están en riesgo de maltrato o que ya lo están sufriendo. ...
Article
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This paper presents the results of the application of a new recreational program focused on social skills for the intervention and prevention of social anxiety and school bullying. The program “Playing and Learning Social Skills" (JAHSO) was applied at two schools in Granada (Spain) to a total of 193 children aged between 9 and 14. The results show a sharp drop in social anxiety in five of the six dimensions assessed for this construct. Regarding bullying, the program’s positive impact was statistically significant in seven of the ten items assessed, although the impact of the intervention depended on the specific item. Based on the results forthcoming, this program can be extremely useful for treating and preventing social anxiety and bullying in both primary and secondary schools (4th to 9th grades). The aim of the next step in this research, which is already under way, will be to study whether the modifications introduced could improve those issues that have proven to be less effective in the current application.
... Although the Method has been used in schools in a number of countries, including England (Smith, Sharp, Eslea, & Thompson, 2004), Scotland (Duncan, 1996), Finland (Salmavalli, Kaukiainen, Voeten, & Sinisammal, 2004, Spain (Ortega, Del Rey, & Mora-Merchan, 2004), Germany (Griffiths, 2009) and Australia (Griffiths & Weatherilt, 2010;Petersen & Rigby, 1999) there have been relatively few examinations of its effectiveness. What has been reported has been based upon practitioner and teacher judgements or ratings of its effectiveness, without any close or detailed examination of outcomes in a range of specific cases in which the Method has been applied. ...
Article
Reports from schoolchildren in a variety of countries suggest that school-based interventions tackling cases of bullying are often unsuccessful. Closer attention is needed to the adequacy and appropriateness of specific forms of intervention. This article examines the contribution that can be made through the use of a non-punitive approach known as the Method of Shared Concern. Its use was explored in depth in 17 cases of moderately severe peer victimization in which the Method was applied in schools by trained practitioners. Detailed reports of the meetings with students suspected of bullying and the target were obtained from the practitioners. The practitioners and each of the students were subsequently interviewed to ascertain the effectiveness of the Method. Despite some variations in the way the Method was implemented, positive outcomes were achieved in a large majority of cases for a range of age groups and educational settings. Appropriate and inappropriate applications of the Method in resolving bully/victim problems are examined and discussed.
... Nevertheless, because of the variety of assessment methods, it is difficult to make comparisons and, consequently, there are results that lead to conflicting conclusions about the factors that improve school climate. However, there is strong evidence that peer support improves the school climate, even though in the early stages of implementation, results can show an increase in conflicts (Del Barrio, Barrios, Granizo, Van der Meulen, Andrés & Gutiérrez, 2011; Cowie, 1998; Cowie, Naylor, Tal lamelli, Chauhan & Smith, 2002; Cowie & Olafsson, 2000; Cowie & Wallace, 2000; Houl ston, Smith & Jessel, 2009; Mental Health Foundation, 2002; Naylor & Cowie, 1999; Naylor, Cowie & Del Rey, 2001; Ortega, Del Rey & Mora-Merchán, 2004; Smith, 2003; Smith & Watson, 2004 ). More precisely, in studies that have used control groups, results to date have not been homogeneous and have not revealed differences in evolution, in specific cases, between experimental and control schools (Svensson, 2003). ...
Article
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http://www.investigacion-psicopedagogica.com/revista/articulos/33/english/Art_33_843.pdf
... For example, in the UK it has been reported that 50% of primary (elementary) and secondary (high) schools now use a peer support system (Houlston, Jessel 2009, Smith andSamara 2003). Additionally, peer support programs have also been reported in Australia (Lodge and Frydenberg 2005), Canada (Pepler, Craig, Ziegler and Charach 1994), Finland (Salmivalli, Kärnä andPoskiparta 2010, Salmivalli 2001), Italy (Menesini, Codecasa, Benelli and Cowie 2003), Spain (Ortega, Del Rey and Mora-Merchán 2004), and the US (Lane-Garon and Richardson 2003). ...
... Along the lines of other comprehensive anti-bullying programs (e.g., Friendly Schools Australia, SAVE, OBPP, Kiva) (48)(49)(50)(51), the LINKlusive program also incorporates an educational component targeting families, which aims to improve collaboration between the school and families to foster a preventative culture, as well as to provide families with the tools to intervene in bullying situations when their child is involved as a potential victim, bystander, or perpetrator. ...
Article
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Introduction: Bullying is a major preventable risk factor for mental disorders. Available evidence suggests school-based interventions reduce bullying prevalence rates. This study aims to test the efficacy of a web-enabled, school-based, multicomponent anti-bullying intervention to prevent school bullying and to assess its effects on mental health and quality of life. Methods and analysis: Cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 20 publicly funded primary and secondary schools in Madrid, Spain. Schools are randomly allocated to either the intervention arm (n = 10) or conventional practices arm (n = 10). The web-enabled intervention (LINKlusive) lasts ~12 weeks and consists of three main components: (i) an online training program for teachers and parents, (ii) a web-guided educational program for students, focusing on promoting respect for diversity, empathy, and social skill development, and (iii) a web-guided, teacher-delivered, targeted intervention program for bullying situations identified based on peer-support strategies and individual intervention for those involved (i.e., bullying victims and perpetrators). The primary objective is to compare differences between peer-reported bullying victimization in the intervention and control arms at the end of the intervention. Secondary outcome measures are additional measures of bullying victimization and perpetration, mental health symptoms, self-esteem, and quality of life. A follow-up assessment is conducted 1 year after the end of the intervention. Treatment effects will be tested using multilevel mixed models, adjusting for school-, classroom-, and student-related covariates. Considering the increased bullying rates in children with special educational needs, a specific subgroup analysis will test the efficacy of the intervention on bullying prevalence, mental health, and quality of life in this particularly vulnerable population. Ethics and Dissemination: The Deontology Commission of the School of Psychology, Universidad Complutense in Madrid, Spain reviewed the study protocol and granted ethical approval on 21st January 2019. The results of the trial will be disseminated in relevant peer-reviewed journals and at conferences in the field. Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN15719015.
... Moreover, this program stresses the importance of SECD and attempts to foster this through curricular changes as well as cooperative group work. The program relies heavily on teacher training and requires that teachers develop their own antibullying materials on a yearly basis (Ortega et al., 2004). Though not explicitly stated in the publications by Ortega and colleagues (2004; Ortega & Lera, 2000), two conclusions may be implicitly drawn due to the requirement of this time-consuming task: (a) Leadership support is necessary to provide teachers with the time and resources necessary to prepare their antibullying materials, and (b) since materials are created or refined on a yearly basis, the work is more likely to be developmentally appropriate. ...
Article
Full-text available
The authors quantify and unpack the prevalence and effects of bullying on children and adolescents before prescribing provisos for schools to consider when planning preventive and responsive approaches to bullying.
... For example, in the UK it has been reported that 50% of primary (elementary) and secondary (high) schools now use a peer support system (Houlston, Jessel 2009, Smith andSamara 2003). Additionally, peer support programs have also been reported in Australia (Lodge and Frydenberg 2005), Canada (Pepler, Craig, Ziegler and Charach 1994), Finland (Salmivalli, Kärnä andPoskiparta 2010, Salmivalli 2001), Italy (Menesini, Codecasa, Benelli and Cowie 2003), Spain (Ortega, Del Rey and Mora-Merchán 2004), and the US (Lane-Garon and Richardson 2003). ...
... This approach differentiates between the work done at different levels: at the level of the school, as in educating the school community about bullying and developing an appropriate anti-bullying policy; at the level of the classroom, as in conducting discussions with students to develop acceptable rules relaing to their behaviour with other students; and at the level of individual children, as in dealing with children who have become involved in bully/victim problems. In some programs, a further dimension has been recognized, that of engagement with the wider community and especially with families whose children are at risk of involvement in conflicts at school (6). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Recognising the potential health risk of bullying in schools, numerous anti-bullying interventions have been developed. These have been designed to prevent bullying from happening and/or to stop bullying from continuing once it has occurred. Evaluations of the effectiveness of such interventions indicate some positive effects in reducing the level of bullying in schools and in stopping cases from continuing. Alternative approaches and intervention methods are reviewed and their reported effectiveness examined. Factors considered relevant in the choice of method are discussed, such as the severity of the bullying, the age of the child and the thoroughness of program implementation. Correspondence: Professor
Article
Bullying in school has become a topic of international concern over the last 30 years. Starting with research in Scandinavia, Japan and the UK, there is now active research in most European countries, in Australia and New Zealand, Canada and the USA and Japan and South Korea (Jimerson,-Koo., ? McGrath and Noble, Smith., 1999b). In fact, the research on school bullying can be thought of as a research programme, in the sense of Lakatos (1970), with its core being the conception of bullying as a distinct category of aggressive behaviour. This programme has gone through four distinct waves or phases. In this chapter I will set the scene by outlining these four waves of research, and then follow the standard chapter format for this book in reviewing the research in more detail. First wave of research: origins, 1970s-1988. Leaving aside one or two isolated earlier studies, the systematic study of bullying in schools can be dated from the 1970s, mainly in Scandinavia. A physician, Heinemann, published a book Mobbning-Gruppvåld bland barn och vuxna Mobbing-Group Aggression against Boys and Girls in 1972, which Olweus credits as first seriously raising awareness of the issue. In 1973, Olweus published Forskning om skolmobbning translated into English as Aggression in Schools: Bullies and Whipping Boys (1978). This book was the first important scientific work on the topic, and thus justifies the assertion that there is now a 30-year tradition of research.
Article
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La presión internacional, que ha llevado a reconocer el derecho de los adolescentes a desarrollar su currículo formativo en una escuela sana y segura, ha hecho que, en los últimos treinta años, los centros escolares hayan tenido que implementar planes antiacoso. El artículo presenta una revisión sistemática y actualizada de los principales métodos y técnicas antiacoso que se aplican en el mundo, estableciendo sus pros y sus contras. Básicamente, los métodos se clasifican en tres grupos: métodos integrales reactivos, para reprimir al acosador de diferentes maneras; métodos integrales proactivos, para utilizar estrategias basadas en la prevención y la solución amistosa de problemas; y métodos híbridos, no integrales o parciales, que abordan solo una parte de la intervención sin reconocer el problema en su conjunto. Se analizan los 39 métodos más importantes que se utilizan en países democráticos sobre la base de su influencia, su impronta histórica y su firmeza metodológica.Over the last thirty years, schools have found it necessary to implement anti- bullying policies, as a result of strong international pressure to recognize the right of adolescents to receive their education in a healthy and safe envi­ronment. This article presents a systematic and updated review of the main an­ti-bullying methods which have been developed worldwide, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. Broadly speaking, the methods can be categorized into those that involve comprehensive reactive strategies to repress the bullies in differ­ent ways, comprehensive proactive strategies based on the prevention and resolu­tion of problems through mediation and negotiation, and hybrid methods, which are non- comprehensive or partial and tackle only one part of the intervention without considering the problem as a whole. The 39 most important methods de­veloped in democratic countries on the basis of their influence, their historical significance and their methodological solidity are analyzed.
Article
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Bullying is a problem for schools around the world, and is an important topic for research because it has been associated with negative outcomes on numerous social, psychological, and academic measures. Antibullying prevention and intervention programs have varied greatly in their outcomes, with some studies reporting positive results while others have reported little or no positive impacts. Prompted by accountability demands, many agencies have developed standards with which to assess whether social programs are effective. Antibullying program evaluations have not been systematically reviewed to determine whether these types of standards are being applied. The purpose of this study was to assess the rigor of recent peer-reviewed antibullying program evaluations. Thirty-one peer-reviewed evaluations of antibullying programs, published within the last 10 years, were identified and coded for study characteristics. Shortcomings were identified in many of these program evaluations. In order to improve evaluation practices, researchers should consider using more rigorous designs to identify cause-effect relationships, including control conditions and random assignment, using more appropriate pre-post intervals, using more advanced methods of analyses such as hierarchical linear modeling, and systematically verifying program integrity to obtain dosage data that can be used in the outcome analyses.
Article
Why do some countries, regions and schools have more bullying than others? What socio-economic, socio-political and other larger contextual factors predict school bullying? These open questions inspired this study with 53.316 5th- and 9th-grade students (5% of the national student population in these grades), from 1,000 schools in Colombia. Students completed a national test of citizenship competencies, which included questions about bullying and about families, neighborhoods and their own socio-emotional competencies. We combined these data with community violence and socio-economic conditions of all Colombian municipalities, which allowed us to conduct multilevel analyses to identify municipality- and school-level variables predicting school bullying. Most variance was found at the school level. Higher levels of school bullying were related to more males in the schools, lower levels of empathy, more authoritarian and violent families, higher levels of community violence, better socio-economic conditions, hostile attributional biases and more beliefs supporting aggression. These results might reflect student, classroom and school contributions because student-level variables were aggregated at the school level. Although in small portions, violence from the decades-old-armed conflict among guerrillas, paramilitaries and governmental forces predicted school bullying at the municipal level for 5th graders. For 9th graders, inequality in land ownership predicted school bullying. Neither poverty, nor population density or homicide rates contributed to explaining bullying. These results may help us advance toward understanding how the larger context relates to school bullying, and what socio-emotional competencies may help us prevent the negative effects of a violent and unequal environment.
Article
Resumen Las políticas escolares están diseñadas para promover un clima escolar positivo, pero se sabe poco sobre su efectividad. Este estudio tiene como objetivo describir la relación entre la calidad de los documentos del plan de convivencia y las competencias socioemocionales, el acoso escolar y ciberacoso en los estudiantes. Este estudio ex post facto, transversal y descriptivo, se ha realizado con una encuesta a una muestra representativa de 2.139 adolescentes. Los documentos del plan de convivencia de los centros participantes varían en cantidad y calidad en el cumplimiento de cada criterio. Según las evidencias de este estudio, promover un clima escolar positivo a partir del documento del plan de convivencia es conveniente, ya que la agresión del acoso escolar podría reducirse. Los hallazgos de este estudio tienen implicaciones en la política escolar y en las reformas educativas.
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Research on bullying has increased dramatically worldwide, from only 62 citations in PsycINFO from 1900–1990, to 289 in the 1990s, to 562 from 2000–2004. Much has been learned, including that bullying takes many forms (physical, verbal, relational), is prevalent in every school, with long-lasting consequences. It is not known how genes, parents, peers, cultural values, and school practices interact to affect bullying and victimization nor why some schools fail to reduce the harm. This paper reviews past findings on school bullying, notes a slowing of publication, reminds readers of the need for the scientific process, and highlights the reasons for additional research, especially in data collection, evaluation, developmental understanding, and prevention.
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This article presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of anti-bullying programs in schools. Studies were included if they evaluated the effects of an anti-bullying program by comparing an intervention group who received the program with a control group who did not. Four types of research design were included: a) randomized experiments, b) intervention-control comparisons with before-and-after measures of bullying, c) other intervention-control comparisons, and d) age-cohort designs. Both published and unpublished reports were included. All volumes of 35 journals from 1983 up to the end of May 2009 were hand-searched, as were 18 electronic databases. Reports in languages other than English were also included. A total of 622 reports concerned with bullying prevention were found, and 89 of these reports (describing 53 different program evaluations) were included in our review. Of the 53 different program evaluations, 44 provided data that permitted the calculation of an effect size for bullying or victimization. The meta-analysis of these 44 evaluations showed that, overall, school-based anti-bullying programs are effective: on average, bullying decreased by 20–23% and victimization decreased by 17–20%. Program elements and intervention components that were associated with a decrease in bullying and victimization were identified, based on feedback from researchers about the coding of 40 out of 44 programs. More intensive programs were more effective, as were programs including parent meetings, firm disciplinary methods, and improved playground supervision. Work with peers was associated with an increase in victimization. It is concluded that the time is ripe to mount a new program of research on the effectiveness of anti-bullying programs based on these findings. KeywordsSchool bullying–Intervention programs–Program elements–Systematic review–Meta-analysis
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Some school policies are designed to promote a positive school climate, but little is known about their effectiveness. This study aims at describing the relation among the quality of school climate policy documents, social and emotional competencies, bullying and cyberbullying in students. This ex-post-facto cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted using a survey of a representative sample of 2139 adolescents. School climate policy documents varied greatly in the quantity and quality of accomplishment in each criterion. According to the evidence from this study, promoting a positive school climate from the school climate policy document is worthy, as bullying perpetration could be reduced. The findings of this study have implications for school policy and educational reforms.
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The aim of this theoretical review is to integrate bullying and teen dating violence (TDV) prevention research to answer two questions: 1) Why is an integrated intervention approach necessary for TDV and bullying prevention? and 2) Can a common intervention approach build from the existing research to prevent bullying and TDV concurrently? We propose an integrated intervention model using common program components to target risk factors (hypothesized proximal effects) at different levels of social influence (e.g. school, parents, and individuals), leading to hypothesized distal prevention effects on TDV and bullying perpetration and victimization. Broadly, the model includes the programmatic components posited to have the following proximal effects on risk factors for bullying and TDV: 1) school-level strategies establish norms of nonviolence, increase bystander prosocial behavior, and decrease the likelihood of peer violence; 2) parent strategies minimize risk associated with family conflict and maximize protective effects of parental monitoring, healthy relationships and family cohesion; 3) individual-level skills-based strategies promote proactive strategies to manage anger and cope with previous perpetration and victimization experiences. This theoretical intervention model needs to be evaluated in practice, but has the potential to increase the dosage, scope and effectiveness of violence prevention programming.
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Understanding the nature of bullying in schools can assist in understanding aggression between nations. Although there are substantial differences between bullying behaviour practised by school children and bullying attributed to nations, there are some commonalities. This article examines seven basic elements that help in identifying and describing bullying that occurs between students in schools. These elements are seen to be relevant to understanding the nature and underlying motivations of some conflicts between nations. The second part of this article examines steps that have been taken in a growing number of countries in implementing systematic anti‐bullying policies in schools. The basic features of these programs are described and their effectiveness in reducing peer victimisation briefly reviewed, drawing primarily upon a comprehensive analysis given in Smith, Pepler and Rigby (200422. Smith , P. K. , Pepler , D. and Rigby , K. , eds. 2004 . Bullying in schools: how successful can interventions be? , Cambridge : Cambridge University Press . [CrossRef]View all references) (Bullying in schools: how successful can interventions be? Cambridge University Press). On the whole, with a few exceptions, interventions have been successful in significantly reducing peer victimization in schools, especially when implemented thoroughly with children in younger age groups. It is suggested that school‐based anti‐bullying programs can have important implications for promoting world peace.
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A group randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of the Friendly Schools program to reduce student bullying behaviour. This socio‐ecological intervention targeted the whole school, classroom, family, and individual students to reduce bullying behaviour. Self‐report data were collected in 29 schools over three years from a cohort of 1968 eight to nine‐year‐olds. Surveys measured frequency of being bullied, bullying others, telling if bullied and observing bullying. Results indicate that intervention students were significantly less likely to observe bullying at 12, 24 and 36 months and be bullied after 12 and 36 months, and significantly more likely to tell if bullied after 12 months than comparison students. No differences were found for self‐reported perpetration of bullying. The findings suggest whole‐of‐school programs that engage students in their different social contexts appear to reduce their experiences of being bullied and increase their likelihood of telling someone if they are bullied
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Disobedient pupils, off‐task behaviour, and bullying are common problems in schools in many countries; they interfere with teaching, create an unsafe learning environment, and challenge the staff. Effective programs involving entire schools to prevent and reduce such problems have already been designed and implemented. However, most interventions target one type of problem behaviour, and their effects have only been evaluated in the short term. The Respect program is broad in the sense that it targets not just one but several types of behaviour in order to prevent and reduce problem behaviour. The program was implemented among all the staff and pupils at three primary schools and one secondary school in Norway. A cohort longitudinal design was used in evaluating the program. Pupils in the four schools reported a decrease in the four areas of problem behaviour. This decrease was sustained or continued after the intervention period for some types of behaviour, even though the results differed between grade levels. In terms of effect size, the results were small to moderate for most grade levels. Although this analysis was non‐experimental in nature, it does document sustainable change resulting from intervention in an entire school and suggests that this could be maintained in the long term.
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Sixteen major evaluations of programs to prevent school bullying, conducted in 11 different countries, are reviewed in detail. Of these 16 evaluations, 8 produced desirable results, 2 produced mixed results, 4 produced small or negligible effects, and 2 produced undesirable results. These varying findings may reflect variations in programs, in implementation, in assessment methods, or in evaluation designs. It is concluded that high-quality evaluations are needed in the future, with randomized designs, theoretically grounded interventions, multiple measures of bullying, and attempts to disentangle the effectiveness of different program components.
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This study shows longitudinal predictors of involvement in different bullying roles, including mental health, individual, family, peer and school predictors. The analyses were based on a longitudinal prospective study with 916 students followed up from ages 7 to 17 with 7 waves of data. Participants were selected through random sampling and were enrolled in 56 schools. Predictors were measured from ages 7 to 11 and involvement in bullying roles and trajectories from ages 11 to 17. Predictors of bullying perpetration were gender, substance use, truancy, ADHD, moral neutralization, self-control, parental monitoring, corporal punishment, liking school, and bonding with the teacher and classmates. Predictors of victimization were gender, substance use, truancy, internalizing problems, self-control, ADHD, bonding to classmates, and social activities. Predictors of bully/victims were gender, divorced parents, substance use, internalizing problems, ADHD, sensation seeking, moral neutralization, self-control, corporal punishment, parental monitoring, liking school, bonding to classmates, and social activities. Truancy was a risk factor for perpetration mostly in girls; low self-control was a risk factor for perpetration especially in boys. Truant children with high classmates bonding were at high risk of perpetration. Low parental monitoring was a risk factor for perpetration in children who did not like school. Low social activities with peers were a risk factor for victimization in boys and substance use was a risk factor for victimization especially in children with low self-control. High classmates bonding was protective against victimization in non-truant children and against being a bully/victim in children with high sensation seeking. Early interventions focused on risk and protective factors could possibly protect children from bullying.
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Objectives The aim of this paper is to respond to the commentary of Peter K. Smith, Christina Salmivalli, and Helen Cowie (Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2012), who raise concerns regarding some of the findings of our systematic review and meta-analyses on the effectiveness of bullying prevention programs. They target three findings in particular: (1) the significant association of ‘Work with Peers’ with greater victimization; (2) the significant association of ‘Disciplinary Methods’ with less bullying perpetration and victimization; and (3) the age variations in effectiveness, suggesting larger effect sizes for older age students. Methods We provide explicit information and further detailed analyses on the relationship between these features and effect sizes, including heterogeneity tests and results from weighted regression analyses. For one element in particular (work with peers), we present further research findings from evaluations conducted by Smith, Salmivalli, and Cowie (and also findings from other independent researchers) which support our previous findings. New within-program analyses to examine variations in effect sizes with the age of the students are also presented. Results Evaluations conducted by Smith, Salmivalli and Cowie (and by other independent researchers) indicate the same research conclusions: although peer support schemes appear effective based on attitudinal surveys, these schemes are not related to actual levels of bullying or victimization and, in fact, are quite often related to an increase in bullying and victimization. Our definition of ‘disciplinary methods’ did not include the zero-tolerance approach or any type of harsh discipline as suggested in the commentary. In all relevant cases, ‘disciplinary methods’ included sanctions within a warm and loving framework, following the Olweus bullying prevention guidelines. While most programs that utilized firm disciplinary methods were inspired by Olweus, the relationship between disciplinary methods and less victimization was not driven by the Olweus program (which was not related to the victimization effect size). Larger effect sizes (i.e. reductions in bullying and victimization) for programs implemented with older students is a robust result also found in a more recent systematic review regarding the effects of anti-bullying programs on bystander intervention. In within-program analyses, most results suggested that effect sizes were greater for younger students, but these results were driven by the less controlled evaluations. The most controlled evaluation (randomized experiment) provided the opposite result. Conclusions More research is clearly needed on the effectiveness of bullying prevention programs with students of different ages, and we also recommend randomized experiments to assess the importance of different intervention components.
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What would make anti-bullying initiatives more successful? This book offers a new approach to the problem of school bullying. The question of what constitutes a useful theory of bullying is considered and suggestions are made as to how priorities for future research might be identified. The integrated, systemic model of school bullying introduced in this book is based on four qualitative studies and incorporates theory from systemic thinking; cognitive, social, developmental and psychoanalytic psychology; sociology, socio-biology and ethology. The possible functions served by bullying behaviour are explored. Consideration is also given to the potential role of unconscious as well as conscious processes in bullying. The model suggests a number of causal processes within one-to-one relationships and peer groups, and highlights factors within individuals and schools that shape the form, intensity and duration of bullying behaviour in practice. The issue of 'difference' is also addressed, focusing on childhood deafness.
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El estudio tuvo como principal objetivo evaluar experimentalmente los efectos de un programa antibullying (Cyberprogram 2.0) en conductas de victimización por bullying “cara-a-cara” y en diversas conductas sociales. Se utilizó una muestra de 176 adolescentes, de 13 a 15 años, 93 experimentales y 83 de control. El estudio utilizó un diseño de medidas repetidas pretest-postest con grupo de control. Antes y después del programa (19 sesiones) se administraron dos instrumentos de evaluación. Los ANCOVAs postest confirmaron que el programa estimuló una disminución significativa de la victimización y un aumento de las conductas sociales positivas (conformidad social, ayuda-colaboración, seguridad-firmeza, liderazgo prosocial). La intervención disminuyó significativamente más algunas conductas sociales negativas de las mujeres, aunque en el resto de las variables el cambio fue similar en ambos sexos. La discusión se centra en la importancia de implementar programas para fomentar el desarrollo socioemocional y prevenir la violencia.
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Using data drawn from the 2015 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey, we investigate whether specific types of bullying experienced by a youth influences his or her academic performance. The cross-sectional sample of adolescents is nationally representative and is composed of 4,610 middle and high school students ages twelve to eighteen (51% male, average age 14.7). Using General Strain Theory as a backdrop, we contribute to the extant literature by making an empirical distinction between social (also known as relational), verbal, physical, and cyberbullying victimization. Ordinal regression results show that while a composite measure of bullying victimization does attenuate a youth’s academic performance, most of this effect is due to social bullying victimization which remains robust notwithstanding a multitude of model specifications.
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Abstract The use of digital information and communication technologies is an integral part of adolescents' everyday life. Besides various opportunities for information, entertainment, and communication, media use is associated with risks such as cyberbullying. Cyberbullying refers to aggressive behavior in the context of computer-mediated communication, characterized by repetition, an intention to harm, and power imbalance. Previous studies have shown that increased media use is a major risk factor for cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Given that restricting media use is not a practical way to reduce the negative effects inherent in media use, the present study examines the relevance of ethical media competence. We expected ethical media competence to buffer the effect of increased media use on cyberbullying and cybervictimization. A survey was conducted with 934 students (53% female) aged 10-17 years (M=13.26, SD=1.63). As expected, hierarchical regression analyses showed a positive main effect of media use, a negative main effect of ethical media competence, and a negative interaction effect of media use and media competence on cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Simple slope analyses revealed that at high levels of ethical media competence, media use has almost no effect on cybervictimization and a significant negative effect on cyberbullying. Consequently, promoting ethical media competence constitutes a potential measure to prevent the risks of increased media use for cyberbullying and cybervictimization.
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Introducción. El problema de la violencia escolar se viene estudiando desde distintas perspectivas teóricas en las últimas décadas, centrándose de manera especial en el maltrato entre iguales por abuso de poder o bullying. Numerosos expertos han recomendado su tratamiento desde un enfoque global de centro. El trabajo que aquí se presenta consiste en la evaluación de los cambios en el clima en dos centros de secundaria durante la inserción y desarrollo de un programa de ayuda entre iguales, con objeto de conocer la satisfacción percibida.Método. Estudio pre-post con un grupo experimental y otro de control. Los participantes fueron 778 alumnos/as (3 fases) y 65 profesores del centro experimental; 462 y 29 respectivamente del centro control. Los instrumentos utilizados han sido cuestionarios, grupos de discusión y entrevistas en profundidad.Resultados. Todos los participantes consideran que el programa de ayuda entre iguales es útil para la mejora de la percepción de la seguridad en el centro, si bien las respuestas de los alumnos del centro experimental indican un aumento general de la frecuencia de los conflictosDiscusión y conclusión. Los resultados muestran la complejidad para controlar todas las variables vinculadas a los cambios en el contexto. No obstante, de acuerdo con las propuestas hechas previamente por otros autores es necesario el empleo de medidas objetivas en la evaluación del clima escolar, más allá de las percepciones que muestran los autoinformes, para determinar con precisión el impacto de los programas ayuda entre iguales.
Book
Bullying as a Social Experience presents data from both the US and New Zealand and draws on past research from around the world to show how social context and factors shape individuals' behaviors and experiences. By engaging with bullying from a sociological framework, it becomes clearer how bullying occurs and why it persists throughout a society, whilst also allowing for the development of means by which the social factors that support such behavior can be addressed through intervention. An empirically rich and engaged analysis of the social factors involved in bullying at group, school and community levels, Bullying as a Social Experience will be of interest not only to social scientists working on the study of childhood and youth, bullying and cyber bullying, but also to educators and practitioners seeking new approaches to the prevention of bullying, as each chapter contains discussions concerning intervention and prevention practices and programs.
Chapter
As described in Chap. 2, systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been conducted on different topics related to bullying and anti-bullying interventions. Among them, the most comprehensive searches and analyses were carried out by Farrington and Ttofi (2009), who reviewed 53 evaluations published in 89 reports.
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Bullying is an extremely damaging type of violence that is present in schools all over the world, but there are still many gaps in knowledge regarding different variables that might influence the phenomenon. Two promising research lines focus on empathy and callous–unemotional traits but findings from individual studies seem to be contradictory. This article reports the results of a systematic review and a meta-analysis on empathy and callous–unemotional traits in relation to school bullying based on 53 empirical reports that met the inclusion criteria. Bullying perpetration is negatively associated with cognitive (odds ratio [OR] = 0.60) and affective (OR = 0.51) empathy. Perpetration is also positively associated with callous–unemotional traits (OR = 2.55). Bully-victims scored low in empathy (OR = 0.57). There is a nonsignificant association between victimization and empathy (OR = 0.96), while the relationship between callous–unemotional traits and victimization is significant but small (OR = 1.66). Defenders scored high on cognitive (OR = 2.09) and affective (OR = 2.62) empathy. These findings should be taken into account in explaining and preventing bullying.
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It has been argued in the literature that fathers and mothers may play distinct and complimentary roles in parenting and that they interact in different ways with their children. Recent studies have found that children’s perception of fathers’ parenting style influence children more strongly than did their perception of mothers’ parenting style. Further, effects of father involvement and support have been shown to be associated with positive child outcomes in different areas of their psychological adjustment. However, little is known regarding the effects of father parenting in the prevalence of bullying behavior in children. The aim of this review article was to summarize the key trends in the research of the role of paternal involvement in children with regards to their psychological adjustment and their participation in bullying incidents. The implications of the issues raised from this literature review for counseling interventions are also discussed.
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School bullying is an important social problem with serious short-term and long-term implications for physical and mental health. Bullies tend to be aggressive and delinquent, whereas victims tend to be anxious and depressed. School-based antibullying programs are effective in reducing bullying and being bullied. On average, bullying was reduced by 20-23 percent in experimental schools compared with control schools. The most important program components associated with a decrease in bullying are parent training, improved playground supervision, disciplinary methods, school conferences, videos, information for parents, classroom rules, and classroom management. The most important program elements associated with a decrease in being bullied are videos, disciplinary methods, work with peers, parent training, and cooperative group work. New antibullying programs should be designed, tested, and accredited on the basis of the most effective intervention components.
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Bullying is becoming an ever more pressing issue for schools, daycare centers, politicians and the public. Everyone agrees that bullying is a serious problem and initiatives are urgently called for to stamp it out. This Campbell Systematic Review studied the effects of anti‐bullying programs in schools. The conclusion is that programs generally work and bullying is reduced on average by around 20%. A total of 89 reports were of sufficient quality to be included in the systematic review. The 89 reports describe 53 different studies. However, nine studies did not provide enough data to allow the calculation of an effect size and were, therefore, not included in the final meta‐analysis. The overall analysis is therefore based on a total of 44 studies. The 44 different studies were carried out between 1983 and mid‐2009 and came from 16 different countries. The included studies were either randomized controlled trials, quasi‐randomized trials, age‐cohort studies or other controlled studies. Furthermore, the systematic review clearly states that future evaluations should measure the children's situation before and after an anti‐bullying program. This should apply to the experimental group as well as the control group to get the most accurate results possible. Executive Summary/Abstract BACKGROUND School bullying has serious short‐term and long‐term effects on children's physical and mental health. Various anti‐bullying programs have been implemented world wide and, more rarely, evaluated. Previous narrative reviews, summarizing the work done on bullying prevention, as well as previous meta‐analyses of anti‐bullying programs, are limited. The definition of school bullying includes several key elements: physical, verbal, or psychological attack or intimidation that is intended to cause fear, distress, or harm to the victim; an imbalance of power (psychological or physical), with a more powerful child (or children) oppressing less powerful ones; and repeated incidents between the same children over a prolonged period. School bullying can occur in school or on the way to or from school. It is not bullying when two persons of the same strength (physical, psychological, or verbal) victimize each other. OBJECTIVES This report presents a systematic review and meta‐analysis of the effectiveness of programs designed to reduce school bullying perpetration and victimization (i.e. being bullied). The authors indicate the pitfalls of previous reviews and explain in detail how the present systematic review and meta‐analysis addresses the gaps in the existing literature on bullying prevention. SEARCH STRATEGY In the present report, we go beyond previous reviews by: doing much more extensive searches for evaluations such as hand‐searching all volumes of 35 journals from 1983 up to the end of May 2009; searching for international evaluations in 18 electronic databases and in languages other than English; and focusing only on programs that are specifically designed to reduce bullying and not aggressive behavior (i.e. the outcome variables specifically measure bullying). Leading researchers in the area of school bullying were also contacted via e‐mail. SELECTION CRITERIA Studies were included in this review if they evaluated the effects of an anti‐bullying program by comparing an experimental group who received the intervention with a control group who did not. The word ‘experimental’ here refers to students who received the program and does not necessarily imply randomization. Four types of research design were included: a) randomized experiments, b) experimental‐control comparisons with before and after measures of bullying, c) other experimental‐control comparisons and d) quasi‐experimental age‐cohort designs, where students of age X after the intervention were compared with students of the same age X in the same school before the intervention. Both published and unpublished (e.g. PhD theses) reports were included. Reports concerning an evaluation of a program had to clearly indicate that bullying or victimization were included as outcome measures. Bullying and victimization could be measured using self‐report questionnaires, peer ratings, teacher ratings, or observational data. RESULTS We found a total of 622 reports that were concerned with bullying prevention. The number of reports on anti‐bullying programs and on the necessity of tackling bullying has increased considerably over time. Only 89 of these reports (describing 53 different program evaluations) could be included in our review. Of the 53 different program evaluations, only 44 provided data that permitted the calculation of an effect size for bullying or victimization. Our meta‐analysis of these 44 evaluations showed that, overall, school‐based anti‐bullying programs are effective in reducing bullying and victimization (being bullied). On average, bullying decreased by 20% – 23% and victimization decreased by 17% – 20%. The effects were generally highest in the age‐cohort designs and lowest in the randomized experiments. It was not clear, however, that the randomized experiments were methodologically superior in all cases, because sometimes a very small number of schools (between three and seven) were randomly assigned to conditions, and because of other methodological problems such as differential attrition. Various program elements and intervention components were associated with a decrease in both bullying and victimization. Work with peers was associated with an increase in victimization. We received feedback from researchers about our coding of 40 out of 44 programs. Analyses of publication bias show that the observed effect sizes (for both bullying and victimization) were based on an unbiased set of studies. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS Results obtained so far in evaluations of anti‐bullying programs are encouraging. The time is ripe to mount a new long‐term research strategy on the effectiveness of these programs, based on our findings. The main policy implication of our review is that new anti‐bullying programs should be designed and tested based on the key program elements and evaluation components that we have found to be most effective. We recommend that a system of accrediting anti‐bullying programs should be developed, supervised by an international body such as the International Observatory on Violence in Schools.
Article
Introduction: The problem of school violence has been studied in the last decades from different perspectives, especially focused on bullying conflicts. Whole school approaches have been recommended by many experts in the field. The aim of the present study is to assess climate changes in two secondary schools that implement a peer support program, and to understand the level of perceived satisfaction. Method: Pre-post study with experimental and control group. Participants were 778 pupils (3 phases) plus 65 teachers at the experimental school; 462 pupils and 29 teachers at the control school. The tools used were questionnaires, focus groups and intensive interviews. Results: All participants believe that the peer support program is useful for improving the perception of safety at school, while the responses of the control school students indicate a general increase in the frequency of conflicts. Discussion y conclusion: Results show the complexity of controlling all the variables linked to changes of context. However, as proposed previously by other authors, objective measures need to be used in assessing school climate, in addition to perceptions shown on self-reports, in order to accurately determine the impact of peer support programs.
Article
Bullying, a prevalent global public health issue, is proven to have an adverse impact on the physical and psychological health of school students. There are few intervention programs to prevent bullying in the South East Asian Region, and none in India. The objective of this study was to design a multi-component antibullying intervention program known as ‘Stop Bullying–School Intervention Program (SB-SIP)’ for school students. It was developed in five stages. Stage one was the review of existing literature on intervention studies to prevent bullying, globally. A qualitative study to explore the beliefs and perceptions of teachers, students, and parents regarding antibullying intervention programs was conducted in stage two. In the third stage, a conceptual model was framed. A consultation workshop was conducted to finalize the contents of the intervention in the fourth stage. Pretesting of the intervention was done in the fifth stage. The literature review provided evidence that a whole-school intervention program based on the socio-ecological model was the most effective. The awareness of the effects of bullying and effective strategies to prevent it in the school setting was suggested to be part of the SB-SIP by the majority of the participants in the focus group discussions. The recommendations given by the stakeholders in the consultation workshop contributed mainly to the method of delivery of the program. The five-stage process helped in recognition of the conceptual model and modifiable factors, which exerts its effects on bullying and its psychosocial outcome, through which the multi-component antibullying intervention program SB-SIP was finalized.
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This article describes the current problem of bullying in schools in Andalucia (southern Spain) and goes on to examine some possible responses being developed at the University of Seville to meet the challenge of school-based aggression. The project goes under the collective rubric of “SAVE”—The Seville Anti-Bullying in School Project. The SAVE project combines an investigative research initiative with a preventive action programme aimed at reducing the problems of violence in primary and secondary schools. This takes a whole-school approach (similar to that used in the Sheffield Anti-Bullying Project in the U.K.) And involves coordinated action against bullying across 13 schools situated in socially deprived areas in Seville. The problem is approached through the school curriculum and places particular emphasis on children who are considered to have special needs in this area. Aggr. Behav. 26:113–123, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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El fenómeno de la violencia entre iguales ha sido objeto de interés científico durante las últimas tres décadas y, durante este periodo de tiempo, se ha demostrado su presencia en un gran número de países (Sinith et al., 1999). Este problema también ha sido investigado en España y los resultados indican tendencias similares al resto de Europa (Ortega & Mora-Merchán, 1995, 1999). Una de las conclusiones más importantes de estos estudios ha sido que no existe acuerdo en la comunidad científica sobre el término español que se refiere a este fenómeno social, problema que no se presenta en otras culturas como, por ejemplo, la anglosajona. En este sentido, se ha desarrollado un estudio transcultural con el objetivo de hallar los términos que los niños utilizan para referirse a este tipo de situaciones y los factores que influyen en la utilización de uno u otro (Sinith et al., 1997). En este artículo, presentamos los resultados de una muestra de Sevilla (N=80) usando una meto-dología diseñada para examinar, en detalle, las relaciones entre situaciones típicas de violencia entre igua-les y los términos con los que los niños y niñas usan para referirse a ellas. De esta manera, intentamos definir los conceptos que los alumnos usan para interpretar las situaciones de violencia entre iguales en sus centros educativos
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El proyecto Sevilla Anti-Violencia Escolar (SAVE) en el que hemos venido trabajando el equipo de Investigaciones Psicopedagógicas de la Universidad de Sevilla, ha propuesto un modelo para el abordaje de la formación al servicio del profesorado innovador que articule de forma concreta el principio de coherencia entre lo que se pide al alumnado y lo que piensa y valora el profesorado, sobre el mismo asunto. En este trabajo, presentamos tres aportaciones a las investigaciones realizadas durante los últimos años. Primero, una breve descripción de los elementos básicos del modelo educativo de prevención de la violencia escolar que hemos llevado acabo en el SAVE: educación en emociones, sentimientos y valores, trabajo en grupo cooperativo, gestión democrática de la convivencia, y programas específicos para trabajar con chicos directamente implicados en problemas de maltrato entre iguales. A continuación, defendemos la propuesta de un modelo de formación del profesorado en el propio centro que se ha incluido en este proyecto. Finalmente, mostramos la evaluación de las acciones desarrolladas por los profesores de cinco centros de Sevilla mediante las percepciones de 910 alumnos sobre su efectividad
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El cuestionario que tienes pretende ayudarnos a conocer cómo son las relaciones que se entablan entre los chicos de tu edad. Con la información que tú y otros chicos y chicas nos proporcionéis, podremos identificar algunos de los problemas que a veces surgen entre vosotros. La información que nos dais, especialmente si es sincera, es de gran importancia para intentar buscar las soluciones adecuadas, porque sólo tú sabes como te sientes ante determinadas situaciones.
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Este libro aboga por una comprensión amplia de los conflictos y por ello se hace un repaso de los trabajos y aspectos más relevantes que han estudiado e intervenido en dicho fenómeno. El libro tiene dos partes bien diferenciadas: del capítulo dos al cuatro se hace un análisis de las causas psicológicas y sociales de la violencia y agresión. También se aclaran tipos de hechos violentos y su presentación dentro del marco escolar. Los capítulos cinco a diez presentan los ámbitos de actuación que se consideran pertinentes para abordar esta temática. Cada ámbito es desarrollado en diferentes aspectos y se proponen acciones concretas que se pueden poner en práctica, además de marcar en algunos casos pautas de actuación, Bibliografía p. 199-204
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