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Traditional and medicinal uses of vetiver

Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies
Year: 2013, Volume: 1, Issue: 3
First page: (191) Last page: (200)
ISSN: 2320-3862
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies
Vol. 2 No. 3 2013 Page | 191
Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Vetiver
D. Balasankar1, K. Vanilarasu2, P. Selva Preetha, S.Rajeswari M.Umadevi3, Debjit Bhowmik4
1. Department of Vegetable Crops, India
2. Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, India
3. Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India
4. Karpagam University,Coimbatore, India
In the India the
vetiver plant is known as the “Khus” or “Khus
khus” and is used both in medicine and in the
industry of perfumery, of frozen foods and refrigeration in the preparation of all kinds of drinks. The grass is
characterized by a sweet and pleasant flavor combined with a little earthy. On the other hand is a very fresh herb has
a cooling effect similar to some other herbs such as mint or peppermint. Vetiver is a tall, tufted, perennial, scented
grass with a straight stem, long narrow leaves and a lacework root system that is abundant, complex and extensive.
It has versatile uses, particularly as an inexpensive yet effective and eco-friendly tool to combat soil erosion.
Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP) are two related groups of plants having in their part chemical constituents
which are active in curing ailments (i.e. MP) or in providing flavors and/or fragrances (i.e. AP). Harvested vetiver
leaves, culms and roots are utilized after some degree of processing in various ways, e.g. as input of agriculture-
related activities (mulch, compost, nursery block / planting medium, animal feed stuff, mushroom cultivation,
botanical pesticides, and allelopathy), handicraft and art works, medicinal applications, fragrance, input of
construction-related activities (roof thatch, hut, mud brick, vetiver-clay composite storage bin, veneer / fiber board,
artificial pozzalans, ash for concrete work, and straw bale), containers (pottery, melamine utensils, water
containers), bouquet, energy sources (ethanol, green fuel), industrial products (pulp and paper, panel), and
miscellaneous other utilization.
Keyword: Vetiver, Allelopathy, Medicinal use, Essential oil, Aromatherapy.
1. Introduction
Vetiver or khus (Vetiveria zizanioides) is a
tall, perennial grass which grows wild in
drier, periodically flood inundated tracts, of
western and north-central India. It produces
spongy, much branched, root system (khus
roots) with fine rootlets, containing a
fragrant oil which is a perfume by itself. The
dry aromatic roots are also used to make
curtains, mats, fans and other fancy goods as
the product emits a sweet cooling aroma for
a long period when moistened. The oil is
used as a valuable fixative in blending of
perfumes, cosmetics and scenting of soaps.
Its cultivation is largely scattered over small
holdings in Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh and to a lesser extent in
Uttar Pradesh. Considering the high quality
of oil produced in India compared to
Indonesia, Pakistan, Senegal, Sri Lanka
Brazil and Haiti, the north Indian type
vetiver oil has a good potential for export. It
also highlights the utilization of vetiver as
MAP in Thailand that includes the
utilization of vetiver in traditional medicine,
in pest control, and as fragrant materials.
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Vol. 2 No. 3 2013 Page | 192
1.2 Distillation Process
The essential oil is extracted from the roots
by steam distillation. Freshly harvested roots
on distillation give higher yield of oil than
stored roots; the yield decreases
progressively with the period of storage. The
roots are soaked for 18-20 hours in water
prior to distillation to render the root
material soft and thereby further facilitate
release of oil. Fresh roots when cut to
lengths 2.5 cm – 5 cm increases recovery.
As the most valuable quality constituents are
contained in the high boiling fractions, the
roots must be distilled for a prolonged
period ranging from 20-24 hours. North
Indian varieties yield 0.4 to 0.8 of oil.
During distillation two fractions-lighter and
heavier oils are obtained. In the start highly
volatile lighter fraction released first and a
considerable amount of which may escape
before it gets cooled and collected in liquid
phase. To avoid this loss a piece of markin
cloth after cleaning is tied at delivery outlet
in the swollen balloon shape in the receiver
keeping it submerged in water. The lighter
fraction that is likely to escape along with
the steam/gas or running distillate water
would be trapped in the cloth. As the
distillation progress the heavier fraction will
get deposited in the cloth and the lighter will
pass through cloth and get collected in the
receiver. At the end of the distillation the
cloth is squeezed to get the oil. This piece of
cloth is repeatedly used till tear off. Before
thrown off, the cloth may be washed by
diethyl ether (solvent) to get back the
adhering oil. This practice helps in increased
recovery of oil. Traditionally copper vessel
with S.S condenser is found good for vetiver
since the oil react with free copper turns
bluish in colour which fetches more price in
perfumery market. The traditionally distilled
oil which often called “Ruhe khus” done in
Kannauj type “Deg Vopka” although
recovery is comparatively low fetches the
highest price in perfumery market.
1.3 Medicinal and Health Benefits of
Vetiver Essential Oil
The health benefits of Vetiver Essential Oil
can be attributed to its properties like anti
inflammatory, anti septic, aphrodisiac,
cicatrisant, nervine, sedative, tonic and
This Essential Oil is very popular in
aromatherapy and has many medicinal
properties, which are described in brief
1.4 Anti Inflammatory
The very soothing and cooling effect of this
essential oil calms and pacifies all sorts of
inflammations. But it is particularly good in
giving relief from inflammations in
circulatory system and nervous system. It is
found to be an appropriate treatment for
inflammations caused by sun stroke,
dehydration and loo (name given to very hot
and dry winds prevalent during summers in
the dry regions of India and few
neighbouring countries).
1.5 Anti Septic:
In tropical countries like India and its
neighbours, microbes and bacteria grow
very fast due to their favourable hot and
humid climate found in this region. Then it
becomes obvious that your wounds are most
likely to get septic in these places since there
are plenty of bacteria here. But Mother
Nature is very kind and she has provided the
remedies too, right in those places. One such
remedy is this Vetiver and the essential oil
extracted from it. This oil efficiently stops
the growth of Staphylococcus Aureus, the
bacteria responsible for causing septic, and
eliminates them, thereby helping cure septic
and giving protection against it. Being
totally safe, this oil can be applied externally
on wounds or taken orally, to protect
wounds as well as internal organs from
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Vol. 2 No. 3 2013 Page | 193
1.6 Aphrodisiac:
Mixed in sorbets and beverages as a
flavouring agent, this oil has an aphrodisiac
effect. It enhances libido and gives arousals.
Since sex has more to do with the
psychology (brain) than the physiology,
remedy for most of the sexual disorders like
frigidity, lack of libido, impotence etc. lays
in the brain. Certain components of this oil
stimulate those portions of brain and the
problems are over.
1.7 Cicatrisant:
Cicatrisant is a property by virtue of which a
substance speeds up the eradication or
disappearance of the scars and other marks
from the skin. It promotes growth of new
tissues in the affected places which replace
the dead and discoloured tissues and helps
achieve a uniform look. This is also useful
for the post delivery stretch marks, fat
cracks, after spots left by pox, burns etc.
1.8 Nervine:
A tonic for the nerves is called a nervine,
like our Essential Oil of Vetiver is. It takes
care of the nerves and maintains them in
good health. It also heals the damages done
to the nerves by shock, fear, stress etc.
Further, it helps get rid of nervous disorders,
afflictions, epileptic and hysteric attacks,
nervous and neurotic disorders such as
Parkinson’s Disease, lack of control over
limbs etc.
1.9 Sedative:
The Essential Oil of Vetiver is a well known
sedative. It sedates nervous irritations,
afflictions, convulsions and emotional
outbursts such as anger, anxiety, epileptic
and hysteric attacks, restlessness,
nervousness etc. and even benefits patients
of insomnia.
1.10 Tonic:
The effect of a tonic on the body is quite
similar to that of overhauling and servicing
on a vehicle. A tonic tones up every system
functioning in the body, namely the
digestive system, respiratory system,
circulatory system, excretory system,
immune system, endocrinal system, nervous
system and the neurotic system. Thus, in
nutshell, it keeps the metabolic system in
order, rejuvenates the body, gives strength
and boosts immunity.
1.11 Vulnerary:
This property of Vetiver Essential Oil helps
heal wounds by promoting growth of new
tissues at the wounded place and also by
keeping it safe from infections by inhibiting
growth of microbes and promoting crowding
of leucocytes and platelets at the place.
1.12 Healing:
Vetiver essential oil helps in the formation
of new tissue is used so as to accelerate the
healing and recovery of skin wounds as well
to remove stains, marks on the skin and the
scars themselves. Also we used to repair the
cracks and grooves in the skin caused by
different circumstances such as pregnancy,
diets, allergies, burns.
1.13 Calming:
In addition to various beverages for culinary
purposes and aphrodisiacs, with vetiver
essential oil is made soothing infusion used
to relax and recover from severe strain. Help
to overcome situations of shock, fear, high
levels of stress, panic, etc.
1.14 Other Benefits:
Other benefits that will tend to award to the
use of vetiver essential oil are for example
the strengthening of bones, the treatment of
rheumatism, gout, arthritis, muscle aches,
dryness, cramps and dry skin.
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Fig 1: Vetiver roots in soil (left and middle) and in water (right)
1.15 How (else) is Vetiver used?
Vetiver's stunning mass of deep,
strong, fibrous roots and thick thatch of stiff
leaves have led to its extensive use in a
variety of areas:
As a nurse crop - Vetiver stabilizes and
replenishes nutrients in highly degraded
areas. Rehabilitated sites welcome the
return of native plants.
As a privacy barrier - Vetiver forms a
tall, dense barrier that defeats prying
eyes and creates a serene green
paradise. It creates a beautiful,
economical perimeter on small, urban
Fig 2: To absorb contaminants in water and soil.
Private companies and municipalities use
Vetiver systems to protect and heal degraded
environments. Vetiver roots absorb
pollutants and clarify water.
Fig 3: As a graffiti barrier
A strip of Vetiver growing against a hollow
tile or concrete wall will separate even the
most determined tagger from your
As a grass wall and boundary marker -
Vetiver hedges are so stable that surveyors
rely on them to establish property lines.
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Fig 4: To terrace, and retain nutrients
Between slender rows of Vetiver, farmers
can grow crops that benefit from the
accumulation of silt and plant nutrients.
Vetiver’s vertical roots nurture adjacent
As an excellent batch material - Mature
leaves produce long-lasting absorbent mulch
that reduces evaporation and helps
mycorrhizae to accumulate. (Quick: close
your eyes and spell “mycorrhizae.”)
As a bios wale - A Vetiver grass channel is
an attractive alternative to traditional
concrete drainage ditches, and effectively
filters and attenuates stormwater runoff.
Fig 5: To divert water
-Vetiver hedges can be configured and
installed at strategic points to divert water
and slow the velocity of rainfall runoff.
As a constructed wetland- Installed as a
leach field, Vetiver absorbs nutrients
generated by cesspools, piggeries, dairy and
poultry farms. Vetiver clarifies effluent and
eliminates odors.
As livestock feed - Vetiver's nutritional
value is similar to Napier grass (Pennisetum
pupureum). Hawaii farmers introduced
Vetiver to local cows in the 1940s. The
cows didn’t like it. But then they didn’t
much like Napier grass, either.
As a carbon sink- Given the concern
regarding global warming and CO2
emissions, 44,500 acres of land protected by
Vetiver hedges will provide a CO2 sink for
the carbon produced by 100,000 cars
traveling 12,500 miles a year.
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As biofuels - Dry biomass yields exceed
370 t/ha per year). Harvested three to four
times each year, average production ranges
between 120-130 t / ha per harvest. Annual
yield is generally 10 - 20% higher with four
Vetiver leaves are high in cellulose; their
major chemical components are
hemicellulose (ca. 38%) and cellulose (ca.
27%) (Kethacanon et al., 2003). Vetiver
leaves can be used as a substrate for ethanol
production through alkali pretreatment
followed by enzyme hydrolysis and yeast
fermentation, which generates an ethanol
yield of 13% after one-cycle column
As a food additive - Vetiver is used
domestically in cooking; it’s infused in tea
and also used in baking.
Fig 6: As a fragrance The cosmetic industry uses Vetiver essential oil and extracts widely. The plant also has
medicinal properties.
Fig 7: As textile
-Crafters use Vetiver leaves and roots to
create an extensive range of beautiful woven
handicrafts. Like its sister, bamboo, which
creates luxurious textiles, Vetiver would
seem suited to producing soft, durable
Fig 8: As Landscaping
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Vetiver is a beautiful ornamental plant for
gardens, patios, decks, etc. The bush of the
vetiver plant is so large that it hides
unsightly structures. Grown as a hedge, i.e.
planting close together in line, it forms a
dense, uniform, and attractive hedge under
tropical and subtropical climates. It also
forms an aesthetically beautiful barrier to
unsightly view.
1.16 Agriculture-related Activities
In tropical countries with high and intensive
rainfall, mulching is one of the most
important conservation methods. Similar to
other mulching materials, vetiver leaves
provides shade to the plot, thereby
decreasing the temperature and at the same
time conserve moisture of the plot and keep
weeds under control. Vetiver leaves are
excellent materials for mulching; they are
durable and long lasting. Vetiver mulch can
be applied to vegetable plots, at the base of
fruit trees, and field crop plots.
1.16.2 Composition
Vetiver leaves and culms are completely
decomposed to become soft, disintegrated,
and dark brown to black in color. Vetiver
compost contains major nutrients from the
decomposition process, i.e. N, P, K, Ca, and
Mg with a pH of 7.0. In addition, vetiver
compost also provides humic acid that
enhances soil fertility.
1.16.3 Animal feed
The young vetiver leaves can be ground to
feed fish and livestock, but mature leaves
cannot be used for such purposes because
their nutritive value is lower than other
grasses, and because of the high roughness
and silica content. The analysis also
indicated that vetiver has the content of
crude protein lower than that of other
grasses used for animal feed. In the State of
Karnataka, India, vetiver is planted along the
field boundaries and cut every two weeks or
less for use as fodder. Vetiver was found to
have relatively higher structural
carbohydrates as compared to native grass
and rice straw. On the other hand, it also had
optimal levels of crude protein, considered
to be enough to maximize intake and
digestion of the vetiver forage. It was
concluded that vetiver may be used as
ruminant feed if it is mixed with other good
quality feed and forages.
1.16.4 Mushroom Cultivation
Vetiver leaves contain chemical compounds
such as cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and
crude protein as well as various minerals in
which certain mushrooms can feed on.
Many investigators have been successful in
cultivating mushrooms using vetiver as the
medium for their growth. Oyster, shiitake,
and straw mushrooms are among those that
can be produced using small pieces of
vetiver as a medium.
1.17 Botanical Pesticides
1.17.1 Insecticides: With the evidence that
vetiver has no serious insect pests, it is
obvious that the insects have an absolute
distaste for vetiver, as were reported in the
following cases: Levy (1940) observed that
the vetiver plant grown in close proximity to
the sugar cane could inhibit to a very
substantial degree the attack upon the sugar
cane of certain insects such as the cane
borer. Likewise, a farmer in Louisiana
reported that in a plot of crop where vetiver
was used as mulch, no insects of any kind
ever came near. It has also been found that
the tops of vetiver, in the same formation of
mixture with the residue of the roots, will
make an absolute repellent for the insects
that may damage strawberries grown in
southern U.S. Recently, Maistrello and
Henderson (1999) found a group of
compounds, such as nootkatone, in vetiver
roots, which were able to disrupt termite
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behavior and physiology as a consequence
of direct physical contact, ingestion, or
exposure to the vapors. They also found that
ingestion of wood treated with vetiver oil or
nootkatone causes the progressive death of
the protozoa living inside the termite gut,
ultimately results in a progressive decline of
its colony through starvation, as these
termites rely on the protozoa for the
digestion of their wooden food.
1.17.2 Fungicides: In New Zealand, noticed
that fungal attacks on the vetiver mulched
plants have virtually disappeared and there
seem to be little, if any other pest action
around the host plants.
1.17.3 Agaricides: In Thailand, found that
10% vetiver oils of different ecotypes were
variably able to control cow ticks at both the
larval and adult stages. Furthermore, extract
of dry root was able to control adult stage of
ticks better than larval stage.
1.17.4 Allelopathy: It has been observed
that in the vicinity of the vetiver clumps,
there is a few other plants growing. It was
hypothesized that certain substances
excreted by the vetiver plant may have
allelopathic action in that they inhibit the
growth of other plants. Root and stem
extracts of vetiver could inhibit the
germination of soybean seeds. It was
concluded that vetiver extract contains in
vetiver oil has allelopathic effect in
inhibiting the germination of seeds of any
plant growing in its vicinity. It was further
suggested that this could be applied to
control the weeds of crop plants without the
use of chemical herbicides.
Weed control: When spread evenly on the
ground, whole or desiccated Vetiver leaves
Fig 9: Vetiver controls erosion and its mulch suppresses weeds in coffee plantation
form a thick matt that suppresses weeds.
Vetiver mulch successfully controls weeds
in coffee and cocoa plantations in the
Central Highlands and tea plantations in
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Vol. 2 No. 2 2013 Page | 199
Fig 10: Vetiver mulch controls weeds in a tea plantation, southern India
1.17.5 Perfumery
Vetiver oil is a viscous light-brown oil with
a rich green-woody earthy and nut- like
fragrance. In its diluted form, vetiver oil is
used to provide sweet note and soothing
cool effect. It has been utilized as raw
material for various fragrant products such
as perfumes, deodorants, lotions, soaps,
cosmetics, etc. Having complex chemical
composition and oil odor, high solubility in
alcohol that improves it miscibility with
other perfumery material, vetiver oil is a
unique perfumery resource.
2. Conclusion
Vetiver has traditionally been used as
medicinal and aromatic plants in many
countries, especially in Asia. Recently it has
received widespread recognition as being an
ideal plant for soil and water conservation as
well as environmental protection. This,
however, has met with difficulty in
promoting vetiver grown as hedgerows for
soil and water conservation since the
farmers complain that they do not obtain any
direct benefit (i.e. cash return) from planting
vetiver. However, it is argued that the
indirect benefits the farmers could obtain are
It ends with the discussion on the main
objective of planting vetiver, environmental
implication, socio-economic aspects, and
industrial potentials. As a campaign to go
‘back to nature’ is everywhere, the
utilization of vetiver as a medicinal plant to
produce pharmaceutical products on a
commercial scale has great potential for
development. A new concept, that of
growing vetiver as an income generating
plant, has recently been launched by the
Royal Project Foundation of Thailand. This
approach in interesting since vetiver
provides a very good income to the farmers
if grown specifically for its roots.
3. References
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2. Chadha KL. Hand Book of Horticulture,
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3. Chomchalow N, Hicks PA. Health Potential
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7. Juliard C. Manuscript of Vetiverim 16. In
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8. Kuhiran M, Punnapayak H. Leaves of
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9. Maistrello L, Henderson G. Vetiver grass:
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... It has various medical properties ranging from treating nervous disorders, used as a sedative, calming the body, arthritis. It also showed to have great has the antianemic property and has tended to increase the hemoglobin content in the blood 30 . Another study reported that the therapeutic role of this plant showed to stimulate the production of red blood cells and thereby used beneficial for treating anemia 31 . ...
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... The oil is also used extensively in perfume industry, scented toiletries as fixative, as odour contributor in base as flavour agentin the food industry etc. (Chahal et al., 2015). Taxonomical position of Vetiveria zizanioides is given in Table 2 ( Balasankar et al., 2013). Raja et al. (2018) investigated the chemical constituents of vetiver essential oil obtained by steam distillation from the roots of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and found that about 32 compounds were present in root oil mainly sesquiterpenes. ...
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... Vetiver oil is commonly used in the perfume and food industry as a flavoring agent [41]. Aside from its special aroma, its antioxidant [42], antibacterial [43] and anti-inflammatory [44] activities are described in the literature. ...
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Helicobacter pylori is the most common cause of gastritis and peptic ulcers, and the number of resistant strains to multiple conventional antimicrobial agents has been increasing in different parts of the world. Several studies have shown that some essential oils (EO) have bioactive compounds, which can be attributed to antimicrobial activity. Therefore, EOs have been proposed as a natural alternative to antibiotics, or for use in combination with conventional treatment for H. pylori infection. Campomanesia lineatifolia is an edible species found in the Brazilian forests, and their leaves are traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, and antioxidant properties are attributed to C. lineatifolia leaf extracts; however, studies related to the chemical constituents of the essential oil and anti-H. pylori activity is not described. This work aims to identify the chemical composition of the EO from C. lineatifolia leaves and evaluate the anti-H. pylori activity. The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation from C. lineatifolia leaves and characterized by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses. To assess the in vitro anti-H. pylori activity of the C. lineatifolia leaf’s EO (6 μL/mL–25 μL/mL), we performed broth microdilution assays by using type cultures (ATCC 49503, NCTC 11638, both clarithromycin-sensitive) and clinical isolate strains (SSR359, clarithromycin-sensitive, and SSR366, clarithromycin-resistant). A total of eight new compounds were identified from the EO (3-hexen-1-ol (46.15%), α-cadinol (20.35%), 1,1-diethoxyethane (13.08%), 2,3-dicyano-7,7-dimethyl-5,6-benzonorbornadiene (10.78%), aromadendrene 2 (3.0%), [3-S-(3α, 3aα, 6α, 8aα)]-4,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-3,7,7-trimethyl-8-methylene-3H-3a,6-methanoazulene (2.99%), α-bisabolol (0.94%), and β-curcumene (0.8%)), corresponding to 98.09% of the total oil composition. The EO inhibited the growth of all H. pylori strains tested (MIC 6 μL/mL). To our knowledge, the current study investigates the relation between the chemical composition and the anti-H. pylori activity of the C. lineatifolia EO for the first time. Our findings show the potential use of the C. lineatifolia leaf EO against sensitive and resistant clarithromycin H. pylori strains and suggest that this antimicrobial activity could be related to its ethnopharmacological use.
... Its cultivation is basically scattered over small holdings in Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. The vetiver oil is having very soothing and cooling impact, calms and pacifies all styles of inflammation.[26] ...
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Beauty and cosmetic concept is as ancient as mankind and civilization. Cosmetics play a vital role in human life. Herbal cosmetic is one of the most effective areas of cosmetic technology. Herbal cosmetics are developed by the coalition of bioactive ingredients and pharmaceutical products. Herbs are used for beautification purpose of body, preparation of cosmetics, flavouring and colouring agent. Hair plays a vital role in personality of human and we use a lots of cosmetics product for the care of hair. The study aims reviewing the importance of herbal oil and their use in the common hair problem such as baldness, hair fall, hair dryness, dandruff etc. Various beauty and cosmetic products are used which contain herbs to give young and charming look. Various herbal ingredients are used in herbal hair formulation; they provide essential nutrients such as vitamins, antioxidant, etc. Herbal hair oil has been widely used for nourishment of hair and for the protection of hair from hair fall and hair damage. Now a day’s side effect is a major problem after using any beauty product due to which herbal products are preferred because of having less probability of any types of side effects.
... there are more than 100 countries cultivating and using vetiver Some studies (Lavania, 2003) assed the potential utilize of vetiver grass as commercially herbage for produce the scented oil that can be distilled from its roots. Other studies emphasized its effectiveness in erosion, sediment control, and to be highly tolerant to extreme soil conditions (Balasankar et al., 2013). ...
... Likewise, Helichrysum candolleanum (Asteraceae) and Blepharis diversispina (Acanthaceae) exhibit high metal tolerance capabilities (Nkoane et al. 2005). Chrysopogon zizanioides, often known as vetiver grass, has been reported to be effective in removing both organic (e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, phenol, and petroleum hydrocarbon) and inorganic (particularly hazardous metals such as lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and arsenic) pollutants (Balasankar et al. 2013;Brandt et al. 2006;Chen et al. 2004;Datta et al. 2011;Ho et al. 2013;Makris et al. 2007;Singh et al. 2008;Singhakant et al. 2009). In a study done by Datta et al. (2011), vetiver grass was found to be a promising phytoremediator of As when grown in various soil types. ...
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Presently, there seems to be an increase in interest in cultivating medicinal plants across the globe. Medicinal plants offer huge potential to be grown on contaminated sites to recover soil health, in addition to oil production and eco-tourism, to address the rising demand for pharmaceuticals, essential oils, and bioenergy. In the present chapter, efforts have been made to collect and analyze available information regarding stress tolerance capabilities and the phytoremediation potential of medicinal plants, which will provide valuable insight into understanding the putative mechanisms involved in stress tolerance and pollution alleviation. The medicinal plants that can withstand stress and be used for the phytoremediation of environmental contaminants have also been explored.
Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides ) is a plant that has been utilized in various fields such as medicine, aroma, commerce, environmental protection, and agriculture, owing to its traditional significance and versatile properties. Vetiver has a diverse historical background in traditional medicinal practices; however, only a limited number of research articles have documented its efficacy in disease treatment. The objective of this review was to collate current data about the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and customary applications of Chrysopogon zizanioides (C. zizanioides). The primary objective of the manuscript is to integrate pertinent, genuine, and current information. Relevant articles were also extracted from online databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct. The findings of the compilation process indicate that the efficacy of vetiver's traditional uses has been confirmed through the testing of different extracts of this plant part against disease-based pharmacological models. Nevertheless, further comprehensive research is required to substantiate the extraction of bioactive compounds and elucidate their mode of operation. The process of extracting oil necessitates the implementation of distinctive and resilient methodologies, the advancement of which may expedite the identification of biologically advantageous utilities.
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Poly herbal skin clarifying and UV protection cream is a herbal cream which was formulated for the purpose of moisturizing, hydrating, making skin supple, anti aging, anti wrinkle, depigmentation, anti oxidant, maintaining skin Ph, nourishing, UV protection and treatment of various skin diseases like hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, acne, skin aging, photoaging, tanning. Herbal cream was formulated by using crude drugs like Aloe barbadensis (Aloe vera), Azadirachta indica(Neem), Daucus carota(Carrot seed), Citrus limon(Lemon peel), Chrysopogon zizanioides(Vetiver root), Panax ginseng(Ginseng), Ginkgo biloba, Cucumis sativa(Cucumber seed) respectively. We have developed 9 batches of our herbal cream namely F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, F9. The prepared cream was evaluated for various parameters like Appearance, Thermal stability, Patch test, Spreadability test, Microbial growth, Irritancy, Viscosity. The formulation F1 showed good appearance, adequate viscosity, no phase separation. Also showed no redness, irritation during irritancy study, was easily spreadable and was stable at room temperature. Thus the cream proved to be safely used on skin which provides a protection from UV rays.
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The dynamic state of nutrient contents of Vetiver grass was studied. Grass samples were collected and analyzed in different seasons, types of soil condition, growth stages and mowing times. The results showed that nutrient contents of Vetiver grass were correlated highly to seasons, growth stage and types of soil condition. Vetiver grass passing through winter showed lower nutritive value than those growing in other seasons. Vetiver grass growing in sand showed lower nutritive value than those growing in soil. Nutrient contents reached the highest level in the tillering stage and then decreased in the jointing stage. Vetiver grass that grew in pig farm wastes showed higher contents of crude protein, carotene and lutein, relatively lower contents of ash, Ca, Fe, Cu Mn and Zn, and contained acceptable levels of heavy metal (Pb, As and Cd), which indicated Vetiver grass which grew in pig farm waste was still a promising feed resource for ruminants.
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The Esk Shire Council has recently installed a Vetiver Grass Wetlands System to treat sewerage effluent at Toogoolawah in South East Queensland. The sewerage treatment plant is situated on a 22-ha site on the northern edge of town. The aim of this scheme was to improve water quality before the effluent discharges to the natural wetlands. The biggest problem with the quality of the effluent is its high nutrient loading. With the recent changes to license conditions imposed by the Environmental Protection Agency, the existing treatment plant no longer complies with the license and an upgrade of the plant was required. Instead of traditional upgrades, a new and innovative phyto-remedial technology recently developed in Queensland by the Department of Natural Resources and Mines, is being implemented at Toogoolawah. Under the Vetiver Wetlands System, the effluent is being treated in two stages:  Preliminary treatment of the pond effluent in situ by floating pontoons placed in the ponds, and by vetiver planting around the edges of the three sewerage ponds.  Main treatment by vetiver wetlands, once the effluent exits the sewerage ponds it passes through a Vetiver Grass contoured wetlands constructed over 3 hectares of the land. The Vetiver Grass wetlands have been constructed in rows following the contours to allow good contact between the grass and the effluent. The Vetiver Grass takes up the water and in particular the grass will remove the nutrients from the water that passes through it. As Vetiver Grass system is very effective in removing nutrient loads, it is expected that once the wetlands is properly established there should be no release of sewerage effluent from the treatment plant except in times of heavy rainfall. This scheme will provide a large-scale prototype of possible sewerage treatment schemes that can be used throughout western Queensland and other locations where there is plenty of land and where the local government doesn't want to pay for installing and operating high cost solutions.
Vetiveria zizanioides is popularly known as Khas Khas, Khas or Khus grass in India. It is a densely tufted grass, found throughout the plains and lower hills of India, particularly on the riverbanks and in rich marshy soil. Vetiver has been known to India since ancient times. It has been considered as a high- class perfume and copper plate inscriptions list the perfume as one of the articles used by royalty. Two species of Vetiveria are found in India, of which V. zizanioides is the common source of the well- known oil of vetiver, which is used in medicine and in perfumery. Khas grass grows wild in many states, namely Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh and throughout South India. It is systematically cultivated in the North Indian states of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab and in the South Indian states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The yield from the cultivated crops, however, meets only a very small percentage of the requirements of the country. The bulk of the roots used for cooling purposes and for the extraction of the oil are obtained from the wild. Khas grass plays an important role in the socio-economic life of rural India. In India, since ancient times, the roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans, and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled with water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer. In Kerala, the roots are woven along with bamboo splits and made into flat mattresses for use as under-beds to give a cooling effect. The roots have found increased use in electric room-coolers. In Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, the plant is used as anthelmintic for children. It is also used for boils, burns, epilepsy, fever, scorpion sting, snakebite, and sores in the mouth. Root extract is used for headache and toothache. Vetiver oil is regarded as stimulant, diaphoretic and refrigerant. This oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks). Local application of leaf paste for rheumatism, lumbago and sprain gives good relief. The dried roots are also used to perfume the linen clothes. The rachis is used in the manufacture of moodas, sirkies, etc. The young leaves are browsed by cattle and sheep. Dried culms are used for making brooms and thatching of huts. Pulp is suitable for manufacturing paper and straw board. Details of Khas grass cultivation and uses of the grass in India are discussed and commercial cultivation is recommended.
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