Harmful algal bloom (HAB) dinoflagellate species Karlodinium veneficum and Prorocentrum cordatum (prev. P. minimum) are commonly found in Chesapeake Bay during the late spring and early summer months, coinciding with the spawning season of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Unexplained larval oyster mortalities at regional commercial hatcheries prompted screening of oyster hatchery water samples for these HAB species. Both HAB species were found in treated hatchery water during the oyster spawning season, sometimes exceeding bloom cell concentrations (≥ 1,000 cells/mL). To investigate the potential for these HAB species, independently or in co-exposure, to affect larval oyster mortality and activity, 96-h laboratory single and dual HAB bioassays with seven-day-old oyster larvae were performed. Treatments for the single HAB bioassay included fed and unfed controls, K. veneficum at 1,000; 5,000; 10,000; and 50,000 cells/mL, P. cordatum at 100; 5,000; 10,000; and 50,000 cells/mL. Subsequently, the 1,000 cells/mL K. veneficum and 50,000 cells/mL P. cordatum treatments were combined in a co-exposure treatment for the dual HAB bioassay. At all cell concentrations tested, K. veneficum swarmed oyster larvae and caused significant larval oyster mortality by 96 h (Karlo1,000: 21 ± 5%; Karlo5,000: 93 ± 2%; Karlo10,000: 85 ± 3%; Karlo50,000: 83 ± 5%, SE). In contrast, there was no significant difference in larval oyster mortality between the control treatments and any of the P. cordatum treatments by 96 h. By 24 h, larval oysters were significantly less active (immotile) in the presence of either HAB species as compared to control treatments (e.g., Karlo1,000: 37.8 ± 4.1%; Proro100: 47.3 ± 7.4%; Fed: 10.8 ± 3.2%; Unfed: 10.1 ± 4.9%, SE). In the dual HAB bioassay, larval oyster mortality associated with 1,000 cells/mL K. veneficum (44 ± 9%, SE) was not changed by the addition of 50,000 cells/mL P. cordatum (55 ± 7%, SE), demonstrating that K. veneficum was primarily responsible for the observed mortality. This study demonstrated that even low cell concentrations of K. veneficum and P. cordatum are harmful to larval oysters, and could contribute to reductions in oyster hatchery production through impacts on this critical life stage.