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Traditional and medicinal uses of vetiver

Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies
Year: 2013, Volume: 1, Issue: 3
First page: (191) Last page: (200)
ISSN: 2320-3862
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies
Vol. 2 No. 3 2013 Page | 191
Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Vetiver
D. Balasankar1, K. Vanilarasu2, P. Selva Preetha, S.Rajeswari M.Umadevi3, Debjit Bhowmik4
1. Department of Vegetable Crops, India
2. Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, India
3. Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India
4. Karpagam University,Coimbatore, India
In the India the
vetiver plant is known as the “Khus” or “Khus
khus” and is used both in medicine and in the
industry of perfumery, of frozen foods and refrigeration in the preparation of all kinds of drinks. The grass is
characterized by a sweet and pleasant flavor combined with a little earthy. On the other hand is a very fresh herb has
a cooling effect similar to some other herbs such as mint or peppermint. Vetiver is a tall, tufted, perennial, scented
grass with a straight stem, long narrow leaves and a lacework root system that is abundant, complex and extensive.
It has versatile uses, particularly as an inexpensive yet effective and eco-friendly tool to combat soil erosion.
Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP) are two related groups of plants having in their part chemical constituents
which are active in curing ailments (i.e. MP) or in providing flavors and/or fragrances (i.e. AP). Harvested vetiver
leaves, culms and roots are utilized after some degree of processing in various ways, e.g. as input of agriculture-
related activities (mulch, compost, nursery block / planting medium, animal feed stuff, mushroom cultivation,
botanical pesticides, and allelopathy), handicraft and art works, medicinal applications, fragrance, input of
construction-related activities (roof thatch, hut, mud brick, vetiver-clay composite storage bin, veneer / fiber board,
artificial pozzalans, ash for concrete work, and straw bale), containers (pottery, melamine utensils, water
containers), bouquet, energy sources (ethanol, green fuel), industrial products (pulp and paper, panel), and
miscellaneous other utilization.
Keyword: Vetiver, Allelopathy, Medicinal use, Essential oil, Aromatherapy.
1. Introduction
Vetiver or khus (Vetiveria zizanioides) is a
tall, perennial grass which grows wild in
drier, periodically flood inundated tracts, of
western and north-central India. It produces
spongy, much branched, root system (khus
roots) with fine rootlets, containing a
fragrant oil which is a perfume by itself. The
dry aromatic roots are also used to make
curtains, mats, fans and other fancy goods as
the product emits a sweet cooling aroma for
a long period when moistened. The oil is
used as a valuable fixative in blending of
perfumes, cosmetics and scenting of soaps.
Its cultivation is largely scattered over small
holdings in Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh and to a lesser extent in
Uttar Pradesh. Considering the high quality
of oil produced in India compared to
Indonesia, Pakistan, Senegal, Sri Lanka
Brazil and Haiti, the north Indian type
vetiver oil has a good potential for export. It
also highlights the utilization of vetiver as
MAP in Thailand that includes the
utilization of vetiver in traditional medicine,
in pest control, and as fragrant materials.
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1.2 Distillation Process
The essential oil is extracted from the roots
by steam distillation. Freshly harvested roots
on distillation give higher yield of oil than
stored roots; the yield decreases
progressively with the period of storage. The
roots are soaked for 18-20 hours in water
prior to distillation to render the root
material soft and thereby further facilitate
release of oil. Fresh roots when cut to
lengths 2.5 cm – 5 cm increases recovery.
As the most valuable quality constituents are
contained in the high boiling fractions, the
roots must be distilled for a prolonged
period ranging from 20-24 hours. North
Indian varieties yield 0.4 to 0.8 of oil.
During distillation two fractions-lighter and
heavier oils are obtained. In the start highly
volatile lighter fraction released first and a
considerable amount of which may escape
before it gets cooled and collected in liquid
phase. To avoid this loss a piece of markin
cloth after cleaning is tied at delivery outlet
in the swollen balloon shape in the receiver
keeping it submerged in water. The lighter
fraction that is likely to escape along with
the steam/gas or running distillate water
would be trapped in the cloth. As the
distillation progress the heavier fraction will
get deposited in the cloth and the lighter will
pass through cloth and get collected in the
receiver. At the end of the distillation the
cloth is squeezed to get the oil. This piece of
cloth is repeatedly used till tear off. Before
thrown off, the cloth may be washed by
diethyl ether (solvent) to get back the
adhering oil. This practice helps in increased
recovery of oil. Traditionally copper vessel
with S.S condenser is found good for vetiver
since the oil react with free copper turns
bluish in colour which fetches more price in
perfumery market. The traditionally distilled
oil which often called “Ruhe khus” done in
Kannauj type “Deg Vopka” although
recovery is comparatively low fetches the
highest price in perfumery market.
1.3 Medicinal and Health Benefits of
Vetiver Essential Oil
The health benefits of Vetiver Essential Oil
can be attributed to its properties like anti
inflammatory, anti septic, aphrodisiac,
cicatrisant, nervine, sedative, tonic and
This Essential Oil is very popular in
aromatherapy and has many medicinal
properties, which are described in brief
1.4 Anti Inflammatory
The very soothing and cooling effect of this
essential oil calms and pacifies all sorts of
inflammations. But it is particularly good in
giving relief from inflammations in
circulatory system and nervous system. It is
found to be an appropriate treatment for
inflammations caused by sun stroke,
dehydration and loo (name given to very hot
and dry winds prevalent during summers in
the dry regions of India and few
neighbouring countries).
1.5 Anti Septic:
In tropical countries like India and its
neighbours, microbes and bacteria grow
very fast due to their favourable hot and
humid climate found in this region. Then it
becomes obvious that your wounds are most
likely to get septic in these places since there
are plenty of bacteria here. But Mother
Nature is very kind and she has provided the
remedies too, right in those places. One such
remedy is this Vetiver and the essential oil
extracted from it. This oil efficiently stops
the growth of Staphylococcus Aureus, the
bacteria responsible for causing septic, and
eliminates them, thereby helping cure septic
and giving protection against it. Being
totally safe, this oil can be applied externally
on wounds or taken orally, to protect
wounds as well as internal organs from
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1.6 Aphrodisiac:
Mixed in sorbets and beverages as a
flavouring agent, this oil has an aphrodisiac
effect. It enhances libido and gives arousals.
Since sex has more to do with the
psychology (brain) than the physiology,
remedy for most of the sexual disorders like
frigidity, lack of libido, impotence etc. lays
in the brain. Certain components of this oil
stimulate those portions of brain and the
problems are over.
1.7 Cicatrisant:
Cicatrisant is a property by virtue of which a
substance speeds up the eradication or
disappearance of the scars and other marks
from the skin. It promotes growth of new
tissues in the affected places which replace
the dead and discoloured tissues and helps
achieve a uniform look. This is also useful
for the post delivery stretch marks, fat
cracks, after spots left by pox, burns etc.
1.8 Nervine:
A tonic for the nerves is called a nervine,
like our Essential Oil of Vetiver is. It takes
care of the nerves and maintains them in
good health. It also heals the damages done
to the nerves by shock, fear, stress etc.
Further, it helps get rid of nervous disorders,
afflictions, epileptic and hysteric attacks,
nervous and neurotic disorders such as
Parkinson’s Disease, lack of control over
limbs etc.
1.9 Sedative:
The Essential Oil of Vetiver is a well known
sedative. It sedates nervous irritations,
afflictions, convulsions and emotional
outbursts such as anger, anxiety, epileptic
and hysteric attacks, restlessness,
nervousness etc. and even benefits patients
of insomnia.
1.10 Tonic:
The effect of a tonic on the body is quite
similar to that of overhauling and servicing
on a vehicle. A tonic tones up every system
functioning in the body, namely the
digestive system, respiratory system,
circulatory system, excretory system,
immune system, endocrinal system, nervous
system and the neurotic system. Thus, in
nutshell, it keeps the metabolic system in
order, rejuvenates the body, gives strength
and boosts immunity.
1.11 Vulnerary:
This property of Vetiver Essential Oil helps
heal wounds by promoting growth of new
tissues at the wounded place and also by
keeping it safe from infections by inhibiting
growth of microbes and promoting crowding
of leucocytes and platelets at the place.
1.12 Healing:
Vetiver essential oil helps in the formation
of new tissue is used so as to accelerate the
healing and recovery of skin wounds as well
to remove stains, marks on the skin and the
scars themselves. Also we used to repair the
cracks and grooves in the skin caused by
different circumstances such as pregnancy,
diets, allergies, burns.
1.13 Calming:
In addition to various beverages for culinary
purposes and aphrodisiacs, with vetiver
essential oil is made soothing infusion used
to relax and recover from severe strain. Help
to overcome situations of shock, fear, high
levels of stress, panic, etc.
1.14 Other Benefits:
Other benefits that will tend to award to the
use of vetiver essential oil are for example
the strengthening of bones, the treatment of
rheumatism, gout, arthritis, muscle aches,
dryness, cramps and dry skin.
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Fig 1: Vetiver roots in soil (left and middle) and in water (right)
1.15 How (else) is Vetiver used?
Vetiver's stunning mass of deep,
strong, fibrous roots and thick thatch of stiff
leaves have led to its extensive use in a
variety of areas:
As a nurse crop - Vetiver stabilizes and
replenishes nutrients in highly degraded
areas. Rehabilitated sites welcome the
return of native plants.
As a privacy barrier - Vetiver forms a
tall, dense barrier that defeats prying
eyes and creates a serene green
paradise. It creates a beautiful,
economical perimeter on small, urban
Fig 2: To absorb contaminants in water and soil.
Private companies and municipalities use
Vetiver systems to protect and heal degraded
environments. Vetiver roots absorb
pollutants and clarify water.
Fig 3: As a graffiti barrier
A strip of Vetiver growing against a hollow
tile or concrete wall will separate even the
most determined tagger from your
As a grass wall and boundary marker -
Vetiver hedges are so stable that surveyors
rely on them to establish property lines.
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Fig 4: To terrace, and retain nutrients
Between slender rows of Vetiver, farmers
can grow crops that benefit from the
accumulation of silt and plant nutrients.
Vetiver’s vertical roots nurture adjacent
As an excellent batch material - Mature
leaves produce long-lasting absorbent mulch
that reduces evaporation and helps
mycorrhizae to accumulate. (Quick: close
your eyes and spell “mycorrhizae.”)
As a bios wale - A Vetiver grass channel is
an attractive alternative to traditional
concrete drainage ditches, and effectively
filters and attenuates stormwater runoff.
Fig 5: To divert water
-Vetiver hedges can be configured and
installed at strategic points to divert water
and slow the velocity of rainfall runoff.
As a constructed wetland- Installed as a
leach field, Vetiver absorbs nutrients
generated by cesspools, piggeries, dairy and
poultry farms. Vetiver clarifies effluent and
eliminates odors.
As livestock feed - Vetiver's nutritional
value is similar to Napier grass (Pennisetum
pupureum). Hawaii farmers introduced
Vetiver to local cows in the 1940s. The
cows didn’t like it. But then they didn’t
much like Napier grass, either.
As a carbon sink- Given the concern
regarding global warming and CO2
emissions, 44,500 acres of land protected by
Vetiver hedges will provide a CO2 sink for
the carbon produced by 100,000 cars
traveling 12,500 miles a year.
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As biofuels - Dry biomass yields exceed
370 t/ha per year). Harvested three to four
times each year, average production ranges
between 120-130 t / ha per harvest. Annual
yield is generally 10 - 20% higher with four
Vetiver leaves are high in cellulose; their
major chemical components are
hemicellulose (ca. 38%) and cellulose (ca.
27%) (Kethacanon et al., 2003). Vetiver
leaves can be used as a substrate for ethanol
production through alkali pretreatment
followed by enzyme hydrolysis and yeast
fermentation, which generates an ethanol
yield of 13% after one-cycle column
As a food additive - Vetiver is used
domestically in cooking; it’s infused in tea
and also used in baking.
Fig 6: As a fragrance The cosmetic industry uses Vetiver essential oil and extracts widely. The plant also has
medicinal properties.
Fig 7: As textile
-Crafters use Vetiver leaves and roots to
create an extensive range of beautiful woven
handicrafts. Like its sister, bamboo, which
creates luxurious textiles, Vetiver would
seem suited to producing soft, durable
Fig 8: As Landscaping
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Vetiver is a beautiful ornamental plant for
gardens, patios, decks, etc. The bush of the
vetiver plant is so large that it hides
unsightly structures. Grown as a hedge, i.e.
planting close together in line, it forms a
dense, uniform, and attractive hedge under
tropical and subtropical climates. It also
forms an aesthetically beautiful barrier to
unsightly view.
1.16 Agriculture-related Activities
In tropical countries with high and intensive
rainfall, mulching is one of the most
important conservation methods. Similar to
other mulching materials, vetiver leaves
provides shade to the plot, thereby
decreasing the temperature and at the same
time conserve moisture of the plot and keep
weeds under control. Vetiver leaves are
excellent materials for mulching; they are
durable and long lasting. Vetiver mulch can
be applied to vegetable plots, at the base of
fruit trees, and field crop plots.
1.16.2 Composition
Vetiver leaves and culms are completely
decomposed to become soft, disintegrated,
and dark brown to black in color. Vetiver
compost contains major nutrients from the
decomposition process, i.e. N, P, K, Ca, and
Mg with a pH of 7.0. In addition, vetiver
compost also provides humic acid that
enhances soil fertility.
1.16.3 Animal feed
The young vetiver leaves can be ground to
feed fish and livestock, but mature leaves
cannot be used for such purposes because
their nutritive value is lower than other
grasses, and because of the high roughness
and silica content. The analysis also
indicated that vetiver has the content of
crude protein lower than that of other
grasses used for animal feed. In the State of
Karnataka, India, vetiver is planted along the
field boundaries and cut every two weeks or
less for use as fodder. Vetiver was found to
have relatively higher structural
carbohydrates as compared to native grass
and rice straw. On the other hand, it also had
optimal levels of crude protein, considered
to be enough to maximize intake and
digestion of the vetiver forage. It was
concluded that vetiver may be used as
ruminant feed if it is mixed with other good
quality feed and forages.
1.16.4 Mushroom Cultivation
Vetiver leaves contain chemical compounds
such as cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and
crude protein as well as various minerals in
which certain mushrooms can feed on.
Many investigators have been successful in
cultivating mushrooms using vetiver as the
medium for their growth. Oyster, shiitake,
and straw mushrooms are among those that
can be produced using small pieces of
vetiver as a medium.
1.17 Botanical Pesticides
1.17.1 Insecticides: With the evidence that
vetiver has no serious insect pests, it is
obvious that the insects have an absolute
distaste for vetiver, as were reported in the
following cases: Levy (1940) observed that
the vetiver plant grown in close proximity to
the sugar cane could inhibit to a very
substantial degree the attack upon the sugar
cane of certain insects such as the cane
borer. Likewise, a farmer in Louisiana
reported that in a plot of crop where vetiver
was used as mulch, no insects of any kind
ever came near. It has also been found that
the tops of vetiver, in the same formation of
mixture with the residue of the roots, will
make an absolute repellent for the insects
that may damage strawberries grown in
southern U.S. Recently, Maistrello and
Henderson (1999) found a group of
compounds, such as nootkatone, in vetiver
roots, which were able to disrupt termite
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behavior and physiology as a consequence
of direct physical contact, ingestion, or
exposure to the vapors. They also found that
ingestion of wood treated with vetiver oil or
nootkatone causes the progressive death of
the protozoa living inside the termite gut,
ultimately results in a progressive decline of
its colony through starvation, as these
termites rely on the protozoa for the
digestion of their wooden food.
1.17.2 Fungicides: In New Zealand, noticed
that fungal attacks on the vetiver mulched
plants have virtually disappeared and there
seem to be little, if any other pest action
around the host plants.
1.17.3 Agaricides: In Thailand, found that
10% vetiver oils of different ecotypes were
variably able to control cow ticks at both the
larval and adult stages. Furthermore, extract
of dry root was able to control adult stage of
ticks better than larval stage.
1.17.4 Allelopathy: It has been observed
that in the vicinity of the vetiver clumps,
there is a few other plants growing. It was
hypothesized that certain substances
excreted by the vetiver plant may have
allelopathic action in that they inhibit the
growth of other plants. Root and stem
extracts of vetiver could inhibit the
germination of soybean seeds. It was
concluded that vetiver extract contains in
vetiver oil has allelopathic effect in
inhibiting the germination of seeds of any
plant growing in its vicinity. It was further
suggested that this could be applied to
control the weeds of crop plants without the
use of chemical herbicides.
Weed control: When spread evenly on the
ground, whole or desiccated Vetiver leaves
Fig 9: Vetiver controls erosion and its mulch suppresses weeds in coffee plantation
form a thick matt that suppresses weeds.
Vetiver mulch successfully controls weeds
in coffee and cocoa plantations in the
Central Highlands and tea plantations in
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Fig 10: Vetiver mulch controls weeds in a tea plantation, southern India
1.17.5 Perfumery
Vetiver oil is a viscous light-brown oil with
a rich green-woody earthy and nut- like
fragrance. In its diluted form, vetiver oil is
used to provide sweet note and soothing
cool effect. It has been utilized as raw
material for various fragrant products such
as perfumes, deodorants, lotions, soaps,
cosmetics, etc. Having complex chemical
composition and oil odor, high solubility in
alcohol that improves it miscibility with
other perfumery material, vetiver oil is a
unique perfumery resource.
2. Conclusion
Vetiver has traditionally been used as
medicinal and aromatic plants in many
countries, especially in Asia. Recently it has
received widespread recognition as being an
ideal plant for soil and water conservation as
well as environmental protection. This,
however, has met with difficulty in
promoting vetiver grown as hedgerows for
soil and water conservation since the
farmers complain that they do not obtain any
direct benefit (i.e. cash return) from planting
vetiver. However, it is argued that the
indirect benefits the farmers could obtain are
It ends with the discussion on the main
objective of planting vetiver, environmental
implication, socio-economic aspects, and
industrial potentials. As a campaign to go
‘back to nature’ is everywhere, the
utilization of vetiver as a medicinal plant to
produce pharmaceutical products on a
commercial scale has great potential for
development. A new concept, that of
growing vetiver as an income generating
plant, has recently been launched by the
Royal Project Foundation of Thailand. This
approach in interesting since vetiver
provides a very good income to the farmers
if grown specifically for its roots.
3. References
1. Ash R, Truong P. The use of Vetiver grass
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2. Chadha KL. Hand Book of Horticulture,
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3. Chomchalow N, Hicks PA. Health Potential
of Thai Traditional Beverages. Paper
presented at the 34th AISFT Annual
Convention 2001, Adelaide, Australia, 1-4
July 2001; also published in AU J.T. 5: 20-
4. Chomchalow N. Production of Medicinal
and Aromatic Plants in Southeast Asia. AU
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5. Chomchalowm N. Review and Update of
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6. Jain SK. Dictionary of Indian Folk
Medicine and Ethno botany. Deep Publ.,
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7. Juliard C. Manuscript of Vetiverim 16. In
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vetiver grass as a source of ethanol. An
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ICV-2, Phetchaburi, Thailand, 18-22
January 2000.
9. Maistrello L, Henderson G. Vetiver grass:
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subterranean termites. Vetiverim 2001;
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A Thin Green Line Against Erosion.
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14. Sellar W. The Directory of Essential Oils.
CW Daniel Co Ltd, Great Britain, 1992.
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... Therefore, it is widely used in agroforestry management and flood control. Moreover, vetiver has been found to be a promising aromatic grass for phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated sites as well as for wastewater treatment, and pollution mitigation [106][107][108][109]. Apart from that, vetiver roots are widely used as raw material for curtains, mats and fans, thanks to their sweet cooling and long-lasting aroma [110]. ...
... In folk medicine, vetiver and its root oil are further well known for their beneficial effects in the treatment of mental and emotional symptoms and their relaxing/sedative effects [112]. The EO is also claimed to possess anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, cicatrisant, tonic, and vulnerary efficacy, as well as benefits in strengthening bones, the treatment of rheumatism, gout, arthritis, muscle aches, dryness, cramps, and dry skin [110]. Since ancient times, the root oil has further been used in treatment against obstinate vomiting, colic, and flatulence, as well as a stimulant and diaphoretic [113]. ...
... Thus, it appears in over a third of all fragrances, added to various products such as perfumes, deodorants, lotions, soaps, cosmetics, etc. [110,113,117]. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classified C. zizanioides root EO as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) and approved the oil for use as a food and flavor additive in alcoholic beverages, chewing gum, candies, dairy, and baked food products [118]. ...
Full-text available
Since ancient times, plant roots have been widely used in traditional medicine for treating various ailments and diseases due to their beneficial effects. A large number of studies have demonstrated that—besides their aromatic properties—their biological activity can often be attributed to volatile constituents. This review provides a comprehensive overview of investigations into the chemical composition of essential oils and volatile components obtained from selected aromatic roots, including Angelica archangelica, Armoracia rusticana, Carlina sp., Chrysopogon zizanioides, Coleus forskohlii, Inula helenium, Sassafras albidum, Saussurea costus, and Valeriana officinalis. Additionally, their most important associated biological impacts are reported, such as anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, pesticidal, and other miscellaneous properties. Various literature and electronic databases—including PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Wiley—were screened and data was obtained accordingly. The results indicate the promising properties of root-essential oils and their potential as a source for natural biologically active products for flavor, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and fragrance industries. However, more research is required to further establish the mechanism of action mediating these bioactivities as well as essential oil standardization because the chemical composition often strongly varies depending on external factors.
... It was known to India from ancient times and is widely cultivated in India for many reasons. Initially, it was utilized by the tribal people of India in the form of screens (provide cooling effect in summer), mats, hand fans, and baskets, mattresses and even in room coolers, moodas, sirkies, paper, and straw board (Balasankar et al. 2013). Subsequently, its medicinal property was also explored by utilizing each part like roots in deworming, scorpion sting, snakebite (Rao and Suseela 2000), gallstones (Chomchalow and Chapman 2003), burns, fever, and stomach diseases (Maffei, 2002), while the leaf paste acts as pain reliever in rheumatism, lumbago, and sprain (Rao and Suseela 2000). ...
... Few scientists are working on the characterization, synthesis, and separation of oil component by employing different methods like hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction method, and carbon dioxide expanded ethanol methods through which biological activity of each component hopefully can be ascertained (Luqman et al. 2009). Nowadays, aromatherapy is being tried for the cancer patients which employs vetiver oil as one of its components because of its antioxidant (Luqman et al. 2005), antibacterial (Dahiya et al. 2011a, b), and antiinflammatory property (Balasankar et al. 2013), but still needs a lot of attention by the researchers to prove its efficacy (David et al. 2019). ...
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Vetiver has a broad history of traditional medicinal uses, but only a handful of research article has reported its utility in treating diseases. But unfortunately, no work has been reported on the anti-inflammatory activity of its plant extract and inflammatory-linked diseases. Hence, the present review focuses on investigating the several presumptions which can be put forward to explain its anti-inflammatory property. Thus, for ensuring the same, all the databases like science direct, PubMed, book chapters, and other authenticated papers were thoroughly studied to present a connection between inflammation and the plant potential. After gaining enough knowledge on pathogenesis of inflammation, it has been observed that the release of mediators from the arachidonic acid metabolism pathway and generation of oxidative and nitrogen species are presented as the main reason for the occurrence of inflammation condition. The stimulation of antioxidant enzyme system network by the plant extract reduces the level of oxidative stress, creating a balance between oxidant and antioxidant system. Moreover, its antimicrobial activity will prevent the biological source of stimulation towards injury and the CNS depressant effect will subside the pain of inflammation. Amalgamating all the factors together, the plant can be utilized as anti-inflammatory can be and also can be proved as a beneficial perspective in the treatment of inflammation-linked disorders.
... Likewise, Helichrysum candolleanum (Asteraceae) and Blepharis diversispina (Acanthaceae) exhibit high metal tolerance capabilities (Nkoane et al. 2005). Chrysopogon zizanioides, often known as vetiver grass, has been reported to be effective in removing both organic (e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, phenol, and petroleum hydrocarbon) and inorganic (particularly hazardous metals such as lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and arsenic) pollutants (Balasankar et al. 2013;Brandt et al. 2006;Chen et al. 2004;Datta et al. 2011;Ho et al. 2013;Makris et al. 2007;Singh et al. 2008;Singhakant et al. 2009). In a study done by Datta et al. (2011), vetiver grass was found to be a promising phytoremediator of As when grown in various soil types. ...
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Presently, there seems to be an increase in interest in cultivating medicinal plants across the globe. Medicinal plants offer huge potential to be grown on contaminated sites to recover soil health, in addition to oil production and eco-tourism, to address the rising demand for pharmaceuticals, essential oils, and bioenergy. In the present chapter, efforts have been made to collect and analyze available information regarding stress tolerance capabilities and the phytoremediation potential of medicinal plants, which will provide valuable insight into understanding the putative mechanisms involved in stress tolerance and pollution alleviation. The medicinal plants that can withstand stress and be used for the phytoremediation of environmental contaminants have also been explored.
... Likewise, vetiver oil has widespread usage in medical applications such as the treatment of gout, arthritis, muscle aches, cramps and rheumatism (Balasankar et al., 2013). Furthermore, this essential oil calms nervous irritations, convulsions and emotional outbursts such as epileptic, restlessness and hysteric attacks. ...
Abutilon indicum is a small shrub generally found in the tropical and subtropical regions mostly found in Tamil Nadu. Abutilon indicum is generally used as an ornament and has many medicinal properties. In tropical and sub-tropical regions this plant is considered to be invasive. The docking analysis was done against zika virus a viral enzyme. The protein responsible for docking against zika virus was retrieved from Protein Data Bank (PDB). The bioactive compounds of Abutilon indicum were screened using ADMET properties and Lipinski rule of five. The result obtained with highest binding energy against zika virus was m-xylene with binding energy-4.12 Kcal/mol and o-xylene with binding energy -4.07 Kcal/mol. The molecular docking results shows a better inhibition potential of drug compounds against viral enzymes and thus Abutilon indicum can be used as drug molecule to treat diseases.
... The vetiver growing leaves can be used as fodder for livestock, but very matured leaves are less palatable [10,11,35,44]. Vetiver can be used as fresh or as silage or hay [5]. ...
The vetiver is an excellent source for essential oil, fodder, thatching, handicrafts, and mulching. Besides its various utility, a limited study has been done as fodder for ruminants. The major studies in the vetiver were focused on oil production, soil/water conservation. The study related to livestock cattle feeding on vetiver is very meager. The essential oil content, yield, nutritional, and protein quality of the fodder are highly affected by the G × E interaction. Objectives were to determine the extent of genotype × environment interaction for the nutritional quality of fodder, oil yield and to identify stable genotypes for the future breeding program. The thirty lines were evaluated to meet the above objectives to select genotypes with high oil yield and fodder quality. The genotypes were planted in RBD at the Institute in three years. The observations were recorded on twenty traits. The roots were distilled for oil by hydro-distillation for 24 h. GC analysis was performed in a Varian CP 3800 system using an Elite-5 fused silica column (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 μm). The pooled mean observations of all characters were analyzed for stability by the GGE biplot. For after the pooled ANOVA across years, all the twenty traits showed highly significant variations except four. Except for one variable, essential oil content, genotype was very significant for all twenty traits (%). For maturity stage × year interaction, all the twenty traits also showed high significance except four traits. For the maturity stage × genotypes interaction, all the twenty traits also showed highly significant variations except four traits. For years × genotypes interaction, all twenty traits also showed highly significant differences. For the maturity stage× years × genotypes interaction, all the twenty traits also showed high significance except one trait. The genotype Vg-11/selection 24 expressed the highest performance for eight traits: digestibility, protein, potassium, phosphorus (%), iron, copper, and manganese (mg/Kg) in vetiver leaves and the root yield/plot (g). The genotype Vg-15 for the three traits: calcium (%), khusinol, and β-vetivone (%) in essential oil. Despite the importance of essential oil, its leaves are vital due to their nutritional quality and can be used as fodder. Genotype Vg-11/selection 24 may recommend as a suitable and nutritious fodder and Vg-13 for high oil. The vetiver also has a perfect opportunity to be as nutritious fodder in livestock for nutrition and production.
... Vetiver oil is commonly used as a main odour contributor in the fragrance industry and as a flavour agent in the food industry (Martínez et al. 2004). Despite its special aroma, vetiver oil possesses various biological activities, such as antiinflammatory (Balasankar et al. 2013), antibacterial (Luqman et al. 2005) and antioxidant (Luqman et al. 2009), making it beneficial in aromatherapy (Devprakash et al. 2011). The annual market demand of vetiver oil was estimated at up to 250 tons, worth approximately $200 million per year (Burger et al. 2017), while the worldwide herbal cultivating area has reached nearly 10,000 hectares. ...
The metabolites biosynthesized by medicinal and aromatic plants make it possible to be part of the fragrance industry. Natural products have been used for millennia as raw materials for perfumery: flowers, fruits, seeds, leaves, whole plants, woods, roots and resins have been, and are, primordial sources for obtaining aromatic materials. The perfume of a natural product is usually the result of a complex interaction of the different constituents, so each and every one of the components contributes to the total olfactory perception. Therefore, this chapter aims to inform about the use of secondary metabolites extracted from some medicinal and aromatic plants of economic importance in the perfume industry, the importance of essences and about natural fragrances and enfleurage (extraction of aroma from flowers).
... Chrysopogon zizanioides typically called as vetiver grass has been discovered to be ideal to remove organic (e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, phenol, and petroleum hydrocarbon) along with inorganic (hazardous metals such as lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and arsenic) pollutants (Balasankar et al. 2013;Brandt et al. 2006;Chen et al. 2004;Datta et al. 2011;Ho et al. 2013;Makris et al. 2007;Singh et al. 2008;Singhakant et al. 2009). Because of its large root biomass and capability to enter deep levels of soil, plant vetiver can be utilized to reduce deep contaminated soil (Pichai et al. 2001;Truong 2000). ...
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Phytoremediation, the use of green plants for the treatment and management of water, soil, and air pollutants, is an important part of the new field of environmental engineering. This chapter briefly elucidates the benefits of using medicinal and aromatic plants for remediation of contaminated sites. Phytoremediation is of utmost importance to deal with the problem of pollution. Aromatic plants can be utilized for remediation of contaminated sites because they are nonfood crops, hence reducing the risk of food chain contamination. Phytoremediation provides a cost-effective and sustainable way to improve the economies of developing countries. Large-scale commercialization of this technology requires more research and knowledge and makes food security more stable and the land a more pleasant place. Numerous medicinal and aromatic plant species, which have been described by many researchers, having the potential to remediate contaminated sites are listed in this report.
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The vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash syn. Chrysopogon zizanioides Roberty, family-Poaceae, is native to India and is found growing wild in almost all parts of the country. Roots of vetiver are the source of worldrenowned 'khus' oil that has considerable value in essential oil industries. It can be grown on marginal soils, including saline and sodic, sandy, waterlogged, and sloppy land. Out of the two species occurring in India, Vetiveria zizanioides and Vetiveria lawsoni syn. V. nemoralsis, only the former has commercial significance because of the high-class perfumery value of its oil, known since ancient times. In India, vetiver grows luxuriantly in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Southern and peninsular India. The quality of vetiver oil, especially from north India, is considered to be the best in the world (Husain et al., 1988; 1994; Lal et al., 1996a, b; Lal et al., 1997a, b, c). The major vetiver oil-producing countries are India, Indonesia, and Haiti. Vetiver grows wild in some northern states and its cultivation is also done on a limited scale in Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, and Kerala. Recently, farmers in north India have taken up vetiver cultivation on large scale due to the high demand for vetiver oil. Also, vetiver is grown in over 100 countries for its environmental application for soil/water conservation and carbon sequestration (Lal and Sharma, 2000b; Lal et al., 2020b; Lal et al., 2021). A leaf of the vetiver plant is mainly used against insects and people keep the leaf inside their clothes to save them from insects. The roots are particularly valuable, not just for the essential oil that can be extracted from them but also because they can be used to construct dwellings and to make blinds and screens as well as handbags and fans. The powdered root is used against pests. The roots are refrigerant, febrifuge, and stomachic. From the rhizome and roots of vetiver essential oil, vetiver oil, is steamdistilled, which is used in perfumes, deodorants, soaps, and other toilet articles. Its scent is heavy and woody. In perfumery, the essential oil and vetiveryl acetate, synthesized by acetylation of vetiver oil, are important fixatives for more volatile fragrance materials (Sethi and Gupta, 1980; Pareek, Page | 23 1994; Srivastava et al., 2012). The chemical stability of vetiver oil under alkaline conditions makes it a suitable scent compound for soaps. In certain canned foods e.g. asparagus and peas, fractions of vetiver oil are used to reinforce the natural odour and taste. The roots are used for making mats, fans, or "pamaypay" in the Philippines and cooling screens named "tatties" in India (Balasankaret al., 2013; Lal and Sharma, 1998; Lal and Sharma, 2000a, b, c; Mishra et al., 2020). These give a pleasant smell to a room, especially when dampened. Dried roots or sachets of powdered roots are stored between clothes to give them a pleasant smell and to repel insects. Vetiver oil and roots have insecticidal and insect-repellant properties about which little are known. The oil is used medicinally as a carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, refrigerant, stomachic, tonic, antispasmodic, and sudorific. A stimulant drink is made from fresh rhizomes in India. The plants are used as an anthelmintic in Madhya Pradesh (India). Young leaves of vetiver are eaten by cattle and goats, though older clumps are left alone when other fodder is available. Stems and old leaves are an excellent, long-lasting thatch and can be processed into coarse paper pulp. Traditionally, vetiver is planted in southern India in strips as permanent field boundaries and occasionally in contour strips to control erosion, while in Java it is planted to protect sloping drains. Its use as an erosion-control plant spread throughout the tropics, but for a long time remained restricted to small areas. Recent interest started in Fiji, where it was grown in contour strips in sugar-cane plantations on steep slopes. Since the late 1980s, it's planting for erosion control has been promoted strongly, not only around fields but also to protect terraces and road shoulders. Strips of densely packed, stiff, and tough grass stems break the speed of run-off water and divide it evenly, reducing the risk of the formation of run-off streams and gully erosion. The very dense root system has a strong tendency to grow downwards and effectively anchors strips of plants and soil behind it. The vetiver plant has several uses. However, the oil extracted from the roots is of major significance because of its both medicinal and excellent aromatic properties.
Considering the intense trend towards nutraceuticals and functional foods enriched with natural additives, and the great development in the cosmetic industry, it is obvious that it is necessary to study on the extraction of natural products. The current challenge is to develop the most effective alternative method by employing less energy, chemicals and unit operations. In the present study, automatic solvent extraction (AMSE) has been operated as a Green Extraction technology. Olive tree (Olea europaea) by-product (leaf) has been extracted by AMSE. Its yield has been evaluated according to its total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC) and oleuropein contents. Free radical scavenging activity of the product was also quantified by two different in vitro tests (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS)). 3-factor and 3-level Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to design the experimental study as well as modelling the experimental data and optimizing the AMSE process. The concentration of ethanol (solvent solution) was statistically the most significant (p < 0.0001) parameter affecting the AMSE of bioactive ingredients from olive leaves. The optimal conditions (~0.7 mm olive leaf particle with 80 % (v/v) ethanol solution for 30 min) have been determined to achieve the highest yields (216.39 mg gallic acid equivalent of TPC, 338.21 mg catechin equivalent of TFC and 67.25 mg of oleuropein per gram dried leaf), which are in convincing agreement with the actual values (<2 % error).
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Purpose-The global crisis of extreme air pollution is encountered nowadays due to the burning of fossil fuel, vehicular emission, modern sophistication and industrialization. These result infusions of high levels of Smoke, Particulate Matter (PM), Total volatile organic compounds (VOC), Hydrocarbons (HCHO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOX), Sulfur Oxides (SOX), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and other air pollutants into the atmosphere. Findings- Therefore, the development of a cost-saving air purifier is extremely essential with naturally occurring resources that are readily available throughout all the places at some point in time.A compact, flexible, modular and low-cost air purifier has designed employing a combination of porous plug and two filter media developed from natural resources. Methodology-The air purification unit is horizontal shaped and made with a simple PVC pipe. The first filter media was developed by mixing human hair with low-cost vegetable Mahua oil and the second one by wetting Vetiver (Chrysopogan zizanioides) with water. A mixture of human hair with Mahua oil can absorb the suspended particulate matter of size above 2.5 µm, and wet Vetiver shows the enormous capability of absorption of gases like NOx, SOx and Hydrocarbons and adsorption of particle size even less than 2.5 µm like PM1. Moreover, due to the pleasant smell, wet Vetiver can produce fresh air. Value-The cleaning and disposals of such naturally derived products are easy because of complete biodegradability and no negative impact on the environment. To restrict the filter media movement, porous plugs are coupled at the inlets and outlets of pipeline and filters. Due to the Joule-Thomson effect, the air coming out of the porous plug becomes 50oC cooler than the input air. The pollutant removal efficiency of indoor was found to be more than 60% were in the outdoor residential areas, it was more than 75%, and in the heavily crowded regions, it evaluated to be more than 65%. Amidst the alarming air pollution scenario throughout the world, such an invented device should be welcome due to the excellent performance as reflected in the production of pollutant-free fresh air at reduced temperature.
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The dynamic state of nutrient contents of Vetiver grass was studied. Grass samples were collected and analyzed in different seasons, types of soil condition, growth stages and mowing times. The results showed that nutrient contents of Vetiver grass were correlated highly to seasons, growth stage and types of soil condition. Vetiver grass passing through winter showed lower nutritive value than those growing in other seasons. Vetiver grass growing in sand showed lower nutritive value than those growing in soil. Nutrient contents reached the highest level in the tillering stage and then decreased in the jointing stage. Vetiver grass that grew in pig farm wastes showed higher contents of crude protein, carotene and lutein, relatively lower contents of ash, Ca, Fe, Cu Mn and Zn, and contained acceptable levels of heavy metal (Pb, As and Cd), which indicated Vetiver grass which grew in pig farm waste was still a promising feed resource for ruminants.
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The Esk Shire Council has recently installed a Vetiver Grass Wetlands System to treat sewerage effluent at Toogoolawah in South East Queensland. The sewerage treatment plant is situated on a 22-ha site on the northern edge of town. The aim of this scheme was to improve water quality before the effluent discharges to the natural wetlands. The biggest problem with the quality of the effluent is its high nutrient loading. With the recent changes to license conditions imposed by the Environmental Protection Agency, the existing treatment plant no longer complies with the license and an upgrade of the plant was required. Instead of traditional upgrades, a new and innovative phyto-remedial technology recently developed in Queensland by the Department of Natural Resources and Mines, is being implemented at Toogoolawah. Under the Vetiver Wetlands System, the effluent is being treated in two stages:  Preliminary treatment of the pond effluent in situ by floating pontoons placed in the ponds, and by vetiver planting around the edges of the three sewerage ponds.  Main treatment by vetiver wetlands, once the effluent exits the sewerage ponds it passes through a Vetiver Grass contoured wetlands constructed over 3 hectares of the land. The Vetiver Grass wetlands have been constructed in rows following the contours to allow good contact between the grass and the effluent. The Vetiver Grass takes up the water and in particular the grass will remove the nutrients from the water that passes through it. As Vetiver Grass system is very effective in removing nutrient loads, it is expected that once the wetlands is properly established there should be no release of sewerage effluent from the treatment plant except in times of heavy rainfall. This scheme will provide a large-scale prototype of possible sewerage treatment schemes that can be used throughout western Queensland and other locations where there is plenty of land and where the local government doesn't want to pay for installing and operating high cost solutions.
Vetiveria zizanioides is popularly known as Khas Khas, Khas or Khus grass in India. It is a densely tufted grass, found throughout the plains and lower hills of India, particularly on the riverbanks and in rich marshy soil. Vetiver has been known to India since ancient times. It has been considered as a high- class perfume and copper plate inscriptions list the perfume as one of the articles used by royalty. Two species of Vetiveria are found in India, of which V. zizanioides is the common source of the well- known oil of vetiver, which is used in medicine and in perfumery. Khas grass grows wild in many states, namely Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh and throughout South India. It is systematically cultivated in the North Indian states of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab and in the South Indian states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The yield from the cultivated crops, however, meets only a very small percentage of the requirements of the country. The bulk of the roots used for cooling purposes and for the extraction of the oil are obtained from the wild. Khas grass plays an important role in the socio-economic life of rural India. In India, since ancient times, the roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans, and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled with water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer. In Kerala, the roots are woven along with bamboo splits and made into flat mattresses for use as under-beds to give a cooling effect. The roots have found increased use in electric room-coolers. In Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, the plant is used as anthelmintic for children. It is also used for boils, burns, epilepsy, fever, scorpion sting, snakebite, and sores in the mouth. Root extract is used for headache and toothache. Vetiver oil is regarded as stimulant, diaphoretic and refrigerant. This oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks). Local application of leaf paste for rheumatism, lumbago and sprain gives good relief. The dried roots are also used to perfume the linen clothes. The rachis is used in the manufacture of moodas, sirkies, etc. The young leaves are browsed by cattle and sheep. Dried culms are used for making brooms and thatching of huts. Pulp is suitable for manufacturing paper and straw board. Details of Khas grass cultivation and uses of the grass in India are discussed and commercial cultivation is recommended.
Hand Book of Horticulture
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