ChapterPDF Available
GENRE(S) AND TELETANDEM: TOWARDS A SUCCESSFUL RELATIONSHIP
1
Autor1 (São Paulo State University Brazil)
Autor2 (São Paulo State University Brazil)
Abstract
The Teletandem Brasil Project (www.teletandembrasil.org) (TELLES, 2006) has as its main
purpose to put Brazilian undergraduate students in contact with foreign undergraduates who
want to learn Portuguese and teach their own language of proficiency, through computer
tools as Skype, MSN or OOVOO. The interactions are communicative events in which
language plays a major role and some communicative purposes are shared by the members
in order to achieve some objectives (AUTOR, 2009; AUTOR e TELLES, 2011; SWALES,
1990; BHATIA, 1993). However, the rhetorical structure of the interaction seems to vary
according to the individual as well as the knowledge of specific lexicon. The purposes of
this presentation are (i) to present the expected rhetorical structure in the project; (ii) to
show evidence of successful deviations according to students’ agendas; (iii) to discuss new
routes adopted by the project members in order to meet a more adequate rhetorical model,
which has been called Institutional-integrated Teletandem.
Keywords: Teletandem; Rhetorical structures; Genres.
Resumo
O Projeto Teletandem Brasil (www.teletandembrasil.org) (TELLES, 2006) tem por objetivo
colocar alunos brasileiros em contato com alunos estrangeiros que querem aprender
português e ensinar sua língua de proficiência, por meio de ferramentas tecnológicas como
Skype, MSN ou OOVOO. As interações são eventos comunicativos nos quais a língua
desempenha um papel principal e alguns propósitos comunicativos são compartilhados
pelos membros a fim de atingir determinados objetivos (AUTOR, 2010, 2011; SWALES,
1990; BHATIA, 1993). Entretanto, a estrutura retórica da interação parece variar de acordo
com os sujeitos, assim como conhecimentos lexicais específicos. Os objetivos deste
trabalho são (i) apresentar a estrutura retórica do projeto; (ii) mostrar evidências de desvios
bem sucedidos a partir dos objetivos dos alunos; (iii) discutir novas direções adotadas pelos
membros do projeto para encontrar um modelo retórico mais adequado, o qual é chamado
de parcerias institucionais.
Palavras-chave: Teletandem; estruturas retóricas; gêneros.
1
This work was supported by FAPESP (process n. 2012/06258-7) and was partially presented at Genre 2012:
Rethinking Genre Twenty Years Later, in Ottawa, Canada.
Código de campo alterado
INTRODUCTION
The context
Teletandem Brazil Project “Foreign Languages for All” was envisaged for a
Brazilian context in which the average “students and teachers of foreign languages have
been (and will remain) isolated from the international community” (TELLES, 2006). It is a
fact that the access to foreign languages and cultures in Brazil has not been extended to
economically disadvantaged students nor have other facilities of postmodern world. In
Brazil, as in many other countries in the world, contact with foreign languages and cultures
is restricted to the economically privileged classes who can travel and pay for language
courses (TELLES, 2006).
Tandem exists in two modalities: (a) face-to-face tandem and (b) e-tandem (or
distance tandem). The former is the richest form, but it requires physical presence; the
latter, generally based on e-mail, allows overcoming geographical distance, but it only
applies to asynchronous written media. Vassalo and Telles (2006) have devised a third
mode of in-tandem foreign language learning the teletandem. Tandem and teletandem
activities involve pairs of speakers of different languages working collaboratively,
autonomously and reciprocally in order to learn each others languages (see Brammerts,
1996; Brammerts, 1999; Brammerts, 2003; Brammerts, Klepping & Zarco de la Hoz, 1986;
Cziko & Park, 2003). Each of them plays the role of a student of the target language he/she
wishes to learn (the language in which his/her partner is competent) and of a teacher of
his/her own language (the one his/her partner wishes to learn) (TELLES & VASSALLO,
2006; VASSALLO & TELLES, 2006).
The project (www.teletandembrasil.org) was based on tandem learning principles
but the activity of learning implies a way of distance foreign language learning that uses the
tandem method by the free video teleconferencing device of MSN Messenger, OOVOO and
Skype. In terms of human and technical resources, there is a need of a pair of speakers of
different languages who want to learn the language of the other, a computer connected to
the web with MSN
2
, OOVOO or Skype tools, and a webcam.
The principles that are assumed by tandem/teletandem activities and are responsible for
their practice remain as follows (Brammerts, op.cit.):
(i) Language separation each language must have its own time for practice, which
promotes a balanced dedication to both languages;
(ii) Reciprocity each participant plays a tutor’s role of the language at which he/she is
proficient and a learner’s role, which implies a commitment in participating and
contributing with the partner’s needs and success;
(iii) Autonomy each participant is responsible for the decisions and manages his/her
own learning process.
These principles should be present in each and every partnership so that it would be
a successful one, which means that the individuals interacted, at least, for more than eight
weeks. According to Autor and Cavalari (forthcoming):
2
Although this tool is no longer available, it was an important one in the first years of the project.
[r1] Comentário: I think a footnote
explaing the meaning would be interesting
[r2] Comentário: We’d like you to avoid
this and use the actual year in the
reference.
Theoretically, a teletandem participant would be (i) autonomous, (ii) committed,
(ii) able to make decisions about his own language learning as well as that of his
partner, (iii) open to (both linguistic and cultural) negotiation and (iv) digitally
proficient, so that teletandem practice would last long enough for both partners
feel they are learning. They are also responsible for evaluating their learning and
deciding which changes (if any) should be made in the development of the
interactions to suit their learning needs.
However, many works show that the articulation of these principles has not always
been possible and partnerships failed within the first interactions (CAVALARI, 2009; LUZ,
2012). Autor and Telles (2011) also state that the absence of a set of communicative
purposes shared by the pair of students may take them to an asymmetrical relationship,
which may lead to a possible lack of genre development that might be shared. Thus, the
partnership would likely fail. This failure would not be due to the motivation towards
learning, but to the non-sharing of purposes.
Teletandem Project: hands on
The Teletandem Project counts on a website (www.teletandembrasil.org) which
provides information about the project, as well as space for the students to enroll and start
having interactions with other language learners from different countries. In addition, the
website orientates newcomers on teletandem rules and procedures, as follows:
· Teletandem procedures are commonly agreed by both partners, according
to the two principles of tandem learning autonomy and reciprocity;
· Teletandem sessions consist of regular sessions of conversation, mingled
by corrections that focus on vocabulary and grammar;
· The languages are switched after, at least, 60 minutes of conversation;
· Shared reflections on content and on form of language and conversation
process must take place at the end of each session;
· Tandem partners are (reasonably) competent speakers of the language they
intend to teach. They are not professional teachers;
· Teletandem partners are mentored by specifically prepared facilitators, in
regular sessions, collaborating with institutional foreign language teachers
(TELLES &VASSALLO, 2006).
The participants of the project are assumed to have created a specific community
the Teletandem Community. According to Silva (2012), this community shares some of the
criteria from Virtual Community (LÉVY, 1999), some from Community of Practice
(WENGER, 1998) and some from Discourse Community (SWALES, 1990). The shared
characteristics are:
a) Common purposes;
b) Intercommunication mechanisms;
c) Lack of geographical borders;
Formatado: Fonte: 10 pt
Formatado: Recuo: À esquerda: 4
cm, Deslocamento: 0 cm
d) Reciprocity (one of the basis for Teletandem practice);
e) Pertaining feeling (the participants consider themselves part of the whole);
f) Set of rules.
Item a common purposes is part of a Virtual Community (VC) once this kind of
community is derived from shared interests and knowledge, from mutual projects that occur
in a process of cooperation or exchange, regardless the geographical boundaries and
institutional affiliations. The basic rule is reciprocity, i.e., everybody teaches and also learns
with others.
According to Lévy (1996), members of a VC are able to “virtualize” themselves as
they become “non-present” because of the lack of physical contact. It means that they do
not present a place of reference since a VC can be present everywhere its members are
found. The characteristics above are related to the first and second Swale’s criteria (1990;
1992) for the establishment of a Discourse Community (DC). i.e., shared purposes and
intercommunication mechanisms. Similarly to the members of a VC, the participants of a
DC present common objectives, mechanisms of intercommunication, which implies that
they must not necessarily maintain a close physical relationship to relate with each other.
These characteristics are also evidenced in the definition of Community of Practice (CP),
by means of which Wenger (1998) states that this kind of community is formed by people
who share interests or passions for something, and look for ways to improve what they do
and learn by means of regular interactions. The CPs are not limited by formal structures.
It can be noticed that the principles of exchange and reciprocity that guide the VC
are also present in the CP and DC. These principles are related to the third criterion
postulated by Swales (1990; 1992), which mentions the importance of exchanging
information and obtaining feedback. Once it happens, it is necessary that the information is
directed in an accessible way to the members of the discourse communities, considering the
previous knowledge of each member.
Regarding the presence of the exchange and reciprocity principles in the CP, Wenger
(1998) defends that a CP is constituted within an environment that sustains enough
volunteer and mutual engagement among its members who are committed in a collective
learning process, in a shared domain of human effort. These members aim at, by means of
common projects, sharing of knowledge and generation of learning (WENGER, 1998).
It is noted that the sense of belonging is also characterized as another common
element to the notion of Discourse Community; the members of the DC also present a
corporative feature, which means that there are diverse groups of people inside each
scientific area who cooperate for a shared goal, creating a sense of pertaining.
Concerning the CP, Wenger (1998) postulates that these communities allow their
members to share collective responsibilities for the management of knowledge they need;
in other words, the knowledge construction depends on the members’ responsibility,
considering that each member is part of the whole construction.
Pierre Lévy (1999) also highlights another important feature of the VC: virtual
communities develop a strong social morality, a set of rules governing their relationships,
better known as "netiquette". These rules of conduct emerge naturally and are intended to
maximize dialogue and protect users from harm and communication delays. Thus, if some
user neglects the "netiquette", the participants themselves are responsible for censoring the
procedure. According to Wenger (1998), CP is also governed by rules where, basically,
[r3] Comentário: I think this item
should be a bit more discussed
[r4] Comentário: As you do not follow
the items one by one schematically, we’d
suggest you also do not follow the
itemisation at the introduction since it
brings a false expectation on the reader
[r5] Comentário: This needs further
discussion, as we just commented. It is a
very important issue for distance learning
practices and seems not much explored
here.
there should be the sharing of practice, which takes time and constant interaction. The
development of a CP may be more or less conscious.
The issue of "netiquette" is directly related to the inclusion of newcomers at the VC.
Before joining a community, newcomers should observe how participants behave and how
the information flows (LÉVY, 1999). It is also possible to relate the issue of "netiquette" of
CV to the hierarchical element in the sixth criterion advocated by Swales to characterize a
DC: the hierarchical structure manages the entrance and the permanence of individuals in a
Discourse Community. To be considered members, newcomers should recognize the
genre(s) shared by the DC, must be submitted to the set of rules and practices that govern
the community. The same process occurs in the VC through "netiquette."
With respect to the life of a Virtual Community, this rarely happens without conflict.
However, its members can develop affinities between groups, friendships and intellectual
alliances, along with opportunities to show their personalities. Interestingly, Swales (1998)
also points out conflicts that can exist in a DC. According to the author, communities can be
unstable, disorganized or poorly defined, though this can be a positive point for the
maintenance of the community.
To Pierre Lévy (1999, p. 129) "virtual communities explore new forms of public
opinion" since they offer a broad field for collective debate, more open and participatory.
According to Storch and Cozac (1995 apud Primo, 1998), there would be "textual clues"
when the focus is written communication via chat, which is part of Computer-Mediated
Communication to explain the emotions such as: "hahaha", which is used as a laugh, the
"hehehe", which is characterized as an ironic chuckle, and "hihihi", which would be a shy
laugh. Capitalized words indicate that you are SHOUTING; and those with their letters
separated by spaces indicate that one is talking S L O W L Y. Such elements may be related
to the sharing of a specific lexicon by the VC, a characteristic also present in the DC and
explained in the fifth criterion postulated by Swales (1990): A DC has and is constantly
seeking its own specific terminology. It is relevant the fact that the specific terminology is
not determined and accomplished, but always in development.
Thus, one can understand that Virtual Communities, Discourse Communities and
Communities of Practice would be based on intellectual and emotional proximity rather
than mere proximity. The participants recognize themselves as part of a group and as
responsible for maintaining their relationships . The individual chooses which community
he or she wants to take part in, being the main motivation his/her particular interest in one
or more subjects he or she identifies with. This community also allows him or her find
people with whom he/she can share ideas, promote discussion and build knowledge. In this
respect, it is important to mention that it is the common interest shared that conveys a sense
of belonging to the community. Therefore, these principles have been considered in the
preparation of criteria for verification of the Teletandem Community.
Teletandem Community and its features
Besides what is considered ideal for the success of the interaction itself, once the
partnerships become regular, the paired learners, part of a Teletandem Community, seems to
develop specific genres. According to Swales (1990), a genre comprises the communicative
events in which the language plays an important role. The author says that a communicative
[r6] Comentário: It is important to
notice that teledantem communities did
not appear by themselves. If they are part
o f the project, some rules are establ ished
by you or who else is in charge. It would
also be true in terms of commitment to the
community, since there ought to be a
minimum level of commitment demanded
for someone to continue being part of
teletandem.
This should be explored, since Levy is, most
of the time, discussing non-institutional
communities.
Do you think we can establish some
discussion on this?
event comprises a) the discourse and its participants; b) the role of this discourse and its
context of production and reception, including cultural and historical associations; c) the
shared communicative purposes within the community from which the genres are a tool for
specific purposes; d) the variation of genres within its typical occurrences; e) the language
system, which establishes the limitations according to the content of the text, the
relationship of the speakers, and the format, all shared by the users. That is to say that once
the purposes of a specific genre are established by the members of the community, there is
a set of conventions that is dynamic, i.e., it changes over time. However, these conventions
remain influencing the genre and are ruled by historical issues.
In 2004, Swales discussed the role of communicative purposes from a different
perspective and concluded that identifying the purpose of a genre is not a simple task. One
of the reasons is that the same genre may have different purposes which are not easily
identifiable at a first glance. Another discussion on the issue is the existence of a
“constellation of genres”. This concept was broadly discussed by Araújo (2006), who
studied the chats and concluded that:
a complexidade do evento “bater-papo na internet” parece consistir no
fato de ele enfeixar variados propósitos comunicativos, o que o faz se
desdobrar em muitos gêneros. Se há uma variedade de objetivos que se
tornaram complexos, então surgirão novos gêneros cuja base estará em
outros que lhes preexistem (ARAÚJO, 2006, p. 116)
3
.
As mentioned above, even a simple chat between friends may have different
communicative purposes at the same time. Depending on the purpose, a varied array of
shared genres may occur. By the same token, we may say that depending on the purpose, a
genre that might be unknown for one of the participants, but was introduced by the other
for some reason, is likely to occur during an interaction between individuals from different
cultures. The lack of shared knowledge about the genre and its purpose may impair the
continuation of the interaction, especially if the members are novices to the community. At
this point, we are considering the existing genres that circulate in societies, not the
interaction itself as an event that may have its rhetorical characteristics described.
If, on one hand, the discussion about the multiple purposes of a specific genre is
relevant and crucial for the establishment of it, on the other, the learning environment
within the Teletandem Project interactions is far from having its generic characteristics
established and sufficiently studied. As already mentioned by Telles (2006), “teletandem
does not mean a simple chat”. Nowadays, we know that “simple” is not the most adequate
definition for a chat, as Araújo states above. However, a chat activity seems to be part of
every Skype interaction, along with the use of web tools to solve problems in
communication and to show evidences of what is being said. We have been searching for
recurrent rhetorical traces that are likely to be identifiable in every interaction (AUTOR,
3
The complexity of the event chat on the web seems to constitute a fact with varied communicative
purposes, which means many different genres. If there is a varied number of purposes that made
them complex, thus new genres will be created whose base are in others that preexisted.
Formatado: Recuo: Primeira linha: 0
cm
[r7] Comentário: I am not Shure I got it
right. Probably some rewording will fix it .
forthcoming)
Once Swales argued that every discourse that happens within the limits of a
university campus (personal communication) is an academic discourse. Questioned about
the chatty tone of friends in the cafeteria, for example, he said "that too", but with some
other characteristics that should be investigated. Investigating the discourse, and,
consequently, the genres, has been one of our purposes in this project that happens within
the borders of a campus, is composed by Brazilian and foreign undergraduate students and
has been supported by EFL professors in Brazil and Portuguese as a foreign language
professors in other countries.
Teletandem is not a chat, as mentioned before, but preserves some of the distinctive
marks of some chats during the skype interaction.. On the other hand, the interaction also
holds strong distinctive marks of academic discourse, especially when it occurs in a specific
environment that members of the Project have been calling “Institutional-integrated
Teletandem” (AUTOR & CAVALARI, forthcoming). Broadly speaking, the term implies
that a group of Brazilian students interact with a group of foreign students during a specific
time scheduled by the professors in charge. They are given credits for the activity and are
previously aware of a syllabus, which includes movies to be talked about and writings to be
corrected. Besides, this modality (institutional-integrated teletandem) necessarily occurs
within the limits of a university campus as opposed to Teletandem practice which may
happen from someone’s house or place of work
4
.
As stated, we start from what is consensus about genres, but we neither establish the
multiple actions that occur within Teletandem learning environment nor do we propose that
this environment constitutes one single genre. Thus, we share the idea that texts are socially
constructed, therefore influenced by communities and by cultures in which they are in; that
they have a purpose and their function is partially determined by the context and by the
community before they are processed; that the textual conventions are subjected to
community restrictions; that the absence or the presence of a specific argument is linked to
a specific context ant that the genres are ideologically driven (JOHNS, 2002).
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the Teletandem learning environment as
responsible for raising a varied array of genres that are used by the participants depending
on their purpose at a specific point.
Data analysis
The extracts used in this paper to elucidate some of the issues raised were collected
during the first semester of 2010 and the first semester of 2011, respectively, in groups of
“Language and Literature” students, from a Brazilian university, who were interacting with
two different groups of American students who study Portuguese as an elective course. The
level of proficiency can be said to be Upper Intermediate for both sides.
4
The theoretical principles that used to underline the Teletandem practice, i.e., autonomy,
reciprocity and separation of languages, might be trapped somehow by this new modality. This
discussion should follow researchers’ new investigations.
The first partnership
Due to aspects regarding authorization of data from the American university, the
data presented here in the first partnership will be restricted to the Brazilian students’
speech. This student signed a consent form allowing us to use her data.
This first pair of participants interacted for eight weeks in the first semester of 2010.
They had a syllabus to be followed from the beginning. The purpose of this syllabus is
twofold: to suggest themes to be discussed, and to help them in their writing practice
5
.
The extract below belongs to the beginning (introduction) of the fourth interaction.
It is assumed that the participants had already established some connection that they were
highly motivated and had presumably engaged in some linguistic and cultural negotiation
in the previous interactions
6
. This means that they are likely to feel a sense of pertaining;
hierarchical awareness; the context of production and reception, including cultural and
historical associations; the language system, which establishes the limitations according to
the content of the text; the relationship of the speakers, as mentioned above as
characteristics of communicative events (SWALES, 1990).
BP: Bom dia, tudo bem? Eu não te vejo
(the American participant sets his camera and waves)
BP: Tô bem, e vc? É, tá fresquinho
(the American participant shows his t-shirt)
BP: É, camiseta. CAMISETA
BP: (laughing) Não, não. Camisinha é outra coisa.
We can depict from the extract that the beginning of the conversation seems like any
other conversation beginning between friends in which they greet each other and talk about
the weather. However, as the purpose of learning is supposed to underlie any iiTTD
interaction, the AP tries a new word in Portuguese related to clothes, probably one of the
contents in his syllabus. By showing the referent on video and saying a possible word to
refer to it, he exercises his skills on learning a new word. On the other hand, if we analyze
the image, we may say that the AP knew, or at least had a clue of, the meaning of the word
“camisinha” (condom) in Portuguese (he grins and glances away from the camera). The
allegedly purpose of learning a new word may have been twofold: show the participant
knew the meaning of a “forbidden” word in this very context and somehow trigger further
conversation on the issue. The learning of a word seems to have had more than one
purpose, and, in this case, it seemed not to be shared by the other participant in the
interaction.
The content of this text may also have been triggered due to cultural assumptions
that a Brazilian partner would not refuse or be offended with the word. The conversation
that follows includes words semantically related to “camiseta” (t-shirt), e.g., shirt, jacket,
overcoat.
In order to dismiss any misunderstanding, the conversation goes on how the correct
5
Issues about the competences a native speaker is supposed to have to “act upon” a foreigner’s text are to be
discussed (Autor & Cavalari, forthcoming)
6
BP corresponds to the Brazilian partner and AP to the American partner.
[r8] Comentário: Yo u mean they will
star by the syllabus or that the syllabus has
to be performed from the beginning?
Formatado: Inglês (EUA)
[r9] Comentário: Você traduz outras
interações mas não todas, há algum
porquê?
Formatado: Inglês (EUA)
form of buying a t-shirt at a store would be:
BP: Você pode chegar na loja e pedir uma camiseta. Isso
7
.
We may say that the function of learning a new word of this extract is fulfilled,
although the subject raised was confusing at first and might not have its purpose shared.
The subject that follows is about Brazilian country music. The BP starts telling the AP
about her weekend and takes advantage of his lack of knowledge about the word in
Portuguese to access websites about the theme. This resource of using different net shared
genres to help learning has been constantly and successfully used by many participants.
This interaction lasted 55 minutes. The main purpose of it, previously established by
the professors, i.e., to correct written work in order to develop language skills, just started
15 minutes after the beginning of the interaction and lasted only 10 minutes. The rest of the
interaction was used to talk about personal preferences, daily life and curiosities about
culture and behavior.
The multiplicity of purposes that can be detected in a single interaction, out of a
larger number that happens with a single pair, seems to show that a constellation of genres
might not be enough to describe human relationships. This does not mean that the search is
invalid, though.
The second partnership
The following analysis describes parts of a 55-minute interaction between two
students (a Brazilian and an American one) who were participating in the Institutional-
Integrated Teletandem they had an 8-week partnership during the second semester of
2011. The Brazilian and the American’s consent forms were signed, thus we analyzed parts
of both speeches
8
.
The following extract belongs to the middle of the fifth interaction, therefore we
assume they had already established a good relationship between them they talk about
personal things, make plans to visit each other and this specific interaction was used to
talk about general subjects since there was not a topic chosen previously, nor a written text
to be discussed. It is important to clarify that, during all the interaction, the partners mix
English and Portuguese without any formal division, and this is also noticeable in the
extract below.
BP: My mother, she is an anthropologist, so she works with Indians, indian communities and stuff
like that. (…) And she organizes trips, like excursions, for her students to go to these indian
reservations, and… So I go…
AP: Ah, indians like, indians like, ahm…
BP: the ones that wear feathers
(he uses his hands to “show” a feather behind his head)
AP: indians, indígenas…
BP: Yes
7
Yes you can arrive at a store and order a t-shirt. That’s it.
8
BP is a male Brazilian partner and AP is a female American partner.
AP: Ah, OK, no Brasil…
BP: Aham
AP: Ok, porque eu estava pensando sobre, like, os índios, you know, da Índia (risos)
(she makes a facial expression that means confusion)
BP: Ahhh, in that case it would be… wait
(he types the translation “índios = indians”)
BP: the ones with the feathers
(she reads and listens to him showing a satisfactory face, as she was glad to understand the real
meaning of the word)
AP: Aham
(he continues typing - “indianos = from Índia”)
AP: (she reads) Indianos, ok, agora entendo.
(She makes another comment about the confusion, laughing at the situation, and then he continues
telling her about one of his experiences he had with his mother at an indian reservation).
From the extract above we can assert that the American partner was not sure about
the usage of the word “indians” as she interrupts the conversation to ask the Brazilian
partner for an explanation. The therm “indians” can have two translations in Portuguese
(índios, as native Brazilians, and indianos, as people from India) and, despite the context of
the conversation, the AP was in doubt on the correct meaning, so she preferred to make a
comment and ask her partner. This action once again shows that although AP asked about
the meaning of “indians”, she had a clue about the meaning that was used by the BP.
The fact that BP tries to help the AP understand the meaning of “indians” (when he
interrupts the AP and say “the ones with feathers” using a gesture to represent it) is possibly
an evidence that both of them feel comfortable with this kind of interruption of
conversation. It also means that they do have purposes that are shared in their interactions,
such as the learning and teaching of new words in an informal way.
The BP used the written chat to elucidate the different translations of “indians” and
we could notice that this action happens several times during their interactions. The use of
the written chat in their interaction indicates that this tool is considered useful for both of
them. These examples further the notion that a chat between friends may have different
communicative purposes at the same time, such as helping each other with the language
learning and that, depending on the purpose, a varied array of shared genres may occur.
Final remarks
Teletandem learning environment is proved to be responsible for raising a varied
array of genres that are used by the participants depending on their purpose at a specific
point. These purposes seem to be related to cultural awareness and to the idea people have
on “the other”. Assuming that the Teletandem Community seems to develop specific
genres, i.e., communicative events in which the language plays an important role
(SWALES, 1990), we can conclude that some genres appear in the interactions, considering
that the participants are told that the main purpose of iiTTD is learning/improving their
target language these genres are used to help them achieve their goals. Besides, we have
to take into account that a successful TTD partnership in only possible when the partners
share the same purposes, even if these are established after some interactions and
negotiations.
The presence of genres in the Teletandem Community and its importance still
demand research and studies, especially because the new modality, the Institutional-
Integrated TTD, has a different rhetorical model and presents features that can be variable,
depending on the purposes and partners involved in the interactions.
Although little about many aspects of the relationship between genres and
Teletandem is known, the data analysis suggested that the Institutional-Integrated TTD is a
rich context to be studied. It is not only about teaching and learning of new words, but also
about how the communicative purposes are shared in this new modality and how its studies
can contribute to the functioning of the Teletandem partnerships in general.
References
AUTOR. Os gêneros e as interações em Teletandem Institucional-Integrado: quais são,
como são, o que são? In: _______. Os gêneros textuais/discursivos nas múltiplas esferas da
atividade humana: Anais do VII Simpósio Internacional de Estudos de Gêneros Textuais.
(forthcoming)
AUTOR.; CAVALARI, S. M. S. A trajetória do projeto Teletandem Brasil: da modalidade
institucional não-integrada à institucional integrada. (forthcoming)
AUTOR.; TELLES, J. Os gêneros e o Projeto Teletandem Brasil: relação entre
compartilhamento e sucesso interacional. In: Anais do VI SIGET Simpósio Internacional
de Estudos de Gêneros Textuais, Natal, 2011.
AUTOR. Projeto Teletandem Brasil: algumas questões sobre comunidades discursivas. In:
V SIGET, 2009, Caxias do Sul. Anais do V SIGET. Caxias do sul: em CD-rom, 2009.
ARAÚJO, J. C. Os chats: uma constelação de gêneros na Internet. Tese (Doutorado em
Linguística). Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, 2006.
BHATIA, V. K. Analysing Genre - Language Use in Professional Settings, London,
Longman, Applied Linguistics and Language Study Series, 1993.
BRAMMERTS, H. Tandem language learning via the internet and the International E-Mail
Tandem Network. In: LITTLE, D. & BRAMMERTS, H. (Eds.) A guide to language
learning in Tandem via the Internet. CLCS Occasional Paper, 46, 1996, p. 9-25.
_________. Autonomous language learning in tandem via the Internet. In: DILLER, H-J;
OTTO, E; STRATMANN, G; SIMON-VANDENBERGEN, A-M. English via various
media. Anglistik & Englischunterricht, 62, Heidelberg: Germany, 1999: 271-328.
_________. Autonomous language learning in tandem: the development of a concept. In:
LEXIW & WALKER (Eds.). Autonomous language learning in tandem. Sheffield, United
Kingdom: Academy Electronic Publications, 2003: 27-36.
BRAMMERTS, H; KLEPPIN, K.; ZARCO DE LA HOZ, F. Tandem Bochum-Oviedo,
Intensivkurs Deutsch, Tándem Oviedo-Bochum, Curso intensivo de Español, Oviedo
2/9/1986-27/9/1986. Bochum: Seminar für Sprachlehrforschung der Ruhr-Universität,
1988.
CAVALARI, S.M.S. A auto-avaliação em um contexto de ensino-aprendizagem de línguas
em tandem via chat. Tese de Doutorado. Programa de Pós-graduação em Estudos
Linguísticos. UNESP São José do Rio Preto, 2009.
CZIKO, G. A.; PARK, S. Internet audio communication for second language learning: a
comparative review of six programs. Language Learning & Technology 7,1:15-27, 2003.
JOHNS, A. (eds.) Genre in the classroom: multiple perspectives. Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates. 2002.
LÉVY, P. Que é o virtual? São Paulo: Ed. 34, 1996.
LÉVY, P. Cyberculture. Translated by Carlos Irineu da Costa. São Paulo: Ed. 34, 1999.
LUZ, E. B. P. Variáveis influenciadoras da continuidade ou descontinuidade de parcerias
de teletandem à luz da teoria da atividade. Tese (Doutorado em Estudos Linguísticos)
Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas São José
do Rio Preto, 2012.
PRIMO, A. F. T. Interação Mútua e Interação Reativa: uma proposta de estudo. In:
Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Estudos interdisciplinares em Comunicação, 21,
1998, Recife. Anais... Recife: UFPE, 1998. Available from:
http://usr.psico.ufrgs.br/~aprimo/pb/espiralpb.htm. Jul 10, 2013.
SILVA, J. M. da. O projeto Teletandem Brasil: as relações entre as comunidades virtuais, as
comunidades discursivas e as comunidades de prática. Dissertação (Mestrado em Estudos
Linguísticos) Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências
Exatas São José do Rio Preto, 2012.
SWALES, J. Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1990.
SWALES, J. Rethinking genre: Another look at discourse community effects. Work
presented in the colloquium of ‘Rethinking Genre’. Carlton University, Ottawa, 1992.
SWALES, J. Other floors, other voices: a textgraphy of a small university building.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1998.
SWALES, J. M. Research genres: Explorations and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2004.
Código de campo alterado
TELLES, J. A. Teletandem Brasil: línguas estrangeiras para todos. Projeto de Pesquisa
Faculdade de Ciências e Letras de Assis, Departamento de Educação, Universidade
Estadual Paulista, 2006.
TELLES, J. A.; VASSALLO, M. L. Foreign language learning in-tandem: Teletandem as an
alternative proposal in CALLT. The ESPecialist, v. 27, 2006.
VASSALLO, M. L.; TELLES, J. A. Foreign language learning in-tandem: Theoretical
principles and research perspectives. The ESPecialist, v. 27, p. 29-56, 2006.
http://www.teletandembrasil.org/site/docs/TELETANDEM_BRASIL_completo.pdf
WENGER, E. Communities of Practice learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1998. Available from:
http://www.google.com/books?id=heBZpgYUKdAC&pg=PT1&dq=Wenger,+E.+1998/.
August 18, 2009.
Código de campo alterado
Código de campo alterado
... Many perspectives on these interactions 1 within the course of the project have been studied: (i) power relationships (Vassallo, 2009), (ii) autonomy (Cavalari, 2009;Luz, 2009), (iii) beliefs (Kfouri-Kaneoya, 2008;Bedran, 2008), (iv) teacher education (Salomão, 2008;Funo, 2011;Souza, 2012); (v) assessment (Mesquita, 2008;Furtoso, 2011), (vi) communities (Aranha, 2009;Silva, 2012), (vii) activity theory (Araujo, 2012;Luz, 2012, Luvizari-Murad, 2011, (viii) teletandem interaction features (Silva, 2008;Santos, 2008;Brocco, 2009;Aranha & Telles, 2011); (ix) intercultural issues (Mendes, 2009;Salomão, 2012;Rodrigues, 2013); (x) genres (Aranha & Cavalari, 2014;Aranha & Bragagnollo, 2015) among other aspects that are inherent to this context of foreign language learning. However, some of these research studies (Cavalari, 2009;Garcia, 2010;Luz, 2012) showed, that, in practice, the articulation of the teletandem principles is not an easy task for the language learner. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims at describing the characteristics of a blended foreign language learning context in which a series of teletandem sessions has been integrated into the syllabus of an EFL course at UNESP (in São José do Rio Preto). It focuses on the changes that have been made in the implementation of teletandem practice so that it became a pedagogic activity that is embedded in an EFL course with a number of tasks to be performed and subject to the professor’s assessment. It is argued that such modifications have made it possible to characterize a new modality of teletandem in Brazil: institutional-integrated teletandem (Aranha & Cavalari, 2014). This new modality, as implemented at UNESP-Rio Preto, entails the presence of some constituent elements, such as preparation of participants, integration of tasks and of assessment.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this article is to discuss the concept of community in multimodal contexts of telecollaborative projects, specifically the one named teletandem (TELLES, 2006). Discourse communities (DC) are groupings of individuals who get together in order to achieve their communicative purposes through genres (SWALES, 1990). Although the concept has been extensively discussed in academic settings, there seems to be a lack of studies involving the theme and its importance for telecollaboration. One attempt in doing so is Silva’s (2012) account of the teletandem community (TC), in which she investigates students who participate in the project Teletandem Brasil Foreign Languages for All (Teletandem Brasil: Língua Estrangeira para Todos). Our starting point is her criteria for defining TC and our analysis derives from our intense and attentive observation of teletandem practice at teletandem laboratory at UNESP – São José do Rio Preto. The results indicate that members of communities that are occasionally gathered in telecollaboration contexts tend to be governed by local and external rules, form complex organizations and share genres to achieve their goals.
Article
Full-text available
In a previous paper on this journal (Vassallo & Telles, 2006), we presented the theoretical bases and practical procedures of two modes of foreign language learning in-tandem approach – face-to-face tandem and e-tandem. Now, in this article, we introduce our proposal of a third mode of Tandem – the Teletandem, as an alternative in CALLT. Teletandem is a virtual Tandem that uses the online writing, reading, audio and video resources of the Windows Live Messenger. Next, we wish to outline and to argue for the applicability of the theoretical and practical principles of this third mode of Tandem within the context of a research project – Teletandem Brasil: Foreign languages for all. One of the central aims of this project is to promote, by means of the virtual space of the Teletandem, the contact of Brazilian university students with the peoples of the international community and the exchange of their respective languages and cultures.
Book
Full-text available
1. Toward a world of genre 2. The role of English in the research world 3. Theoretical and methodological issues 4. 'Getting done': The PhD dssertation 5. The PhD defense 6. Research talk and research talks 7. The Research Article Revisited 8. Three remaining issues.
Article
A vast and largely untapped resource for second language learners has recently become available: native speakers of languages being learned who have access to the Internet. To explore the potential of this new resource for second language learning, we reviewed six free programs for Windows and Macintosh computers that permit synchronous audio (and some video) communication via the Internet. It was found that although the audio (and video) quality varied both among and within the programs reviewed, the communicative contexts created by these programs can provide second language learners with an inexpensive means for useful audio interaction with native speakers of their second language. We provide recommendations for program choice according to user needs and preferences, with an emphasis on tandem language learning, a context in which participants take turns being both second language learner and tutor of their native language. It should be quite obvious to anyone living in a technologically developed country today that the widespread availability of personal computers and the Internet have brought about dramatic changes in the way that we communicate. The use of electronic mail is the most obvious way in which our communicative behavior has changed over the last two decades. Instant messaging systems are also gaining widespread use with the integration of the Internet into various wireless devices such as portable telephones.
A trajetória do projeto Teletandem Brasil: da modalidade institucional não-integrada à institucional integrada
  • Autor Cavalari
AUTOR.; CAVALARI, S. M. S. A trajetória do projeto Teletandem Brasil: da modalidade institucional não-integrada à institucional integrada. (forthcoming)
Os gêneros e o Projeto Teletandem Brasil: relação entre compartilhamento e sucesso interacional
  • Autor Telles
AUTOR.; TELLES, J. Os gêneros e o Projeto Teletandem Brasil: relação entre compartilhamento e sucesso interacional. In: Anais do VI SIGET -Simpósio Internacional de Estudos de Gêneros Textuais, Natal, 2011.
Tandem language learning via the internet and the International E-Mail Tandem Network A guide to language learning in Tandem via the Internet
BRAMMERTS, H. Tandem language learning via the internet and the International E-Mail Tandem Network. In: LITTLE, D. & BRAMMERTS, H. (Eds.) A guide to language learning in Tandem via the Internet. CLCS Occasional Paper, 46, 1996, p. 9-25.
Variáveis influenciadoras da continuidade ou descontinuidade de parcerias de teletandem à luz da teoria da atividade
LUZ, E. B. P. Variáveis influenciadoras da continuidade ou descontinuidade de parcerias de teletandem à luz da teoria da atividade. Tese (Doutorado em Estudos Linguísticos) – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas São José do Rio Preto, 2012.