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The work of assessing students’ learning is complex. In order to assess their work objectively, teachers and instructors use various methods and instruments, one of which is testing. We are aware that nowadays testing has become an inherent part of the society we live in. Consequently, many important decisions are based on test results. So, it is not surprising that anxiety during tests has become a prominent problem in schools all over the world. The present study focuses primarily on test anxiety and its impact on learning, as well as its causes and effects on students. A test anxiety scale followed by a set of questions was completed by a sample group of undergraduate students of “Aleksandër Moisiu” University. The results indicated that a considerable number of students were affected, at least at some degree, by test anxiety. From this perspective, the following questions are raised: “What causes test anxiety?” and “What can be done to alleviate this problem?” The findings of this empirical study, the review of literature as well as students experiences provide useful suggestions concerning the ways of alleviating test anxiety.
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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
Vol.2, No.2, May 2011
MCSER – Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research
Rome, Italy,
How Does Exam Anxiety Affect the Performance of University Students?
Anisa Trifoni
Miranda Shahini
Universiteti “Aleksandër Moisiu”
E-mail: E-mail:
The work of assessing students’ learning is complex. In order to assess their work objectively, teachers and instructors use
various methods and instruments, one of which is testing. We are aware that nowadays testing has become an inherent part of the society
we live in. Consequently, many important decisions are based on test results. So, it is not surprising that anxiety during tests has become
a prominent problem in schools all over the world. The present study focuses primarily on test anxiety and its impact on learning, as well
as its causes and effects on students. A test anxiety scale followed by a set of questions was completed by a sample group of undergraduate
students of “Aleksandër Moisiu” University. The results indicated that a considerable number of students were affected, at least at some
degree, by test anxiety. From this perspective, the following questions are raised: “What causes test anxiety?” and “What can be done to
alleviate this problem?” The findings of this empirical study, the review of literature as well as students experiences provide useful
suggestions concerning the ways of alleviating test anxiety.
testing, exam anxiety, students’ performance
1. Introduction
Concerning the notion of assessment, also known as the control of knowledge, it has existed
since the period of antiquity. Socrates used questionnaires with consecutive questions with the
aim to encourage his students to think critically. The same phenomenon was noticed even in
Rome around the V century BC. As a tradition, the control of knowledge in Europe consisted
of oral questioning, a phenomenon which began in 1219 in the University of Bologna, where
students had to answer verbally to questions made in Latin. Apart from the oral exams, starting
from 1792, in Europe were introduced the first written exams with a starting point in the
University of Cambridge in England.
As we see, exams, especially verbal ones, are used for centuries originally in Europe and later
on in America. This indicates that the assessment of students’ work was and remains a crucial
point in teaching. The work of assessing and judging students’ learning is not easy. In order to
come out with an objective assessment of their work, teachers and instructors use numerous
methods and instruments, one of which is testing. We are conscious that nowadays testing has
become an inherent part of our society. It has become more extensive not only in education but
in every sphere of life and many important decisions are specifically based on test results. This
view is also supported by Spielberger and Vag (1995), two experts in the field of test anxiety.
These researchers point out that “… achievement test scores, as well as academic performance,
are increasingly used in evaluating applicants for jobs and admissions into educational programs.
Consequently, examination stress and test anxiety have become pervasive problems in modern
society. (p.xiii)”. This view was held earlier by another well known researcher in the field of test
anxiety, Sarason (1959), who commented: “We live in a test- conscious, test -giving culture in
which the lives of people are in part determined by their test performance”. At this point, it is
important to emphasize that even though tests are highly valid and reliable, one cannot be sure
whether the results truly reflect students’ understanding or their actual true abilities.
An important factor that should be taken under consideration is test anxiety. As Cizek and
Burg (2006) emphasize, here lies a popular misunderstanding about test anxiety. Test anxiety is
not the normal nervousness we experience in testing situation. That feeling of nervousness is the
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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
Vol.2, No.2, May 2011
MCSER – Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research
Rome, Italy,
perfectly normal response that nearly everyone experiences when faced with any challenging
task. The present study focuses specifically on test anxiety and its impact on students’
performance and learning.
2. Research Literature
Anxiety is a phenomenon that people frequently encounter in their daily life. Anxiety can be
described as the tense, unsettling anticipation of a threatening but vague event; a feeling of
uneasy suspense (Rachman, 2004). As a result of the nature of anxiety, researchers have provided
a classification of this phenomenon into different sub-categories (e.g., language anxiety, speech
anxiety, social anxiety,). As was mentioned above, we will concentrate on one of these categories,
namely, test anxiety. Test anxiety as a phenomenon has received considerable attention since
1950s. It is considered to be a common educational problem, referring to a situation when
students do not feel confident about their abilities, which is reflected especially in their
performance and tests results. This view is also supported by a study conducted by Spielberger
(1962) with college students, which revealed that while only 8 out of 138 low-anxiety students
dropped out of college because of academic failure, twenty six out of 129 high anxious students
left for the same reason.
According to Zeidner (1998) test anxiety is a set of phenomenological, physiological and
behavioral responses that accompany concern about possible negative consequences or failure
on an exam or similar evaluative situation. As we see from Zeidner’s statement, test anxiety is
strongly related to failure consequences. This connection can be noticed even in (Sarason and
Sarason, 1990) who state that when not in an evaluational situation, or anticipating one, the
highly test anxious individual may not worry about possibilities of failure, embarrassment and
social rejection. But in evaluational situations these possibilities become active. We should also
emphasize the fact that students who suffer from test anxiety do not necessarily lack in intellect
or drive. Test anxiety and other deficits related to test anxiety, interfere with academic
performance (Everson & Millsap, 1991).
In order to understand in what way test anxiety affects students’ performance it is necessary
to take under consideration the study of Liebert &Morris (1967). These researchers analyzed the
responses of students to Sarason and Mandler’s Questionnaire (TAQ: Sarason & Mandler, 1952).
The results indicated that test anxiety consisted of two major components. The first component
was emotionality which was related to the physical reactions to test situations, such as
nervousness, sweating, constantly looking at the clock, pencil-taping and so on. The second
factor was worry, which comprises the psychological or cognitive aspect of test anxiety. “Worry
relates primarily to cognitive concern(s) about the consequences of failure” Liebert &Morris
(1967). This is not surprising since a student’s test anxiety is something that cannot be perceived
by a teacher or instructor. What is more, students’ actual levels of test anxiety cannot be directly
measured or examined. The only thing that could be observed is the students’ manifestation of
test anxiety in the form of emotionality responses mentioned earlier. Morris and Liebert study
(1970) found that the factor of worry had a stronger negative relationship with performance
outcomes than emotionality, in a group of high school students. This suggests that it is the
cognitions or thoughts about the evaluative situation that will have the greatest impact upon
performance under such conditions.
A lot of research has been conducted in order to identify in what way test anxiety affects
performance, considering the fact that this phenomenon has a variety of sources. According to
one review of the research on test anxiety different possibilities have been examined. For
example, some studies have identified the root of test anxiety as lying in students’ poor
preparation. Those studies suggest that some students ineffectively organize or process
information and they perform poorly on tests because of this. Naveh-Benjamin et al (1987) have
found that when compared with less anxious students, highly test-anxious students have
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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
Vol.2, No.2, May 2011
MCSER – Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research
Rome, Italy,
difficulties in organizing material to be learned. As several research studies have noted, highly
test anxious students have less effective study habits compared to their low anxious counterparts
(Culler and Holahan, 1980). This view is also supported by Hembree (1988), who suggests that a
lack of effective study skills contributes to poor performance under evaluative conditions, which
in turn leads to heightening feelings of anxiety when it comes to performing in subsequent
examinations. Support of this research emerged from treatment studies that have concentrated
on helping students to improve study skills. The results of these studies suggest that study skills
can also help to reduce test anxiety and improve performance.
At this point, it is important to mention Zeidner’s (1998) view of the problem. He is of the
opinion that the state of test anxiety cannot be explained away by lack of work or exam
performance, for conscientious and highly motivated students also suffer from its debilitating
impact. He states that academic performance depends on the information processing routines
that directly control learning and comprehension of classroom material, such as focused
attention, working memory and long term memory retrieval, processes that may be biased by
personality factors such as test anxiety.
Other studies have identified “the habitual, irrelevant, negative thoughts that some students
have during a testing situation” as a major cause of anxiety (Mealey & Host, 1992). According to
Mealey & Host (1992), there are 3 main categories of test anxious students. They include
students who:
1. Do not have adequate study and test-preparation strategies, realize that deficiency, know
they are not well prepared for testing situations and are worried.
2. Have adequate strategies in their repertoire and use them but become distracted during
3. Mistakenly believe they have adequate strategies, do poorly on tests and anxiously wonder
why. (p. 148)
Sarason (1980) believes that learners’ capacity, task difficulty, the fear of getting bad grades and
lack of preparation for a test are the other factors that make learners worried. Similarly, learners
with high levels of anxiety have less control of attention. He also suggests that there is
considerable evidence that the performance of highly test anxious individuals on complex tasks
is deleteriously affected by evaluational stressors. The less complex the task, the weaker this
effect is. Concerning task difficulty, Gaudry and Spielberger (1971) seem to share the same view.
The results of their study showed that high-anxious subjects performed better than low-anxious
subjects on simple tasks but performed more poorly than low-anxious subjects on complex
tasks. This fact is supported by a study of Zeidner (1998) who found that test anxiety is more
detrimental to demanding tasks.
Literature on test anxiety shows that some of the factors that influence students’ reactions to
tests are related to test validity, time limit, test techniques, test format, length, testing
environment and clarity of test instructions (Young, 1999). Concerning the importance of test
validity we can mention Young’s study (1991) which indicates that students experience anxiety if
the test involves content that was not taught in class. Another factor that increases test anxiety
and affects performance is time limit. According to Ohata (2005), learners sometimes felt
pressured to think that they had to organize their ideas in a short period of time. Another factor
that affects negatively students’ performance is the inappropriate test technique. Young (1991)
found that students felt anxious when they had studied for hours for a test and then found in the
test question types which they had no experience about. Last of all, Ohata’s study (2005)
revealed that most of the participants in the study admitted that they feared taking tests, because
test-taking situations would make them fearful about the negative consequences of getting a bad
grade. This result has been found in many studies. Furthermore, research indicates that anxiety
affects performance negatively not only at school but at the university level as well. Paul and
Eriksen (1964) tested the effect of anxiety by giving a group of first –year girl students a
traditional examination on their course. The students were aware that the marks of this test
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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
Vol.2, No.2, May 2011
MCSER – Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research
Rome, Italy,
would count on their final grade. Immediately after the test they were asked to fill in a test
anxiety questionnaire and were given a parallel form of the examination they had previously
taken but this time it was emphasized that the marks would not be taken into count towards
their grade. When the results were analyzed, it was found that highly anxious students did better
on the non-stressful examination whereas low-anxiety students performed better in the
traditional condition.
Sometimes it is the type of test that leads to test anxiety. Some students become anxious
during exams that require them to demonstrate their knowledge in ways in which they do not
feel comfortable. For example, some students panic when they find they have to take essay tests.
Others become anxious over oral exams. Different types of tests can make students anxious
(Van Blerkomp, 2009). Researchers do not share the same opinion on when and how test anxiety
interferes with test performance. It interferes either at test time or at study time. Wine (1980)
believes that test anxious individuals divide their attention between task relevant activities and
preoccupation with worry and self criticism. With less attention available for task-directed efforts
their performance is depressed.
Apart from these factors, we should mention Hembree’s study (1988). He found that the
conditions that give rise to differential test anxiety levels include ability, gender and school grade
level. Other research has suggested a difference in anxiety responses between males and females
(King et al., 2000); with females generally self-reporting higher levels of test anxiety symptoms
than males. From this point of view, it would be important to consider the role of gender when
interpreting the results from outcome measures of self reported test anxiety.
The research on test anxiety in Albania seems to be limited. This is the main reason why we
find it necessary to conduct a research with university students. Another reason is related to the
fact that this phenomenon affects a considerable number of students and impairs their
performance. Considering the fact that test anxiety is a complex and problematic area, it is
necessary to determine the problems, and provide recommendations on the ways of reducing it,
which would be helpful to both students and teachers.
3. Method
3.1 Subjects
The study was conducted at the Faculty of Education, in “Aleksandër Moisiu” University,
Durres. The subjects in the study consisted of 109 students of the following branches:
Elementary Education, Experts in the Processes of Formation and English Language. Of the
subjects, 38 (34.9 %) were male and 71 (65.1%) were female students, with a male-female ratio of
38:71. Their ages ranged from 18 to 26, with an average age of 22. The group consisted of 21
first (19.2%), 31 (28.4%) second, 33 (30.2%) third and 24 (22.1%) fourth year students.
3.2. Instruments
The instrument used to collect descriptive data was a questionnaire that consisted of three parts.
The first part was intended to collect personal information of the participants, such as their age,
gender, and year at university. The second part was a test anxiety scale adapted from Sarason’s
(1980) Test Anxiety Scale. The third consisted of an open question survey. The test anxiety
scale aimed to measure the degree of test anxiety manifested by the subjects. Lastly, to
investigate into participants’ attributions of the causes and effects of test anxiety, three open-
ended questions were designed, which read as follows:
- In your opinion what causes anxiety during exams?
- What is the effect of test anxiety on students?
- What can be done to alleviate somehow this phenomenon?
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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
Vol.2, No.2, May 2011
MCSER – Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research
Rome, Italy,
The questionnaire was administered to the subjects one week before their final exams.
4. Data Analysis
In order to assess the degree of test anxiety experienced by students, descriptive statistics were
used. The results indicate that the participants are affected at least at some degree by test
anxiety. In the first graph, the results of the questionaire administered to all of the subjects, are
expressed in percentage (%).
Graph nr.1
As we can see, the analysis of the data indicates that most of the students worry during test
taking (2), but especially when they are supposed to take a surprise exam (5). In addition, they do
not feel confident and calm before tests (3), whereas after tests the students assume that they
could have done better (9). They also admit that they feel anxious before final exams (10).
According to the students, emotions affect their performance negatively (11) and sometimes
cause to forget what they have learned. During the test, they usually feel pressured by time limits
(18) and sometimes believe they will fail. Cizek and Burg (2006) explain their belief in this way:
“Because tests frequently result in the assignment or a of a grade or score- that is in an
evaluation - test anxiety is experienced in testing situations by persons who feel threatened
by evaluation. That threat is more likely to be aroused when a test taker perceives that the
evaluation of his or her performance is likely to be low. That perception arises because the
student believes that his or her knowledge, skill or ability is inadequate to perform
successfully on the test. Interestingly, because whatever level of anxiety is aroused in a
student often depresses his/her test performance, the test taker’s perception of the threat
of evaluation turn out to be accurate, to a degree. That is anxiety causes a poor evaluation,
which confirms the students initial perceptions regarding the (un)likelihood of success
which reinforces evaluation as a threatening event.”
The students also admit that grades influence both their study and their performance on exams
(19), suggesting that good grades make them feel confident. However, the results show that the
students feel anxious even when they have studied and are well- prepared for the exam (23).
These were some of the aspects on which students expressed their concern.
The second graph shows the the results of the questionaire for both male and female students
expressed in percentage (%).
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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
Vol.2, No.2, May 2011
MCSER – Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research
Rome, Italy,
Graph nr.2
As can be clearly noticed in the second graph, for various questions of the questionnaire, there is
a certain difference in the answers of male and female subjects, which points out that test anxiety
is also associated with the gender of the subjects. The findings are also supported by a study of
Everson and Millsap (1991), which showed that females have higher levels of worry as well as
higher levels of emotionality compared to males. The graph shows that at least five items are
associated significantly with the gender of the subjects. First, female students feel more worried
than the males when they know they will take a test (2). Second, the females feel less confident
and relaxed than the males when they know they will take a test (3). Third, female students are
more worried than male students when they have to study for an exam (13). Fourth, female
students are more worried than male students even when they are well-prepared (23). Last,
females find their hands trembling before an important examination (24), which reflects a higher
level of emotionality compared to male students.
Based on the answers compiled from the first question of the survey, it was found that lack
of preparation for the tests and inefficient or inappropriate test preparation are some of the
reasons that make learners anxious. Low self-confidence, fear of negative evaluation and
previous test experiences concluded with failure also make the students feel anxious. Besides,
time limitation and stress during test administration also cause anxiety, since many students
admit that they are not sure if they can finish the test within the time given. In addition,
insufficient or unclear orientation from the lecturers concerning the material that will be covered
in the exam causes a considerable amount of anxiety. They also make complaints about
inappropriate test techniques or the way the test is designed and the number of items included
there. Students also admit that difficult course content and the large amount of information to
be covered are other anxiety producing sources. Ultimately, the thought that students may forget
what they have learned and as a result fail, makes them feel anxious.
Concerning the second question of the survey, the results show that test anxiety mostly
causes negative effects. The subjects admit that test anxiety causes difficulty in retrieving from
memory the information they have learned and decreases their concentration during the test, as a
result of which they make more errors. It also prevents students from displaying their real
knowledge and abilities in the test and transferring their real performance to test results. In other
words, it is an obstacle to efficient study and to an effective use of the knowledge already
acquired. Furthermore, test anxiety causes physical problems. Students who have high level of
test anxiety confess that they suffer from headache, insomnia, increasing heart pulse and
stomach disorder, before and during test administration. They say that test anxiety causes
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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
Vol.2, No.2, May 2011
MCSER – Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research
Rome, Italy,
psychological problems as well. Among them we can mention an increased level of nervousness,
confusion, uncertainty, tension and negative emotions. The findings indicate that test anxiety
makes students interested in tests and their results but not necessarily in the content of the
course. Apart from these negative effects, it seems that test anxiety has a positive effect on the
learners, since it is not a factor that causes them to study less.
The answers to the question “What can be done to alleviate somehow this phenomenon?”
show that the teacher is the one who should play the most important role in reducing test
anxiety. The students think that teachers should motivate them and provide more specific
orientation concerning the material that will be tested. In other words, subjects point out that the
teachers should inform the students on the content of tests and number of the questions before
the administration. They also suggest that the teachers should avoid negative comments during
tests and should not frequently remind them of the time left. In addition students insist that
teachers should give them enough time to complete the test. Another aspect in order to alleviate
test anxiety is related to the students. They admit that studying systematically would make them
less anxious during exams. According to them, the teachers should be aware of students’ anxiety
and try to understand them.
5. Conclusions and Discussions
The findings of this study are as follows:
First, the students are usually affected by test anxiety, before but especially during the
administration of the test. Some of them report a high level of test anxiety. The results show that
subject variables such as gender are correlated with some aspects of test anxiety: female learners
feel more worried and anxious although they prepare more than males.
Second, it results that some of the factors that cause test anxiety are related to lack of
preparation for the tests and/ or inappropriate test preparation, fear of negative evaluation, bad
experiences on previous tests, time limitation and pressure, the number of items included in the
test and the difficulty of course content.
Third, according to the survey, test anxiety gives rise to physical and psychological
problems as well. It affects motivation, concentration and achievement negatively, increases
errors during the exam, creates problems recalling the material previously learned and prevents
efficient study.
Fourth, it results that teachers’ attitudes are the key factors in reducing test anxiety. Test
techniques, specific orientation before the test, information on the content and number of
questions, time limitation and pressure are some significant problems about which teachers and
instructors should think in order to reduce test anxiety, not to forget the systematic study, which
is students’ responsibility.
Based on the findings of the study, some recommendations can be presented:
First, teachers should be aware of test validity and reflect content of the course to tests.
Second, teachers should inform the students on content, test techniques, number of the
items included in the test before the administration as Alcala (2002) suggests that teachers should
familiarize students with the exam format, the type of rating system.
Third, creating a low-stress environment allows students to concentrate on the test rather
than being distracted by test anxiety.
Fourth, teachers should be aware of students’ anxiety and should find ways to evaluate
students without inducing high levels of anxiety, while still maintaining a positive, effective
climate. Another way to decrease test anxiety in testing environment is to give learners the
possibility to express their comments. For example, Smith & Rockett (1958) found that if
students were asked to write comments on items during multiple choice test the high anxious
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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
Vol.2, No.2, May 2011
MCSER – Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research
Rome, Italy,
students did better and the low-anxious worse but in the “no comment condition the high
anxious students did worse.
6. Limitations of the Study
Concerning this aspect, we can say that some limitations can be noted. The study is limited to
the students of only one institution, namely the Faculty of Education, in “Aleksandër Moisiu”
University. Secondly, the study is limited to the subject variables such as: age, grade and
achievement scores of the students. Lastly, background education is not a variable. As a
conclusion, considering the study is limited to test anxiety of “Aleksandër Moisiu” University
students, further research should focus on more analytic issues such as teacher attitudes on test
anxiety and feedback before and after the exam.
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... These variables included GPA, course grades as well as achievement scores in reading, math, natural sciences and other subjects. The negative association between test anxiety and test performance is further corroborated by some newer studies (e.g., Cassady & Johnson, 2002;Trifoni & Shahini, 2011). Woldeab and Brothen (2019) found that the negative relationship between (trait) test anxiety and test performance is especially strong for students who took an online proctored exam compared with a non-proctored online exam. ...
... Test anxiety is known to be related to several characteristics of the learner. Many studies on test anxiety reported significantly higher levels of test anxiety among women in comparison to men (Alsaady et al., 2020;Hembree, 1988;Schult & McIntosh, 2004;Trifoni & Shahini, 2011). Furthermore, need for achievement, defined as a desire for significant accomplishment or mastering of skills (Murray, 1938), positively correlates with test anxiety. ...
... Finally, as already widely established in literature (Alsaady et al., 2020;Hembree, 1988;Schult & McIntosh, 2004;Trifoni & Shahini, 2011), women showed larger test anxiety compared to men. ...
Full-text available
Background Online and blended learning need an appropriate assessment strategy which ensures academic integrity. During the pandemic, many universities have chosen for online proctoring. Although some earlier examples suggest that online proctoring may reduce cheating, the potential side‐effects of proctoring are largely unknown. Objectives Therefore, this study aims to identify the effects of proctoring on students' self‐reported temptation to cheat and potentially undesirable side‐effects, including test anxiety, perceived exam difficulty, and performance. In addition, we examine which contextual and student characteristics affect test anxiety during online exams. Methods For this, we collected four waves of survey data throughout a year of teaching during the pandemic at one faculty of a Dutch university, resulting in a total sample of 1760 students within 105 courses. Results and Conclusions Multi‐level analyses showed that while proctoring had no effect on the temptation to cheat, exam difficulty or performance, students reported higher levels of test anxiety. Some learning strategies, internet literacy, access to a reliable technology and a dedicated study space as well as gender and financial stress affect their test anxiety. To conclude, the decision to use online proctoring needs to consider the undesirable side‐effect on test anxiety. We discuss practical implications for university administrators, educational designers and teachers to reduce test anxiety.
... 1). Some researchers focus on the single source of anxiety, such as Hembree (1998), Hancock (2001), Grassi, Gaggioli and Riva (2011), and Trifoni and Shahini (2011) conduct research on test or exam anxiety; Horwitz (2001), Von Worde (2003), along with MacIntyre and Gardner (1994) centered on language anxiety; Elliot and Chong (2005), Hartman and LeMay (2004), as well as Barker and Barker (2007) do a research on presentation anxiety; Leary and Kowalski (1997), together with Heinrichs et al. (2006) focus on social anxiety; Ma and Xu (2004), Dowker, Sarkar, and Looi (2016), together with Ashcraft and Moore (2009) deal with mathematics anxiety; Jiao and Onwuegbuzie (2002) and Mellon (1986) concentrate on library anxiety. Other researchers center on multiple sources of anxiety altogether, such as Vitasari et al. (2010) deal with study anxiety from seven sources: exam anxiety, language anxiety, presentation anxiety, social anxiety, family anxiety, mathematics anxiety, and library anxiety. ...
The main purpose of this quantitative study was to explore undergraduates’ anxiety level, as well as the correlation and differences among such variables as the sources of anxiety, students’ GPAs, grade levels, and majors. The research results indicated that undergraduates at a flagship university in the northwest, United States, were moderately anxious. There was no statistically significant difference in anxiety level and GPAs between domestic and international students. There was no statistically significant correlation between the anxiety and GPA concerning grade levels. Based on sources of anxiety and grade levels, undergraduates suffered exam anxiety most, and presentation anxiety came second. Freshmen’ anxiety level related to all sources was highest. Seniors were least anxious. There were statistically significant differences in the anxiety level related to specific sources regarding grade levels, except for presentation source of anxiety. Built on anxiety sources and majors, Human Services students had the highest level of anxiety. The least anxious was Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources students. The study concluded that higher education institutions should implement effective policies, procedures and practices to mitigate students’ anxiety level and thus improve their mental health and well-being.
... Many studies have demonstrated that the high test anxiety levels felt by students have a considerable effect on bad test performance [7][8][9][10]. Bettina Seipp [11] states that the two recognized components of test anxiety, i.e. worry and emotionality, are not examined separately in most studies, since "they are included intuitively in nearly all the questionnaires". ...
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There is a developing interdisciplinary research field which has been trying to integrate results and expertise from various scientific areas, such as affective computing, pedagogical methodology and psychological appraisal theories, into learning environments. Moreover, anxiety recognition and regulation has attracted the interest of researchers as an important factor in the implementation of advanced learning environments. The present article explores the test anxiety and stress awareness of university students who are attending a science course during examinations. Real-time anxiety awareness as provided by biofeedback during science exams in an academic environment is shown to have a positive effect on the anxiety students experience and on their self-efficacy regarding examinations. Furthermore, the relevant research identifies a significant relationship between the students’ anxiety level and their performance. Finally, the current study indicates that the students’ anxiety awareness as provided by biofeedback is related to their performance, a relationship that is mediated and explained by the students’ anxiety.
... Faktor lain yang dapat menyebabkan mahasiswa merasakan kecemasan, yaitu kurang atau ketidaksiapan terhadap ujian, takut akan evaluasi negatif, pengalaman negatif saat ujian, tekanan dan kurangnya waktu pengerjaan. Adanya kecemasan menghadapi ujian dapat mempengaruhi motivasi, konsentrasi, dan prestasi (Trifoni and Shahini, 2011). ...
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Background: Permendikbud No.2 of 2020 regulates student competency test in the health sector. The exit exam competency test is a requirement that must be met by students after completing all stages of education in order to get a certificate and Surat Tanda Registrasi (STR). The results of the preliminary study show that although there is a high chance of passing the exit exam competency test at the RMIK (Medical Records and Health Information) Study Program at Esa Unggul University (UEU), some of the students are not ready or not ready and feel negative in the form of anxiety, worry, fear. Purpose: To identify stress, anxiety, and depression levels of RMIK Esa Unggul University students in preparation for the exit exam competency test. 61 students who have met the requirements. Method: The measuring instrument used is the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 42) which has been modified and adjusted. Result: Showed that more than half of the sample (50.8%) had normal stress, 10 students (16.4%) had severe stress, and 7 students (11.5%) had extremely severe stress. Almost half or about 25 (41%) students feel extremely severe anxiety in preparation for the exit exam competency test. On the other hand, about 14 (23%) students felt normal anxiety and 10 (16.4%) students felt moderate anxiety. More than half of the sample, namely 34 (55.7%) students felt depression at the normal level in preparation for the exit exam competency test. Conclusion: The highest level of stress felt by students in preparation for the exit exam competency test was normal stress, the highest level of anxiety was extremely severe anxiety, and the highest level of depression was normal depression.
... 3. Identify and explain how any emerging technologies can help improve how work is done in that area. 4. Identify the IT skills they need to develop in order to work effectively in their chosen field. ...
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The enabling and pathways education sector is significantly important as it provides access to higher education studies for many disadvantaged and marginalised students. Many of these students are unable to access higher education studies due to their low socioeconomic backgrounds, English as a second language, having to care for children and adults, and other similar reasons. Often these students can feel under valued which affects their self-esteem and confidence to engage with the challenges of higher education studies. Assessments play an important role in engaging students to learn, as well as helping them developing confidence and self-esteem for higher education studies. Most assessments in higher education tends to focus too much on the content testing and little emphasis on how it can be used to develop other important skills and attitudes for long term success .This paper discusses an assessment for learning called a Digital Storybook that was used in an enabling computing studies subject instead of an examination. Evaluation data for this study was collected first at the end of a semester of studies and then again about 3 to 4 years after the students had completed their studies and were in various workplaces. The results clearly showed that not only was the digital storybook an effective assessment to develop current learning needs, it was also significant in develop long term attitudes post their studies.
... They have intense physiological symptoms such as sweating, tension, and increased heart rates (Ringeisen & Heckel, 2019). Additionally, students with anxiety have difficulties focusing on completing the exam or evaluative task (Cassady, 2004;Furlan et al., 2014;Trifoni & Shahini, 2011). They may experience problems with the coding, organization, storage, or retrieval of information, affecting their understanding of the material read and their processing of information they have learned (Cassady, 2004;Coy et al., 2011). ...
p style="text-align: justify;">This study explored the cognitive mechanism behind information integration in the test anxiety judgments in 140 engineering students. An experiment was designed to test four factors combined (test goal orientation, test cognitive functioning level, test difficulty and test mode). The experimental task required participants to read 36 scenarios, one at a time and then estimate how much test anxiety they would experience in the evaluation situation described in each scenario. The results indicate three response styles (low, moderate, and high-test anxiety) among the participants. The orientation and difficulty of each given exam scenario were the most critical factors dictating test anxiety judgments. Only the moderate test anxiety group considered the test mode to be a third relevant factor. The integration mechanism for Cluster 1 was multiplicative, while for Clusters 2 and 3, it was summative. Furthermore, these last two clusters differed in terms of the valuation of the factors. These results suggest that programs that help students to cope with test anxiety need to take into account the valuation and integration mechanism that students use to integrate different information in specific examination contexts, since the way students assess their internal and external circumstances can influence how they deal with evaluative situations.</p
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This paper investigates online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic and explores the possibility that procrastinators have been impacted differently as compared to others. The research is explorative in nature and employs interviews from participants at a higher education institution in Norway as a primary method of investigation. The preliminary findings presented in the paper highlight differences between procrastinators and non-procrastinators regarding the desire to study and satisfaction with learning outcomes. The procrastinators are encountering a higher degree of challenges related to motivation as opposed to non-procrastinators. The preliminary findings also highlight challenges associated with student engagement and the use of the camera during online classes for all the students.
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to the worsening of mental health of people in terms of increased psychological distress and decreased psychological well-being. The study was designed to understand the influence of COVID-19 pandemic on psychological distress and well-being. Present study also explored the variances in psychological distress and well-being in relation to development stages (young adulthood and adulthood), gender (males and females), people who had been infected by coronavirus and those not infected, and respondents whose immediate family members/relatives/friends/classmates had been infected by coronavirus and those not infected. An online survey was conducted in the midst of the pandemic. Responses of 250 respondents were gathered and analysed using the General Well-being Questionnaire developed by Veit and Ware in 1983. The results indicated that COVID-19 pandemic played a significant role in determining psychological distress and well-being. Gender differences in psychological distress and well-being are present with males being high on psychological distress and females being high on psychological well-being. Adults were found to be high on psychological distress than young adults. It was also revealed that as a person (respondent himself/immediate family/friends/relatives) becomes infected and recovers, their psychological distress declines, and well-being increases, probably because of reduced fear of being infected again. Along with other demographic variables, developmental stages and gender differences also played a crucial role in psychological distress and well-being of adults.
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate of causal relationship between cultural values, self-efficacy and test anxiety among Second-Grade High School Students of Urmia city. Research method is correlation form and type of Its structural equations modeling and the statistical population included all the second-grade high school students in Urmia City during 2017-2018 school year. Sampling method category randomized and volume of sample according to krejcie Morgan table were 357 people. data gathering, we have been used three questionnaires including Srite and Karahanna (2006), general efficiency Scherer and et al. (1982), and Test Anxiety Question of Sarason (1984). To organize, summarize and analyze the data the confirmatory factor analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The results of Structural equation modeling showed from the components of cultural values, the two components of a Masculinity/ Femininity and Power distance exert their positive effect through self-efficacy. But the mediating role of self-efficacy was not confirmed on the other two components of cultural values (individualism/collectivism and uncertainty avoidance) with test anxiety.
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The current study aims to measure the effectiveness of a counseling program in improving the motivation of academic achievement among low-achieving students of the Department of Special Education at Imam Muhammad bin Saud Islamic University. It also attempts to identify the impact of this program in reducing the rates of the students’ future anxiety. The sample of the study consists of (32) purposefully sampled students from the Department of Special Education at Imam Muhammad bin Saud Islamic University who represent the experimental group. The age range of the students is from 18 to 19 years. The quasi-experimental approach was selected for this study. In addition, the researchers developed the following measurement scales for testing the research variables: an achievement motivation scale, a measurement of future anxiety, and the counseling program. The study results show that an academic advising program was effective in increasing academic achievement and reducing anxiety over the future. The results of the study show the effectiveness of the program in improving the participants’ motivation toward academic achievement, which ultimately leads to the reduction of future anxiety among the participants. Moreover, the results reveal that there are statistically significant differences at the level of (0.01) between the mean scores of the experimental group in the pre and post measurements of the Motivation achievement scale - and its sub-dimensions - in favor of the post-measurement. Furthermore, it shows statistically significant differences at the level of (0.01) between the mean scores of the experimental group in the pre- and post-measurements of the future anxiety scale - and its sub-dimensions - in favor of the pre-measurement. The results also show no statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group in the two dimensions: the successive measures of achievement motivation and future anxiety measures, which indicates the continuing impact of the counseling program. Key words: A counseling program, academic achievement motivation, future anxiety, grade point average, students of the Department of Special Education.
This volume offers fresh perspectives on a controversial issue in applied linguistics and language teaching by focusing on the use of the first language in communicative or immersion-type classrooms. It includes new work by both new and established scholars in educational scholarship, second language acquisition, and sociolinguistics, as well as in a variety of languages, countries, and educational contexts. Through its focus at the intersection of theory, practice, curriculum and policy, the book demands a reconceptualization of code-switching as something that both proficient and aspiring bilinguals do naturally, and as a practice that is inherently linked with bilingual code-switching.
This study explores the nature of language anxiety from the perspective of five Japanese learners of English (ESL), especially in reference to their self-reflective accounts of emotional difficulties encountered in the U.S. college settings. Through the use of an in-depth qualitative interview format, this study attempts to identify potential sources of anxiety relevant to their affective needs or concerns as Japanese ESL learners in a cross-cultural learning environment. As the interview findings indicate, characteristics of language anxiety exhibited by the participants seem to be quite influenced by Japanese cultural norms or expectations acquired through numerous socialization processes in Japan. Using Young's (1991) six sources of language anxiety as a theoretical guideline for data collection and analysis, this study also discusses some of the influences or impact of those anxiety-provoking factors on L2 learning, along with some implications for further research on language anxiety and for ESL teaching.
Results of 562 studies were integrated by meta-analysis to show the nature, effects, and treatment of academic test anxiety. Effect sizes were computed through the method invented by Glass (Glass, McGaw, & Smith, 1981). Correlations and effect-size groups were tested for consistency and significance with inferential statistics by Hedges and Olkin (1985). Test anxiety (TA) causes poor performance. It relates inversely to students’ self-esteem and directly to their fears of negative evaluation, defensiveness, and other forms of anxiety. Conditions (causes) giving rise to differential TA levels include ability, gender, and school grade level. A variety of treatments are effective in reducing test anxiety. Contrary to prior perceptions, improved test performance and grade point average (GPA) consistently accompany TA reduction.
Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with nonzero latent means, the factor structure of the Test Anxiety (Attitude) Inventory (TAI) across genders was investigated. Two underlying factors, worry and emotionality, have been identified in previous research efforts. A total of 501 college freshmen (219 men and 282 women) from a large urban university participated in the current study. Results support the invariance of the traditional two-factor structure for both males and females. Gender differences, however, were found in the unique factor variances, the factor covariance matrices, and in the latent means corresponding to the worry and emotionality factors. Implications for assessment and research using the TAI are discussed.
-This smdy examined the relationship between rwo aspects of the TAQ, identified as "worry" and "emotionslity," and performance expectancies on a college examination. For this purpose, a short Pre-examination Questionnaire was developed. As predicted, worry (W) was inversely related to performance expectancy. No relationship between expectancy and emotionality (E) was found. The components of Mandler and Sarason's Test Anxiety Questionnaire have typically been examined by various factor-analytic techniques (e.g., Gorsuch, 1966; Sassenrath, 1964; Sassenrath, Kight, 8: Kaiser, 1965). Two cla~ses of factors seem to emerge: cognitive factors which might be labelled "worry" or "lack of confidence" and Zactors which refer to various indices of autonomic arousal or "emotionality." The present study examined a specific hypothesized relationship between these two aspecrs of anxiety and performance expectancy on a college examination. "Worry" (W) was conceptually identified as any cognitive expression of concern about one's own performance, while "emotionality" (E) referred ro autonomic reactions which tend to occur under examination suess. It was hypothesized that worry would be inversely related to performance expectancy. This relationship was predicted on the basis of the following reasoning. Worry is primarily cognitive concern about the consequences of failing, the ability of others relative to one's own, etc. Thus, in situations where persons expect success, considerations of worry should be minimized. In contrast, when poor performance is expected they should be maximal. On the other hand, indices of anxiety which are primarily autonomic or emotional in nature were hypothesized to reflect the immediate uncertainty of the test-taking situation. Thus, emotionality should be highest when one's own performance is least certain (i.e., when expectancy is nearest .5). This prediction is in accord with Atkinson and Feather's (1966) risk-taking model, in which test anxiety is assumed to be an indication of the strength of the motive to avoid failure. This motive, and the anxiety associated with it, is held to be highest at the point of maximum uncertainty (Atkinson & Litwin, 1960). It is pertinent, however, that when Feather (1963) asked persons how "worried rhey were during a problem-solving task in which expectancies were manipulated, an inverse relationship between expectancy and worry was obtained. The purpose of this study was to corroborate the posited inverse relationship between expectancy aod worry and to demonstrate that this relationship does not parallel the relationship between expectancy and emotionality.
The nature of test anxiety and its relationships to performance and cognitive interference are analyzed from the standpoint of attentional processes. A new instrument to assess dimensions of reactions to tests is presented, and its psychometric properties are described. The scales of the Reactions to Tests questionnaire (Worry, Tension, Test-Irrelevant Thinking, Bodily Symptoms) were compared with regard to intellective performance and cognitive interference. The results were consistent with the idea that the problem of anxiety is, to a significant extent, a problem of intrusive thoughts that interfere with task-focused thinking. In the last of the three studies reported, it was shown that self- preoccupying intrusive thinking can be reduced by means of a task-focusing experimental condition. The studies suggest that the Reactions to Tests questionnaire may be useful in defining anxiety more sharply and improving understanding of how it relates to performance.
Investigated (a) the relationship of test anxiety to academic performance in college students, (b) differences in study-related behaviors between high and low test-anxious Ss, and (c) differential effectiveness of study-related behaviors for both groups. Undergraduate Ss were 65 high and 31 low scorers on the Test Anxiety Scale. Results demonstrate a significant decrement in GPA associated with test anxiety. High test-anxious Ss were also found to have poorer study skills. For high test-anxious Ss, quality of study habits and amount of study time were positively related to academic performance, whereas missing classes and delaying exams were inversely related to performance. Findings are discussed in terms of the prevailing interference model of test anxiety. (17 ref)
"The present study was designed to investigate the influence of anxiety, as evoked by a testing situation, on the performance of typical intelligence test items. Relevant hypotheses were postulated on the basis of S-R behavior theory . . .. It appears that the optimal conditions for a high anxiety group are those in which no further reference is made to the testing situation, and that the optimal conditions for a low anxiety group are those in which the subjects are given a failure report." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).