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Effect of bread yeast application and seaweed extract on cucumber (Cucums sativus L.) plant growth, yield and fruit quality

Authors:
  • Technical Institutes zakho

Abstract

An experiment was carried out in the plastic house of Horticulture Department/college of Agriculture/ Duhok University on Cucumber plants during 2009 growing season to determine the effect of bread yeast and seaweed extracts Alga 600 and sea force 2 on growth, yield and its component on Cucumber C.V. shadi. The results showed that spraying bread yeast or seaweed extract resulted in positive significant difference in shoot characteristics and in all yield traits as compared to untreated treatment. The interaction between yeast and seaweed extract was significantly enhanced all detected traits. Since cucumber plant received 6 g.l-1 bread yeast and sprayed with a mixture of 0.33ml.l-1 Alga 600 +2.5 ml.l-1 Sea force 2 were characterized by the highest values of all shoot and yield characteristics.
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EFFECT OF BREAD YEAST APPLICATION AND SEAWEED
EXTRACT ON CUCUMBER (Cucumis sativus L.) PLANT GROWTH,
YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY.
Taha Z. Sarhan , Smira T.Ali, Sanaa M.S.Rasheed
Dept. of Horti., College of Agric., Duhok Univ., Iraq
ABSTRACT
An experiment was carried out in the plastic house of Horticulture
Department/college of Agriculture/ Duhok University on Cucumber plants
during 2009 growing season to determine the effect of bread yeast and seaweed
extracts Alga 600 and sea force 2 on growth, yield and its component on
Cucumber C.V. shadi. The results showed that spraying bread yeast or seaweed
extract resulted in positive significant difference in shoot characteristics and in
all yield traits as compared to untreated treatment. The interaction between
yeast and seaweed extract was significantly enhanced all detected traits. Since
cucumber plant received 6 g.l-1 bread yeast and sprayed with a mixture of
0.33ml.l-1 Alga 600 +2.5 ml.l-1 Sea force 2 were characterized by the highest
values of all shoot and yield characteristics.
INTRODUCTION
Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. has been commonly cultivated in Iraq
during the summer and fall as well as in low tunnels and plastic and green
houses and its fruit use as fresh or after processing (Matlob et al 1989). The
yield per unit area in Iraq is still too low comparing with world production.
Bread yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is considered as a type of biofertilizer
which is usually added to soil or as foliar application on vegetable crops (El-
Ghamry et al 1990) because its nutrition properties as well as its produce
substances like growth regulators such as gibberellins and auxins (Sarhan and
Sharif 1988), and its ability to produce a group of enzymes (Dinkha and
Khazrge 1990). Yeast treatment suggested to participate beneficial role in
improving growth of vegetable crops which reported by Fathy and Farid
(1996), Hewedy et al. (1996) Mohammed et al. (1999) Fathy et al (2000),
Omer (2003) and Sarhan (2008). The uses of plant extracts is began to be
applied like seaweed extract which is rich in macro and micro elements,
Important plant hormones like Auxins, Gibberellins and Cytokinin which
induce cell division and increasing cell enlargement and lead to balance of
physiological and biological processes and increasing photosynthesis processes
and improving growth characters (Jensen (2004)). Kowalski et al (1999)
describe the positive effects of seaweed extract on plant growth and increasing
yield of potato plant significantly, and Thomas (2002) describe that using
seaweed extract (sea Buck thorn ) causes increasing growth and fresh weight of
vegetative and roots growth significantly of Rosemary plant while Jensen
(2004) stated that seaweed extract contain micro elements ( Co, B, Mo, Zn, Cu)
and macro elements, Auxins, Gibberellins and Cytokinin and when sprayed
lead to increase nutrient absorption and root growth ability and increasing stem
thickness .
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ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ
Received date 15-2-2010 accepted date 21/6/2010.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment was carried out at the vegetative research farm,
College of Agriculture, University of Duhok under plastic house during the
season of 2009 to study the effect of bread yeast and seaweed extract (Alga 600
and sea force 2) on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of cucumber. The seed
of cucumber C.V. Shadi was sowing at 15th February 2009. The experiment
included eight treatments as follows:
Y0 E0 untreated plants (control)
Y0 E1 Alga 600 at 0.33 g.l-1 concentration.
Y0 E2 sea force 2 at 2.5 ml l-1 concentration.
Y0 E3 mixture of two seaweed extracts 0.33g l-1 +2.5 ml l-1 (E1+E2)
Y1 E0 yeast and without seaweed extracts 6g l-1.
Y1 E1 yeast and seaweed extracts (Alga 600) at concentration 0.33g l-1.
Y1 E2 with yeast and seaweed extract (sea force 2) at 2.5 ml l-1 concentration.
Y1 E3 yeast and mixture of both seaweed extracts 0.33g/L + 2.5 ml l-1.
(E1+E2).
Yeast spraying was applied three times within ten days intervals.
Starting from 20 day after sowing .Seaweed extract was sprayed three times as
well as, after flower initiation ten days –intervals. The seeds were sown on
rows with width of 75 cm and the distance between plants was 40 cm. uniform
cultivation practices were followed according commercial farmers. The
previous treatments were arranged in three replicates using complete
randomized block design (RCBD). Data were analyzed by using SAS program
(Anonymous, 2001).
Experimental measurements were as follows: Vegetative characteristics:
which include Plant height (cm): measurement were made at the end of the
growing season, Total chlorophyll content, take after 45 day from planting by
Chlorophyll meter, model SPAD-502. And Yield characteristics: which
include, Early fruits yield: of first six harvests from each treatment were
weighted to calculate the early yield per and per hectare. Total yield: all
fruits harvested from each treatment along the harvesting period were weighted
to calculate the total yield per and per hectare Harvesting was recorded on
march .20th and the final harvest was on may 20th 2009, plants were harvested
18 times with harvesting intervals of 3days., Fruit number per plant,. Fruit
characteristics: Ten fruits from each treatment were randomly taken for
determining average fruit character which were recorded at harvesting time of
those harvests in which had more than ten fruits for several times as follows:-1-
Fruit weight (gram). 2- Fruit number /plant 3- Fruit length (cm). 4- Fruit diameter
(cm). 5- Total soluble substances (TSS) %.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
1-Vegetative characteristics: Table (1) and (2) show that bread yeast caused
significant increase in shoot characteristics plant height as compared with
control. The results showed as well that spraying plants with both seaweed
extracts Alga 600 and sea force 2 caused positive significant differences as
compared with control. The spraying with a mixture of the extracts of Alga 600
Mesopotamia j. of Agric (ISSN 1815-316X) Vol. (39) No(2) 2011
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and sea force 2 gave the highest values of shoot growth characteristics when
compared with other treatments. The interaction between treatments bread
yeast and spraying of seaweed extract was significant in its effect. Since
cucumber plants received treated 6 g.l bread yeast and sprayed with a mixture
of 0.33g.l-1 Alga 600 and 2.5g ml.l-1 sea force2 characterized by the highest
values of plant height 173.67 cm and highest total chlorophyll content 39.75%
as compared with control treatment.
This character of plant height could give a clear depict of size and
profusion of the vegetative growth of cucumber plant which in turn, reflected
on the number of flowers and fruit number/plant (Al-Mokhtar et al 1991). This
enhancement in the characteristics of the vegetative shoot growth may attribute
to the ability of yeast to increase the production of stimulants for plant growth,
especially Gibberellins, Auxins and Cytokinins which work to improve the
plant cell division and its growth (Bowen and Rovira, 1991, Ahmed et al 1995,
Glick, 1995 and Sarhan 2008). The increase in shoots characteristics might be
due to the Auxins content in the seaweed extracts which have an effective role
in cell division and enlargement. This leads to increase the shoot growth, leaves
area and plant dry weight (Gollan and Wright 2006). This extracts contain
Cytokinins as well in which induce the physiological activities and increase the
total chlorophyll in the plant. This will positively reflects on the activity of
photosynthesis and the synthesized materials which will positively reflects on
shoots characteristics (Thomas, 1996). And also might due to the minerals Zn,
Cu and B content in the seaweed extracts, which have a great role in cell
division and enlargement and induce the photosynthesis and then a great shoot
growth (Lopez et al 2008). Or might also due to the macronutrient content in
seaweed extracts. Macronutrients have a great role in plant nutrition like
nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous which are very essential for the growth
and development of the plant (Attememe, 2009). This increase in total
chlorophyll content in leaves might be due to Cytokinins and some nutrient
materials content in seaweed extracts, nitrogen enter in the molecule structure
of chlorophyll. (Al-Sahaff, 1989).
Table (1): Effect of yeast and seaweed extract on vegetative characters of cucumber
Treatment
characteristics
Yeast Seaweed extracts
Y0 Y1 E0 E1 E2 E3
plant height 139.96 159.55 136.94 145.16 155.27 161.65
cm. b a b b a a
chlorophyll 27.444 31.542 25.69 28.67 25.92 37.70
% a a b b b a
Mean within a column, row and their interaction following with the same latter are not
significantly different according to Duncan multiple range test at the probability of 0.05
levels.
Table (2): Effect of interaction treatments of yeast and seaweed extract on vegetative
characters of cucumber
Treatment
Yeast
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characteristics
Y
0
Y
1
Seaweed
Seaweed
E0 E1 E2 E3 E0 E1 E2 E3
119.43 134.79 155.99
149.62 154.44 155.53
154.44 173.67
cm.
c
bc
ab
ab
ab
ab
ab
a
chlorophyll
27.28 27.06 19.80 35.64 24.10 30.28 32.03 39.75
%
b
-
d
b
-
d
d
ab
cd
a
-
d
a
-
c
a
Mean within a column, row and their interaction following with the same latter are not significantly
di
fferent according to Duncan multiple range test at the probability of 0.05 levels
.
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2-Yield characteristics: Tables 3-6 show that dry bread yeast caused
significant increase in all yield traits as compared with untreated. And also
show that spraying cucumber plants by seaweed extracts affect significantly on
quantitative characters. The interaction treatment between yeast and seaweed
extracts was significant in its effect. Since cucumber plants received 6 gml
bread yeast and sprayed with a mixture of 0.33g.l-1 + 2.5 ml l-1 Alga 600 and
sea force2 were characterized by the highest value in fruit weight 126.55
g/fruit, fruit number/plant 21.73 fruit length 18.20 cm, fruit diameter 2.64 cm,
%TSS 4.33. Early yield 4.05 kg/m2 and early yield 37.28 ton/hectare and
yield/plant 10.96 kg and total yield 100.92 ton/hectare as compared with the
least values of these traits for control which gave 2.5 kg/m2, 23.20 ton/h., 6.33
kg, and 58.20 ton/h., 14.76cm, 2.13 cm, 99.27 gm, 13.20, %3.00 respectively.
These simulative effects of bread yeast enhanced growth and yield were
reported by many investigators on different vegetable (Fathy et al., 2000 and
Khedr and Farid, 2000 and Omer, 2003 and Sarhan, 2008).These results may
be due to yeast Vrg its Cytokinins content, and the high content of vitamin B5
and minerals yeast composition might be play a considerable role in orientation
and translocation of metabolites from leaves in to the productive organs. Also it
might play a role in the synthesis of protein, and nucleic acid (Natio et al,
1981).
Table (3): Effect of yeast and seaweed extract on yield characters of Cucumber
Table (4): Effect of Yeast and Seaweed extract on Fruits characters of Cucumber
Treatments
characters
Yeast seaweed extracts
Y0 Y1 E0 E1 E2 E3
Early yield 2.97 3.44 2.74 2.90 3.23 3.95
Kg/M
2
. b 4 c c b a
Early yield 27.68 31.72 25.28 26.68 30.40 36.36
Ton/hec. b a c c b a
Yield/plant. 7.092 8.725 6.84 7.20 7.99 9.60
kg b a c c b a
Total yield 65.24 80.28 62.92 66.20 73.56 88.36
Ton/hec b a c c b a
Mean within a column, row and their interaction following with the same latter are not
significantly different according to Duncan multiple range test at the probability of 0.05 levels.
Treatments
characters
Yeast seaweed extracts
Y0 Y100 E0 E1 E2 E3
Fruit weight 98.71 116.09 105.79 101.82 103.90 118.09
g b a b b b a
fruit No./plant 15.50 18.24 14.04 15.96 17.98 19.51
b a c b a A
Fruit length 15.60 17.39 15.41 16.04 16.89 17.65
cm b a c bc ab a
Fruit Diameter 2.20 2.51 2.20 2.37 2.35 2.50
cm. b a b ab ab a
TSS % 3.24 3.95 3.39 3.25 3.70 4.03
b a b b ab a
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Mean within a column, row and their interaction following with the same latter are not
significantly different according to Duncan multiple range test at the probability of 0.05
levels. All of these occurrences and attributes might lead to improve the
cucumber yield. The yield increase of cucumber plant may be due to the
increase of the distillate flowers number which lead to increase the number of
fruits that reflected on yield /plant and total yield, and the increase in fruits
weight in cucumber plants which were sprayed with seaweed extracts may be
due to its role in increasing the leaves numbers, leaf area and dry weight so the
physiological activities as photosynthesis and providing plant by nutrition and
these could be the reasons of increasing fruit weight (Al-Saberi, 2005). The
effect of seaweed extracts lead to increase the percentage of the total soluble
substances because of its effect on increasing leaf area and efficiency of the
photosynthesis process (Jensen, 2004).
Table (5): Effect of interaction treatments of yeast and seaweed extract on yield
characters
of cucumber.
Treatment
Characters
Yeast
Y0 Y1
Seaweed
E0 E1 E2 E3 E0 E1 E2 E3
Early yield 2.52 2.60 2.91 3.86 2.96 3.21 3.56 4.05
(kg/M2.) e de cd ab c c b a
Early yield 23.20
23.88 28.08 35.48 27.3
2 29.52 32.72 37.28
ton/hec. e de cd a c-e bc ab a
Yield/plant. 6.33 6.47 7.33 8.24 7.35 7.92 8.66 10.96
kg e de cd bc cd bc b a
Total yield 58.20
59.52 68.44 75.84 67.6
4 72.88 79.68 100.9
2
ton/h. e de cd bc cd bc b a
Treatment
Characters
Yeast
Y
0
Y
1
Seaweed Seaweed
E0 E1 E2 E3 E0 E1 E2 E3
Fruit weight 99.27 91.47 94.47 109.64
112.31
112.16
113.32 126.55
g c c c b b b b a
fruit No./plant 13.20 14.70 16.80 17.30 14.89 17.21 19.15 21.73
d cd bc bc cd bc b a
Fruit length 14.76 14.76 15.79 17.09 16.07 17.32 17.99 18.20
cm d d cd a-c b-d ab a a
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Table (6): Effect of interaction of yeast and seaweed extract on fruits characters of
cucumber. ﺳﻣ ضﻌﺑو زﺑﺧﻟا ةرﯾﻣﺧﺑ شرﻟا رﯾﺛﺎﺗرﺎﯾﺧﻟا تﺎﺑﻧ جﺎﺗﻧاو وﻣﻧ ﻲﻓ ﺔﯾرﺣﺑﻟا بﺎﺷﻋﻻا تﺎﺻﻠﺧ Cucumis sativus L.
دﯾﺷر ءﺎﻧﺳ ﻲﻠﻋ ةرﯾﻣﺳ نﺎﺣرﺳ رﯾﺑز ﮫط ﺔﻧﺗﺳﺑﻟا مﺳﻗ ﺔﻋارزﻟا ﺔﯾﻠﻛ كوھد ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ
ﺔﺻﻼﺧﻟا تﯾرﺟأﻟاﻋارزﻟا ﺔﯾﻠﻛ ﻲﻓ رﺎﯾﺧﻟا تﺎﺑﻧ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻲﻛﯾﺗﺳﻼﺑﻟا تﯾﺑﻟا ﻲﻓ ﺔﺳارد / كوھد ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ
مﺳوﻣ لﻼﺧ٢٠٠٩ . لﺻﺎﺣو وﻣﻧ ﻲﻓ ﺔﯾرﺣﺑﻟا بﺎﺷﻋﻷا تﺎﺻﻠﺧﺗﺳﻣو زﺑﺧﻟا ةرﯾﻣﺧ رﯾﺛﺄﺗ ﺔﺳارد فدﮭﺑ
ﺎﮭﺗﺎﻧوﻛﻣو يدﺎﺷ فﻧﺻ رﺎﯾﺧﻟا . تﺛدﺣأ تﺎﺻﻠﺧﺗﺳﻣﻟا وأ زﺑﺧﻟا ةرﯾﻣﺧ شر نﺄﺑ ﺞﺋﺎﺗﻧﻟا ترﮭظأ
ﻘﻣ ﺔﺳوردﻣﻟا لﺻﺎﺣﻟا تﺎﻔﺻ ﻊﯾﻣﺟ كﻟذﻛو يرﺿﺧﻟا وﻣﻧﻟا تﺎﻔﺻ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺑﺟوﻣ ﺔﯾوﻧﻌﻣ تﺎﻓﻼﺗﺧا ﺔﻧرﺎ
شرﻟا مدﻋ تﻼﻣﺎﻌﻣﺑ .ﺔﺳوردﻣﻟا تﺎﻔﺻﻟا ﻊﯾﻣﺟ ًﺎﯾوﻧﻌﻣ تﻌﺟﺷ تﺎﺻﻠﺧﺗﺳﻣﻟا و ةرﯾﻣﺧﻟا نﯾﺑ لﺧادﺗﻟا . تﻣﻠﺗﺳا ﻲﺗﻟا رﺎﯾﺧﻟا تﺎﺗﺎﺑﻧ تزﯾﻣﺗ٦مﻏ/ نﻣ طﯾﻠﺧﺑ تﺷرو ةرﯾﻣﺧ رﺗﻟ٠,٣٣مﻏ/ رﺗﻟ +٢,٥ لﻣ/ نﻣ رﺗﻟ
َﻛﻟا ﻲﺻﻠﺧﺗﺳﻣ٦٠٠ ﺳ و سروﻓ٢ ﻠﻋﺄﺑلﺻﺎﺣﻟاو يرﺿﺧﻟا وﻣﻧﻟا تﺎﻔﺻ مﯾﻗ ﺎﺑﻧ تطﻋا ثﯾﺣ تﺎﺗ
تﺎﺑﻧﻟا عﺎﻔﺗرا ﻲﻓ مﯾﻘﻟا ﻰﻠﻋا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻣﻟا هذھ دﻧﻋ رﺎﯾﺧﻟا ١٧٣,٦٧ﻲﻠﻛﻟا لﯾﻓوروﻠﻛﻟاو مﺳ٧٥ ،٣٩ % و
تﻐﻠﺑ ﻲﻠﻛ لﺻ ﺎﺣ ﻰﻠﻋا١٠٠,٩٢نط/ هرﻣﺛﻟا نزو ﻲﻓ مﯾﻘﻟا ﻰﻠﻋا تطﻋاو ﺎﻣﻛ رﺎﺗﻛھ٥٥ ،١٢٦ مﻏ
ةرﻣﺛﻟا لوط و١٨,٢٠ ةرﻣﺛﻟا رطﻗو مﺳ٢,٦٤ مﺳ و رﺎﻣﺛﻟا ددﻋ٢١,٧٣ ةرﻣﺛ/تﺎﺑﻧ. REFERENCES
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... Además, se halló para este híbrido en el invernadero de la EEAFBM un peso del fruto de 254.52 g en época lluviosa (Cruz-Coronado y Monge-Pérez, 2020), y de 304.51 g en la época seca (Chacón-Padilla y Monge-Pérez, 2017); el peso del fruto encontrado en el presente ensayo con el tratamiento testigo (308.10 g) se acerca al obtenido por estos últimos investigadores. Se informó que la aplicación foliar de extractos de algas en pepino en invernadero produjo frutos con un peso similar al testigo (Ascencio, 2008;Sarhan et al., 2011;Zamora et al., 2021); este mismo resultado se obtuvo en el presente trabajo y evidencia que el efecto del extracto de algas únicamente se manifestó en el aumento en el cuajado de frutos, pero no en el llenado de ellos. ...
... Además, se registró para este híbrido en el invernadero de la EEAFBM un valor de 2.89 °Brix en época lluviosa (Cruz-Coronado y Monge-Pérez, 2020), y 3.40 °Brix en la época seca (Chacón-Padilla y Monge-Pérez, 2017); los resultados hallados en el presente trabajo con el tratamiento A (3.44 °Brix) fueron similares a los obtenidos por estos últimos autores. Los frutos de pepino de las plantas que recibieron la aplicación foliar de extractos de algas presentaron un porcentaje de sólidos solubles totales, similar al testigo (Sarhan et al., 2011;Hasan y Hussein, 2020); lo mismo sucedió en el presente trabajo en las evaluaciones de 88 y 95 ddt. ...
... El contenido de clorofila en las hojas representa una medición útil para evaluar la capacidad fotosintética y el estado fisiológico de las plantas (Zhang et al., 2007). En pepino, la aplicación foliar de un extracto de algas produjo plantas con el mismo contenido de clorofila que el testigo (Sarhan et al., 2011;Ahmed y Shalaby, 2012;Hassan et al., 2021); lo mismo sucedió en la presente investigación. ...
Article
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Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de la aplicación foliar de fertilizantes y extracto de algas. Materiales y métodos: se utilizaron cuatro tratamientos: fertilizantes (FF); extracto de algas (A); fertilizantes + extracto de algas (FF+A); y testigo-T para valorar el rendimiento y la calidad del pepino cv. Modan cultivado bajo invernadero en Costa Rica. Las variables evaluadas fueron: número de frutos por planta, peso del fruto (g), rendimiento (t/ha), porcentaje de sólidos solubles totales (°Brix), contenido de clorofila (atLEAF), área foliar (cm2), peso seco foliar (g), peso específico foliar (mg/cm2), altura de planta (cm), y diámetro de tallo (mm). Resultados: el tratamiento A obtuvo un número de frutos comerciales y totales por planta significativamente superior a todos los demás tratamientos; también un rendimiento comercial, total, y de primera calidad significativamente superior a los tratamientos FF y T, pero no fue diferente de FF+A. No se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre tratamientos para el peso del fruto, contenido de clorofila, altura de planta, área foliar, peso seco foliar y peso específico foliar. Conclusión: el uso del extracto de algas (A) produjo el mayor rendimiento total y comercial, debido al aumento del número de frutos de primera calidad, y la aplicación de fertilizantes foliares (FF) no mejoró ni el rendimiento ni la calidad en el cultivo de pepino en invernadero, bajo las condiciones en que se realizó el ensayo.
... Además, se halló para este híbrido en el invernadero de la EEAFBM un peso del fruto de 254.52 g en época lluviosa (Cruz-Coronado y Monge-Pérez, 2020), y de 304.51 g en la época seca (Chacón-Padilla y Monge-Pérez, 2017); el peso del fruto encontrado en el presente ensayo con el tratamiento testigo (308.10 g) se acerca al obtenido por estos últimos investigadores. Se informó que la aplicación foliar de extractos de algas en pepino en invernadero produjo frutos con un peso similar al testigo (Ascencio, 2008;Sarhan et al., 2011;Zamora et al., 2021); este mismo resultado se obtuvo en el presente trabajo y evidencia que el efecto del extracto de algas únicamente se manifestó en el aumento en el cuajado de frutos, pero no en el llenado de ellos. ...
... Además, se registró para este híbrido en el invernadero de la EEAFBM un valor de 2.89 °Brix en época lluviosa (Cruz-Coronado y Monge-Pérez, 2020), y 3.40 °Brix en la época seca (Chacón-Padilla y Monge-Pérez, 2017); los resultados hallados en el presente trabajo con el tratamiento A (3.44 °Brix) fueron similares a los obtenidos por estos últimos autores. Los frutos de pepino de las plantas que recibieron la aplicación foliar de extractos de algas presentaron un porcentaje de sólidos solubles totales, similar al testigo (Sarhan et al., 2011;Hasan y Hussein, 2020); lo mismo sucedió en el presente trabajo en las evaluaciones de 88 y 95 ddt. ...
... El contenido de clorofila en las hojas representa una medición útil para evaluar la capacidad fotosintética y el estado fisiológico de las plantas (Zhang et al., 2007). En pepino, la aplicación foliar de un extracto de algas produjo plantas con el mismo contenido de clorofila que el testigo (Sarhan et al., 2011;Ahmed y Shalaby, 2012;Hassan et al., 2021); lo mismo sucedió en la presente investigación. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: to evaluate the effects of foliar spray of fertilizers and seaweed extract. Materials and methods: four treatments were evaluated: fertilizers (FF); seaweed extract (SE); fertilizers + seaweed extract (FF+SE); and control-C), for their effect on the yield and quality of cucumber cv. Modan grown under greenhouse conditions in Costa Rica. Evaluated variables were: number of fruits per plant, fruit weight (g), yield (t/ha), percentage of total soluble solids (°Brix), chlorophyll content (atLEAF), leaf area (cm2), leaf dry weight (g), specific leaf weight (mg/cm2), plant height (cm), and stem diameter (mm). Results: treatment SE produced a significantly higher number of commercial and total fruits per plant compared to all other treatments, as well as significantly higher first quality, commercial and total yields when compared to treatments FF and C, but not with regards to FF+SE. No statistically significant differences between treatments were observed for fruit weight, chlorophyll content, plant height, leaf area, leaf dry weight and leaf specific weight. Conclusion: the use of the seaweed extract (SE) produced the highest total and commercial yield, due to the increase in the number of first quality fruits, and the application of foliar fertilizers (FF) under the same conditions did not improve neither the yield of cucumbers nor their quality.
... Además, se halló para este híbrido en el invernadero de la EEAFBM un peso del fruto de 254.52 g en época lluviosa (Cruz-Coronado y Monge-Pérez, 2020), y de 304.51 g en la época seca (Chacón-Padilla y Monge-Pérez, 2017); el peso del fruto encontrado en el presente ensayo con el tratamiento testigo (308.10 g) se acerca al obtenido por estos últimos investigadores. Se informó que la aplicación foliar de extractos de algas en pepino en invernadero produjo frutos con un peso similar al testigo (Ascencio, 2008;Sarhan et al., 2011;Zamora et al., 2021); este mismo resultado se obtuvo en el presente trabajo y evidencia que el efecto del extracto de algas únicamente se manifestó en el aumento en el cuajado de frutos, pero no en el llenado de ellos. ...
... Además, se registró para este híbrido en el invernadero de la EEAFBM un valor de 2.89 °Brix en época lluviosa (Cruz-Coronado y Monge-Pérez, 2020), y 3.40 °Brix en la época seca (Chacón-Padilla y Monge-Pérez, 2017); los resultados hallados en el presente trabajo con el tratamiento A (3.44 °Brix) fueron similares a los obtenidos por estos últimos autores. Los frutos de pepino de las plantas que recibieron la aplicación foliar de extractos de algas presentaron un porcentaje de sólidos solubles totales, similar al testigo (Sarhan et al., 2011;Hasan y Hussein, 2020); lo mismo sucedió en el presente trabajo en las evaluaciones de 88 y 95 ddt. ...
... El contenido de clorofila en las hojas representa una medición útil para evaluar la capacidad fotosintética y el estado fisiológico de las plantas (Zhang et al., 2007). En pepino, la aplicación foliar de un extracto de algas produjo plantas con el mismo contenido de clorofila que el testigo (Sarhan et al., 2011;Ahmed y Shalaby, 2012;Hassan et al., 2021); lo mismo sucedió en la presente investigación. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de la aplicación foliar de fertilizantes y extracto de algas. Materiales y métodos: se utilizaron cuatro tratamientos: fertilizantes (FF); extracto de algas (A); fertilizantes + extracto de algas (FF+A) y testigo-T para valorar el rendimiento y la calidad del pepino cv. Modan cultivado bajo invernadero en Costa Rica. Las variables evaluadas fueron número de frutos por planta, peso del fruto (g), rendimiento (t/ha), porcentaje de sólidos solubles totales (°Brix), contenido de clorofila (atLEAF), área foliar (cm 2 ), peso seco foliar (g), peso específico foliar (mg/cm 2 ), altura de planta (cm) y diámetro de tallo (mm). Resultados: el tratamiento A obtuvo un número de frutos comerciales y totales por planta significativamente superior a todos los demás tratamientos; también un rendimiento comercial, total y de primera calidad, significativamente superior a los tratamientos FF y T pero no diferente de FF+A. No se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente relevantes entre tratamientos para el peso del fruto, contenido de clorofila, altura de planta, área foliar, peso seco foliar y peso específico foliar. Conclusión: el uso del extracto de algas (A) produjo el mayor rendimiento total y comercial, debido al aumento del número de frutos de primera calidad, mientras que la aplicación de fertilizantes foliares (FF) no mejoró ni el rendimiento ni la calidad en el cultivo de pepino en invernadero, bajo las condiciones en que se realizó el ensayo.
... Similarly, different marine algae are flourished at 121 km long rocky coastline in the Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra, including 38 recorded species of seaweeds: 16 species of Chlorophyta (6 genera), 10 species of Phaeophyta (6 genera), and 12 species of Rhodophyta (11 genera). Nevertheless, a significant number of seaweeds species (36) are collected from selected sites such as Chivala (Malvan) coast, followed by Devgad (33) and Vengurla (33), Malai (32), Vijaydurg (31), Kunkeshwar (30), Kolamb (29) and Mithbav (27) [21]. ...
... Apart from these, seaweed biostimulants enhance the rooting, yield, stress tolerance, resistance against various fungi, bacteria, viruses, and photosynthetic activity [12,22,27]. Moreover, seaweed extracts have shown promising results in the growth and yield of multiple crops such as rice [28], cucumber [29], strawberry [30], grapes [31], tomatoes [32,33], and capsicum [34]. Besides, seaweeds from the Tamil Nadu coast showed promising results in the growth and yield of the green gram, black gram, mustard, and paddy [35]. ...
Article
The marine ecosystem has a great potential for agricultural applications. Seaweeds are the most researched marine algae for various agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and biotechnological applications due to the bio-actives which safe for their usage. This article describes the use of seaweeds in agricultural applications as elicitors, their effects on plants in increasing the nutritional value of crops, and escalating the plant stress tolerance. The article ends with a note on the various research gaps that need to be studied for their complete application in agriculture and Indian Government Schemes to develop seaweed farming and product development.
... The role of bread yeast in increasing the vegetative growth parameters (number of stems per plant leaf area, fresh and dry weight of plant) may be due to many important nutrients elements (N, P and K) present in yeast, which is necessary for plant biological processers especially Effect of Yeast Bio-fertilizer on Lettuce Growth and Productivity photosynthesis, cell division and elongation (Nassar et al., 2015). Taha et al. (2011) reported that bread yeast caused a significant increase in shoot characteristics plant height as compared with control. This enhancement in the characteristics of the vegetative shoot growth may be attributed to the ability of yeast to increase the production of stimulants for plant growth, especially Gibberellins, Auxins and Cytokinins which work to improve the plant cell division and its growth (Taha et al. 2011). ...
... Taha et al. (2011) reported that bread yeast caused a significant increase in shoot characteristics plant height as compared with control. This enhancement in the characteristics of the vegetative shoot growth may be attributed to the ability of yeast to increase the production of stimulants for plant growth, especially Gibberellins, Auxins and Cytokinins which work to improve the plant cell division and its growth (Taha et al. 2011). The increase in shoots characteristics might be due to the Auxins content in the seaweed extracts, which have an effective role in cell division and enlargement. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are widely used, with detrimental repercussions for soil microbial biodiversity and environmental contamination. The use of microorganisms as bio-fertilizers has been recommended as an alternative agricultural strategy. Due to their potential to safely boost plant development, yeasts can be used to make high-quality bio-fertilizers and biopesticides in a variety of ways. As a result, substantial yeast research could be promising and could provide an environmentally acceptable solution to the increasing agricultural output that would be necessary as the world’s population grows. Methods: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of different yeast concentrations on lettuce crop production and quality. The experiment consisted of four treatments (1%, 3%, 5% and 7% w/v yeast). The measurements included chlorophyll content, plant length (cm) and plant-wet weight for shoot and root (g). The design of the experiment was a complete factorial design with five replicates for each treatment. Three doses of each yeast solution, i.e. 1%-7% w/v, were added to soil after 7, 25 and 40 days from cultivation. The plants were harvested after 52 days. Result: In the current study, it was found that the highest chlorophyll content with a value of 44.6 was obtained at 3% w/v of yeast concentration followed by 1% w/v (39.7), 5% w/v (44.3) and 7% w/v (41), respectively. The average maximum length of plants after 52 days was 26.6 cm at 3% w/v and 26.13 cm at 5% (w/v) of yeast concentrations. The other treatments gave lower values, i.e. 24.4 cm, 22.2 cm and 19.1 cm for 1% w/v, 7% w/v and control, respectively,. The values have the same trend during the experiment time at the three stages (7, 25 and 40) days from cultivation. The optimum plant wet weight for shoot and root with 3% w/v yeast concentration were 212.2 and 33.9 g, respectively. At 5% w/v of yeast concentration, the wet weight for shoot and root were 200.1 g and 30.7 g followed by 7% w/v (196.2 g and 25.6 g) and 1% w/v (171.2 g and 26.4 g).
... Moreover, it contains nitrogen, which is involved in chlorophyll creation, and this may have in motivating the manufacturing of carbohydrates and proteins (Sarhan et al., 2011) and ...
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Corn is an important plant used as silage in animal feeding in the world and in Türkiye as well. The field experiments were conducted at high pH levels at the Campus of Van Yuzuncu Yil University, in the research and experiment station in the two successive summer years (2019 and 2020) to investigate the effects of foliar application of (0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 g.L-1) nano iron oxide Fe3O4 and (5, 7.5, and 10 g.L-1) active dry yeast and their combination on maize (Zea mays Cv. Tuano) grown for silage purposes. The experimental design was RCBD. The spraying was applied two times, firstly after planting 54 days (DAP), and secondly 15 days later. Results reveal that there is a significant improvement in the plant growth characteristics by using all concentrations of either nano Fe3O4 or dry yeast or their mixture. Plant high at 74, 84, and 117 DAP, the weight of (leaves, stem, cobs, and shoot per plant), the number of cobs per plant, fresh and dry herbage weight per decare (da), and plant cob ratio percentage at 117 DAP have increased, while no significant difference in the number of leaves/plant and stem diameter compared to control. On the contrary, the plant (stem, leaf) ratio percentage decreased when using nano iron and/or dry yeast and control recorded the best values. The inorganic chemical concentrations significantly enhanced in the corn plant during the dough period (117 DAP) i.e., P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Se, and Zn, and also chlorophyll content at 74 and 84 DAP compared to the control. Whilst, molybdenum concentration negative effect due to the use of dry yeast and or nano Fe3O4. However, the M3: 10 g.L-1 of yeast and N2: 0.6 g.L-1 nano Fe3O4 gave the higher values of the studied parameters compared to control, but the interaction treatments especially N1M3 recorded the best and highest values in comparison to control and/or singular treatment by yeast and nano iron under alkali soil in the Van city for producing corn silage. Keywords: Active dry yeast, Alkaline soil, Corn silage, Nano iron.
... sürgün boyunun tüm uygulamaları pozitif kontrol ile aynı grupta yer almıştır (Çizelge 3). Mayanın, V. dahliae gibi birçok bitki patojeninin gelişimini inhibe ettiği ve bitki gelişim parametrelerini arttırarak koruma sağladığı belirtilmektedir (Aghighi vd., 2004;Sarhan, 2011). SA x V. dahliae kombinasyonunda sürgün boyu ve kök uzunluğu parametrelerinde fark olduğu fakat kontrol grubuna göre aralarındaki istatistiksel farkın önemsiz bulunduğu tespit edilmiştir (p>0.05). ...
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Bu çalışmada, Verticillium dahliae’nın gelişimi üzerine bazı fungal (Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma virens, Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma viride) ve maya (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) biyolojik kontrol etmenleri ile vermikompost ve salisilik asit organik maddelerin etkisi araştırılmıştır. Çalışma in vitro ve in vivo koşullarda yürüyülmüş ve in vitro’da antagonizmin derecesi ve yüzde olarak engelleme oranı belirlenmiştir. In vitro’da inhibisyon oranı en yüksek olarak belirlenen T. asperellum ve S. cerevisiae ile vermikompost ve salisilik asit organik maddelerin, in vivo’da marul (Lactuca sativa) bitkisinde sorun teşkil eden V. dahliae’nın gelişimine etkisi incelenmiştir. Ayrıca organik maddelerden salisilik asitin V. dahliae’ nın gelişimini tamamen engellediği belirlenmiştir. S. cerevisiae ve salisilik asit, V. dahliae patojeninin olduğu uygulamalarda kontrol grubuna oranla bitkilerin sürgün boyunu ve kök uzunluğunu arttırmıştır. Gerek yeşil aksam gerek gövde kesiti skala değerlerinde salisilik asit ve T. asperellum, V. dahliae patojeninin etkinliğini azaltmıştır.
... Leaf chlorophyll content usually increases with increasing leaf nitrogen (Marenco et al., 2009). The combination of yeast and greywater possibly mobilized nitrogen-fixing bacteria, enhancing nutrient availability (Gollan and Wright, 2006;Basak and Biswas, 2010;Taha et al., 2011). Yeast treatments increased CO 2 uptake and F v /F m in both species compared to controls (Hashem et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Water scarcity has led to increased use of wastewater, particularly greywater, for crop irrigation. This study investigated whether the addition of yeast can alleviate the potential negative effects of greywater use on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). Seeds and seedlings were treated with 4 concentrations (0.005; 0.01; 0.015 and 0.020 g‧mL−1) of yeast-treated tapwater (YTW) and greywater (YGW). Tapwater (TW) and greywater (GW) without yeast served as controls. In general, an increase in yeast concentration compromised seed germination in Petri dishes, but improved germination in soil. Tapwater was more effective than GW in promoting germination and growth in both species. Lower concentrations of yeast generally increased germination capacity in both species compared to the controls. Total biomass, number of leaves, chlorophyll content, leaf area, photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) were significantly higher in yeast treatments in both species, compared with the controls. Biomass accumulation, total leaf area, chlorophyll content and photosynthesis were higher in YGW than controls and YTW. Differences in biomass allocation between treatments may be due to changes in soil moisture, pH and electrical conductivity of the soil caused by yeast supplementation. This study showed that plants treated with YGW performed better than those treated with YTW and without yeast. Yeast supplementation of greywater could increase water recycling and provide a cheap bio-fertilizer to home growers, whilst significantly improving yield in both species. This innovative approach may enhance water and food security of subsistence farmers in rural areas.
Article
An experiment was conducted in the Department of Agricultural Microbiology and Post-Harvest Technology, COH, Bagalkot, Karnataka during the year 2017-2018 with intention of minimizing the post harvest diseases during storage by using ecofriendly approach that is use of biocontrol agents and their effects on fruit colour development and sensory parameters. A wide range of fungi, bacteria, yeast and actinomycetes can be used as antagonistic microorganisms against post-harvest pathogens in many horticulture produce. In the present experiment, five effective antagonistic microorganisms were assessed for their antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gleosporiodies, the causal agent of post-harvest Anthracnose disease of papaya fruits and fortheir effects on fruit development and sensory properties of papaya var. Red Lady. In the present experiment the papaya fruits treated with biocontrol agents and observed that, the papaya fruits treated with BCA5-Isolate No.10(T5) exhibited higher L*(56.53), a*(12.33), b*(43.60) colour values, higher carotene value (1.85 mg/100 g), total sugar content (11.6%) and good sensory scores for colour (8073), taste (8.6) and textue (9.03) at 9 days after storage under ambient storage condition followed by BCA-Isolate No.09(T4) and carbendazium at 0.1% for 5 min (T7). Treated on inoculated papaya fruits with C. gloeosporioides, T5 (BCA5 -Isolate No. 10) recorded higher L*(55.67), a*(11.61), b*(41.78) colour values, higher carotene value (1.42 mg/100 g), total sugar content (10.4%) and good sensory scores for colour (8.3), taste (8.13) and textue (8.73) at 9 days after storage under ambient storage condition followed by BCA4 -Isolate No.9 (T4) and carbendazium at 0.1% (T7). These two isolates identified in this experiment can be effectively used alternative to chemicals against anthracnose which were effective in fruit colour development and sensory parameters.
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The ways in which plant growth promoting rhizobacteria facilitate the growth of plants are considered and discussed. Both indirect and direct mechanisms of plant growth promotion are dealt with. The possibility of improving plant growth promoting rhizobacteria by specific genetic manipulation is critically examined.Key words: plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, PGPR, bacterial fertilizer, soil bacteria.The ways in which plant growth promoting rhizobacteria facilitate the growth of plants are considered and discussed. Both indirect and direct mechanisms of plant growth promotion are dealt with. The possibility of improving plant growth promoting rhizobacteria by specific genetic manipulation is critically examined.Key words: plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, PGPR, bacterial fertilizer, soil bacteria.
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Caulerpa taxifolia is an invasive alga threatening biodiversity in invaded regions. Its proliferation in recipient communities will be due to several factors including limited grazing effects by native herbivores. However, little is known about grazing pressure exerted by native herbivores on C. taxifolia relative to native macrophytes or its attractiveness to them as habitat. The present study determined which herbivores co-occurred with invasive C. taxifolia in a temperate Australian estuary and documented their abundance, relative grazing effects, habitat preference and survivorship on C. taxifolia compared with native macrophytes. Four herbivores co-occurred with C. taxifolia and their densities were often low or zero at the sites studied. Feeding experiments showed that compared with C. taxifolia: the fish, Girella tricuspidata, preferred Ulva sp.; the sea-hare, Aplysia dactylomela, preferred Laurencia sp.; whereas the mesograzers, Cymadusa setosa and Platynereis dumerilii antipoda, both consumed Cystoseira trinodus and Sargassum sp. at higher rates. The two mesograzers also showed strong habitat preference for C. trinodus and Sargassum sp. Cymadusa setosa had poor survivorship on Caulerpa taxifolia whereas P. dumerilii antipoda had 100% survivorship on C. taxifolia after 41 days. We consider that the low diversity and abundance of native herbivores, their weak grazing pressure on C. taxifolia and its low attractiveness as habitat may facilitate further local spread in this estuary, and potentially in other invaded locations.
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The effects of 5 weed species as organic soil amendments were tested on the growth of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). Of those plants tested, adding leaf powder of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to the soil produced the most growth of rosemary.
Article
Primary leaves of intact bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were treated with benzyladenine (BA) at different stages of ageing, BA promoted the synthesis of RNA, and soluble and insoluble proteins. The effects of BA stimulation differed depending on the age at which the leaf received the hormone treatment. In leaves attached to the plant, BA appeared to stimulate the rate of synthesis more than the rate of decomposition of RNA and protein, resulting in a net increase in RNA and protein. Both chloroplast and cytoplasmic ribosomes were still observed in intact yellowish green leaves. Polysomes in the cytoplasm increased remarkably when BA treatment was begun at late stages.
Article
The seaweed concentrate ‘Kelpak’ is used commercially in the greenhouse and field to improve plant quality. ‘Kelpak’ was added to the in vitro culture medium of potato cv. ‘BP1’ and also applied as a leaf/soil drench immediately after transplanting. The addition of 0.25% seaweed concentrate to the medium improved plantlet quality and led to better establishment in the greenhouse. No beneficial effect of seaweed concentrate in the tissue culture medium was observed if a second cutting was part of the micropropagation process. Additional application of 0.5% seaweed concentrate in the greenhouse to plantlet cuttings derived from tissue culture was not beneficial.
The rhizosphere, the hidden half of the hidden half. P. 641-669
  • G D Bowen
  • A D Rovira
Bowen, G. D. and A. D. Rovira. (1991). The rhizosphere, the hidden half of the hidden half. P. 641-669. In:y. Waisel; A. Eshel; and V. Kalkaf; (cds).
Nutrition and Fungus Function Science
  • R F Dinkha
  • Al Khazragji
Dinkha R. F., T.O. and Al Khazragji, (1990) Nutrition and Fungus Function Science, University of Salahaddin, Ministry of High Education, Iraq. (In Arabic).
Studies in tomato flowering, fruit set, yield and quality in summer seasons.1-spraying with thamine, ascorbic acid and yeast
  • El
  • E A Ghamring
  • H M E Arisha
  • K A Nour
El.Ghamring, E.A., H.M.E. Arisha and K.A.Nour (1999). Studies in tomato flowering, fruit set, yield and quality in summer seasons.1-spraying with thamine, ascorbic acid and yeast. Zagazig. J. Agric. Res. 26(5):1345-1364.
Induce cold tolerance of outdoor tomatoes during early summer season by using triphosphate (ATP), yeast, another natural and chemical treatments to improve their fruiting and yield
  • E S L Fathy
  • S Farid
  • S A El-Desouky
Fathy, E.S.L. and S. Farid and S.A.El-Desouky (2000). Induce cold tolerance of outdoor tomatoes during early summer season by using triphosphate (ATP), yeast, another natural and chemical treatments to improve their fruiting and yield. J.Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 25(1):377-401.