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Phytopharmacology of Celastrus paniculatus: An Overview

  • Vidyasiri college of Pharmacy

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Celastrus paniculatus (CP), a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant used for centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. The seed extract has been extensively investigated in several laboratories for their neuropharmacological effects and a number of reports are available confirming their nootropic action. In addition, researchers have evaluated the anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant and other pharmacological effects of CP preparations/extracts. Therefore, in view of the important activities performed by this plant, investigation must be continued in the recently observed actions described in this paper. Moreover, clinical studies have to be encouraged, also to evidence any side effects and possible interactions between this herbal medicine and synthetic drugs.
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International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2010; 2(3): 176-181
Review Article
ISSN 0975-248X
Phyto-pharmacology of Celastrus paniculatus: An Overview
M. Bhanumathy1*, S. B. Chandrasekar1, Uma Chandur2, T. Somasundaram1
1Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, Karnataka, India
2Hillside College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Celastrus paniculatus (CP), a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant used for centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-
inflammatory, analgesic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. The seed extract has been extensively investigated in several
laboratories for their neuropharmacological effects and a number of reports are available confirming their nootropic action.
In addition, researchers have evaluated the anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant and other pharmacological effects of CP
preparations/extracts. Therefore, in view of the important activities performed by this plant, investigation must be
continued in the recently observed actions described in this paper. Moreover, clinical studies have to be encouraged, also to
evidence any side effects and possible interactions between this herbal medicine and synthetic drugs.
Keywords: Celastrus paniculatus; Ayurvedic; Medicinal plant; Nootropic action.
Celastrus paniculatus Willd. (CP) belongs to family
Celastraceae is a large, woody, climbing shrub, distributed
almost all over India up to an altitude of 1800 m is known for
its ability to improve memory. [1] It also found in middle and
South Andamans. Ayurveda, the ancient Indian traditional
system of medicine has used this plant seed for prevention
and treatment of various diseases. [2] The bark is
abortifacient, depurative and a brain tonic. The leaves are
emmenagogue and the leaf sap is a good antidote for opium
poisoning. The seeds are acrid, bitter, thermogenic,
emollient, stimulant, intellect promoting, digestive, laxative,
emetic, expectorant, appetizer, aphrodisiac, cardiotonic, anti-
inflammatory, diuretic, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, febrifuge
and tonic, abdominal disorders, leprosy, pruritus, skin
diseases, paralysis, cephalalgia, arthralgia, asthma,
leucoderma, cardiac debility, inflammation, nephropathy,
amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea. The seed oil is bitter,
thermogenic and intellect promoting and is useful in
abdominal disorders, beri-beri and sores. [3]
Botanical name: Celastrus paniculatus Willd
Family: Celastraceae
Synonym: Celastrus dependens
Vernacular names: Hindi – Malkangani; English – Staff tree;
Kannada – Kariganne; Tamil – Valuluvai; Telugu –
*Corresponding author: M. Bhanumathy, M. Pharm.,
Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd., Hosur road, Electronic city,
Bangalore, India; Tel.: +91-9986411152
Botanical description: Celastrus paniculatus Willd. is a
climbing or scrambling shrub, with terete branches; the
young shoots and branches are pendulous.
Leaves – glabrous, broadly ovate or obovate, acuminate or
Flowers – unisexual, yellowish-green, borne in terminal,
pendulous panicles (flowering throughout the year).
Fruit – capsule, globose, 3-valved, 3-celled, 3-6 seeded.
Seeds are enclosed in complete red arillus, ovoid, brown.
Chemical examination of fixed oil from the CP seed showed
presence of fatty acids, viz., oleic, linoleic, linolenic,
palmitic, stearic, crude lignoceric acid, benzoic and acetic
acid as volatile acids. The aqueous extract of CP seed
contained traces of tannins, reducing sugars but no starch. [4]
The petroleum ether extract of husk from the seeds on
saponification yielded palmitic and stearic acids. An
unidentified sterol was obtained from unsaponifiable
fraction. [5]
Several sesquiterpene polyalcohols were reported to be
present in the saponified 80% methanolic extract of seed oil
and malkanguniol is one of the major constituent. Further,
four related alcohols viz., polyalcohol A, polyalcohol B,
polyalcohol C, polyalcohol D were isolated from the extract
along with malkanguniol. [6]
Paraffinic hydrocarbons, β-sitosterol, β-amyrin and a
pentacyclic triterpene diol paniculatadiol were isolated from
the non-sapanifiable fraction of the CP seed oil. The
triterpene diol was assigned structure as olean-12-ene-3β, 29
diol. [7]
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The fatty acid composition of 4 lipid fractions of CP seed
viz., normal triglycerides (20.2%), polar triglycerides
(44.4%), polar nonglyceridic ester (23.5%) and non polar non
glyceridic ester (11%) was reported. The components
constituting the normal triglycerides were identified as
palmitooleopalmitin, palmitooleostearin, palmitodiolein,
palmitooleolinolein, stearodiolein, triolein and dioleolinolein.
A new sesquiterpene polyol ester characterized as 1α, 6β, 8β-
triacetoxy-9β-benzoyloxydihydro-beta-agarofuran, along
with the three known compounds: 1α, 6β, 8α-triacetoxy-9α-
benzoyloxydihydro-beta-agarofuran, angulatueoid C, and 1α,
6β, 8β, 14-tetraacetoxy-9α-benzoyloxydihydro-beta-
agarofuran, was isolated from the carbon tetrachloride
(CCl4)-soluble fraction of CP methanolic seed extract. [9]
The fleshy arils of CP on extraction with petroleum ether
yielded a phytosterol designated as celastrol (0.15%), a semi-
solid fat and a resinous colouring matter. [10] The petroleum
ether extract of the fruits showed presence of
steroids/terpenoids, alkaloids and absence of flavonoids and
saponins. [11] A polyalcohol identified as dulcitol was isolated
from the CP flowers. This was the first report of its
occurrence in the genus Celastrus. [12] The ethanol extract of
CP bark showed presence of saponins and tannins and
absence of alkaloids. [13] The petroleum ether extract of the
root bark yielded benzoic acid, n-triacontanol, pristimerin, a
hydrocarbon, an uncharacterized quinine and a golden yellow
oil. [14] Celastrol, pristimerin, zeylasterone and zeylasteral are
identified as quinone-methide and phenolic triterpenoids in
the root outer bark of CP. [15]
A new sesquiterpene ester (Malkangunin) and three
sesquiterpene alkaloids (celapanin, celapanigin, celapagin)
were isolated from CP. The sesquiterpene alkaloids are
derived from a new sesquiterpene tetra-ol (celapanol) which
is alternately esterified with acetic, benzoic, nicotinic and β-
furoic acids. [16] The various mineral elements in the CP plant
was reported as sodium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium,
calcium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt,
nickel, copper, zinc, molybdenum, silver while strontium and
cerium were found to be absent. [17] The 50% ethanolic
extract of plant (excluding root) showed presence of tannins
(3.52%). [18]
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Central Nervous System
The crude CP seed oil administered orally, intramuscularly
(i.m.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) in a dose of 1 g/kg produced
sedation in rats. The oil administered orally (100 mg/kg) as
an emulsion showed no sedative effect in rabbits. The same
emulsion (1 g/kg i.p.) to mice produced mild sedation.
Administration of oil (1 g/kg i.m.) to mice showed a
significant reduction of movement. CP seed oil given as
emulsion showed tranquilizing effect on adrenaline and
amphetamine-induced excitement in mice. [24]
The anticonvulsant activity of seed oil was examined against
leptazole, picrotoxin and strychnine-induced convulsions in
rats. It increased strychnine convulsions and reduced
leptazole toxicity. It produced calming effect in injected rats,
potentiated pentobarbitone sedation and exerted
antispasmodic activity with respect to acetylcholine but did
not significantly affect the amphetamine toxicity. [25]
An active fraction, designated as Mal III/A was isolated from
the CP seed oil. It produced a tranquillizing effect on rats,
mice, monkeys and cats in a dose of 200 mg/kg. It
potentiated the effect of hexobarbitone and produced
hypothermia in mice. The fraction also decreased
spontaneous motor activity, amphetamine-induced
hyperactivity, orientation hyperactivity and oxygen
consumption in mice. [26]
Polyester isolated from CP seed oil when given in doses of
35 and 70 mg/kg, i.p. decreased amphetamine-induced
hyperactivity and group toxicity in albino rats. It also reduced
the rectal temperature of rats in both the doses. The analgesic
effect of morphine at 2 mg/kg in rats was significantly
prolonged by the drug in both doses administered 20, 40 and
60 min after injection of morphine. [27]
Oral administration of 1 ml of 5% emulsion of seed oil for 3
days enhanced the learning process in albino rats which was
comparable to that of vasopressin. [28] The memory process
also improved which was more prominent in 7 days treated
animals than in 3 days treated animals. The effects were
comparable to that of vasopressin. [29]
Effects of administration of seed oil on learning and memory
in a passive avoidance model as well as on brain contents of
biogenic amines viz., norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA)
and serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites were studied.
Significant improvement was observed in cognition ability of
the drug treated rats. The drug did not produce any
neurotoxic effect or change in pain threshold in rats. The
contents of NE, DA and 5-HT and their metabolites in the
brain were significantly decreased in the drug treated group.
The effect of CP seed oil was studied using Morris water
maze apparatus on the 6 day performance of young adult rats.
Chronic oral administration of seed oil (50, 200, or 400
mg/kg) for 14 days completely reversed the scopolamine (0.5
mg/kg)-induced task performance deficit. On the other hand,
acute treatment of CP (200 mg/kg) did not significantly
reverse the scopolamine-induced impairment in maze
performance. Thus, the seed oil of CP, when administered
chronically, selectively reversed the impairment in spatial
memory produced by acute central muscarinic receptor
blockade, supporting the possibility that one or more
constituents of the oil may offer cognitive enhancing
properties. [31]
The aqueous, methanolic, chloroform and petroleum ether
extracts of seeds of CP were investigated for their effect on
cognitive functions in rats. Only the aqueous seed extract
(200 mg/kg, b.w. for 14 days) showed an improvement in
learning and memory in both the shuttle-box and step-
through paradigms. The effect of aqueous seed extract was
also evaluated on oxidative stress parameters and found to
show antioxidant properties by decreasing the lipid
peroxidation and augmenting endogenous antioxidant
enzymes in brain. The aqueous extract of CP (100, 200 and
300 mg/kg for 21 days once a day) was investigated for its
cognitive enhancing and antioxidant propery in model of
alzheimer’s disease in rats. The cognitive behavior was
assessed using passive avoidance and elevated plus maze
paradigms. Estimation of oxidative stress parameters
(malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxide dismutase and
catalase) was carried out in the whole brain upon completion
of the behavioral task. The aqueous extract of CP was found
to be effective in preventing the cognitive deficits as well as
the oxidative stress caused by ICV streptozotocin in rats. [32]
Enriched forebrain primary neuronal cell (FBNC) cultures
were used to study the neuroprotective effects of three water
soluble extracts of CP seed (CP-WSE) (a room temperature,
WF; a hot water, HF; and an acid, AF) on glutamate-induced
toxicity. Pre-treatment of neuronal cells with CP-WSE
significantly attenuated glutamate-induced neuronal death.
Electrophysiological studies using patch-clamp techniques on
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-activated whole-cell currents
in FBNC were conducted to understand the molecular
mechanism of action of CP-WSE. WSE significantly and
reversibly inhibited whole-cell currents activated by NMDA.
The results suggest that CP-WSE protected neuronal cells
against glutamate-induced toxicity by modulating glutamate
receptor function. [33]
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The petroleum ether extract of seeds was evaluated for
antianxiety activity using behavioural disinhibition model of
anxiety in rats. It showed significant inhibition of punishment
related and reward related suppression of operant behaviour
in rats, at dose level of 3.2 g/kg/day for 5 days. [34] The
Celastrus oil, extracted from seeds of CP tested at 2 dose
levels (1 and 1.5 g/kg) in rats exhibited significant anxiolytic
activity and did not produce tolerance. The non-sedative
nature and reversal of anxiolytic property of 5-HT1A partial
agonist buspirone in the open field test point to the
serotonergic mechanism underlying the anxiolysis. [35]
The crude CP seed oil administered as emulsion (50-100
mg/kg) produced a gradual fall in cardiac output, bradycardia
and marked increase in pulse pressure on isolated heart lung
preparation in cat. A similar action with 1 g of emulsified oil
was also observed in dogs. [24] The aqueous extract of CP
seed showed 50% angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
inhibition; ethanol extract showed mild activity while the
acetone extract was devoid of it. [36]
The seed oil when given in a dose of 0.2 ml/animal/48 h to
adult albino rats for 30 days showed antispermatogenic
effects as evidenced by vacuolization of seminiferous
tubules, germ cell depletion and exfoliation culminating into
an arrest in spermatogenesis. The shrunken tubules revealed
only sertoli cells and spermatogonia in the final stage of
impairment of spermatogenesis. [37] The livers revealed focal
necrosis in animals receiving 0.2 ml (i.p.) seed oil for 30
days, but 45 days post treatment these lesions were absent.
These results indicate that CP oil may have useful
antifertility effects and that the degenerative changes seen in
the liver are reversible with time. [38]
Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory
Flowers of CP and whole plant of Tecomella undulata were
extracted individually in absolute methanol. Using the hot
water tail immersion test in mice and carrageenan induced
paw edema in rats both extracts were tested for their oral
analgesic and anti-inflammatory potentials. Results showed
that CP had both analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities,
while T. undulata had only analgesic potential when
compared with aspirin. [39]
The seed oil showed anti-inflammatory activity in
carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema. The oil in doses of 5
and 10 ml/kg showed 66.60 and 78.78% inhibition of
inflammation as compared to 75.75% shown by 100 ml/kg
dose of ibuprofen. [40]
Administration of 50% ethanolic seed extract at 500 mg/kg
from day 1 to 120 to hyperlipidaemic rabbits, prevented
accumulation of cholesterol and triglycerides in liver and
aorta and regressed atheromatous plaques of ascending
thoracic and abdominal aorta. The serum cholesterol and
LDL-cholesterol levels were reduced by 60.10 and 71.70%,
respectively. Increased faecal excretion of cholesterol was
observed suggesting that modulation of adsorption was
affected. [41]
Antioxidant activity
The methanolic extract of CP plant was investigated for its
free radical scavenging capacity and its effect on DNA
cleavage induced by hydrogen peroxide UV-photolysis. CP
extract showed a dose-dependent free radical scavenging
capacity and a protective effect on DNA damage in human
non-immortalized fibroblasts. The results indicate that the CP
extract exhibit interesting antioxidant properties, expressed
by their capacity to scavenge superoxide anion and hydroxyl
radical and to reduce the hydrogen peroxide-induced
cytotoxicity and DNA damage in human fibroblast cells. [42]
Three aqueous extracts (WSEs) obtained from CP seeds: a
room temperature extract (WF); a hot water extract (HF); an
acid extract (AF) were investigated for the free radical
scavenging capacity. All the WSEs exhibited a dose-
dependent free radical scavenging capacity for 1,1-diphenyl-
2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and also for superoxide-
generated assays (in vitro assays). All the WSEs significantly
attenuated hydrogen peroxide-induced neuronal death, and
AF was the most effective in protecting the neuronal cells
against oxidative injury caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
The superoxide scavenging effects of CP seed oil (CPO) and
two extracts, ethanolic extract (EE) and methanolic extract
(ME), and their neuroprotective effects to H2O2-induced
oxidative stress and glutamate-induced toxicity was
investigated using an enriched neuronal cell culture. CPO
and EE showed dose-dependent, free-radical-scavenging
capacity, but to a lesser degree than observed for ME. The
activity of cellular acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was not
affected by CPO, ME, or EE, suggesting that the
neuroprotection offered by CPO was independent of changes
in AChE activity. Thus data suggest that CPO, ME and EE
protected neuronal cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced
toxicity in part by virtue of their antioxidant properties, and
their ability to induce antioxidant enzymes. [44]
Anti-arthritic activity
The anti-arthritic effect of oral administration of petroleum
ether and alcoholic extracts of CP seed on Freund’s adjuvant
arthritis has been studied in Wistar albino rats. The body
weight loss that was found during the arthritic condition was
corrected on treatment with petroleum ether and alcoholic
extracts of CP seed. The swelling of the paw during the
secondary lesions was also markedly reduced. The results
indicated that the seed of CP is endowed with anti-arthritic
activity. [19]
Wound healing activity
A triterpene compound lupeol isolated from petroleum ether
extract of leaves of CP was screened for wound healing
activity (8 mg/ml of 0.2% sodium alginate gel) by excision,
incision and dead space wound models on Swiss albino rats
(175-225 g). In lupeol treated groups wound healing activity
was more significant than the standard skin ointment
nitrofurazone. Epithelialization of the incision wound was
faster with a high rate of wound contraction as compared
with the control group. In dead space wound model the
weight of the granulation tissue of the lupeol treated animal
was increased indicating increase of collagenation and
absence of monocytes. [45]
Crude solvent extracts from the root bark and stem of CP
were screened for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium
falciparum using an in vitro culture system. A fraction of the
chloroform extract of the root bark showed the highest
antimalarial activity. An active principle was isolated and
characterized from the chloroform fraction and indentified as
a quinonoid triterpene, pristimerin. When tested in vitro
against various multidrug resistant isolates of P. falciparum,
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IJPSDR July-September, 2010, Vol 2, Issue 3 (176-181) 180
pristimerin was less active than the conventional antimalarial
drugs tested. [46]
The CP seed oil showed antibacterial activity against
Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus, Micrococcus pyogenes
var. albus, Micrococcus pyogenes var. citreus, Bacillus
subtilis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Salmonella typhosa,
Salmonella paratyphi A and B, Escherichia coli, Proteus
vulgaris, Pseudomonas pyocyana by cup-plate method. The
concentration of oil ranging from 0.4-1% v/v was effective
against Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus and Salmonella
typhosa. [47]
The oil at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%)
was tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacteria
Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus,
Salmonella dysentrica, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus
vulgaris and fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus,
Penicillium sp. and Trichoderma sp. The oil showed weak
antibacterial activity in terms of zone of inhibition against
Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella
dysentrica at 100% concentration. [42]
The aqueous extract of CP seed showed potent antibacterial
activity against Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae,
Proteus morganii, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella marcescens,
Salmonella typhosa, Salmonella partyphi A, Escherichia
coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus lutea,
Staphylococcus aureus but was found inactive against
Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella paratyphi B. [48]
Antifungal activity
Twenty-eight South Indian medicinal plants were screened
for their anti-fungal activity against six species of fungi
(Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum,
Trichophyton soudanense, Candida albicans, Torulopsis
glabrata, and Candida krusei). Three plant species extracts,
Celastrus paniculatus, Eriodendron anfractuosum and Ficus
glomerata showed inhibitory activity against 6 species of
fungi. [49]
Acute toxicity studies
CP seed oil was administered orally at a dose of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4
and 5 g/kg, b.w. to different groups of rats (n = 8, in each
group). During the first 4 h after the drug administration, the
rats were observed for gross behavioural changes. The
parameters observed were hyperactivity, grooming,
convulsion and sedation, loss of righting reflex, increased
respiration and hypothermia. Celastrus oil administration up
to the highest dose (5 g/kg b. w.) did not produce any toxic
effect on the normal behaviour of the rats. No mortality was
observed even with the highest dose of CP. [30]
The acute oral toxicity study was carried out as per the
guideline set by the Organization for Economic Co-operation
and Development (OECD). One tenth of the medium lethal
dose (LD50) was taken as an effective dose. The LD50 cut-off
dose for petroleum ether extract and alcoholic extract were
found to be 5000 mg/kg and 3000 mg/kg body weight
respectively. Hence, the therapeutic doses were taken as 500
mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight for petroleum ether and
ethanolic extracts respectively. [19]
CP, a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant has been used for
centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory,
analgesic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. The seed extract
has been extensively investigated in several laboratories for
their neuropharmacological effects and a number of
preclinical reports are available confirming their nootropic
action but the exact mechanism of its actions is still
uncertain. It has been suggested that CP, exhibits
neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing effects, in part due
to its, capacity to modulate the cholinergic system and to
contrast oxidative stress. In addition, researchers have
evaluated the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic and
other pharmacological effects of CP preparations/extracts.
Therefore, in view of the important activities performed by
this plant, investigation must be continued in the recently
observed actions. Moreover, clinical studies have to be
encouraged, also to evidence any side effects and possible
interactions between this herbal medicine and synthetic
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... The plant is essential medicinally to improve memory (Lal and Singh, 2010). It is native to India and wildly distributed in the foothill zone of Himalaya, South China, South East Asia to Australia, Taiwan, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, and many Pacific islands (Bhanumathy et al., 2010). The Celastrus paniculatus Willd. is 8-10 m large, with radish brown long slender and lenticlate stem (18-20 cm diameter). ...
... The plant of Celastrus paniculatus is harvested from the wild by locals as a source of medicines and oil. The oil has gained a high reputation medicinally and showed antioxidant properties (Arora and Pandey-Rai, 2014), antibacterial, analgesic and antimalarial effects etc. (Bhanumathy et al., 2010). The seed oil is commonly known as a Celastrus oil or Malkanguni oil and is one of the important components of 'Mentat Syrup' recommended as a memory enhancer and also used for mental disorders (Dwivedi and Maurya, 2018). ...
The potential of new trimetallic (Ce, Cu, La) loaded montmorillonite clay catalyst for synthesizing biodiesel using novel non-edible Celastrus paniculatus Willd seed oil via two-step transesterification reaction has been reported along with catalyst characterization. Transesterification reaction was optimized and maximum biodiesel yield of 89.42% achieved under optimal operating reaction states like; 1:12 oil to methanol ratio, 3.5% catalyst amount, 120°C reaction temperature for 3 h correspondingly. The predicted and experimental biodiesel yields under these reaction conditions were 89.42 and 89.4%, showing less than 0.05% variation. Additionally, optimum biodiesel yield can be predicted by drawing 3D surface plots and 2D contour plots using MINITAB 17 software. For the characterization of the obtained biodiesel, analysis including the GC/MS, FT-IR, ¹H-NMR and ¹³C-NMR were applied. Also, the fuel properties of obtained biodiesel agrees well with the different European Union (EU-14214), China (GB/T 20828), and American (ASTM-951, 6751) standards.
... The triterpene diol was assigned structure as olean-12-ene-3β, 29 diol. A new sesquiterpene polyol ester characterized as 1α, 6β, 8βtriacetoxy-9β-benzoyloxydihydro-beta-agarofuran, with the three known compounds: angulatueoid C, 1α, 6β, 8α-triacetoxy-9αbenzoyloxydihydro-beta-agarofuran, and 1α, 6β, 8β, 14-tetraacetoxy-9α-benzoyloxydihydrobetaagarofuran, was isolated from the carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-soluble fraction of Celastrus paniculatus methanolic extract of seed [84]. ...
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Viral diseases are extremely widespread infections caused by viruses. Amongst numerous other illnesses, viral infections have challenged human existence severely. Over the history of mankind, new viruses have emerged and presented us with new tests. The range of viral infections varies from familiar infectious diseases such as the common cold, flu, and warts to severe ailments such as AIDS, Ebola, and COVID-19. The world has been racing to find an effective cure for the newly evolving viruses. Toxic effects, non-selectivity, drug resistance, and high price are the most common complications of conventional treatment procedures. Nature is a marvelous source of phytoconstituents with incredible varieties of biological activities. By tradition, medicinal plants have been utilized for the treatment of countless infectious diseases worldwide, some of which contain a broad spectrum of activities. Modern drug discovery and development techniques offer highly efficient separation techniques, inauguration of vector-based schemes where the original infectious virus is cloned to the non-infectious one for antiviral screening targets. The objective of the review was to gather available data on 20 both cultivated and native plants of Asia giving antiviral activities and provide comprehensive information on the phytochemical analysis of the plants and potential antiviral compounds isolated from these plants.
... Water extract of seeds of C. paniculatus significantly retained learning capacity in an elevated plus maze and passive avoidance test in rat (350 and 1,050 mg/kg) and mice (500 and 1,500 mg/kg) in reference to piracetam (100 mg/kg). They possessed dose-dependent cholinergic actions as evidenced by estimation of acetyl cholinesterase enzyme in brain cells of rat, thereby found to improve memory performance (Bhanumathy et al., 2010a, b ...
Celastrus paniculatus is a traditional herb belonging to the family Celastraceae and is widely used for a number of medicinal activities in the Indian Unani and Ayurvedic systems. In this study, the extensive literature search was carried out on phytochemistry, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities of C. paniculatus (Willd.) in various scientific databases as well as patents. Research on phytochemical investigation has shown the presence of monoterpenes (linalool, α‐terpinyl acetate, nerol acetate), sesqueterpene esters (such as malkanguniol, malkangunin, valerenal, globulol, viridiflorol, cubenol and agarofuran derivatives), diterpenoids (such as phytone, isophytol), triterpenoids (such as lupeol, pristimerin, paniculatadiol, zeylasteral, zeylasterone, β‐amyrin, squalene), alkaloids (celapanin, celapanigin, celapagin, paniculatine, celastrine, maymyrsine), fatty acids, steroids (β‐sitosterol, carpesterol benzoate), flavonoids (paniculatin), benzoic acid, and vitamin C in this plant. All the reported pharmacological activities of this plant could be due to the presence of these phytochemicals. This plant possesses strong antioxidant activity which includes total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, nitric oxide scavenging activity and free radical scavenging activity. This plant possesses multiple pharmacological activities including cognition‐enhancing, neuroprotective, antipsychotic, anti‐depressant, antibacterial, anti‐arthritic, anti‐malarial, analgesic, anti‐inflammatory, anti‐fertility, cardiovascular, locomotor, anxiolytic, wound healing activity, anti‐spasmodic, hypolipidemic, anti‐cancerous and iron‐chelating activity with different extracts of this plant as well as various phytoconstituents present in this plant. The objective of this review article is to discuss in detail the reported ethnopharmacological uses, phytochemistry and various pharmacological activities of C. paniculatus.
... Both the seed oil and petroleum ether extract showed an anti-anxiety effect in rats. Further, the oil and its different extracts showed sedative, anticonvulsant, tranquillizing, cognition-enhancing, and anti-inflammatory activities in different animal models [13]. The literature supported the neuroprotective effect of C. paniculatus oil in chronic aluminium-induced corticohippocampal neurodegeneration, scopolamine-induced amnesia, and sodium nitrite-induced amnesia models using C. paniculatus oil alone or in combination with ghee [14]. ...
Objective: To explore the effect and mechanism of action of Celastrus paniculatus oil on the treatment of perinatal rats with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methods: In the perinatal stage, the rats were either isolated or administered with lead acetate to establish an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Atomoxetine served as the reference standard. Animals’ behaviours were assessed through Y-maze, novel object preference, fear conditioning and resident-intruder aggression tests. Oxidative stress parameters, bioamine concentration (dopamine, noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine), nerve growth factor, interleukin-6, nuclear factor-κB, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were estimated. Synaptophysin immunohistochemical assay was performed. Results: Celastrus paniculatus oil significantly improved behavioural parameters in Y maze, novel object preference, discrimination index, fear conditioning and resident intruder aggressive tests. The treatment groups showed a decrease in malondialdehyde level. Changes in the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin were restored by Celastrus paniculatus oil. Celastrus paniculatus oil increased nerve growth factor and decreased interleukin-6, nuclear factor-κB, and TNF-α. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was also improved by Celastrus paniculatus oil with alleviated reactive gliosis, degeneration, and vascular proliferation. Conclusions: This research shows the therapeutic potential of Celastrus paniculatus oil for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
... Celastrus paniculatus Willd is an Ayurvedic medicinal plant from the Celastraceae family, also locally known as "Tree of life", Kangani, Malkangni, or Jyotishmati. 46 Accumulated reports have indicated that the extracted seed oil from Celastrus paniculatus possesses a series of neuroprotective activities together with having good potential as a memory enhancer. For instance, the study by Malik et al. 47 indicated that the seed oil from Celastrus paniculatus dose-dependently attenuated behavioral alterations and oxidative damage induced by 3-NP in the rat brain, which effects are largely attributed to its antioxidant activity that reduces both malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite levels. ...
Huntington’s disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease, normally starts in the prime of adult life, followed by a gradual occurrence of characteristic psychiatric disturbances and cognitive and motor dysfunction. To the best of our knowledge, there is no treatment available to completely mitigate the progression of HD. Among various therapeutic approaches, exhaustive literature reports have confirmed the medicinal benefits of natural products in HD experimental models. Building on this information, this review presents a brief overview of the neuroprotective mechanism(s) of natural products against in vitro/in vivo models of HD. Relevant studies were identified from several scientific databases, including PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar. After screening through literature from 2005 to the present, a total of 14 medicinal plant species and 30 naturally isolated compounds investigated against HD based on either in vitro or in vivo models were included in the present review. Behavioral outcomes in the HD in vivo model showed that natural compounds significantly attenuated 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induced memory loss and motor incoordination. The biochemical alteration has been markedly alleviated with reduced lipid eroxidation, increased endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, reduced acetylcholinesterase activity, and increased mitochondrial energy production. Interestingly, following treatment with certain natural products, 3-NP-induced damage in the striatum was ameliorated, as seen histologically. Overall, natural products afforded varying degrees of neuroprotection in preclinical studies of HD via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, preservation of mitochondrial function, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of autophagy.
... Both the seed oil and petroleum ether extract showed an anti-anxiety effect in rats. Further, the oil and its different extracts showed sedative, anticonvulsant, tranquillizing, cognition-enhancing, and anti-inflammatory activities in different animal models [13]. The literature supported the neuroprotective effect of C. paniculatus oil in chronic aluminium-induced corticohippocampal neurodegeneration, scopolamine-induced amnesia, and sodium nitrite-induced amnesia models using C. paniculatus oil alone or in combination with ghee [14]. ...
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Mosquitoes belonging to the genus Aedes pose a significant threat to human health on a global scenario due to their role in transmission of dengue, chikungunya, zika, and yellow fever. In absence of specific medications and vaccines against these diseases, disease prevention relies on vector control. However, in today's world, vector control is facing major challenges due to the onset of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. There are four main mechanisms of insecticide resistance, namely, behavioral resistance, reduced penetration/cuticular resistance, metabolic detoxification, and target site resistance; however, the latter two mechanisms have been studied widely in Aedes mosquitoes. Insecticide resistance in Aedes mosquitoes is widespread throughout the world. This review compiles the degree of insecticide resistance/susceptibility prevailing among different field populations of Aedes mosquitoes worldwide. In addition, the review has detailed the mechanisms providing the resistance phenomenon observed in nature in Aedes mosquitoes.
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Current review includes medicinal importance and various pharmacological activities of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Celastrus paniculatus Willd. belongs to Celastraceae family. It is a plant of medicinal importance and is being used in Ayurveda from a very long time to treat different disorders mainly brain related disoders. It is also known as ‘Tree of life’. It is commonly known as Malkangani and Jyothishmati in hindi and sanskrit respectively. Different studies have proved that it has various pharmacological activities which includes neuroprotective activity, rejuvenative activity, cardiovascular activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, antiinfertility activity, antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity anti-arthritic activity etc. It has been proved in various studies that Celastrus paniculatus willd. is a potent drug for improving memory and intellect. This manuscript reviews current information on various pharmacological and medicinal activities of Celastrus paniculatus.
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Memory, one of the most vital aspects of the human brain, is necessary for the effective survival of an individual. ‘Memory’ can be defined in various ways but in an overall view, memory is the retention of the information that the brain grasps. Different factors are responsible for the disbalance in the brain’s hippocampus region and the acetylcholine level, which masters the memory and cognitive functions. Plants are a source of pharmacologically potent drug molecules of high efficacy. Recently herbal medicine has evolved rapidly, gaining great acceptance worldwide due to their natural origin and fewer side effects. In this review, the authors have discussed the mechanisms and pharmacological action of herbal bioactive compounds to boost memory. Moreover, this review presents an update of different herbs and natural products that could act as memory enhancers and how they can be potentially utilized in the near future for the treatment of severe brain disorders. In addition, the authors also discuss the differences in biological activity of the same herb and emphasize the requirement for a higher standardization in cultivation methods and plant processing. The demand for further studies evaluating the interactions of herbal drugs is mentioned.
Alzheimer’s disease is a well-known neurodegenerative disorder exemplified by memory destruction, deficits in attention, and disturbances to personal behavior due to interrupted neurotransmitter activity. Celastrus paniculatus Wild (Celastraceae), known as Jyotishmati or the black oil plant, is commonly used as a folk medicine for memory enhancement and to improve attention. The seeds are reported as being sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and anti-Alzheimer, while the bark and root are considered to be useful in the treatment of malaria, brain tumors, and as a brain-tonic. Leaves of this plant are used for treatment of addiction and are beneficial for treating opium addiction. The mature seed of C. paniculatus contains about 50% of crude fatty with several incedible phytoconstituents. This oil contains around 70% unsaturated fatty acids and 25% saturated fatty acids mainly followed by Oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and stearic acid. The other novel compounds were identified as benzenediol, cinnamic acid benzoquinone, butylatedhydroxytoluene, and eudalene. Generally, the seeds are used as a memory booster (brain tonic) and are effective in combating forgetfulness (memory disorder) at a dose of 5–15 drops seed oil or 1 gm seed-powder with milk. The seed extract shows moderate anticholinesterase activity and is used effectively for the management of Alzheimer’s disease.