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Gossypium Herbaceum Linn: An Ethnopharmacological review



Gossypium herbaceum Linn is known as cotton plant, belongs to the family Malvaceae, and occupies an imperative place in traditional systems of medicine especially in Unani and Ayurvedic medicines. The plant is widely distributed throughout western India, Africa, Middle East countries, central Asia and graded availability is found in Iran, Afghanistan, Russian and Turkistan. The qualitative phytochemical study of this plant extract indicates the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, steroids, glycosides, phenolic compounds such as tannins and flavonoids. The principle pigment of cotton seed is gossypol, a phenolic compound. The unsaponifiable fraction of Indian cottonseed oil contains sitosterol, ergostoerol, lipids, gossypol, oleic, palmitic, and linoleic acids. The herb has been used traditionally from antiquity, in the treatment of inadequate lactation, bronchial asthma, dysmenorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, otalgia, sexual debility, general weakness, diabetes, lung and skin diseases. It chiefly possesses antifertlility, galactagogue, antispermatogenic, antidiabetic, antiviral and antibacterial activity. This work is an endeavor to explore and assemble the various pharmacological action and pharmacognostic aspects of the plant G. herbaceum reported till date.
Sultana Arshiya et al: Gossypium herbaceum Linn: An Ethnopharmacological Review
JPSI 1 (5), Sept Oct 2012, 1-5
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation
Review Article
Rahman Khaleequr1, Sultana Arshiya2*, Rahman Shafeequr3
1Lecturer, Dept. of Pharmacy, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
2Lecturer, Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
3Assistant Professor, Dept. of Pharmacology, Al-Farooq Unani Medical College, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
Received on: 25/07/12 Revised on: 22/09/12 Accepted on: 02/10/12
Gossypium herbaceum Linn is known as cotton plant, belongs to the family Malvaceae, and occupies an imperative place in traditional systems of medicine
especially in Unani and Ayurvedic medicines. The plant is widely distributed throughout western India, Africa, Middle East countries, central Asia and graded
availability is found in Iran, Afghanistan, Russian and Turkistan. The qualitative phytochemical study of this plant extract indicates the presence of
carbohydrates, saponins, steroids, glycosides, phenolic compounds such as tannins and flavonoids. The principle pigment of cotton seed is gossypol, a
phenolic compound. The unsaponifiable fraction of Indian cottonseed oil contains sitosterol, ergostoerol, lipids, gossypol, oleic, palmitic, and linoleic acids.
The herb has been used traditionally from antiquity, in the treatment of inadequate lactation, bronchial asthma, dysmenorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, otalgia,
sexual debility, general weakness, diabetes, lung and skin diseases. It chiefly possesses antifertlility, galactagogue, antispermatogenic, antidiabetic, antiviral
and antibacterial activity. This work is an endeavor to explore and assemble the various pharmacological action and pharmacognostic aspects of the plant G.
herbaceum reported till date.
KEYWORDS: Gossypium herbaceum, Phenolic compound, Phytochemical study, Pharmacological studies.
Malvaceae is a family of flowering plants containing 243
genera and at least 4,225 species of herbs, shrubs, and trees.
Economically, the most important member of the family
is Gossypium (cotton).1 The genus Gossypium is a leading
species, comprises around 50 species in the
tribe Gossypioieae and few new species continue to be
discovered.2 The origin of this genus dates back to around 5-
10 million years.3 The name of the genus is derived from
the Arabic word goz, which refers to a soft substance.4 The
word "cotton" originated from the Arabic term al qutn,
which became in Spanish algodón and cotton in English.
Cotton was first domesticated in the Old World about 7,000
years ago.5 It is native to India, having numerous varieties in
this region.6 A legend was perpetuated from a factual
description of G. herbaceum plant by Greek historian
Herodotus in the 5th century BC. It was first cultivated in
China by about 600 AD.7 The plant is mainly grown for its
fibers, which are used to make clothing and similar products.
Gossypium species are distributed in arid to semiarid regions
of the tropics and subtropics. Generally shrubs or shrub-like
plants, the species of this genus are extraordinarily diverse in
morphology and adaptation, ranging from fire-adapted,
herbaceous perennials in Australia to trees in Mexico.2
Commercial species of cotton plant are G. hirsutum (>90% of
world production), G. barbadense, (3-4%), G.
arboretum and G. herbaceum (together, 2%).7 However,
Gossypium herbaceum has been widely used in the
production of food and medicine as well. Cotton seeds are not
only a valuable source of vitamins but an excellent pain
Gossypium herbaceum plant is mentioned in indigenous
systems of medicine. It is an erect, shrubby, hairy plant, 2-8
feet high with thick woody stem and twigs and leaves
sparsely hairy, rarely glabrous. The leaves are 5-7 lobed,
lobes ovate, and rotundus only slightly constricted at base.8, 9
Bracteoles with 6-8 serrated teeth on the margin, broadly
triangular, usually broader than long. The flowers are large,
yellow with purple center; calyx base is black with glandular
dots and capsules ovate, pointed.8
Cotton seed is a by-product of the cotton ginning industry.
Commercial cotton seed as obtained from the Gin contains
besides the seed proper, remnants of unginned lint and a thick
coating of short fibers constituting the fuzz. The fuzz is
present in almost all types of cotton. The seeds after the
removal of fuzz are dark brown or nearly black in color,
pointed ovoid in shape and vary in size from 5.0 to 20 mm in
It is native to the semi-arid regions of sub Saharan Africa and
Arabia where it still grows in the wild as a perennial shrub. It
was probably first cultivated in Ethiopia or southern Arabia
and from there, cultivation spread to North Africa, Spain,
Turkey, Ukraine, Turkestan, Persia, Afghanistan, and finally,
to China.7 The part of the plant used in medicine are seeds,8, 9
leaves,9 root,8,9 and root bark. 9 The taste of seeds is slightly
Vernacular names:
Unani: Pambadana; 9 Arabic: Habbul qutn 10, 11 qutn;12
English: Bona, 10 Kapasia, 10 Common cotton, 10 Indian
cotton, 10, 12, 13 Levant cotton;9 Urdu: Pambadana, Habbul
qutn, Rui; 12 Hindi: Kapasa, 10 Binaula, 10 Kapas; 10, 8, 12, ,
Persian: Pambadana; 11, 10, Sanskrit: Tundakesi,10 Karpas, 10
Anagnika12, 13 Chavya; 10, 12 Kannada: Hati; Arale;
Ambara; Arali; Karpasa 10
Pharmacological actions in traditional and ethno
medicine: The significance in the actions of both traditional
and ethno medicine medicines shows the accuracy of the
data. This comparison provides a concise summary that the
traditional system of medicines itself has lot of experienced
evidences not a mere of coincidence.
Sultana Arshiya et al: Gossypium herbaceum Linn: An Ethnopharmacological Review
JPSI 1 (5), Sept Oct 2012, 1-5
Action mentioned in Unani medicine
· Muqawwie bah (aphrodisiac)14, 15, 16
· Moallide sheer (galactogogue)15, 16
· Musmmine badan 16, 17
· Moallide mani (spermatogenic)8, 10, 16, 17
· Munaffise balgham (expectorant) 8, 10, 15, 16
· Jali 8, 10, 16
· Mulaiyan (laxative) 14, 16, 17
Actions mentioned in ethno medicine
· Demulcent 13, 18
· Laxative 13, 18
· Expectorant 13, 18
· Galactagogue 18
· Aphrodisiac 13
Medicinal uses in Unani medicine
· It is useful in qillatul laban (inadequate lactation), sual
(cough), 11, 14, 16, zeequn nafas (bronchial asthma),8, 15
zofe bah (sexual debility), 11, 8, 16, 17, zofe aam (general
weakness),10 ziabatees, (diabetes) 15 ikhtenaqurrehm
(hysteria), 15, 16 amraz riya (lung diseases), 15 amraz jild
(skin diseases) etc. 14, 15, 16
· The flour of seed is five times more tonic (muqawwi) than
wheat flour and two and half times more muqawwi than
meat. 15
· Water (juice) of leaves is useful in ishal atfal (childhood
· Zimad (paste) of leaves with roghan gul (rose oil) is
useful in gout.
· Zaroor (powder) of leaves is useful to stop bleeding from
the wound. 11
Dosage: 3-7 g; 16 6 20 g; 16 25.5 g 19 (juice of leaves)
Formulations in Unani medicine: Majoon arad khurma,8, 10
majoon mumsik8 and majoon pambadana 8, 10
Medicinal uses in ethno medicine
· It is useful as a nervine tonic in headache and brain
affections, and decoctions of the seed are given in
dysentery and intermittent fever.13,18
· The seeds in the form of emulsion are given in dysentery.
· Pounded and mixed with ginger and water they are
applied to orchitis.
· The seeds in the form of poultice make a good application
to burns and scalds.
· The cotton seed oil is useful in clearing the skin of spots
and freckles. 13
· The juice of the leaves is useful in dysentery.
· The leaves externally in the form of poultice hasten the
maturation of boils and with oil they are applied as a
plaster to gouty joints.13
· Root bark of Gossypium herbaceum Linn. (kapas) and
leaves of Bambusa arundinacea, (bans) are mixed
together and given with water to induce abortion.20
· Leaves of Gossypium herbaceum (kapas) and Bambusa
arundinacea (Bans) are given orally to augment labor. 20
· Leaves of Gossypium herbaceum (kapas) are given orally
in retention of placenta.20
Flowers are useful in uterine discharge. Gossypol, phenolic
compound is used in treating endometriosis and uterine
· The root has emmenagogue property, useful in
dysmenorrhoea and suppression of the menses produced
by cold.13
· It is used to enhance the first stage of labor.13
· Decoction of root of Gossypium herbaceum are given orally
in retention of placenta.20
· It is used for sual (cough), zeequn nafas (asthma) and zofe
bah (sexual weakness).13
Pharmacognostical and phytochemical standardization of
The microscopic studies of the transverse section of root of
Gossypium herbaceum showed the parts from cork to xylem.
The structure of cork, pericyclic fibers, phloem, lysigenous
cavities, medullary rays and xylem are the distinguishing
features of the root. Calcium oxalate crystals, starch grains,
lignified fibers, pitted and annular vessels, tannin content,
stone cells are found in powder microscopy.
The physicochemical parameters of the root were the loss
on drying 6.47 % w/w., ash value 5.2 % w/w, the acid
insoluble ash 0.02 % w/w, water soluble extractive 5.6 %
w/w. and the alcohol soluble extractive 8.80 % w/w.
Phenols, tannin, starch, saponin and carbohydrates were
present in its root. All other components were found to be
absent. TLC profile at 254 nm frequency, one spot, Rf value
0.04 & at 366 nm one spot, Rf values 0.50. After spray two
spots, Rf values are 0.06, 0.51.22
Phyto-chemical constituents of seed
Organic: The cotton seeds contain glycosides, steroids,
resins, saponins, carbohydrates, proteins and phenolic
compounds tannins.8, 23 It contains an adequate amount of
other essential amino acids. The biological value and
digestibility of the total proteins of cotton seeds are 91 and 78
respectively. The mineral constituents of the cotton seed are:
phosphorus 1.031.33; calcium 0.24-0.04; iron 0.02-0.03; 8, 18
potassium 0.94-1.07; sodium 0.05-0.14; magnesium 0.44-
0.56; manganese 0.03-0.04; aluminium 0.01- 0.06; silica
0.12-0.39; sulphur 0.17-0.28 and chlorine 0.920.04%.
Traces of copper, boron, zinc, nickel, strontium and barium
are also reported to be present. The oil free cotton seed meal
contains iodine (23-1,400 ug/kg; dry basis) and fluorine (20-
31 p.p.m). Cottonseed is rich in vitamins of the B-Complex
(thiamine, 3.2; riboflavin, 2.3; nicotinic acid, 16; pantothenic
acid, 11; pyridoxine,0.91; biotin,0.29; inositol 3,400 and folic
acid, 3.8 ug/g on dry wt basis. Vitamins A, D, and E are also
present. The enzymes reported to be present in the seed are
lipase, catalase, peroxidase and phytase. 18
The principle pigment of cotton seed is gossypol (C30H30O8),
a polyphenolic compound, present to the extent of 0.4-2.0%
in the kernels.18 The presence of six phenolic hydroxyl
groups and two aldehydic groups makes gossypol chemically
reactive. Gossypol can undergo Schiff base formation,
ozonolysis, oxidation, and methylation to form gossypol
derivatives. 24
Other pigments present in the seed are gossypupurin,
gossyfulvin, gossycaerulin, carotenoids and flavones, yellow
Sultana Arshiya et al: Gossypium herbaceum Linn: An Ethnopharmacological Review
JPSI 1 (5), Sept Oct 2012, 1-5
pigment. The unsaponifiable fraction of Indian cottonseed oil
contains sitosterol and ergostoerol. Other substances present
in cotton seeds are saponins, lactic acid, choline, betaine and
sulphydryl compounds. Cottonseed is rich in total
phosphorus, phytins and phosphatides. Phytins accounts for
72% of the total phosphorus present. 18
Modern pharmacology
Gossypol and its derivatives has been the target of much
research due to their multifaceted biological activities
including anticancer, antifertility, antioxidant,
antitrypanosomal, antimalarial, antimicrobial, and antivirus
activities. Because of restricted rotation of the internaphthyl
bond, gossypol is a chiral compound, which has two
atropisomers (i.e., (+)- and ()-gossypol) that exhibit
different levels of biological activities.24
Anti-bacterial activity
Agarwal et al mentioned that the extract of Gossypium
herbaceum has antimicrobial property. 25
Chaturvedi et al in their study found that free and bound
flavonoid fraction of seed extracts of G. herbaceum as well as
the free flavonoids of the callus extracts was active against T.
viride. G. herbaceum and G. hirsutum showed activity
against B. cerus and S. thyphimurium. Free flavonoid fraction
of seeds of G. herbaceum and G. hirsutum showed activity
against B. cerus, S. epidermidis, T. viride and Salmonella
typhimurium, E. coli, T. viride respectively. Free and bound
flavonoids fraction (seeds and callus) of all the three
Gossypium species did not show any activity against C.
Anti-cancer activity: Mi et al investigated the in vitro and in
vivo activities and related mechanism of apogossypolone
(ApoG2) alone or in combination with adriamycin (ADM)
against human hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC). They
concluded that ApoG2 is a potential non-toxic target agent
that induces apoptosis by up regulating Noxa, while
inhibiting anti-apoptotic proteins and promoting the effect of
chemotherapy agent ADM in HCC.27
Anticonvulsant activity: Rasilingam and coworkers in their
study concluded that, the gossypin a bioflavonoid exhibits
anticonvulsant activity and the probable mode of action may
be due to GABA-aminergic mediation, glycine inhibitory
mechanism and inhibition of the electrical kindling effect.28
Anti-depressant activity: One of the study showed that
aqueous extract of Gossypium herbaceum showed significant
antidepressant-like effect due to activation of adenyl cyclase-
cAMP pathway in signal transduction system and hence
protecting the neurons from the lesion. 29
Anti-fertility activity:
Gossypol, a phenolic compound isolated from cotton seed oil
was proposed as a male contraceptive. Hadley et al found that
gossypol treatment reduced the level of serum testosterone
and luteinizing hormone levels in dose and duration
dependent manner. Gossypol acts directly on testes and
induces azoospermia or oligospermia. Zavos and Zavos
demonstrated that gossypol blocked cAMP formation in
sperm, which resulted into inhibition of sperm motility. Nair
and Bhiwgade have studied the effect of gossypol on pituitary
gonadal axis and found the decreased secretary activity of
accessory sex glands. Bai and Shi also investigated the
inhibition of T type Ca currents in mouse spermatogenic cells
by gossypol. Antifertility activities were also found in
hamsters and in rats. 30
Bender et al examined the tissues of female rats treated with
gossypol acetic acid for morphologic evidence of an
underlying mechanism of infertility. The number of estrous
cycles, and body and adrenal weights were also compared.
The number of estrous cycles decreased in rats treated with
60 mg/kg gossypol acetic acid for 30 days. Body weights
were also reduced in rats treated with 40 mg or 60 mg/kg per
day for 30 days when compared to controls. However, no
significant differences were found in any group when
comparing adrenal weights, adrenal weight/body weight
ratios or adrenal histology. The body weight loss was related,
at least in part, to diarrhea and dehydration in eight of the
treated animals. It is interesting that though the gossypol-
treated rats had reduced numbers of estrous cycles, no
histopathologic changes were found in their ovaries, uterus or
Another study was carried out to examine the role of Sertoli
cells in the anti-spermatogenic action of two non steroidal
male contraceptive compounds (CDRI-84/35 and gossypol)
by evaluating their effect on some key parameters of Sertoli
cell function in vitro. The authors concluded that that the
anti-spermatogenic action of CDRI-84/35 and gossypol is
routed through Sertoli cells by disruption of important cell
functions that support spermatogenesis in-vivo. However, the
two compounds appear to have different course of action in
Sertoli cells, ultimately leading to spermatogenic failure.32
Anti-oxidant activity: Kumar et al in their study reported
that Hydro alcoholic extract of G. herbaceum provided a
comprehensive profile of the antioxidant activity; with
respect to its phenolic content. G. herbaceum reduces the
free radical to corresponding hydrazine when it reacts with
hydrogen donors in antioxidant principle.23
Gossypium herbaceum seeds are reported to have antioxidant
activity, anti-diarrhoeic, wound healing, anti-migraine, and
diuretic activity.33
Antiulcer activity: The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of
flowers of Gossypium herbaceum L. increases healing of
gastric ulcer and possess potential antiulcer activity. 34
Diuretic activity: Narasimha et al investigated the diuretic
activity of ethyl acetate and alcohol extract of G. herbaceum
leaves in male wistar albino rats. The extract showed dose
dependent increase in natriuretic and chloruretic activity and
kaliuresis. The alcoholic extract showed significant activity
than the ethyl acetate extract as a diuretic. The researchers
found that the ethanol extract of G. herbaceum leaves was an
effective hypernatraemic, hyperchloremic and hyperkalemic
diuretic, which provides the pharmacological evidence of G.
herbaceum leaves as an effective diuretic.33
Galactagogue activity: The studies conducted in buffaloes,
showed that cottonseed feeding enhances the milk production
signicantly (P<0.0l) in comparison to commercial
concentrate mixture fed control group animals. 35, 36, 37
Hepatoprotective effect: A hepatoprotective effect of G.
hirsutum and G. herbaceum extracts is reported by Batur et
Wound healing activity: Velmurugan et al in their study
confirmed that methanolic extract of leaves of Gossypium
herbaceum have promising wound healing activity that may
be attributed to presence of different phyto-constituents like
flavonoids, tannins etc.39
Sultana Arshiya et al: Gossypium herbaceum Linn: An Ethnopharmacological Review
JPSI 1 (5), Sept Oct 2012, 1-5
G. herbaceum milk is useful for skin moisturizing, hair
repairing and conditioning.40
Toxicological study: A phyto-therapeutic preparation
containing Gossypium herbaceum was tested by Mello et al
for preclinical toxicity, and the results revealed the absence
of systemic toxicity at a therapeutic dose.38
Gossypium herbaceum is an old age herb especially used in
Unani and Ayurvedic medicines in the treatment of
inadequate lactation, bronchial asthma, dysmenorrhea,
sexual debility, general weakness, diabetes, lung and skin
diseases. The pharmacological activities of this herb have
been proven on the scientific parameter, which are attributed
to its phyto chemical constituents such as saponins, steroids,
glycosides, phenolic compounds such as tannins and
flavonoids. It chiefly possesses galactagogue, antifertlility,
antispermatogenic, antidiabetic, antiviral and antibacterial
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ISSN (Online) : 2277 4572
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Rahman Khaleequr, Sultana Arshiya, Rahman Shafeequr. Gossypium
herbaceum Linn: An Ethnopharmacological Review. J Pharm Sci Innov.
2012; 1(5): 1-5.
... In the case of Gossypium herbacium, it has been already harvested for the production of food and medicine. The cotton seeds it produces are valuable sources of vitamins and excellent pain relievers (Khaleequr, et al., 2012). ...
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Medicinal plants are important sources for the identification of novel drug. However, their poor documentation may likely result to information loss particularly among indigenous communities that are now adopting western medication techniques. Hence, this ethnobotanical inventory aims to document the pharmacologically-important plants used by an indigenous community of the Manobos in Northernmost Surigao del Sur, Philippines. Ninety (90) informants of mix gender from two study sites underwent informal interview in isolation using their local dialect. Then, quantitative ethnobotanical indices such as Use Value (UV), Fidelity Level (FL) and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) were determined based on the data provided by the informants. Conservation status of each medicinal plant was also identified from information in the International Union for Conservation Nature (IUCN). There are 66 species belonging to 41 plant families documented significant medicinal plants for traditional medication of the tribe. Information from IUCN indicate also that Shorea contorta is critically endangered, Vitex parviflora, Cinnamomum mercadoi, and Canarium ovatum are vulnerable, Adonidia merrillii is nearly threatened while the rest are classified as least concerned (4), data deficient (2), and taxon has not been assessed (55). Three plants are recorded with highest UV, namely: Calamus moti (0.77), Chrysophyllum cainito (0.72), and Gossypium herbaceum Linn. (0.71) while ten plants representing nine categories of disease have 100% FL. These are Ficus septica for warts, Piper betle for goiter, Citrus maxima and Vitex negundo L. for cough, Musa acuminata × Musa balbisiana for boils, Hibiscus rosasinensis L. for swollen muscles, Calamus moti for postpartum care and recovery, Nicotiana tabacum for flatulence, and, Plectranthus scutellarioides for cuts and wounds. Piper betle, Euphorbia hirta, Allium odorum L., and Psidium guajava record the highest ICF. In conclusion, this inventory reveals rich knowledge on medicinal plants of the Manobo people in Northern Surigao del Sur. There were 66 taxa documented believe to treat 48 diseases/ailments prevailing in their communities.
... Gossypium herbaceum is known as a cotton plant, belongs to the Malvaceae family, and is widely distributed throughout western India, middle east countries, Africa, Central Asia, Iran, Russia, Afghanistan, and Turkey. The qualitative phytochemical investigations of these plant extracts indicate the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, steroids, phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, and tannins [56]. ...
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Viruses are responsible for a variety of human pathogenesis. Owing to the enhancement of the world population, global travel, and rapid urbanization, and infectious outbreaks, a critical threat has been generated to public health, as preventive vaccines and antiviral therapy are not available. Herbal medicines and refined natural products have resources for the development of novel antiviral drugs. These natural agents have shed light on preventive vaccine development and antiviral therapies. This review intends to discuss the antiviral activities of plant extracts and some isolated plant natural products based on mainly preclinical (in vitro and in vivo) studies. Twenty medicinal herbs were selected for the discussion, and those are commonly recognized antiviral medicinal plants in Ayurveda (Zingiber officinale, Caesalpinia bonducella, Allium sativum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ferula assafoetida, Gymnema sylvestre, Gossypium herbaceum, Phyllanthus niruri, Trachyspermum ammi, Withania somnifera, Andrographis paniculata, Centella asiatica, Curcuma longa, Woodfordia fruticose, Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia arjuna, Azadirachta indica, and Ficus religiosa). However, many viruses remain without successful immunization and only a few antiviral drugs have been approved for clinical use. Hence, the development of novel antiviral drugs is much significant and natural products are excellent sources for such drug developments. In this review, we summarize the antiviral actions of selected plant extracts and some isolated natural products of the medicinal herbs.
... Terpenoids, which have been earlier referred to as isoprenoids belonging to a huge and diverse group of naturally occurring bioactive organic chemicals, are also identified in the ethanol and hexane extracts of G. herbaceum leaf. Previous work on the phytochemical constituents of G. herbaceum revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids steroids, phenols, and terpenoids ( Shetti, 2010 ;Khaleequr et al., 2012 ), which corroborates the present findings. Secondary metabolites deposited in plants have been shown to elicit biological effects related to antimicrobial activities which can be employed to complement the therapeutic management of bacterial infections in humans ( Doughari et al., 2009 ). ...
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Background: Gossypium herbaceum (G. herbaceum), a plant commonly found in the wild in Nigeria, is said to possess some therapeutic activities. However, there is a dearth of information on its chemical constituents. Also, there is a need to investigate its therapeutic activities. Objective: To investigate the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical components of the leaf extracts of G. herbaceum, as well as its antioxidant, antimalarial and cytotoxic activity. Methods: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used to determine the components of ethanol and hexane extracts of G. herbaceum leaf while 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide assays were used to determine the antioxidant potential. Malaria parasites viability was examined using parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) technique and HeLa cell was used for the cytotoxicity evaluation. Results: Bioactive compounds identified in ethanol and hexane extracts of G. herbaceum were 37 and 30 kinds, respectively, with major components as linoleic acid (36.10% & 33.82%), vitamin E (7.15% & 5.98%) and caryophyllene (4.21% & 5.08%). Tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids steroids, phenols and terpenoids and significant inhibitory potentials against multidrug-resistant bacteria strains were present. In vitro antioxidant potentials (IC50) of ethanol and hexane extracts were 3.33 and 4.12 µg/mL for DPPH assays, and 3.87 and 5.00 µg/mL for nitric oxide assays, respectively. Antiplasmodial activities (IC50) were 9.99 and 9.76 µg/mL for ethanol and hexane extracts, respectively. Conclusion: G. herbaceum leaf may provide novel plant-derived therapeutic agents, effective in treating infectious diseases arising from multiple drug-resistant bacteria and a target in the management of oxidative stress.
... R. communis (Abdul et al., 2018), T. chebula (Bag et al., 2013;Kolla et al., 2018), T. ammi (Ranjan et al., 2011;Bairwa et al., 2012), W. somnifera (Dar et al., 2016), A. speciosa (Joseph et al., 2011), C. deodara (Gupta et al., 2011), V. negundo (Gill et al., 2018), N. arbortristis (Hussain and Ramteke, 2012), T. cordifolia (Ghosh and Saha, 2012;Khan et al., 2016), C. fistula (Kumar et al., 2017;Pawar et al., 2017), C. sativum (Mahendra and Bisht, 2011;Rajeshwari and Andallu, 2011), F. vulgare (Rahimi and Ardekani, 2013), Z. officinale (Shakya, 2015), S. indicum (Sharma et al., 2017), and S. surattense (Tekuri et al., 2019) are rich in phytochemicals having high antioxidant potentials. G. herbaceum (Khaleequr et al., 2012) has antioxidant property, whereas P. retrofractum (Kubo et al., 2013) has shown to have neurotrophic effects. Indeed, T. cordifolia (Ghosh and Saha, 2012;Khan et al., 2016) and T. chebula (Bag et al., 2013;Kolla et al., 2018), in addition to antioxidative property, have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. ...
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The widely used cancer treatment, chemotherapy, causes severe long-term neuropathic pain in 30-40% cases, the condition clinically known as chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Approved conventional analgesics are sometimes ineffective, while others like opioids have undesirable side effects like addiction, seizures, and respiratory malfunctioning. Tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants, although exhibit anti-allodynic effects in neuropathy, also have unpleasant side effects. Thus, alternative medicines are being explored for CIPN treatment. Despite scattered reports on different extracts from different plants having potential anti-allodynic effects against CIPN, no established medicine or formulation of herbal origin exists. In this study, efficacy of an herbal decoction, formulated based on ancient medicinal principles and protocols for treating neuropathic pain, Divya-Peedantak-Kwath (DPK), has been evaluated in a paclitaxel (PTX)-induced peripheral neuropathic mouse model. We observed that DPK has prominent anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects and acts as a nociceptive modulator for CIPN. With exhibited antioxidative effects, DPK restored the redox potential of the sciatic nerves to the normal. On histopathological evaluation, DPK prevented the PTX-induced lesions in the sciatic nerve, in a dose-dependent manner. It also prevented inflammation by modulating the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in CIPN pathogenesis. Our observations evinced that DPK can alleviate CIPN by attenuating oxidative stress and concomitant neuroinflammation through immune modulation.
... To the best of our knowledge ethnobotanical records regarding uses of G. herbaceum, O. europaea, O. ficusindica, and P. granatum in the management of asthma are nonexistent in Africa, thus noted in this study for the first time. However, the taxa G. herbaceum [58], O. europaea [59], O. ficus-indica [60], and P. granatum [61] are all used in other continents of the world comparably to Bapedi THs, subsequently, indicating that these species might be helpful as asthma remedies. Some of the aforementioned taxa, notably E. camaldulensis, M. indica, O. ficus-indica, P. granatum, and Z. mays, are exotic in South Africa, thus suggesting two things: (i) that the original knowledge of their application for asthma by Bapedi was obtained via interactions with outside THs and/or (ii) was given by ancestors via dreams. ...
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To the best of our knowledge there are presently no ethnobotanical surveys focusing on the utilisation of herbal remedies for asthma in South Africa. The present study is therefore an attempt to fill this gap in knowledge. A total of 140 Bapedi traditional healers (THs) practicing in the Capricorn, Sekhukhune, and Waterberg districts of the Limpopo Province (South Africa) were queried using semistructured questionnaires, supplemented by field observations during face-to-face interview. A total of 104 medicinal plant species (92 indigenous and 12 exotics) belonging to 92 genera, distributed across 54 botanical families, mostly the Asteraceae and Fabaceae (18.5%, for each) as well as Malvaceae (12.9%), were used as antiasthmatics and related symptoms by these THs. Most of the plants were trees and herbs (37.5%, for each), with root (57%), leaf (15.8%), and bark (7.5%), respectively, being the saliently used parts for preparation of remedies. Clerodendrum ternatum , Cryptocarya transvaalensis , Lasiosiphon caffer , Enicostema axillare , Mimusops obovata , Sclerocarya birrea , and Stylochaeton natalensis were widely used and valued by all THs across the surveyed districts. Furthermore, these taxa also scored both the highest use value and fidelity level indexes as asthma therapies. Overall, the larger number of species documented in the present study is recorded for the first time in literature as asthma and/or related symptoms remedies. Our study finding generally contributes towards an establishment of South African database of herbal therapies used traditionally against these conditions.
... In that attempt pharmacists are trying for the familiar options by studying medicinal plants. Number of medicinal plants are already studied for their effect on the fertility such as Androgarphis paniculata [1], Aegle marmelos, Tinospora cardifolia, Momordica charantia, Martynia annua [2], Gossypium herbaceum [3] and the plant Melia azedarach is already proved antifertility activity in female albino rats [4]. ...
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Medicinal plants play a key role in human life as they are helpful in curing several diseases. They not only support health by the pharmacological nature but also utilizable as contraceptive options. The present study reveals that the medicinal plants Melia azedarach and Dodonaea viscosa leaf extracts showing antifertility activity. The decreased sperm count and reproductive organ weights including the necrotic changes in the seminiferous tubules of testis suggesting the antifertility activity of the plants. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and other serological studies were also carried out to know whether side-effects of the extracts.
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The MPhil study presented in this thesis was an extension of a collaborative research partnership between the Indigenous Bioresources Research Group (IBRG) of Macquarie University and Chungtia village (Chungtia Senso Mokokchung Town, CSMT), Nagaland, for documentation of ethnobotanical knowledge of Chungtia village Elders and healers as well as phytochemical and biological activity investigation and isolation of bioactive constituents from Nagaland medicinal plants. The project was initiated by Meyanungsang Kichu, a Nagaland person, who conducted an ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Chungtia villagers and documented 135 plants for their various ethnomedicinal and ethnobotanical applications. This MPhil study completed an up to date literature review of the 135 medicinal plants, then investigated the antimicrobial potential of those plants used by Chungtia villagers for skin conditions, conducted antimicrobial screening of a selection of these, and finally investigated in detail one plant for its antimicrobial activity and bioactive constituents. A comprehensive literature review covering traditional usages of all 135 plants by other Indigenous traditional healers’ worldwide and phytochemical and biological properties of these plants was conducted. This revealed that the traditional usages by the Chungtia community of 93 of their medicinal plants are in agreement with the uses of other Indigenous communities. Thirteen species were found to have no reports on their traditional uses, other than our first-hand accounts of the Chungtia community. Out of 93 species that were found to be used in a similar way by other communities, 80 had traditional uses that were consistent with pharmacological studies that have been reported in the literature and 55 of these plants had also had phytochemical studies conducted that showed bioactive compounds that aligned with their traditional uses by the Chungtia villagers. A detailed literature review was conducted on the antimicrobial properties and relevant phytoconstituents of 35 plants used by the Chungtia villagers for skin related conditions of a possible microbial origin. This highlighted twelve species with either no antimicrobial properties reported and/or no antimicrobial compounds identified. Out of these, seven species (Dendrocnide sinuata, Duabanga grandiflora, Erythrina stricta, Eurya acuminata, Holboellia latifolia, Maesa indica and Prunus persica) that were available for collection were selected for antimicrobial screening. The antimicrobial screening of the 70% aqueous ethanolic extracts of the plants (D. sinuate stem, D. grandiflora stem bark, E. stricta stem, E. acuminata leaves, H. latifolia leaves, M. indica leaves and P. persica roots) was performed using disc diffusion and MTT microdilution assays against the human pathogenic microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus (susceptible S. aureus), methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and multi drug resistant S. aureus (MDRSA), susceptible beta-lactamase negative Escherichia coli (β- E. coli), β- lactamase positive (antibiotic resistant) E. coli (β+ E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Candida albicans. The highest inhibitory activities were exhibited by the P. persica root extract, with MIC values of 156 μg/mL for all tested S. aureus strains. Based on the antibacterial screening results, P. persica was selected for further biological and chemical investigations for its antibacterial constituents. The 70% aqueous ethanolic P. persica roots extract was subjected to partitioning with different polarity solvents (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate). The most potent inhibitory activity was observed for the n-hexane and ethyl acetate partitions against susceptible and resistant strains of S. aureus. The GS-MS analysis of the n-hexane partition revealed the presence of eight constituents, out of which three were reported in the literature as antibacterial against S. aureus. TLC bioautographic methods reported in the literature were trialled with the aim to develop the most appropriate technique for the bioautography guided isolation process. The overlay method was found to be the most effective for the purpose of this study. TLC bioautography guided isolation by normal phase chromatography, size exclusion chromatography and preparative TLC led to the isolation of β-sitosterol (5.1) from the n-hexane partition and afzelechin (5.2) and ent-epiafzelechin-(2α→O→7’,4α→8’)-(-)-ent-afzelechin (5.3) from the ethyl acetate partition. The structures of these three compounds were determined based on various spectroscopic methods, including mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism. β-Sitosterol was found to be moderately active (MIC 1250 μg/mL) against P. aeruginosa as well as weakly active (MIC 2500 μg/mL) against susceptible strains of S. aureus, E. coli and S. typhimurium. ent-Epiafzelechin-(2α→O→7’,4α→8’)-(-)-ent-afzelechin showed good antibacterial activity against all the tested strains of S. aureus (MIC 156 μg/mL for susceptible and 312 μg/mL for resistant) as well as weak activity against the susceptible strains of E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhimurium (MIC 2500 µg/mL, for all bacteria). This is the first report of this compound possessing antibacterial activity. The antimicrobial properties of afzelechin were not tested due to the small quantity of sample.
Stress renders an individual to experience mental pressure and exhaustion which brings about feelings of anxiety, depression, anger and/or other negative emotions. Depression affects a person's state of mind, behaviour, health and is often associated with suicide. The use of anti-depressant drugs as therapeutic agents is associated with symptoms such as, delayed onset of action, side-effects, drug-drug and dietary interactions, sexual dysfunction, cardiac toxicity, etc. Thus, there is need to target these issues and improve current treatment options. Medicinal plants have long been used in discovering novel treatment strategies and compounds with promising roles in treating various disease conditions. There has been an increase, worldwide, in the use of medicinal plants and herbs for developing nutraceuticals for treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders. Medicinal plants in their natural forms are valuable as they are rich in various phytochemical compounds. These phytochemical compounds have pharmacological roles in treating various diseases conditions; apart from being widely available in nature and commercially beneficial. The phytochemical compounds in plants are constantly being explored through various experimental studies to determine the molecular basis of how medicinal plants work in relation to drugs and diseases and to develop neutraceuticals for improving conditions. This review summarizes 110 medicinal plants and their phytochemical constituents that have been shown to possess anti-depressant activity. This review also highlights the various mechanisms of anti-depressant action of some of these plants and their plant parts like roots, stem, leaves, flowers, fruit or whole plant; phytochemical compounds showing anti-depressant activity such flavanoids, steroids, saponins, sugars, lectins, alkaloids, etc.; and various anti-depressant screening models used such as tail suspension test, forced swim test, chronic unpredictable stress test, sucrose preference test, monoamine oxidase inhibition assay, learned helplessness test, open field test, hole board test, etc. However, mechanistic evaluation of many of these plants still needs to be investigated and explored.
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The Amazon Basin is a center of diversity of Gossypium barbadense and the strategy for conservation of this genetic resource depends on the knowledge of the diversity maintained in Amazonas State. During two expeditions, in 2012 and 2014, plants were collected in ten municipalities in the state of Amazonas, in the central Brazilian Amazon region. The molecular diversity was estimated by SSR markers for 50 samples collected in 2012. The morphological diversity of 24 plants collected in 2014 was assessed ex situ and compared to that of 50 plants of the same and other cotton varieties from other Brazilian states. Most of plants evaluated in situ in Amazonas had purple petioles and veins (82%), associated to medicinal use, and kidney seeds (78%). The ex situ morphological analysies showed that G. barbadense plants from the Amazonas state: i) presented higher similarity to cotton plants from other northern Brazilian states, and ii) were grouped separately from those of other northern Brazilian states by descriptor analysis. Both the molecular (H=0.41) and morphological (H=0.38±0.02) diversity among the collected plants was considered intermediary. Our study indicates the distinctiveness of Amazon cottons, and contributes to demonstrate the discrimination power of multicategorical traits. © 2018, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia. All rights reserved.
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India is sitting on a gold mine of well-recorded and traditionally well practiced knowledge of herbal medicine. There are very few medicinal herbs of commercial importance, which are not found in this country. India officially recognizes over 3000 plants for their medicinal value. It is generally estimated that over 6000 plants in India are in use in traditional, folk and herbal medicine. There are about 9000 firms manufacturing traditional Ayurvedic medicines in India. Major Pharmaceutical companies are currently conducting extensive research on plant materials for their potential medicinal value. Depression is a common mood disorder that impacts on all aspect of a person's life, involving mood, thoughts, thinking, behavior, feelings etc. It is a potentially life-threatening disorder that affects hundreds of millions of people all over the world. It can occur at any age from childhood to late life. According to the World Health Organization, depression is a mental health problem affecting an estimated 121 million people worldwide. Objective of the present review is to explore some of the medicinal plant and their phytoconstituents for their anti-depressant like activity.
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The present study investigated In-vitro antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic leaves extract (70: 30) of Gossypium herbaceum Linn. to provide scientific basis for traditional usage of this plant. The In-vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by determining reducing power, total flavonoids and total phenolic contents using standard assay methods. The ability of the extract to scavenge 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was also assessed using spectroscopic method. Ascorbic acid was used as standard antioxidant and positive control. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extract was increased with the increasing concentration. The IC50 values for DPPH assay of Gossypium herbaceum and ascorbic acid were found to be 44.69µg/ml and 13.80µg/ml respectively. The reducing power of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. Total flavonoid content in the extract was found to be 410 ± 0.74 mg Quercetin equivalents/g of dry material. Total phenolic content in Gossypium herbaceum was found to be 5.86 ± 0.75 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g of dry material. The results obtained from this study indicate that Gossypium herbaceum is a potential source of antioxidants and thus could prevent many radical diseases.
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Flavonoids extracts of seeds and callus tissues of three species of Gossypium (fam. Malvaceae) were screened against Bacillus cerus, Escherchia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Trichoderma viride and Candida albicans adopting disc diffusion method. Results were compared with the zone of inhibition produced by commercially available standard antibiotics. Maximum activity was observed in flavonoid fraction of callus tissue as compared to seeds. Flavonoids extracts did not show any activity against Candida albicans.
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The Marihan subdivision of district Mirzapur is dominated by several tribal groups. These people have their own ethnoveterinary treatment systems of diseases both for human as well as for their livestock. The common cattle diseases of the area are foot & mouth disease, anthrax, pneumonia, ectoparasites, helminthiasis, constipation, diarrhea/ dysentery, mastitis etc. The different cattle diseases are listed along with their treatment system.
The selection of plants studied in this treatise is based on its significance, and its representation of members of different taxonomic families as well as of different classes (and subclasses) of compounds. All the available data on the chemical compounds and the pharmacological studies on these plants/compounds have been incorporated. The plants are arranged by the type and nature of chemical compounds they contain. Secondary metabolites have been included in this volume due to their great therapeutic role.
Medicinal plants play a paramount role in the new era of modern medicine. Numerous medicinal plants and their formulations are used for various disorders in ethno medical practices as well in the traditional system of medicine in India. The diuretic activity of ethyl acetate and alcohol extract of Gossypium herbaceum Linn leaves was investigated in male wistar albino rats. The both extracts were administered at graded doses of 100&200 mg/kg body weight. The parameters which were taken into account during the experimental on each rat were; total urine volume, body weight before and after the experiment and the concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride ions in urine. The total urine volumes of the both extracts (200mg/kg) treated rats were evaluated nearly two folds compared with the control. Excretion of cations (sodium& potassium ions) and anions (chloride ions) also increased significantly with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Frusemide. The increase of cat ions in the urine on the treatment with ethyl acetate and alcohol extract of Gossypium herbaceum Llinn leaves was dose dependent. This effect supports alcoholic extract showed significant activity than the ethyl acetate extract as a diuretic.
Fertility control is an issue of global and national public health concern. Many studies have been done on the male contraception. The traditional use of medicinal plants to treat different sorts of diseases, including fertility related problems is widespread throughout the world as many plant substances are known for their interferences with the male reproductive system. The present review is an attempt to summarize the fertility regulatory plants with part used, type of extract/isolated compounds (active principles) along with animal model used. The literature covered is of 25 years i.e. from 1980 to 2005 for 105 plants showing antifertility activity in males.
Allantoin and uric acid were estimated in milk to study the association between the levels of these purine derivatives and milk production per day under given feeding regimens. Keeping the stage of lactation, parity and initial milk yield in view thirty lactating buffaloes were randomly selected from early lactating group. All the animals were fed 30 kg green, 2 kg straw and 5 kg concentrate mixture on per animal/day basis at basal level up to 8 1 produce. 1 kg concentrate mixture, soaked cotton seed and boiled cotton seed was fed for every 2 1 milk, respectively in Group I (control), Group II and Group III animals. Average milk Allantoin and Uric acid levels were 120±11.7 g/ml and 4.03±0.63 g/ml, respectively in milk. Cotton seed feeding enhanced the milk production significantly (p<0.01) in comparison to concentrate mixture fed control group animals. A significant difference (p<0.01) in milk allantoin levels was found over the different feeding management at higher level of production group animals. Study also revealed a significant negative correlation between the milk allantoin and production per day r=-0.43 (p<0.05). (Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 2001. Vol 14, No. 11 : 1634-1637).