ArticleLiterature Review

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Heart Health

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Abstract

Lifestyle intervention such as consistent aerobic exercise and a diet high in fruits and vegetables promotes cardiovascular health. A heart-healthy lifestyle decreases the risk of coronary heart disease and heart attack. Although it may seem intuitive that dietary fat is bad for the heart and that it must be avoided, certain unsaturated fats are heart healthy, and other saturated fats are not good for the heart. These heart-healthy unsaturated fats are known as omega-3 fatty acids. The 3 main omega-3 fatty acids that are beneficial for cardiovascular health are α-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). ALA is primarily found in plant-based foods such as olive, soybean, canola, walnut, and flaxseed oils, and in walnuts and flaxseeds, as well. EPA and DHA are primarily found in marine-based foods that include the variety of fatty fish, such as tuna, salmon, mackerel, herring, trout, halibut, and cod. This Cardiology Patient Page will present the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids …

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... ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 fatty acids that are found in plant-based foods for the first and marine-based foods for the latter two, and all three are heart healthy in that they reduce the risk of death for both males and females from heart disease (Chaddha, A., Eagle, K. A., 2015). Omega-3 fatty acids, consumed at the recommended range of 1.5 to 3 g/day, reduced risk of heart disease is thought to happen due to the following: lowering triglyceride levels, raising high-density lipoproteins (HDL), lowering resting blood pressure, decreasing platelet aggregation, decreasing arrhythmias risk, increasing compliance of arteries, decreasing atherosclerosis and deducing inflammatory markers (Chaddha, A., Eagle, K. A., 2015). ...
... ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 fatty acids that are found in plant-based foods for the first and marine-based foods for the latter two, and all three are heart healthy in that they reduce the risk of death for both males and females from heart disease (Chaddha, A., Eagle, K. A., 2015). Omega-3 fatty acids, consumed at the recommended range of 1.5 to 3 g/day, reduced risk of heart disease is thought to happen due to the following: lowering triglyceride levels, raising high-density lipoproteins (HDL), lowering resting blood pressure, decreasing platelet aggregation, decreasing arrhythmias risk, increasing compliance of arteries, decreasing atherosclerosis and deducing inflammatory markers (Chaddha, A., Eagle, K. A., 2015). ...
Article
Hemp has been utilized by many societies around the world yet is currently absent in U.S. food production. The paper described and assessed various sources to aggregate hemp seed composition data and to decipher hemp seed consumption effect on health. There are copious components in hemp seeds that are discussed; some beneficial to human health as well as some anti-nutritional components that interfere. Numerous articles were analyzed and aspects of each were compiled to provide a source to assess the effectiveness of hemp seed as a nutritious source. Many components found in hemp seeds are found to be beneficial to human health and discussed in detail; from high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), to complete, digestible proteins, to present micro-nutrients and to the “contaminant” cannabinoids. Hemp contains many nutriments that could help nourish a healthy nation and combat this nation’s diet-related disease problem, plus the plant easy to grow and can be beneficial to the environment. This paper demonstrates the multi-purposefulness of hemp and how it can be utilized beyond production of hemp seeds.
... Fish oil is safe and well tolerated. Mild gastrointestinal side effects such as burping, fishy aftertaste, or diarrhea may occur [44][45][46]. Independent laboratory tests found that most brands of fish oil contained little or no heavy metals or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) [47]. For example, independent testing for a recent trial of fish oil for epilepsy, found no evidence of PCB's or mercury [48]. ...
Article
Introduction: There is growing interest in alternative and nutritional therapies for drug resistant epilepsy. ῳ-3 fatty acids as fish or krill oil are widely available supplements used to lower triglycerides and enhance cardiovascular health. ῳ-3 fatty acids have been studied extensively in animal models of epilepsy. Yet, evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials in epilepsy is at an early stage. Areas covered: This report focuses on the key ῳ-3 fatty acids DHA and EP, their incorporation into the lipid bilayer, modulation of ion channels, and mechanisms of action in reducing excitability within the central nervous system. This paper presents pre-clinical evidence from mouse, rat, and canine models, and reports the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids in randomized controlled clinical trials. An English language search of PubMed and Google scholar for the years 1981-2016 was performed for animal studies and human randomized controlled clinical trials. Expert commentary: Basic science and animal models provide a cogent rationale and substantial evidence for a role of ῳ-3 fatty acids in reducing seizures. Results in humans are limited. Recent Phase II RCT evidence suggests that low to moderate dose ῳ-3 fatty acids reduce seizures; however, larger multicenter randomized trials are needed to confirm or refute the evidence. The safety, health effects, low cost, and ease of use make ῳ-3 fatty acids an intriguing alternative therapy for drug resistant epilepsy. Though safety of profile is excellent, the human data is not yet sufficient to support efficacy in drug resistant epilepsy at this time.
... Several potential mechanisms of omega-3 fatty acids intake in reducing CVD risk are by lowering triglyceride levels, increasing HDL, lower resting blood pressure, decrease aggregation of platelet, reduce atherosclerosis, and reduce inflammation. 35 On the other hand, although many studies suggested that omega-6 fatty acid intakes reduce CHD risk, there was a concern that high omega-6 fatty acids intake might have a bad effect on cardiovascular health. However, the latest meta-analysis claimed that an intake of omega-6 fatty acid within the range as recommended by the AHA was not associated with CVD risk. ...
Article
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Introduction: High intakes of total fat are long known as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), but the association between fatty acids and CHD remains unclear. This scoping review aims to collate and analyze the association between types of fatty acid and risk of CHD. Materials and methods: This review uses the methodological framework of Arksey and O'Malley. A total of 19 studies were selected from 9456 studies screened from the electronic databases. Results: Majority of the studies reported no association between saturated fat (SFA) and monounsaturated fat (MUFA) with CHD. Meanwhile, seven out of 12 studies reported inverse association between polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) and risk of CHD whilst 67% of the studies found that trans-fat intake was positively associated with CHD risk. Conclusions: This review finds that all the types of dietary fat have different effects on the risk of CHD. Nevertheless, intakes of healthy fat such as MUFA and PUFA in controlled amounts are expected to reduce CHD risk. In addition, the divergence of findings found between studies might be due to the methodological inconsistencies. More robust research is needed to determine the actual dietary determinants of CHD as it will provide important information for future development of dietary intervention.
... It has been reported that an increased consumption of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) ( Figure 1) have beneficial properties for the cardiovascular system (Chaddha and Eagle, 2015) and neurological diseases such as epilepsy and pain (Lefevre and Aronson, 2000). Among other targets, the beneficial actions of n-3 PUFAs occur through the modulation of a big variety of K + voltage gated ion channels (Boland and Drzewiecki, 2008;Moreno et al., 2012). ...
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Voltage gated potassium channels (Kv) are membrane proteins that allow selective flow of K+ ions in a voltage-dependent manner. These channels play an important role in several excitable cells as neurons, cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle. Over the last 20 years, it has been shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) enhance or decrease the activity of several cardiac Kv channels. PUFAs-dependent modulation of potassium ion channels has been reported to be cardioprotective. However, the precise cellular mechanism underlying the cardiovascular benefits remained unclear in part because new PUFAs targets and signaling pathways continue being discovered. In this review, we will focus on recent data available concerning the following aspects of the Kv channel modulation by PUFAs: i) the exact residues involved in PUFAs-Kv channels interaction; ii) the structural PUFAs determinants important for their effects on Kv channels; iii) the mechanism of the gating modulation of KV channels and, finally, iv) the PUFAs modulation of a few new targets present in smooth muscle cells, KCa1.1, K2P and KATP channels, involved in vascular relaxation.
... Moreover, modulation of HDL-c level may be used during an antidepressant therapy. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), belonging to ω3 PUFAs, demonstrates antidepressant activity by lowering the levels of triglycerides and increasing HDL-c levels (Lin and Su, 2007;Chaddha and Eagle, 2015). Resveratrol provides a similar action; it decreases plasma triglyceride and LDL-c levels, and increases HDL-c concentration (Bonnefont-Rousselot, 2016). ...
Article
Depression is the most common mental disorder in the world. It is estimated that 350 million people suffer from depression worldwide. Depressive disorders will have become the second most frequent health problem globally by the year 2020, just behind ischemic heart disease. The causes of depressive disorders are not fully known. Previous studies showed that impaired tryptophan catabolites pathway, oxidative and nitrosative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. Patients with depression have lower plasma levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidise in comparison to controls. Moreover, depressed patients are characterized by decreased plasma levels of zinc, coenzyme Q10, albumin, uric acid, vitamin E and glutathione. Abnormal nitric oxidative production and nitric oxide synthase activity are also associated with depression. A dysfunction of the tryptophan catabolites pathway, indicated by increased levels of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, is also involved in the development of depression. Furthermore, increased levels of kynurenine and quinolinic acid might cause depression. Moreover, studies to date indicate that 8-oxyguanine, malondialdehyde, and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α may serve as possible biomarkers. Additionally, regulation of defective mechanisms may provide a promising direction for the development of new and effective therapies.
... Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) is an ω-3 fatty acid intermediary in the metabolism of EPA to DHA and is generally found in lower concentrations than either of these other fatty acids in foods, with the exception of human milk (Byelashov et al. 2015). Adequate DHA, EPA, and ALA blood concentrations have all been shown to be protective for cardiovascular disease (Chaddha and Eagle 2015;Mozaffarian and Wu 2011) including acute coronary syndrome (ACS) events (de Oliveira Otto et al. 2013). While the cardioprotective effects of ω-3 fatty acids remain an active area of research, the American Heart Association currently states that supplementation with DHA and EPA is reasonable for patients with recent MI or heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (Siscovick et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Previously, we found short-term increases in ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollutant concentrations were associated with increased serum fibrinogen levels in patients with cardiac disease. We now studied whether high blood levels of omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids blunted this fibrinogen response to increased PM concentrations in these same patients. Plasma fibrinogen and ω-3 fatty acid levels (% of total identified fatty acids) were measured in blood samples collected from 135 patients treated at the University of Rochester Medical Center for myocardial infarction or stable ischemic heart disease requiring cardiac catheterization. Using ambient measurements of ultrafine, accumulation mode, and fine particles (PM2.5), Delta-C, and black carbon (BC), we regressed serum fibrinogen levels against pollutant concentrations over the previous 1–96 h, using interaction terms to estimate these associations separately for those with HIGH (> 5.12%) and LOWMED serum levels of ω-3 fatty acid (≤ 5.12%). Each 5.6 μg/m³ increase in PM2.5 concentration in the previous hour was associated with a 3.1% increase in fibrinogen (95% CI = 1.5%, 4.7%) in those subjects with LOWMED total ω-3 fatty acid levels, but only a 0.9% increase (95% CI = − 1.5%, 3.2%) in patients with HIGH total ω-3 fatty acid levels. This same pattern was observed with fish oil-derived docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids but not alpha-linolenic (from plant oil or seeds). A similar finding was observed with BC in the prior 24 h, but not other PM. Thus, increased blood levels of fish-based ω-3 fatty acids attenuated increases in fibrinogen associated with short-term increases in ambient PM. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s11869-018-0586-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... As such, omega-3 fatty acids are commonly referred to as n-3 fatty acids [1][2][3]. Nutritionally important omega-3 fatty acids include the plant-derived α-linolenic acid (ALA) and the marine animal-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), all of which are polyunsaturated [4,5] (structures shown in Figure 1). ...
Article
Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, also known as n-3 fatty acids, has been widely considered cardiovascular protective in the general human population. This widely acclaimed status of omega-3 fatty acids as cardiovascular protective molecules has, however, been questioned by findings from multiple rigorously designed randomized controlled trials, recently reported in the New England Journal of Medicine. Although the anti-inflammatory and other beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids are substantiated by research in experimental models as well as findings from observational epidemiological studies, dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids at the typical dosage of 1 g daily does not appear to be an effective strategy for either primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in humans.
... The health benefits associated with the consumption of LCn-3PUFA have been demonstrative in the areas of infant development [1], CVD [5,9,10,12,13], platelet aggregation [14], hypertension, cognitive health [15], cancer, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, depression [7,8,16], and inflammation [3,4,17,18]. ...
Article
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Cape snoek (Thyrsites atun) is a valuable commercial marine fish species and an important source of protein and long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA), especially among the lower-income population of South Africa. The influence of microwave cooking, oven baking and steaming on total fat and fatty acid composition of Cape snoek was investigated. All cooking methods resulted in an increase of the total fat content when compared to the raw (3.88% ± 0.73) snoek samples. Microwave cooking and steaming resulted in the total fat content of samples to increase to 5.09% ± 0.69, and 5.61% ± 0.97, respectively. Oven baking resulted in the highest increase in total fat (6.66% ± 0.41). Although steaming and oven baking resulted in a marginal reduction in ecosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively, none of the cooking methods had any significant (P > 0.05) effect on the EPA, DHA, and ALA concentrations. None of the cooking methods had any significant effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio (0.12 ± 0.01 for raw snoek samples). There was no significant change in the saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentration between raw and any of the samples from the three cooking methods. Only microwave cooking resulted in a significant increase in the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentration, while steaming significantly reduced the PUFA concentration and the PUFA/SFA ratio. Microwave cooking, followed by oven baking, seemed to be the better of the three cooking methods for preservation of PUFA. Cite This Article: Suné St. Clair Henning, "Effect of Different Cooking Methods on Total Fat and Fatty Acid Composition of Cape Snoek (Thyrsites atun).
... Raising free fatty acids (FAs) in plasma increases insulin resistance, which further leads to obesity (7). Different types of FAs can either benefit human health (8) or increase the risk of diseases (9,10). Understanding the underlying mechanism of dietary fat preference and intake may contribute to decreasing the worldwide prevalence of obesity-related diseases. ...
Article
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Numerous fatty acid receptors have proven to play critical roles in normal physiology. Interactions among these receptor types and their subsequent membrane trafficking has not been fully elucidated, due in part to the lack of efficient tools to track these cellular events. In this study, we fabricated the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based molecular sensors for detection of two putative fatty acid receptors, G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), in a spatiotemporal manner in single cells. These SERS probes allowed multiplex detection of GPR120 and CD36, as well as a peak that represented the cell. This multiplexed sensing system enabled the real-time monitoring of fatty acid-induced receptor activation and dynamic distributions on the cell surface, as well as tracking of the receptors’ internalization processes on the addition of fatty acid. Increased SERS signals were seen in engineered HEK293 cells with higher fatty acid concentrations, while decreased responses were found in cell line TBDc1, suggesting that the endocytic process requires innate cellular components. SERS mapping results confirm that GPR120 is the primary receptor and may work synergistically with CD36 in sensing polyunsaturated fatty acids and promoting Ca ²⁺ mobilization, further activating the process of fatty acid uptake. The ability to detect receptors’ locations and monitor fatty acid-induced receptor redistribution demonstrates the specificity and potential of our multiplexed SERS imaging platform in the study of fatty acid–receptor interactions and might provide functional information for better understanding their roles in fat intake and development of fat-induced obesity.
... There are findings in the literature [119][120][121] also showing that omega 3 can help in heart health and improve blood circulation (hemodynamics) and have also improved cognitive processes, such as the functioning of memory and correct signaling between neurons. ...
Article
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Introduction: Functional Neurometry makes Biofeedback tools already demonstrated in the literature, such as: galvanic skin response, cardiac coherence and variability, thermoregulatory and respiratory interact with each other. Objective: The aim of this study was to report the historical and methodological aspects of the Functional Neurometry protocols. Method: A review was made in the MEDLINE / PubMed electronic indexing database and in the Web of Science. Results: This method intends to synchronize the frequencies of various organs linked to the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to control anxiety. Assessment and training are organized into categories. The categories of the assessment protocol are: 1st) Anxiety Control; 2nd) Physiological Response; 3rd) Baroreflex Index; 4th) hemodynamics; and 5th) Brain Neurometry and the training protocol categories are: I) Sound Anxiety Control; II) Visual Anxiety Control; III) Emotional Variability; IV) Respiratory Amplitude and Frequency; V) Progressive Muscle Relaxation; VI) Functional Physiological Response; VII) Respiratory Functional Capacity; VIII) Heart Rate Variability and IV) Cardiac Coherence. Conclusion: Functional neurometry mainly allows the balance of the ANS, making it a protective filter of the central nervous system.
... In the early 2000s, the American Heart Association, the European Society for Cardiology, and other international cardiac societies recommended the intake of one gram per day of the two marine omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, treatment post-myocardial infarction, and prevention of sudden cardiac death [80,81]. The biochemical and physiological mechanisms leading to these benefits remain incompletely understood but seem to center around positive effects on the vasculature that counteract those of omega-6 fatty acids [82][83][84]. ...
Article
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of death globally. Understanding and characterizing the biochemical context of the cardiovascular system in health and disease is a necessary preliminary step for developing novel therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring cardiovascular function. Bioactive lipids are a class of dietary-dependent, chemically heterogeneous lipids with potent biological signaling functions. They have been intensively studied for their roles in immunity, inflammation, and reproduction, among others. Recent advances in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques have revealed a staggering number of novel bioactive lipids, most of them unknown or very poorly characterized in a biological context. Some of these new bioactive lipids play important roles in cardiovascular biology, including development, inflammation, regeneration, stem cell differentiation, and regulation of cell proliferation. Identifying the lipid signaling pathways underlying these effects and uncovering their novel biological functions could pave the way for new therapeutic strategies aimed at CVD and cardiovascular regeneration.
... As previously described, the n-3 PUFAs have a beneficial role in cardiovascular health; they reduce triglyceride levels enhance high-density lipoprotein levels, and reduce platelet aggregation by preventing coronary arteries occlusion [59,60]. Moreover, they promote a normal heart rhythm, increase arterial compliance, reduce atherosclerosis, and have an anti-inflammatory action [12]. In the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI) trial, the group supplemented with n-3 PUFAs showed a significant reduction in cardiovascular, coronary and sudden cardiac death. ...
Article
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with 18, 20 or 22 carbon atoms, which have been found able to counteract cardiovascular diseases. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in particular, have been found to produce both vaso-and cardio-protective response via modulation of membrane phospholipids thereby improving cardiac mitochondrial functions and energy production. However, antioxidant properties of n-3 PUFAs, along with their anti-inflammatory effect in both blood vessels and cardiac cells, seem to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular impairment. In fact, dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs has been demonstrated to reduce oxidative stress-related mitochondrial dysfunction and endothelial cell apoptosis, an effect occurring via an increased activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. On the other hand, n-3 PUFAs have been shown to counteract the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both vascular tissues and in the myocardium, thereby restoring vascular reactivity and myocardial performance. Here we summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of n-3 PUFAs in vascular and cardiac tissues and their implication in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
... Increasing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption, especially seafood-derived omega-3 PUFAs, has been considered as a key component of prevention strategy in tackling the current epidemic of chronic disorders [1,2]. Dietary guidelines of the American Heart Association recommend a daily consumption of 250 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for decreasing the risk of cardiac deaths among individuals with and without pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) [2]. ...
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Background: Considerable attention has focused on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) role in protect against the development of cardiometabolic diseases, which has led to dietary recommendations to increase omega-3 fatty acid intake. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and reference lists were searched for articles from inception to May 2020. Random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of omega-3 PUFAs, including α-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, cancer, and mortality. Results: 66 prospective studies comprised of 211,600 participants were identified. Individual omega-3 PUFAs showed divergent associations with the study outcomes of interest. An inverse association with risk of T2D was observed comparing extreme categories of ALA concentration (RR,0.91;95%CI,0.83-0.99), but not for the marine-origin omega-3 fatty acids biomarkers. The marine-origin omega-3 fatty acids biomarkers, but not ALA, were significantly associated with lower risks of total CVD, CHD, and overall mortality, with RRs ranging from 0.70 for DHA-CHD association to 0.85 for EPA-CHD association. Lower risk of colorectal cancer was observed at higher levels of DPA (RR,0.76;95%CI:0.59-0.98) and DHA (RR,0.80;95%CI:0.65-0.99). In dose-response analyses, inverse linear associations were observed between EPA, DPA, and DHA biomarkers and CVD or CHD risk, except for DHA-CVD association which showed a nonlinearity association. Conclusion: Higher concentrations of marine-derived omega-3 PUFA biomarkers were associated with a significantly reduced risk of total CVD, CHD, certain types of cancer, and total mortality. Levels of ALA were inversely with a lower risk of T2D but not CVD-related outcomes. These data support the dietary recommendations advocating the role of omega-3 PUFAs in maintaining an overall lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease and premature deaths.
... The long chain omega-3 fatty acids of crab meat is more beneficial to health, as can be used immediately, compared to short chain variety found in refined oils. Besides having anti-inflammatory properties, omega-3 fatty acids reduces the risk of heart attacks and strokes by preventing low-density lipoprotein formation, or "bad" cholesterol from adhering to the arterial walls (Bu, Dou, Tian, Wang, & Chen, 2016;Chaddha & Eagle, 2015;Mori, 2017). ...
Article
Background Crabs are one of the most diverse groups of crustaceans. Both fresh and marine crabs are an excellent source of many nutrients that are important for human health. Because of their unique flavour and delicious taste, crab meat and novel crab-based processed products are quite popular; hence the demand is increasing consistently in the domestic and global market. Further, crab processing generates a large quantity of liquid and solid waste creating disposal and land fill problems. To overcome the environmental impacts thereof, it is necessary to recycle and reuse these underutilized yet economically potential discards or by-products. Scope and approach Even though having immense potential in terms of nutrients and offering unique flavour profile, the importance of crab often goes unnoticed. However, crabs had less special mention and are mostly considered along with other crustaceans, wherein shrimps and lobsters are debated at length. Further, crab processing generates a large quantity of by-products and solid wastes, predominantly rich in chitin. Therefore, there is a great interest for valorisation of crab processing by-products that possess biologically active products with wide applications. In light of the above, this review highlights the nutritional aspects, flavour profile, quality and health benefits of crab meat including the acceptability of crab-based value-added products. The diversified applications of valuable products derived from crab processing bio-wastes are also discussed. Key findings and conclusions Crab meat is rich in protein, essential amino acids, long chain omega-3 fatty acids, and also an excellent source of vitamins and minerals. The uniqueness in taste and pleasant flavour properties of crab meat is due to volatile, non-volatile aroma and taste components, hence highly accepted by the consumers. Different innovative preservation technologies are suggested to improve the quality, safety and shelf-life of crab meat and crab-based value-added products. Further, crab processing wastes possess several high-value bioactive compounds. Green extraction is recommended for valorisation of these bioactive compounds (derivatives of chitin, protein hydrolysates and enzymes, lipids, carotenoids etc.) that have enormous applications in agriculture, environment, food, textile, pharmaceutical and other biomedical fields.
... 116,117 In addition, an increase in PUFAs has also been shown to be cardioprotective in multiple studies. [118][119][120] As cardiovascular health is becoming an important factor in autoimmune disease outcomes, it is possible that this may be another protective mechanism mediated by low-to-moderate alcohol ( Figure 1). ...
Article
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Alcohol is well known for promoting systemic inflammation and aggravating multiple chronic health conditions. Thus, alcohol may also be expected to serve as a risk factor in autoimmune diseases. However, emerging data from human and animal studies suggest that alcohol may in fact be protective in autoimmune diseases. These studies point toward alcohol’s complex dose-dependent relationship in autoimmune diseases as well as potential modulation by duration and type of alcohol consumption, cultural background and sex. In this review, we will explore alcohol’s pro- and anti-inflammatory properties in human and animal autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune diabetes, thyroid disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. We will also discuss potential mechanisms of alcohol’s anti-inflammatory effects mediated by the gut microbiome.
... O3FA include alpha-linoleic a cid (ALA) , e i c osa p en t an eo ic ac id (EPA), an d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). ALA is primarily found in plant-based foods (olive, soybean, canola, walnut, and flaxseed oils), while EPA and DHA are found in fatty fish (tuna, salmon, mackerel, herring, trout, halibut, and cod) [58]. Currently the AHA recommends 1-2 servings of oily fish per week, ideally to replace less healthy foods [59]. ...
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Purpose of Review The prevalence of cardiovascular disease despite good medical therapy is on the rise, driven by risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity. As healthcare providers, we must seek to better advise patients on preventative strategies through lifestyle changes. Recent Findings Guideline recommendations have been published by professional societies on the prevention of heart disease through lifestyle changes; however, limited education and experience with these lifestyle-modifying methods hinders appropriate counseling and treatment of patients. Summary Robust data support the use of lifestyle medicine to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and risk. These include, a more plant-based whole food diet, regular exercise, stress relief, connectedness, and other lifestyle approaches. This review will help further the understanding of the front-line clinician in cardiovascular prevention.
Article
We previously discovered that palmitic acid methyl ester (PAME) is a potent vasodilator released from the sympathetic ganglion with vasoactive properties. Post-treatment with PAME can enhance cortical cerebral blood flow and functional learning and memory, while inhibiting neuronal cell death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus under pathological conditions (i.e. cerebral ischemia). Since mechanisms underlying PAME-mediated neuroprotection remain unclear, we investigated the possible neuroprotective mechanisms of PAME after 6 min of asphyxia cardiac arrest (ACA, an animal model of global cerebral ischemia). Our results from capillary-based immunoassay (for the detection of proteins) and cytokine array suggest that PAME (0.02 mg/kg) can decrease neuroinflammatory markers, such as ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1, a specific marker for microglia/macrophage activation) and inflammatory cytokines after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Additionally, the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and respiratory function in the hippocampal slices were restored following ACA (via Seahorse XF24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer) suggesting that PAME can ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction. Finally, hippocampal protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) and PRMT8 are enhanced in the presence of PAME to suggest a possible pathway of methylated fatty acids to modulate arginine-based enzymatic methylation. Altogether, our findings suggest that PAME can provide neuroprotection in the presence of ACA to alleviate neuroinflammation and ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction.
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Who would think that a calculator can promote cardiac health?
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This review examines the shared immune-inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) and metabolic pathways underpinning metabolic syndrome (MetS), bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Shared pathways in both MetS and mood disorders are low grade inflammation, including increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins, increased lipid peroxidation with formation of malondialdehyde and oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), hypernitrosylation, lowered levels of antioxidants, most importantly zinc and paraoxonase (PON1), increased bacterial translocation (leaky gut), increased atherogenic index of plasma and Castelli risk indices; and reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c) cholesterol. Insulin resistance is probably not a major factor associated with comorbid MetS and mood disorders. Given the high levels of IO&NS and metabolic dysregulation in BD and MDD and the high comorbidity with the atherogenic components of the MetS, mood disorders should be viewed as systemic neuro-IO&NS-metabolic disorders. The IO&NS-metabolic biomarkers may have prognostic value and may contribute to the development of novel treatments targeting neuro-immune, neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative pathways.
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Seeds from mustard (genera Brassica spp. and Sinapsis spp.), are known as a rich source of glucosinolates and omega-3 fatty acids. These compounds are widely known for their health benefits that include reducing inflammation and lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This review presented a synthesis of published literature from Google Scholar, PubMed, Sco-pus, Sci Finder, and Web of Science regarding the different glucosinolates and omega-3 fatty acids isolated from mustard seeds. We presented an overview of extraction, isolation, purification, and structure elucidation of glucosinolates from the seeds of mustard plants. Moreover, we presented a compilation of in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies showing the potential health benefits of glu-cosinolates and omega-3 fatty acids. Previous studies showed that glucosinolates have antimicro-bial, antipain, and anticancer properties while omega-3 fatty acids are useful for their pharmaco-logic effects against sleep disorders, anxiety, cerebrovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Further studies are needed to investigate other naturally occurring glucosinolates and omega-3 fatty acids, improve and standardize the extraction and isolation methods from mustard seeds, and obtain more clinical evidence on the pharmacological applications of glucosinolates and omega-3 fatty acids from mustard seeds.
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Higher consumption of fish and omega-3 fatty acids has been associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in men, but limited data are available regarding women. To examine the association between fish and long-chain omega-3 fatty acid consumption and risk of CHD in women. Dietary consumption and follow-up data from 84 688 female nurses enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study, aged 34 to 59 years and free from cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline in 1980, were compared from validated questionnaires completed in 1980, 1984, 1986, 1990, and 1994. Incident nonfatal myocardial infarction and CHD deaths. During 16 years of follow-up, there were 1513 incident cases of CHD (484 CHD deaths and 1029 nonfatal myocardial infarctions). Compared with women who rarely ate fish (<1 per month), those with a higher intake of fish had a lower risk of CHD. After adjustment for age, smoking, and other cardiovascular risk factors, the multivariable relative risks (RRs) of CHD were 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.97) for fish consumption 1 to 3 times per month, 0.71 (95% CI, 0.58-0.87) for once per week, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.55-0.88) for 2 to 4 times per week, and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.50-0.89) for 5 or more times per week (P for trend =.001). Similarly, women with a higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids had a lower risk of CHD, with multivariable RRs of 1.0, 0.93, 0.78, 0.68, and 0.67 (P<.001 for trend) across quintiles of intake. For fish intake and omega-3 fatty acids, the inverse association appeared to be stronger for CHD deaths (multivariate RR for fish consumption 5 times per week, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.33-0.90] for CHD deaths vs 0.73 [0.51-1.04]) than for nonfatal myocardial infarction. Among women, higher consumption of fish and omega-3 fatty acids is associated with a lower risk of CHD, particularly CHD deaths.
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Reducing intake of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol and avoiding excess calories, which can lead to obesity, remain the cornerstore of the dietary approach to decreasing risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease. During the past 20 years, however, there has been renewed interest in other dietary components that might favorably improve lipid profiles and reduce risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Fish and fish oil, rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids, have sparked intense interest in both epidemiological studies, which suggest a favorable effect on CHD, and metabolic ward studies, which show a striking improvement in lipid profiles in hyperlipidemic patients. Confusion has resulted from clinical trials of fish oil in patients with CHD, which did not corroborate early observational findings, and newer results, which suggest clinical benefit due to a mechanism independent of lipid effects. Fish and other marine life are rich sources of a special class of polyunsaturated fatty acids known as the omega-3 or n-3 fatty acids.1 2 They are so named because the first of the several double bonds occur three carbon atoms away from the terminal end of the carbon chain. The three n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are alpha linolenic acid (LNA), eicosapentenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexenoic acid (DHA). LNA is an 18–carbon chain fatty acid with three double bonds; in the form of tofu, soybean, and canola oil and nuts, it is an important plant-based source of n-3 PUFA for vegetarians and non–seafood eaters. EPA and DHA are very long–chain fatty acids obtained from marine sources. These, along with n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) that cannot be synthesized from nonlipid precursors such as linoleic acid, are considered essential fatty acids that must be consumed in the diet. The n-6 PUFAs are obtained primarily from plant sources, especially seeds. Arachidonic acid is …
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Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown in epidemiological and clinical trials to reduce the incidence of CVD. Large-scale epidemiological studies suggest that individuals at risk for CHD benefit from the consumption of plant- and marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids, although the ideal intakes presently are unclear. Evidence from prospective secondary prevention studies suggests that EPA+DHA supplementation ranging from 0.5 to 1.8 g/d (either as fatty fish or supplements) significantly reduces subsequent cardiac and all-cause mortality. For α-linolenic acid, total intakes of ≈1.5 to 3 g/d seem to be beneficial. Collectively, these data are supportive of the recommendation made by the AHA Dietary Guidelines to include at least two servings of fish per week (particularly fatty fish). In addition, the data support inclusion of vegetable oils (eg, soybean, canola, walnut, flaxseed) and food sources (eg, walnuts, flaxseeds) high in α-linolenic acid in a healthy diet for the general population (Table 5). The fish recommendation must be balanced with concerns about environmental pollutants, in particular PCB and methylmercury, described in state and federal advisories. Consumption of a variety of fish is recommended to minimize any potentially adverse effects due to environmental pollutants and, at the same time, achieve desired CVD health outcomes. RCTs have demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acid supplements can reduce cardiac events (eg, death, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke) and decrease progression of atherosclerosis in coronary patients. However, additional studies are needed to confirm and further define the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acid supplements for both primary and secondary prevention. For example, placebo-controlled, double-blind RCTs are needed to document both the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplements in both high-risk patients (eg, patients with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and smokers) and coronary patients on drug therapy. Mechanistic studies on their apparent effects on sudden death are also needed. A dietary (ie, food-based) approach to increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake is preferable. Still, for patients with coronary artery disease, the dose of omega-3 (≈1 g/d) may be greater than what can readily be achieved through diet alone (Table 5). These individuals, in consultation with their physician, could consider supplements for CHD risk reduction. Supplements also could be a component of the medical management of hypertriglyceridemia, a setting in which even larger doses (2 to 4 g/d) are required (Table 5). The availability of high-quality omega-3 fatty acid supplements, free of contaminants, is an important prerequisite to their extensive use.
American Heart Association. nutrition Committee. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease
American Heart Association. nutrition Committee. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2002;106: 2747-2757.