Book

Coercive Family Process

Authors:
... This would be consistent with a developmental psychopathology framework, which emphasizes the reciprocal, interactive nature of children and their environments (Cicchetti, 2016). For example, maladaptive child behaviors that have been exacerbated by family conflict may contribute to further family discord through a transactional coercive family cycle that reinforces externalizing behavior problems in children (Patterson, 1982). Children's externalizing problems have been shown to increase parental stress, exacerbate sibling conflict, and result in increased familial involvement with mental and behavioral health services, school disciplinary referrals, and financial/legal consequences (Buist et al., 2013;Cowan, 2019;Mackler et al., 2015) all of which may increase conflict within the broader family system. ...
... Although it is not uncommon for children to "test the limits" by defying rules and norms, they typically learn to comply as they experience consequences. However, researchers have consistently identified a subset of children who present with persistent and severe delinquent behavior beginning in childhood that is less responsive to punishment, and may be reinforced by family conflict and coercion (Patterson, 1982). As part of our first hypothesis, we expected that family conflict and children's behaviors problems would predict increases in one another bidirectionally from ages 6 to 8. ...
... Overall, these cross-lagged and bidirectional associations align with theoretical and empirical models indicating that disruptive behavior and conflictual exchanges with family members may mutually and simultaneously reinforce one another, leading to problems across contexts (Choe & Zimmerman, 2014;Patterson, 1982;Xerxa et al., 2020). It is not immediately clear why elevated family conflict predicted increases in delinquent behavior but not aggressive behavior across ages 6 and 8. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Children's exposure to family conflict is associated with the development of behavior problems. However, it remains unclear whether this association (1) functions bidirectionally and (2) exists independent of more severe forms of violent victimization. Objective The present study aimed to examine bidirectional and transactional associations between family conflict and children's behavioral problems, controlling for time-varying violent victimization experiences. Invariance testing examined whether these models differed by gender and by maltreatment status prior to initial recruitment. Participants and setting Participants were caregiver-child dyads identified prospectively as being at risk for maltreatment and family violence exposure prior to age four (N = 1281; 51.4 % female; 74.6 % persons of color). Methods Caregivers were interviewed prospectively about family conflict, children's aggressive and delinquent behavior, and children's victimization experiences at child ages 6, 8, and 10. Results After controlling for prior victimization, significant cross-lagged bidirectional associations were identified between family conflict and child behavior problems. Indirect effects from age 6 to age 10 externalizing problems through age 8 family conflict were not supported. Several bidirectional paths were stronger among boys than girls. Results revealed little evidence for moderation by prerecruitment maltreatment status. Conclusions Findings support a conceptualization of the family-child relationship that is reciprocal in nature and highlight the importance of non-violent, everyday negative family processes. Interventions aiming to improve child behavior problems by targeting severely dysfunctional family processes should also address non-violent, lower-level patterns of negative family interactions, such as everyday instances of blame, criticism, nonacceptance, and favoritism.
... Furthermore, substance use among justice-involved adolescents is associated with greater likelihood of recidivism and continued contact with the justice system (Chassin, 2008). Transactional developmental models propose that dynamic parent-child interactions give rise to and maintain adolescent substance use; poor parenting behaviors contribute to adolescent substance use, and adolescent substance use contributes to poor parenting behaviors (Dishion et al., 2004;Patterson, 1982). The current study tested these theories by investigating the reciprocal associations between parenting behaviors and substance use among justice-involved adolescents. ...
... Indeed, several prominent developmental theories emphasize the transactional nature of the parent-child relationship, proposing that poor parenting behaviors and adolescent substance use mutually influence each other over time (Dishion et al., 2004;Patterson, 1982). Poor parenting behaviors, such as low warmth and high hostility, are believed to encourage youth to engage in substance use (Dishion et al., 2004;Patterson, 1982). ...
... Indeed, several prominent developmental theories emphasize the transactional nature of the parent-child relationship, proposing that poor parenting behaviors and adolescent substance use mutually influence each other over time (Dishion et al., 2004;Patterson, 1982). Poor parenting behaviors, such as low warmth and high hostility, are believed to encourage youth to engage in substance use (Dishion et al., 2004;Patterson, 1982). Concomitantly, as youth begin to engage in substance use, they are thought to pull further away from their family and elicit even less warmth and more hostility from their parents (Dishion et al., 2004;Patterson, 1982). ...
Article
Full-text available
Transactional developmental theories propose that poor parenting behaviors contribute to youth substance use, and youth substance use contributes to poor parenting behaviors. However, research aimed at testing these theories has not distinguished: (1) between- and within-person sources of variance; (2) maternal and paternal parenting behaviors; and (3) alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use. This study addressed these limitations by investigating the reciprocal associations between maternal and paternal warmth and hostility with alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use among justice-involved adolescents, an at-risk population for substance use. 1354 justice-involved adolescents (86.4% male; Mage = 16.04 [SD = 0.14], range = 14–17; 41.4% Black, 33.5% Hispanic, 20.2% White, 4.8% other race/ethnicity) completed self-reports assessing parental warmth, parental hostility, and substance use every six months for 36 months. Random-intercept structural equation models disaggregated between- and within-person associations. At the between-person level, maternal and paternal warmth were negatively associated with alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use, whereas maternal and paternal hostility were positively associated with alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use. At the within-person level, maternal and paternal warmth predicted decreases in marijuana and other illicit drug use, and paternal warmth predicted decreases in alcohol use six months later. Maternal hostility predicted increases in subsequent marijuana and other illicit drug use. Marijuana and other illicit drug use predicted decreases in subsequent paternal hostility. The results are partially consistent with transactional developmental models proposing recursive influences between parenting behaviors and youth substance use. Evocative effects were in the opposite direction than expected and specific to fathers, such that youth drug use was related to improvements in the father-youth relationship. The results support the potential utility of family-based interventions for substance use among justice-involved adolescents.
... Kortom: kinderen die moeite hebben om hun gedrag en aandacht goed te reguleren. Kinderen die je net als andere kinderen niet los kunt zien van hun omgeving en die met hun opvoeders in een negatieve spiraal terecht zijn gekomen (McMahon & Forehand, 2003;Patterson, 1982). Kinderen die een sterk verhoogd risico lopen op ernstige problemen op latere leeftijd, zoals depressie, middelenmisbruik, vroegtijdig schoolverlaten of delinquentie (Franke et al., 2018;Reef et al., 2011). ...
... We weten niet precies wat de oorzaken van gedragsproblemen zijn, de meest gangbare gedachte is dat deze ontstaan als gevolg van complexe interacties tussen aanleg en omgeving (Fairchild et al., 2019;Shaw et al., 2003;Palladino et al., 2019; 8 | Betere riemen, vaker roeien: Over de behandeling van gedragsproblemen bij kinderen Patterson, 1982 Breider et al., 2019;Nobel et al., 2020;Van den Hoofdakker et al., 2007;Van der Veen et al., 2018 We weten inmiddels dat veel behandelingen met het kind zelf We weten óók dat behandelingen die gericht zijn op het optimaliseren van de omgeving van het kind vaak wél effectief zijn. ...
... Models (e.g. Patterson, 1982), teach parents how to increase positive interactions with their children while reducing conflicting and inconsistent parenting practices (Bor et al 2002). McCart et al. (2006) found that Behavioural Parent Training (BPT) targeting both negative and positive parenting behaviours was effective for pre-school and school children exhibiting behavioural difficulties. ...
... The intervention has been found to be effective through Randomised Controlled Trials (RCT) at impacting on a variety of outcomes. Children whose parents received the PMT intervention showed lower rates of observed deviant behaviours (Patterson et al., 1982), decreases in problem behaviours at home and at school (Forgatch et al. 2005), and fewer police arrests (Forgatch et al. 2009). ...
Thesis
A body of evidence attests to the link between parenting styles and children’s emotional, cognitive and social outcomes. Consequently, many parenting interventions have developed utilising both behavioural and relational frameworks to support family functioning. One therapeutic, evidence-based approach, Multi-Family Groups (MFG) in schools, seeks to enable families to work with and alongside other families who have similar experiences to reduce social stigma, further social collaboration and equip parents and schools with new resources to tackle individual, specific problems. Social disruption caused by the Coronavirus outbreak has been found to cause cumulative stressors for families, potentially altering parenting practices and placing children at risk of harsher parenting. Arguably this increases the importance of effective interventions to support family functioning. This study provides a unique opportunity to explore the impact of the MFG model being delivered virtually in three, contrasting school settings as social distancing became mandatory. This case study used semi-structured interviews (n=9) with parents, school partners and educational psychologists, triangulated with the researcher’s presence at MFG meetings and supervision sessions. Qualitative data collected was analysed using Thematic Analysis which elicited six key themes within the overarching theme of ‘The Pandemic’: ‘connection as a coping mechanism’; ‘processes for change’; ‘challenges with online therapy’; ‘challenges with the structure online’; and ‘the future for online MFGs’. This study found strong therapeutic alliance online, essential for therapeutic approaches to create significant impact and benefits to all stakeholders. Implications of the research for Educational Psychology Service practice is discussed including evolving technology to enable fidelity of implementation.
... Among behavioral theories, Patterson's coercion theory is one of the most accredited, according to which child physical maltreatment results from a pattern of repetitive coercive and violent parent-child interactions that escalate exponentially [13,14]. With his Social Learning Theory, Bandura extended the behavioral approach by introducing the role of vicarious learning or "modeling" [15,16]. ...
... These findings seem to confirm that a change of parent-child relationship patterns [77] is crucially implicated in the recidivism reduction of child physical abuse, representing a key aspect in the treatment of maltreating families [19]. They are also consistent with studies showing that a reduction in coercive parentchild interactions mediates physical abuse recidivism [14,19,46]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Physical maltreatment is a public health issue affecting millions of children in their lifetime , with a high risk of recurrency. Although there are several parenting programs (PPs) available, existing reviews on their effectiveness in preventing physical abuse recurrences have many limitations. The current systematic review aims at (1) providing a summary of evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral/cognitive-behavioral PPs in preventing physical re-abuse; (2) extending previous reviews by including reduction of child maltreatment recurrence as the main outcome but also fo-cusing on the effect of PPs on maltreatment risk, parent and child psychopathology, and parent-child relationship; and (3) including only RCT with at least one follow-up. A PRISMA-compliant systematic review was performed in the EBSCOhost and PUBMED databases. In total, 93 articles were identified, of which 8 were included in the review. Among them, three reported a significant reduction in recidivism rates and maltreatment risk, and five improvements in parent-child relationships. Although limitations arise from methodological heterogeneity across studies, there is some evidence that some brief and manualized cognitive behavioral PPs can reduce the recurrence of child physical maltreatment and improve parent-child relationships. More studies are needed to give further support to PP effectiveness in protecting children from recurrent maltreatment.
... Third, negative reciprocity sequences (hostility→hostility; Patterson, 1982) were found more often in D + /IPV + than in D + /IPV À couples (Burman et al. 1993;Coan et al., 1997;Cordova et al., 1993;Margolin et al., 1988). ...
... Hypothesis 2 was partially supported. Negative reciprocity (Patterson, 1982) also demonstrated intersectionality, with an initiator by satisfaction by IPV-extent interaction. High IPV couples were insensitive to who initiated the conversation and remained high in negative reciprocity, as were couples low in IPV with mean-to-high satisfaction levels and those with mean-IPV and high satisfaction. ...
Article
This study investigates associations between (a) relationship satisfaction and intimate partner violence (IPV: psychological, physical, and sexual) and (b) observed couple communication behavior. Mixed-sex couples ( N = 291) were recruited via random digit dialing. Partners completed the Quality of Marriage Index (Norton, 1983), the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus et al., 1996), and one female-initiated and one male-initiated 10-min conflict conversations. Discussions were coded with Rapid Marital Interaction Coding System, 2nd Generation (Heyman et al., 2015). As hypothesized, lower satisfaction was associated with more hostility ( p =.018) and less positivity ( p < .001); more extensive IPV was associated with more hostility ( p < .001). For negative reciprocity, there was a dissatisfaction × IPV extent × conversation-initiator interaction ( p < .006). Results showed that conflict behaviors of mixed-sex couples are related to the interplay among gender, satisfaction, and the severity of couple-level IPV. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
... While conflict interactions allow adolescents to integrate different expectations and can thus promote cognitive development and well-being through negotiation and self-reflection, frequent and intense negative interactions can strain social bonds and result in poor developmental and health outcomes (Laursen & Hafen, 2010). These processes may increase adolescents' aggressive behavior and decrease their interpersonal competence, which in turn increase negative interaction in later relationships with peers and partners (Conger et al., 2000;Patterson, 1982;Rubin et al., 2015). ...
... Adolescents who are less adept at integrating different objectives and expectations into peer relationships might transfer these negative interaction patterns to the parent-adolescent relationship, which is already susceptible for negative interaction as it realigns toward equality (Branje, 2018). Negative relationship processes increase negative mood, antisocial behaviors and decrease interpersonal competence, through which these negative interactions are likely to spill over to other relationships (Conger et al., 2000;Patterson, 1982), resulting in bidirectional relations between negative interaction patterns in parent-adolescent and peer relationships. ...
Article
Full-text available
Positive peer and romantic relationships are crucial for adolescents' positive adjustment and relationships with parents lay the foundation for these relationships. This longitudinal meta-analysis examined how parent-adolescent relationships continue into later peer and romantic relationships. Included longitudinal studies (k = 54 involving peer relationships, k = 38 involving romantic relationships) contained demographically diverse samples from predominantly Western cultural contexts. Multilevel meta-regressions indicated that supportive and negative parent-adolescent relationships were associated with supportive and negative future peer and romantic relationships. Meta-analytic structural equation modeling (k = 54) indicated that supportive parent-adolescent relationships unidirectionally predicted supportive and negative peer relationships, while negative parent-adolescent relationships were bidirectionally associated with supportive and negative peer relationships. Maintaining mutually supportive relationships with parents may help adolescents to develop positive social relationships.
... Therefore, parenting behaviors constitute one of the main targets of parenting interventions in the condition of SUD [45,46]. In the present study, we aim to test the efficacy of the VIPP-SD, a shortterm evidence-based parenting intervention based on attachment theory [17,47] and social learning theory [48,49], in improving positive parenting strategies in a clinical population of SUD mothers with young children. We will measure sensitive parenting and sensitive discipline using observational scales (the Emotional Availability Scales [50] and a scale for harsh discipline [51]) under various structured conditions (free-play and two compliance tasks), comparing mothers with SUD receiving the intervention to mothers with SUD undergoing treatment as usual (TAU) and to low-risk mothers. ...
... Participants in the SUD experimental group will be administered the VIPP-SD, an evidence-based intervention that adopts the technique of video-feedback for enhancing (1) sensitive parenting and positive parent-child relationships and (2) sensitive discipline, reducing children's emotional and behavioral problems [21]. The protocol is based on attachment theory [17,47] and on social learning theory [48,49]. The intervention is manualized and delivered in 6 sessions, each one affording themes relevant for sensitive parenting and sensitive discipline. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Maternal substance use disorder (SUD) represents a risk condition for quality of parenting and child development. The current literature highlights the need to identify interventions that effectively enhance the quality of parenting and to better understand which mechanisms are involved in the process of change. The present study protocol describes a randomized wait-list controlled trial that aims to examine (1) the efficacy of the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) in improving the quality of parenting (i.e., sensitive parenting and sensitive discipline) in mothers with SUD, (2) whether the intervention affects parental cognitive mechanisms (i.e., attentional disengagement to infant negative emotions, inhibitory control confronted with children’s affective expression, and parental reflective functioning), and (3) whether changes in these processes act as mechanisms of change, mediating the effect of the VIPP-SD program on quality of parenting. Moreover, the study aims (4) to explore whether the VIPP-SD has an effect on parenting stress and (5) to compare mothers with SUD to low-risk mothers on the outcome measures. Methods The study will involve 40 mothers with SUD and 20 low-risk mothers of children aged between 14 months and 6 years old. Mothers in the SUD group will be randomly divided into two groups, one receiving the intervention (SUD experimental group) and one undergoing treatment as usual (SUD control group). All the mothers will be assessed pre-test and post-test. Quality of parenting will be assessed through observed parenting behaviors, whereas parental cognitive mechanisms will be assessed through neuropsychological tasks and self-report measures. Discussion The results of the study will reveal whether an intervention that has been proven effective in other at-risk samples is also effective in improving parenting behaviors in the context of SUD. The results will also provide insight into potential cognitive mechanisms involved in the process of change. Trial registration ISRCTN registry ISRCTN63070968 . Registered on 25 June 2021. Retrospectively registered
... One way parenting may be affected by stress, and negative emotions is through an increased likelihood of consistent withdrawal from attempts to enforce disciplinary actions. Coercion Theory posits that parents may neglect following through with consequences or may adjust threatened consequences to withdraw from their child's aversive response to attempts to set limits (i.e., monitoring, supervision) on behavior (Patterson, 1982;2016). Parental withdrawal increases the likelihood that a child will respond in an aversive manner in the future to escape consequences for deviant behavior. ...
... Parent management interventions and major theoretical models of the risk and protective factors for delinquent outcomes also emphasize the importance of consistent discipline (Forgatch & Patterson, 2010;Patterson, 1982;Sanders et al., 2000;Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2017). These interventions are designed to strengthen parent management of adolescent problem behaviors and include a focus on consistent discipline as a necessary parenting practice when setting limits and responding to rule violations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Robust research shows that poor parenting practices are related to adverse outcomes among adolescents; however, few have examined the interaction between parenting variables and adolescent outcomes within the context of exposure to relentless crime. The current study examined the combined effects of parental monitoring and discipline on marijuana involvement and deviant peer affiliation among adolescent males living in Los Angeles neighborhoods with concentrated crime. For this study, areas with higher-than-average crime rates were selected based on census data, published statistics, and law-enforcement data. The study included 349 males between 13 and 17 years of age, mostly Latino (70.2%) and African American (28.4%). Data were collected using questionnaires to interview participants and analyzed using logistic regression. Results suggest that among adolescent males in geographic areas of high violence and crime, the interaction between parental monitoring and discipline was significantly related to marijuana involvement and deviant peer affiliation. Follow-up analyses showed parental monitoring was only an effective tool at higher levels of consistent parental discipline. In the absence of consistent discipline, good parental monitoring was ineffective at preventing marijuana involvement and affiliation with deviant peers. Results suggest that if time and resources are limited, clinicians should consider focusing on the use of consistent discipline with parents residing in high-crime neighborhoods.
... Parents use spanking as a form of discipline to correct or control a child's behavior. Coercion theory describes how everyday parental disciplinary events can escalate to abuse (i.e., injury to the child) (Patterson, 1982). Specifically, when parents and caregivers use physical punishment such as spanking to stop a child's misbehavior, the use of physical force is reinforced. ...
... Our second aim was to contextualize the association between spanking and physical abuse. Coercion theory (Patterson, 1982) and prior research suggest that spanking contributes to the escalation of violence toward children, thus heightening the risk of physical injury to the child (Gershoff & Grogan-Kaylor, 2016;Heilmann et al., 2021). Following the approach used in one prior study (Lee et al., 2014), we provide estimates of physical abuse cases that might be prevented if spanking were eliminated. ...
Article
Background Nearly one third of children under five in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) experience spanking. Studies from North America suggest that spanking is associated with heightened risk of physical abuse. However, the link between spanking and physical abuse in the international context remains understudied. Objective To examine the association between caregivers' spanking and physical abuse of young children in LMICs, and to estimate the extent to which physical abuse might be reduced if spanking were eliminated. Participants We used nationally representative data from 156,166 1- to 4-year-old children in 56 LMICs from the fourth and fifth rounds of UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Methods A nationally weighted multilevel logistic regression model examined the association between spanking and physical abuse. We calculated predicted probabilities of physical abuse, which we present using natural frequencies. Results Spanking was associated with higher odds of physical abuse (OR = 5.74, p < .001). The predicted probability of physical abuse decreased by 14% comparing children who were spanked (22%) and who were not spanked (8%). When our estimates were translated to a hypothetical sample of 100 children using a natural frequency approach, 32 children were spanked; of those, seven experienced physical abuse. The elimination of spanking would result in four fewer children who were exposed to physical abuse. In relation to the population of abused children, estimates suggest that physical abuse could reduce by up to 33% if spanking were eliminated. Conclusions Results support the UN Sustainable Development Goals Target 16.2 that calls for eliminating all forms of violence against children. Child welfare advocates should discourage caregivers from using spanking, in order to prevent physical abuse.
... The latter are predominantly grounded in operant and social learning theory, 9 with the premise that children learn behaviors by modeling their parents and through rewards and punishment, and that violent behaviors are often unwittingly reinforced in coercive interactions. 10 In a coercive cycle of parent-child interaction, child noncompliance provokes anger and hostility in the parent which leads to a punitive response. ...
... A coercive relationship can develop between parents and adolescents exhibiting behavior problems that may reinforce the problem behavior (Capaldi et al., 1997;Patterson, 1982). Adolescents may receive inconsistent consequences in which they may be ignored by their parents or punished harshly. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Adolescents in residential treatment (RT) encounter multiple obstacles upon discharge that can make maintaining treatment gains in the community challenging. This study examined relationships among parenting (sense of competence, practices), household chaos, and adolescent behavior problems in a sample of parents with adolescents in RT. Method: This exploratory cross-sectional study used convenience sampling to recruit 71 parents through Facebook. After providing informed consent, parents completed a battery of self-report instruments. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression. Results: Parents reported several strengths, including high involvement and consistent discipline, and low levels of corporal punishment. Parental sense of competence was relatively high, and household chaos was moderate. Adolescent inattention behaviors were positively associated with inconsistent discipline, corporal punishment, and parental sense of competence. Adolescent internalizing behaviors were positively associated with parent involvement and positive parenting and negatively associated with household chaos. Adolescent externalizing behaviors were positively associated with inconsistent discipline, corporal punishment, and parental sense of competence. Discussion: Findings suggest that there are numerous parenting strengths; however, some aspects of parenting could be promoted through evidence-based interventions such as parent training. Future research should also comprehensively study the home environment beyond self-report to understand environmental factors that may promote or inhibit adolescent behavior problems.
... In fact, when adolescents report feeling more controlled and less connected to parents and parents engage in punitive and minimizing reactions to children's emotions, children and adolescents are less likely to disclose over time and engage in greater secrecy (Tilton-Weaver et al., 2010). Such negative reactions can promote coercive cycles of interaction (Patterson, 1982), which in turn inhibit future adolescent disclosures. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Adolescent disclosure to parents has been associated with a variety of positive adolescent outcomes. Studies utilizing primarily self-report have found both concurrent and prospective associations between disclosure with parental behaviors. However, self-report does not allow researchers to determine what parental behaviors directly inhibit or facilitate adolescent disclosure in real-time. Additionally, research on adolescent disclosure has focused primarily on European American middle-class families. Less is known about disclosure in underrepresented families. The goal of this dissertation is to examine a) the impact of parental emotion-related responses (ERRs) on observed adolescent disclosure, b) associations between parental ERRs, disclosure, and physical health and c) associations between disclosure, early cultural factors, and social behaviors within a diverse population. Study I explored the impact of mothers’ ERRs and adolescent perspective taking on subsequent disclosures during real-time discussions. Interest and validation predicted the shortest lag times compared with other maternal ERRs. Findings highlight the importance of parental communication of both validation and interest in promoting disclosure in the context of parent-adolescent conversations. Study II examined associations between disclosure, parental ERRs, and diabetes management. Higher levels of anger and of positive affect, relative to parental baseline levels, predicted longer lag times to subsequent disclosures, whereas higher levels of expressive suppression predicted shorter lag times. However, these patterns varied depending on HbA1c. Specifically, adolescents with lower HbA1c had shorter lag times to subsequent disclosures, and adolescents with higher HbA1c had longer lag times when parents responded with increased anger compared to those with lower HbA1c. Findings highlight that parental ERRs to disclosures have implications for adolescent physical health. Study III explored associations between observed disclosure to parents, early cultural factors, and adjustment in a sample of diverse families. Adolescents from Latinx families were found to engage in lower levels of disclosure compared to adolescents from African American families. In Latinx families, speaking English in the home was prospectively associated with higher levels of disclosure. Adolescents from Spanish-speaking Latinx families engaged in lower levels of disclosure compared to adolescents from African American and English-speaking Hispanic families. Findings highlight that disclosure may vary among ethnic groups due to unique challenges with communication. Collectively, these studies identify the impact of parent behavior on adolescent disclosure during real-time interactions. These studies also provide information about how observed adolescent disclosure relates to adolescent adjustment in a variety of contexts (i.e., diverse families and those with chronic illnesses). Findings from this dissertation will inform research on adolescent disclosure from underrepresented populations and guide interventions aimed at families who struggle with a lack of disclosure from adolescents.
... The child's condition, therefore, has an impact on her. As Patterson (1982) noted in his theory of the coercive family process, mothers who continually engage in unsuccessful interactions with their challenging children either withdraw or react with hostility, which worsens the problem behaviors of the children. As a result, the coercive cycle intensifies, and the child's maladaptive actions build over time. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study on the “lived” parenting experiences of the mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder revolved on the challenges experienced by the mothers with an ADHD child; their initial responses after diagnosis; their coping strategies; its impact on their well-being and on family relationship; the protective factors to their well-being; and their needs. Consensual qualitative research methodology was used in the study. Ten mothers were the study's participants, chosen by the purposive sample approach. In-depth interview was used and data were evaluated to identify the categories and domains. According to the findings, the mother's biggest struggles are dealing with the child's scholastic issues, physical aggression, stubbornness, and financial troubles. The variety of experiences can be explained by the psychological process that begins when their child is given an ADHD diagnosis. The mothers’ appraisal of their child may be positive or negative, depending on the psychological processes. Healthy coping, optimism, improved family relationships, positive well-being, and early acceptance of their child are all influenced by parents' favorable assessments of their child's condition. Negative appraisal causes harmful coping mechanisms, frustration, poor mental and physical health, and limited social interaction. A psychoeducational intervention anchored from the Positive Psychology framework was proposed to enhance adaptive coping strategies.
... BPT programs vary to some extent (e.g., include parents only versus both parent and child; group-based versus individual families); however, programs share common practice elements and goals that are informed by family systems theory, social learning theory, and operant conditioning (see Kaehler et al., 2016;Reitman & McMahon, 2013;Reyno & McGrath, 2006, for reviews). Specifically, BPT targets the coercive cycle of negative parent-child interactions implicated in early-onset BDs (McMahon & Forehand, 2003;Patterson, 1982). Parents, who are considered the agents of change in BPT, learn a series of skills designed to disrupt the coercive cycle and increase children's desirable behaviors (e.g., sharing, having calm bodies) while reducing or extinguishing mild (e.g., whining, tantrums) and more extreme (e.g., noncompliance, rule breaking, aggression) unwanted behaviors (see Kaehler et al., 2016;Reitman & McMahon, 2013, for reviews). ...
Article
Full-text available
Behavior disorders (BDs) are common and costly, making prevention and early-intervention a clinical and public health imperative. Behavioral Parent Training (BPT) is the standard of care for early-onset (3–8 years old) BDs, yet effect sizes vary and wane with time suggesting the role of underlying factors accounting for variability in outcomes. The literature on emotion regulation (ER), which has been proposed as one such underlying factor, is reviewed here, including a brief overview of ER, theory and research linking ER, externalizing symptoms, and/or BDs, and still largely preliminary work exploring the role of parent and child ER in BPT outcomes. Research to date provides clues regarding the interrelationship of ER, BDs, and BPT; yet, determining whether adaptations to BPT targeting ER are necessary or useful, for whom such adaptations would be most important, and how those adaptations would be implemented requires addressing mixed findings and methodological limitations. To guide such work, we propose a conceptual model elucidating how standard BPT may impact ER and processes linked to ER, which we believe will be useful in organizing and advancing both basic and applied research in future work.
... Ouders kunnen gedragsproblemen bij kinderen onbedoeld en ongewild versterken door verstoringen in de ouder-kind relatie (bijvoorbeeld een afname van ouderlijke warmte bij langdurig moeilijk gedrag van kinderen; Sulik et al., 2015), disfunctionele gedachten (bijvoorbeeld overschatting van de mate waarin kinderen hun gedrag kunnen controleren, of gebrekkig vertrouwen in ouderlijke opvoedcompetentie; Jones & Prinz, 2005) en suboptimale reacties op gedragsproblemen (bijvoorbeeld kinderen met verbaal of fysiek geweld dwingen om te gehoorzamen, of toegeven aan dwingend gedrag van kinderen) (Smith et al., 2014). Dit kan ertoe leiden dat ouders en kinderen verstrikt raken in patronen van dwingende interacties die steeds moeilijker te doorbreken zijn (Patterson, 1982). ...
Article
Full-text available
Om gedragsproblemen te voorkomen en behandelen wordt ouderbegeleiding geadviseerd. Meer dan 200 randomized controlled trials en tientallen meta-analyses laten zien dat ouderbegeleiding het gedrag van ouders en kinderen succesvol kan veranderen. Maar omdat onderzochte ouderbegeleidingsprogramma’s vaak relatief complexe implementatieprocessen en kosten met zich meebrengen, en doorgaans weinig handvatten bieden voor hoe professionals begeleiding kunnen aanpassen aan de behoeften van individuele gezinnen, maken veel professionals gebruik van eigen vormen van ouderbegeleiding. Onderzoek naar kenmerken van effectieve ouderbegeleiding kan een brug slaan tussen empirisch ondersteunde programma’s en ouderbegeleiding van hulpverleners en ouders die geen toegang hebben tot deze programma’s. Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de belangrijkste bevindingen van dit onderzoek. Bijsluiter voor de praktijk Dit artikel beschrijft wat we weten over effectieve ingrediënten van ouderbegeleiding bij gedragsproblemen van jonge kinderen (peutertijd, kleutertijd en onderbouw basisschool). Tabel 1 geeft de inhoud van dit artikel schematisch weer. Dit artikel kan worden gebruikt door professionals in de praktijk om keuzes in de inhoud en vorm van ouderbegeleiding te onderbouwen. Abstract Parenting support programs in early childhood are the recommended strategy to prevent and treat children’s conduct problems. More than 200 randomized controlled trials and dozens of meta-analyses indicate their ability to successfully improve parenting and child behavior. But because many programs are complex and costly to implement, and provide limited possibilities for evidence-based personalization, most professionals and parents do not have access to these programs. Recent developments to identify the effective components of parenting programs hold promise to fill the gap between empirically supported programs and parenting support for professionals and parents who do not have access to these programs. This papers provides an overview of these developments and their main findings. Keywords: parenting program; conduct problems; effective components; core ingredients.
... A cyclical relationship exists between parental stress and the child's behavioural problems [51], so breaking this cycle becomes a clinical priority in treating children with disabilities. The incorporation of stress reduction programmes prior to or concurrent with behaviour modification training for parents has summative effects on outcomes [52]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the study was to analyse the effect of a psychological flexibility intervention programme based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) on 36 family members of children with intellectual disabilities. The 6-PAQ (parental psychological flexibility), PSS-14 (perceived stress), GHQ-12 (psychological health), and WBSI (suppression of unwanted thoughts) were used as measurement instruments before the programme (pre), after (post), and at follow-up (after two months). Possible change in family interactions due to the family intervention was also assessed through self-monitoring. A decrease in psychological inflexibility, a reduction in stress, an improvement in psychological well-being, and a reduction in the tendency to suppress thoughts and emotions were observed after the programme. Furthermore, the effects seem to extend to family interactions, with an increase in positive interactions and a decrease in negative ones. The study leads us to think about the importance of psychological flexibility in children with chronic conditions as a process that mediates the impact of stress and family well-being.
... Therefore, the relations between mothers' emotional expressivity and children's negative affectivity are likely to be bidirectional. Similar to the process described in the coercive cycles (Patterson, 1982;Scaramella and Leve, 2004), children, who are high in negative affectivity, are highly reactive and express more negative emotions. These negative emotions potentially create distress and disruptions in the family, which evokes more negative and less positive emotions and expressions in their mothers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although children’s negative affectivity is a temperamental characteristic that is biologically based, it is framed within and shaped by their emotional environments which are partly created by maternal emotion expressivity in the family. Children, in turn, play a role in shaping their family emotional context, which could lead to changes in mothers’ emotion expressivity in the family. However, these theorized longitudinal bidirectional relations between child negative affectivity and maternal positive and negative expressivity have not been studied from toddlerhood to early school-age. The current study utilized a cross-lagged panel model to examine the reciprocal relations between children’s negative affectivity and maternal expressivity within the family over the course of early childhood. Participants were 140 mother–child dyads (72 boys, mean age = 2.67 years, primarily White). Mothers reported the positive and negative expressivity in the family and children’s negative affectivity in toddlerhood (T1), preschool (T2), and school-age (T3). Maternal negative expressivity and child negative affectivity at T1 were significantly correlated. Maternal negative expressivity at T1 significantly predicted child negative affectivity at T3. Children’s negative affectivity at T2 significantly predicted mothers’ negative expressivity at T3. Mothers’ positive expressivity was not related to children’s negative affectivity at any of the three time points. The findings demonstrate the reciprocal relations between children’s negative affectivity and maternal negative expressivity in the family, suggesting the importance of the interplay between child temperament and maternal expressivity within the family emotional context.
... Por el contrario, las estrategias de parentalidad positiva resultan apropiadas como factor de protección. Estas están relacionadas con un proceso de maduración adecuado y consisten en una escucha activa por parte del adulto, en favorecer la participación del menor en las decisiones familiares, en la implicación del adulto en sus preocupaciones, en un acuerdo filio-parental en las normas y en las consecuencias de su incumplimiento y en una supervisión adecuada (Patterson, 1982). La idea fundamental de la Criminología evolutiva sobre la que se apoya este modelo, y que sirve de inspiración al programa PREMECE, es que la solución del problema de la delincuencia de menores no reside en ellos, sino en su contexto social. ...
Article
Full-text available
En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del programa de prevención de la delincuencia juvenil para menores extranjeros no acompañados en situación de calle en Ceuta (PREMECE). Este programa piloto de intervención e investigación es fruto de un convenio entre la ciudad de Ceuta y la Universidad de Málaga, desarrollado entre abril de 2018 y julio de 2019. La metodología ha consistido en una triangulación de datos cuantitativos y cualitativos, recogidos por el equipo de intervención psicosocial durante 15 meses con los menores marroquíes que han ido pernoctando en las calles de Ceuta. Los resultados de este programa de políticas públicas sugieren que la intervención en calle mejora la protección de los menores especialmente vulnerables, alivia las tensiones en la calle, reduce el riesgo de victimización y contribuye a la disminución de la delincuencia registrada. Con ello se pone de manifiesto la necesidad de políticas públicas de intervención en calle y su utilidad no solo para el sistema de protección de la infancia, como herramienta para hacer efectiva la protección de menores que no se adhieren al sistema, sino también para los sistemas policiales y judiciales, toda vez que el programa facilita la intervención formal con ellos.
... On the contrary, parental negative affect or lack of supportiveness in response to their children's negative affect can promote coercive cycles of interaction (Lougheed, Hollenstein, Lichwarck-Aschoff, & Granic, 2015;Patterson, 1982), thereby inhibiting future disclosure. Tilton-Weaver and colleagues (2010) found that when adolescents perceive negative parental responses to their disclosures, adolescents are more likely to feel controlled and less connected to parents, leading to less disclosure and more secrecy over time. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Adolescent disclosure to parents is a positive feature of parent-adolescent relationships. Although self-reported disclosure to parents typically declines across adolescence, little is known about age and gender differences in real-time adolescent disclosures, nor about the impact that maternal emotions can have on such disclosures. The present study examined the frequency, intensity, and duration of adolescent emotional and informational disclosures to mothers in real-time. Specifically, I (1) explored gender differences in adolescent disclosure, (2) explored age differences in adolescent disclosure, and 3) examined associations between maternal emotion behaviors, adolescent disclosures, and mother- and adolescent-reported satisfaction with a conflict discussion. Adolescents (N = 49, Mage = 14.84 years) and mothers participated in a 10-minute conflict discussion. Adolescent disclosures and maternal emotions were coded moment-to-moment. Results showed that older adolescents engaged in longer durations and more intense instances of informational disclosures compared to younger adolescents. Male adolescents engaged in longer instances of informational disclosure compared to female adolescents. Results also showed that maternal validation was positively associated with the duration of adolescent informational disclosure as well as the duration of instances where both forms of disclosure were displayed. In contrast, maternal negative emotion was negatively correlated with frequency and duration of informational disclosure. Lastly, adolescent discussion satisfaction was positively correlated with both the frequency and total duration of informational disclosure. Implications for applying observational methodologies to the adolescent disclosure literature will be discussed.
... It remains to be seen whether low parenting selfefficacy derives from failure to slow the development of problem behavior in children. For instance, Patterson (1982) argued that inept parenting derives from a negative feedback loop whereby coercive child behavior reinforces ineffective parenting practices. It is not clear how this loop might encompass psychological control, but the prospect deserves empirical attention. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parenting self-efficacy has been tied to myriad child outcomes during middle childhood and adolescence, directly and indirectly through parenting practices. The present study examines contemporaneous associations between parenting self-efficacy, parenting practices, and child outcomes during the preschool years in a community sample of 1455 Danish parents (76.7 % mothers) of 3–5-year-old children (49 % girls). Parents (M = 39.2 years old) completed a survey describing parenting self-efficacy and three facets of parenting practices: inductive reasoning, psychological control, and instrumental reward. Parents also described child adjustment in four domains: prosocial behavior, hyperactivity, conduct problems, and emotional problems. Results revealed direct concurrent associations between parenting self-efficacy and each child outcome, with greater efficacy tied to more prosocial behavior and less hyperactivity, conduct problems, and emotional problems. Parent psychological control mediated associations from parenting self-efficacy to child hyperactivity, conduct problems, and emotional problems. Inductive reasoning mediated associations from parenting self-efficacy to child prosocial behavior. Consistent with previous findings from older children, parental use of psychological control had debilitating consequences for preschool children. Inductive reasoning, in contrast, appeared to promote positive development.
... No obstante, tanto la queja-llanto del hijo o de la hija como la demanda-exigencia-solicitud del progenitor (comportamientos aversivos) tienen más probabilidad de aparecer nuevamente (Haslam et al., 2016). Patterson (1982) expuso la teoría de la coerción familiar. Describió un proceso de refuerzo mutuo (Figura 12) durante el que las cuidadoras o los cuidadores, inadvertidamente, refuerzan el mal comportamiento del niño o de la niña, lo que a su vez provoca la negatividad del adulto y así sucesivamente hasta que la interacción se interrumpe cuando uno de los participantes "gana". ...
Thesis
La maternidad y paternidad se percibe como una tarea ardua y difícil debido a complejidad que encierra y a los retos que implican los cambios acontecidos durante las últimas décadas. Puesto que los progenitores se preguntan frecuentemente qué y cómo proceder ante las situaciones que viven junto a sus hijos, los profesionales del ámbito de la educación familiar han venido apuntando la importancia de apoyarlos para que puedan llevar a cabo adecuadamente los procesos de crianza, educación y socialización de los menores. En este sentido, los programas de educación parental han sido considerados como recursos valiosos para ayudarlos en el desempeño de sus funciones parentales. Por lo tanto, es preciso conocer las características de estas acciones formativas, detectar si dan respuesta a las necesidades e intereses de las familias, así como identificar aspectos relevantes que faciliten el diseño de nuevas intervenciones o la actualización de las ya existentes. Por ello, para la presente tesis doctoral se han planteado cuatro objetivos generales: a) Estudiar la evidencia científica respecto a los programas de educación parental; b) Conocer las características de los programas de educación parental; c) Explorar las necesidades formativas actuales de los progenitores en relación con la crianza y la educación de sus hijos; d) Elaborar una propuesta de elementos clave a tener en cuenta como modelo para el diseño, desarrollo y evaluación de programas de educación parental. Para dar respuesta a dichos objetivos se han desarrollado cuatro estudios concatenados desde diferentes metodologías: a) Un análisis bibliométrico retrospectivo y descriptivo con una muestra de 245 documentos; b) Una revisión sistemática de alcance con una muestra de 114 artículos científicos; c) Una investigación cuantitativa, empírica y con un diseño transversal, en la que se ha aplicado un cuestionario a 389 madres y padres; d) Una investigación longitudinal, observacional y prospectiva con el método Delphi, con una muestra de 35 personas expertas en educación parental. Los principales resultados han sido los siguientes, atendiendo a cada uno de los cuatro estudios: a) Se han identificado las revistas con mayor número de publicaciones, las acciones formativas más implementadas, los autores e instituciones que más han investigado sobre el tópico de interés, los países donde se han desarrollado más evaluaciones de programas de educación parental y los diseños de investigación más utilizados; b) Se ha detectado que la mayor parte de las intervenciones han contado con muestras pequeñas, se han implementado en contextos escolares, han estado dirigidas principalmente a progenitores con hijos de hasta seis años o necesidades específicas de apoyo educativo. Casi la mitad no habían incluido evaluaciones de seguimiento. Habitualmente el número de sesiones ha oscilado entre seis y ocho, con una duración promedio de dos horas y una periodicidad de una clase a la semana. Se han señalado los contenidos más abordados y las principales variables medidas en los programas examinados; c) Se ha revelado que los progenitores presentaban mayores dificultades en la comunicación, el control del estrés y la implicación familiar. Sus fortalezas han estado relacionadas con las actividades compartidas en familia, el reconocimiento y el afecto. Han expuesto preferencia por la modalidad de programa grupal, la asistencia los fines de semana, en horario vespertino y cuando los hijos se encontrasen en la primera infancia. También han señalado los contenidos prioritarios a abordar en los programas; d) Se ha elaborado una propuesta de elementos clave a tener en cuenta como modelo en los programas de educación parental a partir de las valoraciones de las personas expertas. Dicha propuesta ha recogido 18 líneas temáticas de contenidos, la duración, periodicidad y el número de sesiones, el esquema de secuencias de acción, los objetivos, metodologías y las técnicas de enseñanza y de aprendizaje, así como los aspectos relevantes concernientes a la evaluación de programas y a la formación de los formadores que implementen los mismos. Para finalizar, las conclusiones más relevantes de esta investigación han sido las que a continuación se destacan: a) Se ha apreciado una tendencia creciente y global relativa a la producción científica sobre programas de educación parental, incipiente en países en vías de desarrollo; b) Se ha constatado que no todas las intervenciones se encuentran en la misma etapa de consolidación. Se han localizado algunas nuevas y prometedoras y las más implementadas y evaluadas internacionalmente, en parte coincidentes con las definidas como referentes por guías especializadas; c) Los progenitores encuestados han afirmado precisar de apoyo en el desempeño de su rol parental a través de programas que tuviesen en cuenta las prioridades expresadas y las necesidades formativas identificadas. La conformación de conglomerados ha permitido clasificar a los padres y a las madres en subgrupos con mayor o menor necesidad de intervención, permitiendo ajustar la intensidad de los recursos según sus perfiles; d) Se ha diseñado una propuesta de elementos clave a tener en cuenta en los programas de educación parental basado en las necesidades detectadas previamente. En él se han recogido las líneas temáticas y los elementos técnicos y metodológicos valorados como más pertinentes por las personas expertas. La pretensión es que sirva para la renovación de las intervenciones ya creadas o para el desarrollo de otras nuevas. Esto podría llevarse a cabo a nivel comunitario para abordar la orientación educativa familiar desde el desenvolvimiento y el fortalecimiento de las competencias parentales.
... Positive reinforcement occurs when behaviour gains something that is desired, whilst negative reinforcement arises when an aversive aspect of the internal or external environment is removed following the behaviour. The pioneering work of Patterson and colleagues (Patterson, 1982;Patterson, Reid & Dishion, 1992) demonstrated that these principles apply to childhood externalising behaviours. They found that parents play a causal role in the development and maintenance of antisocial behaviour and the extinction of desirable behaviours as they give antisocial behaviour attention, whilst ignoring desirable behaviour. ...
Thesis
p>Childhood behaviour problems affect a substantial proportion of children, representing the majority of referrals to child clinical services. Further, they are highly stable over time and serve as markers for the development of psychosocial difficulties throughout life. In order to intervene effectively with behaviour problems, clinical psychologists must have solid models to work from. The literature review paper therefore outlines research directions that have traditionally dominated the literature and their clinical utility and limitations are discussed. The need to develop better models of child behaviour is established and the emerging literature regarding emotion regulation is reviewed in detail. Conclusions are drawn regarding the contribution of this literature to models of child behaviour. Although evidence from a number of studies consistently demonstrates an association between children’s emotion regulation and their overall levels of behaviour problems, few studies have explored its relationship with specific behaviour problems and no known studies have examined its role in temper tantrums. The empirical paper therefore describes a study investigating the relationship between emotion regulation and temper tantrums in seventy-eight preschool age children. Caregivers completed the Behaviour Checklist (BCL, Richman, 1977) and the Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC, Shields & Cicchetti, 1997), and nurseries also completed the ERC. A tantrums composite was created from caregiver ratings on the tantrums items of the BCL and ERC. Generalised deficits in emotion regulation were not found across children with temper tantrums. However, a subgroup of children with additional behaviour problems had lower levels of emotion regulation and higher levels of dysregulation than children with tantrums as an isolated complaint and children without tantrums. Possible explanations for this pattern of results are discussed, including the distinction between instrumental and reactive tantrums and the role of emotion regulation as a resiliency factor against the development of multiple behaviour problems. Future research directions are outlined and the clinical implications of the findings are examined.</p
... One explanation for this finding could be that while mothers and fathers similarly express negative emotions ('becoming angry'), fathers are relatively more prone to punitive behavior ('punishing harder', limiting positive parenting) since it is less socially undesirable for males than for females. However, previous research points to either mothers engaging in more disciplinary actions than fathers ( Patterson, 1982 ;Mulhern and Passman, 1981 ) or only limited gender differences in punitive behavior 17 Note that survey items on positive parenting behavior were child-specific in 2019 and collected only for children above the age of two. For this reason, we report results on this subsample and take the mean across children to make these observations comparable to the 2020 survey where these items where parentspecific. ...
Article
What are the effects of school and daycare facility closures during the COVID-19 pandemic on parental well-being and parenting behavior? Can emergency childcare policies during a pandemic mitigate increases in parental stress and negative parenting behavior? To answer these questions, this study leverages cross-state variation in emergency childcare eligibility rules during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Germany and draws on unique data from the 2019 and 2020 waves of the German AID:A family panel. Employing a triple-differences approach we identify short- to medium-term intention-to-treat effects and find that while emergency care policies did not considerably affect parents’ life satisfaction, partnership satisfaction or mental health, they have been effective in diminishing harsh parenting behavior. We find partly gendered effects, specifically on paternal parenting behavior. Our results suggest that decreasing parental well-being likely constitutes a general effect of the pandemic, whereas the observed increase in negative and potentially harmful parenting behavior is largely directly caused by school and daycare facility closures.
... Notably, the plausibility for the dynamic, transactional nature of the associations between parenting self-efficacy and related constructs (e.g., parenting competence and stress, parenting practices or behaviors, parents' psychosocial functioning) and children's emotional and behavioral outcomes, especially self-regulation and temperamental characteristics, has been extensively discussed elsewhere (for comprehensive reviews, see Crnic & Ross, 2017;Jones & Prinz, 2005;Kiff et al., 2011;Samdan et al., 2020;Schuengel & Oosterman, 2019;Yan et al., 2021; for theoretical perspectives, see Ardelt & Eccles, 2001;Bandura, 1986Bandura, , 1997Bell, 1979;Belsky, 1984;Bugental, 2009;Calkins et al., 2016;Lerner, 2006;Papoušek & von Hofacker, 1995;Patterson, 1982;Sameroff, 2010;Wachs & Kohnstamm, 2001). Furthermore, studies with evidence supporting the association for various pairs of these components as reciprocal, bidirectional, or transactional over time also have been accumulating, such as (a) parenting efficacy and parenting practices or behaviors (e.g., Fung et al., 2021;Glatz & Buchanan, 2015b;Glatz & Koning, 2016;Kanacri et al., 2021;Slagt et al., 2012); (b) emotion-related parenting practices or behaviors and child emotional and behavioral development (e.g., self-regulation and temperament, Baron & Malmberg, 2019;Feng et al., 2017;Hajal et al., 2015;Perry et al., 2014Perry et al., , 2018; (c) parenting stress and child development problems (e.g., Cherry et al., 2019;Deater-Deckard, 2004;Neece et al., 2012); (d) parenting self-efficacy and parental psychosocial functioning (e.g., affective symptoms, Kunseler et al., 2014;van Eldik et al., 2017); (e) parental psychosocial functioning and child development problems (e.g., Bagner et al., 2013;Baker et al., 2020;Gross et al., 2009); (f) parenting self-efficacy and parental physiological reactivity to child-related stressors (e.g., Buchanan et al., 2022); (g) parenting stress and parenting self-efficacy (see Crnic & Ross, 2017) that: as well as (h) parental responsiveness to child challenging behaviors and parental self-regulation processes while parenting (Zhang et al., 2022). ...
Article
For new mothers, coping with infant distress is challenging. Mothers’ self-efficacy in emotion-related parenting plays critical roles in shaping their adaptation and children’s development. Research on antecedents of maternal parenting self-efficacy has been predominantly based on the global self-efficacy theory outlined by Bandura in the 1970s. Despite the utility of Bandura’s theory, subsequent research on emotion-related parenting has highlighted avenues for extending and adapting his model to more adequately elucidate the cognitive, affective, and behavioral processes underlying the development of maternal emotion-related parenting self-efficacy. In view of the basic and applied value of a clearer account of how new mothers’ emotion-related parenting self-efficacy emerges and evolves, the increasing amount of research on this topic, and the absence of syntheses of extant studies, we reviewed relevant literature. First, constructs and propositions in prevailing theoretical perspectives are examined for their utility to elucidate the development of new mothers’ emotion-related parenting self-efficacy, particularly the implicated cognitive, affective, and behavioral mechanisms and how they work together. Second, a framework is outlined that integrates strengths of various theories to delineate processes underlying the emergence and evolution of new mothers’ emotion-related parenting self-efficacy. Third, findings across disparate studies are summarized to provide a foundation for the offered framework. To better inform future research, we demonstrated how to build testable mid-range models with substantive constructs and hypotheses from the proposed framework through deductive theorizing process. We also evaluated the utility of the proposed model for studying new fathers. Last, implications for future research and practice are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
... Early-onset behaviour problems are also associated with lifetime trajectories of antisocial behaviour, substance abuse, and mood disorders, suggesting that early intervention for such problems is critical to preventing a life course of poor mental health [2]. Research suggests that the development of child behaviour problems is perhaps most significantly influenced by parenting whereby dysfunctional, coercive, and inconsistent parenting behaviours represent risk factors for adverse developmental outcomes [3]. Conversely, research shows that family-based interventions reliably reduce behaviour problems associated with negative parenting [4,5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current systematic review examined the similarities and differences between mothers’ and fathers’ reported barriers and facilitators to engaging in family-based interventions for child and adolescent behavioural problems (aged 2–17 years). Systematic searches of six electronic databases and grey literature alongside a two-way screening process identified twenty eligible qualitative studies from 2004 to 2019. A thematic meta-synthesis identified similarities in major themes of psychological, situational, knowledge/awareness, programme/intervention, co-parenting, practitioner, and beliefs/attitudes factors, alongside group experiences and stages of engagement. However, differences emerged in subthemes related to parental, treatment, and service delivery factors that included individual ideologies of parenting, parental roles, and treatment participation; the role of mothers in facilitating engagement; and individual preferences for treatment content and delivery. Overall, findings suggest that while mothers and fathers experience similar challenges to engagement, they can also experience distinct challenges which need to be addressed at the treatment outset to maximise engagement.
... The Holding Hands Young Parents intervention [HHYP ; 29] was developed to support young parents who have experienced complex trauma and their toddlers. HHYP aims to improve the quality of the parent-child relationship, increase young parents' self-regulation and self-efficacy, and support them in responding more effectively to child behavioural and emotional problems and is founded on principles of attachment theory [26,30,31], the biobehavioural synchrony model [32,33], social learning theory [34,35] and coercion theory [36]. Thus, it shares commonalities with multiple evidence-based parenting programs [e.g., [37][38][39][40]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study provides a preliminary evaluation of a dyadic intervention for young parents with a history of complex trauma, Holding Hands Young Parents (HHYP). Four mothers (17–22 years) and toddlers (12–33 months) completed the intervention, designed to improve parent–child relationships, parental self-regulation, self-efficacy and mental health, and child behaviour/emotional problems. An A–B single case experimental design series with follow-up and randomised baseline, used observational and self-report measures throughout. Linear mixed models demonstrated improvement in reciprocity and parental sensitivity over the treatment phase, with no evidence of shifts in scores at beginning or end of treatment. There was no evidence for changes in child engagement, negative states, intrusiveness or withdrawal. Reliable Change Index indicated improvement in parent-reported self-regulation, self-efficacy, stress and child emotional/behavioural problems from baseline to follow-up for all four mothers; depression showed reliable change for three. This study demonstrates relational change between young parents and their toddlers and provides preliminary data on the HHYP protocol.
... Previous studies on inconsistent parenting suggest that parental inconsistency is detrimental for the child and leads to socioemotional and behavioral issues, e.g., [24,26]. Given that parents who are inconsistent in their parenting are likely to also be inconsistent in their mediation of media use [25], mothers' reliance on inconsistent smartphone mediation strategies may lead to a reinforcement trap, whereby the short-term benefits (e.g., peace and conflict avoidance) of a parent's yielding to a child's request to use smartphones are gained at the cost of strengthening the child's problematic behavior [24,40]. As a result, the child is less likely to internalize the rules and understand the consequences of their actions [26], which may increase unwanted outcomes such as problematic smartphone use [27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies suggest that inconsistent parenting leads to undesired consequences, such as a child’s defiant reactance or parent–child conflicts. In light of this, we examined whether mothers’ inconsistent smartphone mediation strategies would influence their children’s problematic smartphone use during early childhood. Furthermore, given that harsh parenting often escalates a child’s behavioral problems, we focused on parent–child conflict resolution tactics as moderators. One hundred fifty-four mothers (ages 25–48 years; M = 35.58 years) of preschoolers (ages 42–77 months) reported their media mediation and parent–child conflict resolution tactics and their child’s problematic smartphone use. We found that the positive association between the mother’s inconsistent mediation and their child’s problematic smartphone use was more pronounced when mothers relied on negative parent–child resolution tactics—i.e., psychological aggression and physical assault. Our findings provide vital theoretical and empirical insights into mother–child relational characteristics for the child’s problematic smartphone use.
... Antisocial behavior in adolescents has been defined as behavior that is directed against other people, their property or breaks social rules (Pears, Kim, & Fisher, 2016), and usually includes a cluster of related behaviors, including stealing, violence, temper tantrums, aggression, disobedience, substance abuse, etc. (Patterson, 1982). Global youth antisocial behavior prevalence is 30.5% (Biswas et al., 2020), and the economic and health burdens of youth and adolescence antisocial behavior are well documented. ...
Article
Full-text available
Within an integrated conceptual framework made up of social cognitive theory, theory of fundamental causes, and the risk and protective factor approach, we assess reported antisocial behavior and favorable attitudes toward antisocial behavior among youths and parents in a high-school sample after the implementation of a Youth and Family Master Plan in Pomona, California, USA from 2005 to 2009. We perform z tests for same students (8th grade 2005 and 12th grade 2009), same grade (8th,10th, and 12th grade), inter-grade, same year, and overall, 2005 to 2009 comparisons for Pomona, Los Angeles, and US national samples. It was hypothesized that after five years of implementation, Pomona Youth and Family Master Plan (PYFMP) activities will reduce antisocial behavior and favorable parental and youth attitudes toward antisocial behavior. Within a p-value of 05, z-test results show a decline in youth antisocial behavior among youths in the Pomona sample. Patterns in youth antisocial behavior were not consistent with youth favorable attitudes toward antisocial behavior but were consistent with perceived parental favorable attitudes toward antisocial behavior. Though youth favorable attitudes toward antisocial behavior were generally rising within the Pomona data, when compared to the rates of change in Los Angeles and US, Pomona rates of change were lower. Intra and inter jurisdictional patterns above could be attributed to the community multicomponent interventions of the PYFMP. They also align with assumptions and explanations offered in the integrated conceptual framework, which suggest a mediating role for environmental factors.
... These measures (both self-reports and observational measures) reflected the gestalt features of the frequency and intensity of conflict but failed to capture the dynamic fluctuations in interpersonal conflict over the course of a conflict event. In fact, from the Social Interaction Learning (SIL) perspective (Patterson, 1982), children's behaviors may elicit certain responses from parents and such behaviors are further reinforced by parents' responses. Over time, if the negative interaction patterns (e.g., coercive interactions) become entrenched, they may translate to children's maladjustment, including aggressive or antisocial behaviors and depression (Dishion, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the relation between parent–adolescent conflict and adolescents’ depressive symptoms from a dynamic systems framework. Two aspects of conflict were examined: the intensity of conflict and the predictability of dyadic conflict (i.e., the extent to which parents and adolescents follow a predictable pattern in their conflict behaviors) during parent–adolescent interactions. Using a clinical sample of 26 adolescents with depression diagnoses and their parents, we conducted a state space grid analysis to capture the predictability of changes in observer-coded dyadic conflict during a conflict negotiation task. The intensity of conflict was measured using the total observed conflict score and adolescents’ and parents’ self-reports on their conflict behaviors post-discussion. A regression analysis was conducted to examine the moderation effect of the predictability of dyadic conflict on the relationship between the intensity of conflict and adolescents’ depressive symptoms. Results showed that the moderation effect was significant, such that adolescents’ and parents’ conflict behaviors were positively associated with depressive symptoms when parent–adolescent conflict dynamics were more organized and predictable. Findings suggest the importance of understanding the dynamic and dyadic patterns of parent–adolescent interaction when examining the relationship between family processes and adolescent depression.
... Inter-coder reliability for the global ratings were measured by intra-class correlations (ICC). This measure provides a score of the relative variance within and between subjects (Yoder & Symons, 2010 Based on prior studies (Cabrera et al., 2007;NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 2000) and social interaction learning theory (Patterson, 1982), exploratory factor analyses and subsequent confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for the global parent items to investigate the basis for constructing one measure of supportive parenting (Nordahl, 2014;Nordahl et al., 2016). The global ratings showed good fit for a four-item supportive parenting measure at ages 12, 24, and 36 months composed of sensitivity/responsiveness, reverse-scored detachment/disengagement, positive regard for the child, and stimulation of development across the free-play/clean-up and teaching tasks. ...
Article
The present study assessed longitudinal relations between paternal supportive parenting in infancy (12 months) and toddlerhood (36 months) and children's observed self‐regulation skills at preschool age (48 months) in a large sample of Norwegian families (N = 771; 48% girls, 52% boys, 28% experienced some socioeconomic risk). After accounting for child sex, socioeconomic risk (6 and 12 months), and observed maternal supportive parenting (24 moths), structural equation modeling revealed that observed paternal supportive parenting with children at 36, but not 12, months was independently associated with a latent factor representing children's observed self‐regulation skills at 48 months. Further, a significant indirect pathway emerged such that paternal supportive parenting at 12 months was associated with children's self‐regulation skills at 48 months, via paternal supportive parenting at 36 months. Results are discussed with implications for supporting paternal caregiving during infancy to promote children's emerging self‐regulation skills.
... For instance, Seay et al. (1984) describes examples of individuals engaging in countercontrol in response to thinning of reinforcement schedules, as well as when aspects of a behavior modification intervention are perceived to be overly intrusive. In addition, Patterson's (1982) conceptualization of coercive cycles and child noncompliance within familial units provides another example of the detrimental effect of countercontrol responses within social relationships (Reid & Patterson, 1989). However, contemporary societal examples of countercontrol necessarily involve complex verbal behavior and relational networks (i.e., language and cognition), underscoring the importance of constructing an updated analysis of countercontrol from the perspective of a behavioral account of human language, cognition, and other complex psychological processes (i.e., RFT). ...
Article
Full-text available
Countercontrol is a Skinnerian operant concept that posits that an individual's attempts to exert control over another person's behavior may evoke a countercontrolling response from the person being controlled that functions to avoid or escape the potentially aversive conditions generated by the controller. Despite Skinner's historical concerns regarding the detrimental effects of countercontrol in terms of hindering optimal societal growth and cultural evolution, the concept has not been widely applied within behavior analysis. Drawing from recent developments in rule-governed behavior and relational frame theory, this article seeks to explicate counter-control from a contemporary behavior analytic perspective and presents several modern-day societal applications. In particular, a relational frame theory account of rule-governed behavior is used as a framework to elucidate the behavioral processes by which rule-following occurs (or fails to occur) in the context of countercontrol. Implications of a renewed focus on countercontrol for understanding pressing societal issues are also discussed.
Article
Although temper tantrums are considered a normal part of emotional development in toddlerhood, for some they foreshadow more serious behavioral and emotional problems. Parental discipline techniques may play a role in explaining why this behavior worsens for some children whereas for others it fades away. With this three-wave longitudinal study, we examined bidirectional associations between specific discipline techniques - ignoring, power assertion, and consistency - and intra-individual changes in the severity of tantrum behavior. We observed tantrum behavior in a standardized clean-up task, overcoming the limitation of most earlier work that relied on parent-report for associated changes in parenting and child behavior over time. For 94 children (53 boys; Mage = 30 months, range 20-43 months), mothers filled out the Parenting Dimensions Inventory, and temper tantrum severity (i.e., duration and aggressiveness) was coded three times across one year. Random Intercept Cross-Lagged Panel Models suggested parent-effects rather than child-effects: more maternal power assertion and less consistency predicted increases in tantrum severity over time (ignoring did not), but temper tantrum severity did not predict changes in parenting over time. Results indicate that reducing power assertion and increasing consistency may be especially helpful in reducing temper tantrums in children. Findings add to previous findings indicating that mothers' parenting may be driven less by objective child behavior than by her own perceptions of her child's behavior.
Article
This chapter provides an overview of parents’ discipline and punishment in relation to child development. Main types of discipline (e.g., inductive reasoning, love withdrawal, power assertion) are described, and child- (e.g., behavior problems), parent- (e.g., stress), and community- (e.g., norms) level predictors of discipline are considered. The chapter then describes moderators (child gender, child age, temperament, overall climate of the parent-child relationship, and culture) and mediators (children’s perceptions of parental love and affection, social information processing, development of empathy and conscience, neurocognition) of associations between discipline and child outcomes. Next, implications of research on discipline for practice and policy are discussed in terms of the international agenda set by the Sustainable Development Goals, national bans on corporal punishment, and parenting interventions focused on discipline. The chapter concludes by examining limitations of the current research and suggesting directions for future research.
Article
Parenting is a critical influence on the development of children across the globe. This handbook brings together scholars with expertise on parenting science and interventions for a comprehensive review of current research. It begins with foundational theories and research topics, followed by sections on parenting children at different ages, factors that affect parenting such as parental mental health or socioeconomic status, and parenting children with different characteristics such as depressed and anxious children or youth who identify as LGBTQ. It concludes with a section on policy implications, as well as prevention and intervention programs that target parenting as a mechanism of change. Global perspectives and the cultural diversity of families are highlighted throughout. Offering in-depth analysis of key topics such as risky adolescent behavior, immigration policy, father engagement, family involvement in education, and balancing childcare and work, this is a vital resource for understanding the most effective policies to support parents in raising healthy children.
Chapter
The topic of parenting and aggression can be approached from two main perspectives. The first involves understanding parents’ aggression toward children. The second involves understanding how parenting is related to children’s own aggression. Parents’ aggression toward children can take physical (corporal punishment, physical abuse) or nonphysical forms (derogatory verbal comments, psychological control). Aggression toward children is associated with negative child outcomes and is a violation of children’s right to protection. Children’s own aggression is predicted by harsh, coercive forms of parenting and by a lack of warmth, acceptance, and positive responsiveness. Cultural contexts shape parents’ and children’s aggression, in large part by providing a context in which aggression is condoned or condemned.KeywordsAbuseAggressionChild adjustmentCultureDisciplineParenting
Article
For decades, researchers, interventionists, and the lay public have subscribed to the notion that couples low in relationship satisfaction and/or experiencing psychological, physical, or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) have communication skills deficits. In contrast, experimental studies of communication have concluded that differences were more likely due to partners' "ill will than poor skill." We revisited this debate by recruiting a fairly generalizable sample of couples (N = 291) via random-digit dialing and asking them to discuss two top conflict areas ("at your best" and "as you typically do"), thus measuring will-conscious inhibition of hostility and negative reciprocity and production of positivity (i.e., the "conflict triad"). The conflict triad was observed with the Rapid Marital Interaction Coding System, Second Generation. We found partial support for the hypotheses grounded in Finkel's I3 meta-model. Frequency of hostility was associated with a complicated satisfaction × IPV-extent × conversation type × gender interaction, indicating that couples' communication skills are multi-determined. Unhappier couples showed almost no change in positivity when at their best, whereas happier couples nearly doubled their positivity despite their considerably higher typical positivity mean. Negative reciprocity was associated with satisfaction and IPV-extent but not conversation type, implying that immediate instigation combined with risk factors overwhelms conscious inhibition. Intervention implications are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to family conflict during childhood increases risk for the development of anxiety and mood problems, though the potential for bidirectionality in this association remains unknown. It is also unclear whether nonviolent family conflict is related to children’s anxious- and withdrawn-depressive symptoms within high-risk family contexts, independent of more severe events such as children’s exposure to violent victimization. Participants included 1,281 children and their caregivers identified as being at high risk for family violence, interviewed prospectively at ages 6, 8, and 10 about family conflict, children’s anxious- and withdrawn-depressive behaviors, and children’s victimization experiences. After controlling for cumulative victimization prior to and between each time point, significant cross-lagged, bidirectional associations were identified between family conflict and children’s anxious- and withdrawn-depressive symptoms across ages 6 and 8, but not across ages 8 and 10. Invariance testing revealed no differences in model fit between boys and girls and minimal differences depending on whether families were reported for maltreatment prior to recruitment. Findings are partially supportive of a conceptualization of the family-child relationship that is reciprocal, while highlighting the role of daily negative familial interactions, over and above experiences of victimization, in predicting anxious- and withdrawn-depressed symptoms in early and middle childhood.
Article
Full-text available
Despite intensive treatment, adolescents discharged from residential treatment (RT) often do not maintain treatment gains in the community. Providing support and education to caregivers through parent training may ameliorate the loss of treatment gains. Successful parent training programs have been delivered to this population; however, these interventions were delivered in-person, posing significant barriers affecting reach, access, and engagement. A convergent mixed methods design was used to assess the acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility of a web-based parent training in a sample of parents (N = 20) with adolescents admitted to RT. Parents completed two interviews and an end-of-program survey. Parents completed at least 80% of the assigned modules and felt that PW was easy to use and that the features facilitated learning. Parents reported practicing the skills in their daily lives and found it beneficial to have a partner to practice with. Consistent with previous studies, parents perceived the delivery method as a strength because the web-based delivery circumvented multiple known barriers to in-person interventions. A large subset of parents related to the scenarios, while a small subset of parents felt the modules were challenging to relate to because of the severity of their adolescent’s mental health challenges. Overall, findings indicate that web-based parent training programs may be an acceptable, appropriate, and feasible adjuvant evidence-based support. However, tailoring the intervention content is necessary to create a more relatable intervention that captures the breadth and severity of mental health challenges adolescents in RT face.
Preprint
Full-text available
Maternal affect contributes to children’s psychosocial adjustment. How maternal daily affect intensity and dynamics (i.e., inertia and variability) are associated with adolescents’ concurrent and later psychopathological symptoms, however, remains unclear. This preregistered study examined (1) associations of maternal day-to-day positive and negative affect intensity, inertia, and variability with adolescent and young adult psychopathological symptoms, and (2) moderating effects of mother-adolescent affect congruency on these associations. Mother-adolescent dyads (N=488) reported positive and negative affect in 75 daily assessments across ages 13-17 years. Adolescents rated their psychopathological symptoms at ages 14-18, 20, and 27 years. Maternal daily affect intensity and inertia, but not variability, were associated with adolescent psychopathological symptoms. Higher mother-adolescent affect congruency was associated with fewer psychopathological symptoms and reflected resilience against adverse effects of maternal affect inertia. While both maternal affect intensity and dynamics play a role in adolescents’ psychopathology, promoting mother-adolescent affect congruency might benefit adolescents’ adjustment.
Chapter
As Engel saw, we will never make sense of psychosocial factors and their influence on health and disease while there is an underlying assumption that only physical causes are real. We believe the place to unpick this assumption is in biology and biomedicine itself, especially in the relation between biological processes and physics and chemistry. Ernst Schrödinger’s insight that biological processes run locally counter to the general direction of the second law of thermodynamics is now mainstream biophysics, as is his proposal that this is originally achieved by genes exercising information-based regulatory control of energetic processes. Information-based regulatory control mechanisms are a new and distinctive form of causation compared with conformity to the energy equations of physics and chemistry, most clearly evident in the fact that they can break down. This serves to argue against physicalism and is consistent with recent innovations in the philosophy of causation. The new concepts and principles of regulatory control apply in biology, but they also run through the psychological and social domains. This enables a more unified science, and one that has foundational differences between life and death, health and illness.KeywordsBiological causationBiopsychosocial causationPhysicalismReductionism
Article
Full-text available
Background: Specific programs are often implemented for specific child mental health problems, while many children suffer from comorbid problems. Ideally, programs reduce a wider range of mental health problems. The present study tested whether parenting programs for children's conduct problems, and which individual and clusters of program elements, have additional effects on children's emotional problems. Methods: We updated the search of a previous systematic review in 11 databases (e.g., PsycINFO and MEDLINE) and included studies published until July 2020 with keywords relating to 'parenting', 'program', and 'child behavioral problems'. Also, we searched for recent trials in four trial registries and contacted protocol authors. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they used a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of a parenting program for children aged 2-10 years which was based on social learning theory and included a measure of children's emotional problems postintervention. Results: We identified 69 eligible trials (159 effect sizes; 6,240 families). Robust variance estimation showed that parenting programs had small significant parent-reported additional effects on emotional problems immediately postintervention (Cohen's d = -0.14; 95% CI, -0.21, -0.07), but these effects faded over time. Teachers and children did not report significant effects. Additional effects on emotional problems were larger in samples with clinical baseline levels of such problems. No individual program elements predicted larger additional effects. Of the clusters of elements, combining behavior management and relationship enhancement elements was most likely to yield the strongest additional effects. Conclusions: The additional effects on emotional problems of parenting programs designed to reduce conduct problems are limited, but some clusters of elements predict larger effects. Our findings may contribute to realistic expectations of the benefits of parenting programs for children's conduct problems and inform the development of programs with wider benefits across mental health problems.
Thesis
p>Children’s AD/HD often elicits a negative parental response but little is known about the impact of parental AD/HD on parenting. In this thesis, I examined the impact of child and parent AD/HD and their interaction on parenting. In Study 1, these effects were examined using questionnaire-based measures of parenting provided by 95 mothers of school children. In Study 2, these self reports were replaced by direct observations of mother-child interactions and Expressed Emotion (EE) in 192 mothers of preschoolers. In Study 3, they were extended further by adding measures of empathy and by examining both mothers’ (N= 277) and fathers’ (N-86) parenting. The results demonstrated that child AD/HD symptoms were associated with negative parenting and hostile EE. Maternal AD/HD symptoms were positively associated with hostile EE, and negatively with empathy and positive parenting. Interestingly, mothers with high AD/HD symptoms had more positive and less negative parenting and personal distress for the children with high AD/HD symptoms. In contrast, fathers with high AD/HD symptoms had more negative parenting for the children with high AD/HD symptoms. These findings raised the question of whether the effects of child-parental similarity in AD/HD generalise to emotional/depressive characteristics. An analysis revealed that child-mother similarity in emotional/depressive characteristics decreased Negative Expressed Emotion (NEE). Indeed, mothers with high depressive characteristics displayed the same levels of NEE regardless of the severity of child emotional symptoms. The results of the thesis highlight the importance of taking account of maternal (and paternal) AD/HD when assessing the parenting of children with AD/HD. The findings may be especially significant in planning new clinical services and treatments for AD/HD.</p
Chapter
This chapter describes a number of strengths‐focused, evidence‐based primary and secondary delinquency prevention programs including Multisystemic Therapy, Functional Family Therapy, Treatment Foster Care Oregon, Cognitive behavior therapy, and Communities that Care. These programs strengthen adolescents' prosocial behavior by targeting risk and protective factors associated with delinquency within individual adolescents, their families, schools and educational placements, peer groups, and communities. These effective programs are contrasted with ineffective deficit‐based programs for that aim to prevent recidivism by threatening, shocking or punishing young people. The main practice recommendation is that effective strengths‐focused, evidence‐based programmes be implemented to prevent delinquency. Family disorganization, parental mental health problems and criminality, family violence, and significant parenting skills deficits (including child maltreatment) are among the more important family factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of delinquent behavior.
Article
Maladaptive family environments harm child development and are passed across generations. Childhood interventions may break this intergenerational cycle by improving the family environments children form as adults. The present study investigates this hypothesis by examining follow‐up data collected 18 years after the end of the childhood Fast Track intervention designed to prevent externalizing problems. We examined whether Fast Track assignment from grades 1 to 10 prevented the emergence of maladaptive family environments at age 34. A total of 400 (n = 206 in intervention condition, n = 194 controls) Fast Track participants who were parents at age 34 were surveyed about 11 aspects of their current family environment. The hypotheses and analytic plan were preregistered at https://osf.io/dz9t5 and the Fast Track trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01653535). Multiple group linear regression models revealed that mothers who participated in the Fast Track intervention as children had lower depression symptoms, alcohol problems, drug problems, corporal punishment use, and food insecurity compared to control group mothers. All effects were modest in magnitude. However, for these same mothers, the Fast Track intervention had no effect on cannabis problems, experiences of romantic partner violence, or maternal use of physical aggression or warmth with their children. Additionally, mothers in the Fast Track intervention group reported higher levels of family chaos than those in the control group, but this effect may be a byproduct of the higher number of children per household in the intervention group. No intervention effects were found for fathers who participated in the Fast Track intervention as children. Childhood assignment to Fast Track has some beneficial effects for girls, but not boys, on the family environments these individuals formed as adults 18 years later.
Thesis
Full-text available
ADVERTIMENT. Lʼaccés als continguts dʼaquesta tesi doctoral i la seva utilització ha de respectar els drets de la persona autora. Pot ser utilitzada per a consulta o estudi personal, així com en activitats o materials dʼinvestigació i docència en els termes establerts a lʼart. 32 del Text Refós de la Llei de Propietat Intel·lectual (RDL 1/1996). Per altres utilitzacions es requereix lʼautorització prèvia i expressa de la persona autora. En qualsevol cas, en la utilització dels seus continguts caldrà indicar de forma clara el nom i cognoms de la persona autora i el títol de la tesi doctoral. No sʼautoritza la seva reproducció o altres formes dʼexplotació efectuades amb finalitats de lucre ni la seva comunicació pública des dʼun lloc aliè al servei TDX. Tampoc sʼautoritza la presentació del seu contingut en una finestra o marc aliè a TDX (framing). Aquesta reserva de drets afecta tant als continguts de la tesi com als seus resums i índexs. ADVERTENCIA. El acceso a los contenidos de esta tesis doctoral y su utilización debe respetar los derechos de la persona autora. Puede ser utilizada para consulta o estudio personal, así como en actividades o materiales de investigación y docencia en los términos establecidos en el art. 32 del Texto Refundido de la Ley de Propiedad Intelectual (RDL 1/1996). Para otros usos se requiere la autorización previa y expresa de la persona autora. En cualquier caso, en la utilización de sus contenidos se deberá indicar de forma clara el nombre y apellidos de la persona autora y el título de la tesis doctoral. No se autoriza su reproducción u otras formas de explotación efectuadas con fines lucrativos ni su comunicación pública desde un sitio ajeno al servicio TDR. Tampoco se autoriza la presentación de su contenido en una ventana o marco ajeno a TDR (framing). Esta reserva de derechos afecta tanto al contenido de la tesis como a sus resúmenes e índices.
Chapter
Decades of empirical evidence have clearly shown that the origins of many mental health problems lie in childhood: according to the developmental psychopathology framework, psychopathology is the result of a complex and dynamic interplay of multiple factors acting in a developing organism. In this process, parenting plays a crucial role. Based on these premises, the present chapter reviews the construct of parenting, with a particular attention to the affective and regulatory functions, both shown to be of fundamental importance to promote positive developmental outcomes. Conversely, dysfunctional parenting styles might act as risk factors or precursors of later psychopathology. Given the importance of primary prevention, the chapter reviews the main programmes to promote positive parenting, which according to the current state of art of the literature, meet the standards of evidence-based interventions. Specifically, attention is devoted to video-feedback and parent training programmes together with a brief review of the evidence supporting their efficacy. The chapter ends with a few recommendations for this area of translational science.
Article
Current evidence-based prevention programming targeting child externalizing problems demonstrates modest overall effect sizes and is largely ineffective for a sizable proportion of youth who participate. However, our understanding of the youth and family characteristics associated with response to specific programming is quite limited. The current study used child and family risk profiles as predictors of response trajectories to the Early Risers conduct problem preventive intervention. A sample of 240 kindergarten-aged youth displaying elevated school-based aggression were randomized by school to either the Early Risers intervention or a control condition. Using a number of child and family risk variables, a latent profile analysis produced a solution consisting of five unique risk profiles. Three low and mixed risk profiles were associated with a limited response to the intervention. One high-risk profile characterized by maladaptive parenting and elevated child externalizing demonstrated notably improved trajectories of externalizing behavior over a 3-year period relative to the control condition. Another high-risk profile characterized by inconsistent discipline, high parental distress, and elevated child internalizing and externalizing symptoms seemed to have positive developmental trends disrupted by the intervention relative to the control condition, potentially consistent with an iatrogenic effect relative to the control condition. The study results support continued efforts to use broader risk profiles to examine heterogeneity in response to preventive interventions and, with replication, will have implications for intervention tailoring.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.