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Colorectal Carcinomas, a Consideration on MUTYH-Associated Polyposis

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Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most prevalent cancer worldwide, and in 35% of cases it is an inherited form. The most common inherited forms of CRC include; Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), attenuated FAP, and MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). Although they are inherited, they have different phenotypic effects with regards to the number of polyposis, age of onset and the pattern of inheritance. Some of these CRCs are associated with other extracolonic manifestation symptoms. MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) was first described in 2002. MUTYH is a component of a base excision repair system that protects the genomic information from oxidative damage. When the MUTYH gene product is impaired by bi-allelic germline mutation, it leads to the mutation of cancer-related genes, such as the APC and/or the KRAS genes, via G to T transversion. MAP is a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome inherited in an autosomal-recessive fashion. The proposed mechanism of individual CRC is distinguished in this review paper. © 2014, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences; Published by DOCS.

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Biallelic inactivating germline mutations in the base excision repair MUTYH (MYH) gene have been shown to predispose to MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), which is characterized by multiple colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. In this study, we successfully prepared highly homogeneous human MUTYH type 2 recombinant proteins and compared the DNA glycosylase activity of the wild-type protein and fourteen variant-type proteins on adenine mispaired with 8-hydroxyguanine, an oxidized form of guanine. The adenine DNA glycosylase activity of the p.I195V protein, p.G368D protein, p.M255V protein, and p.Y151C protein was 66.9%, 15.2%, 10.7%, and 4.5%, respectively, of that of the wild-type protein, and the glycosylase activity of the p.R154H, p.L360P, p.P377L, p.452delE, p.R69X, and p.Q310X proteins as well as of the p.D208N negative control form was extremely severely impaired. The glycosylase activity of the p.V47E, p.R281C, p.A345V, and p.S487F proteins, on the other hand, was almost the same as that of the wild-type protein. These results should be of great value in accurately diagnosing MAP and in fully understanding the mechanism by which MUTYH repairs DNA in which adenine is mispaired with 8-hydroxyguanine.
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MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) is a disorder caused by bi-allelic germline MUTYH mutation, characterized by multiple colorectal adenomas. In order to identify mutations in MUTYH gene we applied High Resolution Melting (HRM) genotyping. HRM analysis is extensively employed as a scanning method for the detection of heterozygous mutations. Therefore, we applied HRM to show effectiveness in detecting homozygous mutations for these clinically important and frequent patients. In this study, we analyzed phenotype and genotype data from 82 patients, with multiple (> or = 10) synchronous (19/82) or metachronous (63/82) adenomas and negative APC study (except one case). Analysis was performed by HRM-PCR and direct sequencing, in order to identify mutations in MUTYH exons 7, 12 and 13, where the most prevalent mutations are located. In monoallelic mutation carriers, we evaluated entire MUTYH gene in search of another possible alteration. HRM-PCR was performed with strict conditions in several rounds: the first one to discriminate the heteroduplex patterns and homoduplex patterns and the next ones, in order to refine and confirm parameters. The genotypes obtained were correlated to phenotypic features (number of adenomas (synchronous or metachronous), colorectal cancer (CRC) and family history). MUTYH germline mutations were found in 15.8% (13/82) of patients. The hot spots, Y179C (exon 7) and G396D (exon 13), were readily identified and other mutations were also detected. Each mutation had a reproducible melting profile by HRM, both heterozygous mutations and homozygous mutations. In our study of 82 patients, biallelic mutation is associated with being a carrier of >/=10 synchronous polyps (p = 0.05) and there is no association between biallelic mutation and CRC (p = 0.39) nor family history (p = 0.63). G338H non-pathogenic polymorphism (exon 12) was found in 23.1% (19/82) of patients. In all cases there was concordance between HRM (first and subsequent rounds) and sequencing data. Here, we describe a screening method, HRM, for the detection of both heterozygous and homozygous mutations in the gene encoding MUTYH in selected samples of patients with phenotype of MAP. We refine the capabilities of HRM-PCR and apply it to a gene not yet analyzed by this tool. As clinical decisions will increasingly rely on molecular medicine, the power of identifying germline mutations must be continuously evaluated and improved.
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Because the discovery of a link between mismatch repair deficiency and sporadic or inherited human cancers characterized by microsatellite instability (MSI-H tumors), genes containing coding repeat sequences have been found to be mutated at these repeats in MSI-H tumors from different primary sites as reported in the present review. Accumulation of such alterations appears to be the main molecular mechanism by which MSI-H cells accumulate functional changes with putative oncogenic effects. These mutations occur in many genes at variable frequencies. They can affect genes with a putative role in human carcinogenesis involved in different or similar pathways and are thus thought to be inactivating or activating events selected for in these cancers in a recessive or dominant manner. However, because of the high level of instability characterizing these cancers, they are also likely to occur in genes without any expected role in MSI-H carcinogenesis. In light of these recent data, the concept of target genes for instability and their possible role in MSI-H cancers is reconsidered here.
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Germinal mutations in the base excision repair (BER) gene MUTYH (MYH) have recently been described in association with predisposition to multiple colorectal adenomas and cancer. In contrast to the classic dominant condition of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) due to germinal mutations in the APC gene, the MYH polyposis is an autosomal recessive disease. The identification of individuals affected by MYH polyposis brings new and important implications for the diagnostic, screening, genetic counseling, follow up and therapeutic options in these patients. In this study, screening for germinal mutations in the MYH gene was performed in 53 Portuguese individuals with multiple colorectal adenomas or classic adenomatous polyposis, in whom no mutation had been identified in the APC gene. The results revealed the presence of biallelic germline MYH mutations in 21 patients. In addition, we here report 3 mutations (c.340T>C [p.Y114H]; c.503G>A [p.R168H]; and c.1186_1187insGG [p.E396fsX437]) which, to our knowledge, have not been previously described.
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MAP (MutYH-associated polyposis) is a recently described colorectal adenoma and carcinoma predisposition syndrome that is associated with biallelic-inherited mutations of the human MutY homologue gene, MutYH. MutYH is often also termed MYH. MAP tumours display a mutational signature of somatic guanine-to-thymine transversion mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli and K-ras genes, reflecting the normal role of MutYH in the base excision repair of adenines misincorporated opposite 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine, a prevalent and stable product of oxidative damage to DNA. However, the full genetic pathway of MAP tumorigenesis has not been elucidated.
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To investigate the contribution of MYH associated polyposis coli (MAP) among polyposis families in the Netherlands, and the prevalence of colonic and extracolonic manifestations in MAP patients. 170 patients with polyposis coli, who previously tested negative for APC mutations, were screened by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and direct sequencing to identify MYH germline mutations. Homozygous and compound heterozygous MYH mutations were identified in 40 patients (24%). No difference was found in the percentage of biallelic mutation carriers between patients with 10-99 polyps or 100-1000 polyps (29% in both groups). Colorectal cancer was found in 26 of the 40 patients with MAP (65%) within the age range 21 to 67 years (median 45). Complete endoscopic reports were available for 16 MAP patients and revealed five cases with gastro-duodenal polyps (31%), one of whom also presented with a duodenal carcinoma. Breast cancer occurred in 18% of female MAP patients, significantly more than expected from national statistics (standardised morbidity ratio = 3.75). Polyp numbers in MAP patients were equally associated with the attenuated and classical polyposis coli phenotypes. Two thirds of the MAP patients had colorectal cancer, 95% of whom were older than 35 years, and one third of a subset of patients had upper gastrointestinal lesions. Endoscopic screening of the whole intestine should be carried out every two years for all MAP patients, starting from age 25-30 years. The frequent occurrence of additional extraintestinal manifestations, such as breast cancer among female MAP patients, should be thoroughly investigated.
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Bi-allelic germline mutations in the MUTYH gene give rise to multiple adenomas and an increased incidence of colorectal cancer. In addition, duodenal adenomas and other extra-colonic manifestations have been described in MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) patients. We describe two patients with bi-allelic MUTYH gene mutations with duodenal carcinoma. The tumour in Patient A was detected during evaluation of non-specific abdominal complaints. Patient B was already diagnosed with tens of adenomas and a colon carcinoma, when a duodenal neoplasm was detected. The identification of somatic G>T mutations in codon 12 of the K-RAS2 gene provides evidence that the duodenal lesions were induced by MUTYH deficiency. Studies in larger series of MAP patients are needed to investigate the risk of upper-gastro-intestinal malignancies and to determine further guidelines for endoscopical surveillance.
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Germline mutations in the base excision repair gene, MutY human homolog (MYH), have recently been associated with a recessively inherited multiple adenoma polyposis syndrome and colorectal cancer. The spectrum of extracolonic lesions is still being characterized, although preliminary reports suggest that bi-allelic mutation carriers may share some of the clinical features of other hereditary colon cancer syndromes. Of 225 endometrial cancer patients, we identified one individual as a compound heterozygote, carrying mutations Y165C and G382D of MYH, and five individuals with heterozygous defects (three G382D and two Y165C). The patient with the bi-allelic Y165C/G382D mutation also had a sebaceous carcinoma, a feature of Muir-Torre syndrome. Although several intronic polymorphisms were detected in the heterozygous carriers, no other pathogenic variants were identified. While not conclusive, this novel and interesting finding provides evidence that bi-allelic germline mutations in MYH may increase susceptibility to endometrial cancer.
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The MutYH gene is an adenine-specific DNA glycosylase that prevents G/T transversions. Germline mutation in this gene causes MYH-associated polyposis (MAP) that predispose to hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC). This study describes for the first time the association of the MutYH mutation with sporadic CRC. From the 48 Tunisian sporadic CRC cases analyzed, two patients showed somatic mutation of the MutYH gene. In addition, the two hotspot germline mutations MutYH Y165C and G382D seem to be infrequent in sporadic CRC.
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Background: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a well-described inherited syndrome, which is responsible for <1% of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. The syndrome is characterised by the development of hundreds to thousands of adenomas in the colorectum. Almost all patients will develop CRC if they are not identified and treated at an early stage. The syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and caused by mutations in the APC gene. Recently, a second gene has been identified that also gives rise to colonic adenomatous polyposis, although the phenotype is less severe than typical FAP. The gene is the MUTYH gene and the inheritance is autosomal recessive. In April 2006 and February 2007, a workshop was organised in Mallorca by European experts on hereditary gastrointestinal cancer aiming to establish guidelines for the clinical management of FAP and to initiate collaborative studies. Thirty-one experts from nine European countries participated in these workshops. Prior to the meeting, various participants examined the most important management issues according to the latest publications. A systematic literature search using Pubmed and reference lists of retrieved articles, and manual searches of relevant articles, was performed. During the workshop, all recommendations were discussed in detail. Because most of the studies that form the basis for the recommendations were descriptive and/or retrospective in nature, many of them were based on expert opinion. The guidelines described herein may be helpful in the appropriate management of FAP families. In order to improve the care of these families further, prospective controlled studies should be undertaken.
Article
OBJECTIVES:In familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), genetic predisposition for duodenal adenomatosis has not been investigated precisely. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutation and duodenal adenomatosis in FAP.METHODS:APC gene mutation was determined by means of a protein truncation test in 34 patients from 25 families with FAP. The prevalence and grade of duodenal adenomatosis were compared among the proximal mutation group (exons 1–9), the distal mutation group (exons 10–15), and the undetermined groups. The correlation between the course of duodenal adenomatosis and APC gene mutation was retrospectively investigated in 19 patients.RESULTS:The prevalence of duodenal adenomatosis was lower in the proximal mutation group (44%) than in the distal mutation (100%) and undetermined (83%) groups. In patients with positive duodenal adenomatosis, the endoscopic grade did not differ among the groups. The endoscopic grade increased in two of the four patients with the proximal mutation group (50%), in three of 10 patients with the distal mutation group (30%), and in two of five patients (40%) with the undetermined group.CONCLUSIONS:Truncating APC gene mutation proximal to exon 9 may contribute to the less frequent development of duodenal adenomatosis in FAP, but severity and progression of duodenal adenomatosis do not seem to be determined by APC gene mutation alone.
Article
Although the literature describes mutY homolog gene (MYH) polyposis as an autosomal recessive syndrome, we report a case of colorectal cancer in a carrier of MYH polyposis. Biallelic mutations in the MYH gene have been shown to increase the risk of colorectal cancer over the lifetime of the mutation carrier.1,2 However, there is no clear consensus in the literature as whether a monoallelic mutation increases the risk for colorectal cancer.3 In this report, we postulate that a single mutation is sufficient to increase the risk of colorectal cancer. We also propose that the G382D MYH mutation may play a dominant rather than a recessive role in polyposis and cancer development.
Article
MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) was first described in 2002. MUTYH is a component of a base excision repair system that protects the genomic information from oxidative damage. When the MUTYH gene product is impaired by bi-allelic germline mutation, it leads to the mutation of cancer-related genes, such as the APC and/or the KRAS genes, via G to T transversion. MAP is a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome inherited in an autosomal-recessive fashion. The clinical features of MAP include the presence of 10-100 adenomatous polyps in the colon, and early onset of colorectal cancer. Ethnic and geographical differences in the pattern of the MUTYH gene mutations have been suggested. In Caucasian patients, c.536A>G (Y179C) and c.1187G>A (G396D) mutations are frequently detected. In the Asian population, Y179C and G396D are uncommon, whereas other variants are suggested to be the major causes of MAP. We herein review the literature on MUTYH-associated colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyposis.
Article
Colorectal cancer is common in the Western world; ~5% of individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer have an identifiable inherited genetic predisposition to this malignancy. Genetic testing and rational clinical management recommendations currently exist for the management of individuals with a variety of colorectal cancer syndromes, including hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, also known as Lynch syndrome), familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), MYH-associated polyposis (MAP), and the hamartomatous polyposis syndromes (Peutz-Jeghers, juvenile polyposis, and Cowden disease). In addition to colorectal neoplasia, these syndromes frequently predispose carriers to a variety of extracolonic cancers. The elucidation of the genetic basis of several colorectal cancer predisposition syndromes over the past two decades has allowed for better management of individuals who are either affected with, or at-risk for inherited colorectal cancer syndromes. Appropriate multidisciplinary management of these individuals includes genetic counseling, genetic testing, clinical screening, and treatment recommendations.
Article
The MUTYH gene encodes a DNA glycosylase involved in base excision repair (BER). Biallelic pathogenic MUTYH variants have been associated with colorectal polyposis and cancer. The pathogenicity of a few variants is beyond doubt, including c.536A4G/p.Tyr179Cys and c.1187G4A/p.Gly396Asp (previously c.494A4G/p.Tyr165Cys and c.1145G4A/p.Gly382Asp).However, for a substantial fraction of the detected variants, the clinical significance remains uncertain,compromising molecular diagnostics and thereby genetic counseling. We have established an interactive MUTYH gene sequence variant database (www.lovd.nl/MUTYH) with the aim of collecting and sharing MUTYH genotype and phenotype data worldwide. To support standard variant description, we chose NM_001128425.1 as the reference sequence. The database includes records with variants per individual, linked to available phenotype and geographic origin data as well as records with in vitro functional and in silico test data. As of April 2010, the database contains 1968 published and 423 unpublished submitted entries, and 230 and 61 unique variants,respectively. This open-access repository allows all involved to quickly share all variants encountered and communicate potential consequences, which will be especially useful to classify variants of uncertain significance.
Article
The human mutY homologue (MUTYH) gene is responsible for inheritable polyposis and colorectal cancer. This review discusses the molecular genetic aspects of the MUTYH gene and protein, the clinical impact of mono- and biallelic MUTYH mutations and histological aspects of the MUTYH tumors. Furthermore, the relationship between MUTYH and the mismatch repair genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) families is examined. Finally, the role of other base excision repair genes in polyposis and CRC patients is discussed.
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Morak M, Laner A, Bacher U, Keiling C, Holinski-Feder E. MUTYH-associated polyposis – variability of the clinical phenotype in patients with biallelic and monoallelic MUTYH mutations and report on novel mutations. To further characterize 215 APC mutation-negative patients with colorectal neoplasias classified in classical, attenuated, or atypical familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) coli we performed mutation screening in the Mut Y homologue (MUTYH) gene. The incidence was 15% for biallelic and 3.7% for monoallelic MUTYH mutations. We describe six novel MUTYH mutations in biallelic constellation and two novel monoallelic missense mutations. Of 33 MUTYH-associated polyposis coli (MAP) patients 57% were attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP) patients, 10% display early-onset classical FAP and 18% had only few adenomas at higher age. Biallelic cases had a high incidence of extracolonic polyposis in 32% and colorectal cancer (CRC) in 33% of the cases. The clinical picture of MAP ranged from classical FAP or synchronous CRC at age 30 years to few adenomas at age 54 years without evidence of CRC, initially suspected for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). The mean age of onset was 43 years, with 11 (33%) patients being younger than 40 years of age, indicating that the clinical manifestation can be earlier than so far reported. Monoallelic MUTYH mutation carriers had a positive family history in seven of eight cases allowing the hypothesis of a disease-causing synergism of MUTYH mutations with other genes.
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Lynch syndrome is the most common familial colorectal cancer syndrome. It is linked to germline mutations in one of four DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. A comprehensive family history is one important way to identify at-risk individuals. The elucidation of the molecular genetics of this syndrome has made it possible to screen for the disorder with molecular tests. Microsatellite instability and/or immunohistochemistry followed by germline testing for mutations in MMR genes is now a standard approach for clinically suspected cases. Correctly recognizing Lynch syndrome is essential for the application of appropriate screening and surveillance measures. Close surveillance and risk-reducing operations can decrease cancer-related mortality. In addition, counseling is an important component of the management of any family with Lynch syndrome.
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Between 2% to 5% of all colon cancers arise in the setting of well-defined inherited syndromes, including Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis, and certain hamartomatous polyposis conditions. Each is associated with a high risk of colon cancer. In addition to the syndromes, up to one-third of colon cancers exhibit increased familial risk, likely related to inheritance. A number of less penetrant, but possibly more frequent susceptibility genes have been identified for this level of inheritance. Clarification of predisposing genes allows for accurate risk assessment and more precise screening approaches. This review examines the colon cancer syndromes, their genetics and management, and also the common familial colon cancers with current genetic advances and screening guidelines.
Article
Biallelic germ-line mutations in MUTYH have recently been found to predispose for MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). Affected patients present with a wide range of clinical phenotypes at the time of diagnosis, but there is little precise information about the natural course of this disease. Fourteen years of colonoscopic surveillance of an MAP patient (compound heterozygous p.Y165C/p.G382D) showed that adenoma development was slow after initial diagnosis of a single colorectal carcinoma at the age of 44, but then the annual number of new adenomas increased substantially in the patient's early fifties. This course of the disease, with a strong subsequent acceleration of polyp development, may explain the wide range of polyp numbers counted in newly diagnosed MAP patients as a result of the time of observation. Therefore, MAP should also be considered in younger patients (35-55 years) with only few adenomas or colorectal cancer. The high frequency of medium and severe dysplasia in the patient's preferential small adenomas suggests accelerated progression from adenoma to carcinoma in MAP, but this observation must be confirmed by further studies.
Article
More than one million patients will manifest colorectal cancer (CRC) this year of which, conservatively, approximately 3% (approximately 30,700 cases) will have Lynch syndrome (LS), the most common hereditary CRC predisposing syndrome. Each case belongs to a family with clinical needs that require genetic counseling, DNA testing for mismatch repair genes (most frequently MLH1 or MSH2) and screening for CRC. Colonoscopy is mandated, given CRC's proximal occurrence (70-80% proximal to the splenic flexure). Due to its early age of onset (average 45 years of age), colonoscopy needs to start by age 25, and because of its accelerated carcinogenesis, it should be repeated every 1 to 2 years through age 40 and then annually thereafter. Should CRC occur, subtotal colectomy may be necessary, given the marked frequency of synchronous and metachronous CRC. Because 40-60% of female patients will manifest endometrial cancer, tailored management is essential. Additional extracolonic cancers include ovary, stomach, small bowel, pancreas, hepatobiliary tract, upper uroepithelial tract, brain (Turcot variant) and sebaceous adenomas/carcinomas (Muir-Torre variant). LS explains only 10-25% of familial CRC.
Article
Biallelic mutations in the base excision DNA repair gene MUTYH lead to MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) and predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC). Functional studies have demonstrated significant differences in base recognition and glycosylase activity between various MUTYH mutations, notably for the 2 mutations most frequently reported in MAP patients: Y179C and G396D (previously annotated as Y165C and G382D). Our goal was to establish correlations between genotypes and colorectal phenotype of patients with MAP. In this multicenter study, we analyzed genotype and phenotype data from 257 MAP patients. Data included age at presentation of MAP, polyp count, and the occurrence, location, and age at presentation of CRC. Patients with a homozygous G396D mutation or compound heterozygous G396D/Y179C mutations presented later with MAP and had a significantly lower hazard of developing CRC than patients with a homozygous Y179C mutation (P < .001). The mean ages of CRC diagnosis in patients were 58 years (homozygous G396D) and 52 years (compound heterozygous G396D/Y179C) versus 46 years (homozygous Y179C; P = .001, linear regression). Our study identified the phenotypic effects of Y179C as relatively severe and of G396D as relatively mild. These clinical data are in accord with findings from in vitro functional assays. Genotypic stratification may become useful in the development of guidelines for counseling, surveillance, and management of families with MAP.
Article
In familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), genetic predisposition for duodenal adenomatosis has not been investigated precisely. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutation and duodenal adenomatosis in FAP. APC gene mutation was determined by means of a protein truncation test in 34 patients from 25 families with FAP. The prevalence and grade of duodenal adenomatosis were compared among the proximal mutation group (exons 1-9), the distal mutation group (exons 10-15), and the undetermined groups. The correlation between the course of duodenal adenomatosis and APC gene mutation was retrospectively investigated in 19 patients. The prevalence of duodenal adenomatosis was lower in the proximal mutation group (44%) than in the distal mutation (100%) and undetermined (83%) groups. In patients with positive duodenal adenomatosis, the endoscopic grade did not differ among the groups. The endoscopic grade increased in two of the four patients with the proximal mutation group (50%), in three of 10 patients with the distal mutation group (30%), and in two of five patients (40%) with the undetermined group. Truncating APC gene mutation proximal to exon 9 may contribute to the less frequent development of duodenal adenomatosis in FAP, but severity and progression of duodenal adenomatosis do not seem to be determined by APC gene mutation alone.
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Human colorectal, endometrial, and gastric cancers with defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) have microsatellite instability, a unique molecular alteration characterized by widespread frameshift mutations of repetitive DNA sequences. We developed "Kangaroo," a bioinformatics program for searches in nucleotide and protein sequence databases, and performed an in silico genome scan for DNA coding microsatellites that may have novel mutations in MMR-deficient cancers. Examination of 29 previously untested coding polyadenines revealed widespread mutations in MMR-deficient colorectal cancers, with the highest frequencies in ERCC5, CASP8AP2, p72, RAD50, CDC25, RECQL1, CBF2, RACK7, GRK4, and DNAPK (range, 10-33%). This algorithm allows comprehensive mutation profiling of MMR-deficient cancers, an important step in understanding the pathogenesis of these neoplasms.
Article
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and attenuated FAP are autosomal dominant disorders characterised by multiple colorectal adenomas and cancers. Both are caused by inherited mutations in the APC gene, and management includes genetic testing, colonoscopic surveillance, and prophylactic surgery for the relatives of index cases. Among 614 families recorded in six regional registers of polyposis in the UK, we identified 111 with neither dominant transmission nor evidence of APC mutation. Molecular genetic analysis showed that 25 had biallelic mutations of the MYH gene. Since our data show that MYH polyposis can be transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, a change in genetic counselling, testing, and surveillance is needed.
Article
Over the last decade, a subset of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients with a milder course of disease termed attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP) has been described. AFAP is not well-defined as a disease entity - the reports on AFAP are largely casuistic or only deal with a few kindreds--and the diagnostic criteria and methods of investigation differ markedly. The true incidence and frequency of AFAP is not known. The mutations in APC associated with AFAP have mainly been detected in three parts of the gene: in the 5' end (the first five exons), in exon 9 and in the distal 3' end. The main features of AFAP are 100 or less colorectal adenomas with a tendency to rectal sparing, a delay in onset of adenomatosis and bowel symptoms of 20-25 years, a delay in onset of colorectal cancer (CRC) of 10-20 years and death from CRC of 15-20 years, and although the lifetime penetrance of CRC appears to be high, CRC does not seem to develop in nearly all affected patients. A more limited expression of the extracolonic features is seen, but gastric and duodenal adenomas are frequently encountered. Colonoscopy is preferred to sigmoidoscopy, should begin at the age of 20-25 years and no upper age limit of stopping surveillance is justified. Regular esophago-gastro- duodenoscopy (EGD) is recommended. Until further research has provided us with a more substantiated knowledge about AFAP changes in current surveillance and treatment are not recommended. Prophylactic colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) is recommended in most patients.
Article
Desmoid tumours (DT) are rare benign tumours that do not metastasise, but tend to invade locally. DT are frequently seen in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and diagnosis and treatment are often difficult. Surgical trauma, genetic predisposition and hormonal factors are considered to be correlated with the development and growth of DT. In patients with FAP, 50% of the tumours are localised intra-abdominally, and 85-100% of these are mesenteric. DT frequently present as non- tender, slowly growing masses. The symptoms are abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea or haematochezia. Mesenteric DT can cause small bowel obstruction or ischaemia, hydronephrosis or form fistulas. Diagnosis is obtained through biopsy and the extension is determined by a CT-scan. Surgical excision is recommended in patients with DT in the abdominal wall. First line treatment of mesenteric DT is a NSAID in combination with tamoxifen. Surgery may be considered in case of a small and well-defined DT with no signs of invasion of vital structures, and in cases of imminent bowel ischaemia or obstruction. The prognosis in mesenteric DT is serious, and improvement of the therapeutic strategy awaits current international studies.
Article
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant predisposition to colorectal cancer and is caused by germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene. The most prominent clinical manifestation is the presence of hundreds to thousands of colorectal polyps. A milder phenotype is found in patients affected with AFAP/ multiple adenomas. We screened the entire APC coding region using the combination of DGGE, PTT and direct sequencing and identified causative mutations in 52 of 77 patients. Thirteen of the mutations found were novel. In addition, we also tested 21 APC mutation/negative probands for the two most common mutations in the MYH gene. Four patients showed neither dominant transmission of the disease nor evidence of APC mutations. In one of them the most common biallelic germline mutation in the MYH gene was detected. Correlations between the localization of germline mutations and clinical manifestations of the diseases are discussed.
Article
Inherited colorectal polyposis has been linked to constitutive mutations of the APC tumor suppressor gene. Recently, germline mutations in the base excision repair gene MYH have been associated with a recessively inherited form of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate germline mutation frequencies of both MYH and APC susceptibility genes in Italian patients with attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis. The analysis was performed in 14 unrelated patients by using the protein truncation test for APC and genomic DNA sequencing for MYH. Overall, we identified 7 of 14 (50%) mutation carriers. Two patients were heterozygotes for an APC truncating mutation (2 of 14 [14%]), whereas 5 proved to be homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for MYH gene alterations (5 of 14 [36%]). Two MYH missense mutations, Y165C and G382D, already found to be frequent among patients from northern Europe, were also preponderant in our survey. Individuals with APC-associated syndrome showed a dominant family history of polyposis, whereas patients with MYH-associated disease were either apparently sporadic cases or had a family history consistent with recessive inheritance. MYH biallelic mutation carriers were up to 60% (5 of 8) among patients showing at least 30 adenomas and a family history with no vertical transmission of polyposis. On the basis of our data, patients with attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis with >30 adenomas and no obvious vertical transmission of the disease should be considered for MYH gene testing.
Article
MYH-associated polyposis is a recently described disease that is characterized by multiple colorectal adenomas and a recessive pattern of inheritance. Individuals with MYH-associated polyposis have biallelic mutations in MYH, a base excision repair gene, and are negative for germline mutations in the APC gene. In this study, the 2 most prevalent MYH mutations in white persons, Y165C and G382D, were analyzed for their presence in 984 subjects selected from 3 groups: 400 undergoing screening colonoscopy and found to have 0-3 polyps, 444 with colorectal cancer (CRC), and 140 referred for APC mutation analysis in which a germline mutation was not identified. Genotyping for Y165C and G382D was performed by Pyrosequencing. Biallelic mutations for Y165C and/or G382D were not found in any of those undergoing screening colonoscopy with 0-3 polyps (n = 400), in those APC-negative patients with <20 adenomatous polyps (n = 26), or in those with CRC who were older than 50 years (n = 328). Furthermore, these 2 MYH mutations were not found among patients whose tumors showed the presence of defective DNA mismatch repair (n = 62). However, the presence of biallelic germline MYH mutations correlated with the presence of >or=20 adenomatous polyps. Interestingly, 2 of the 116 individuals with CRC diagnosed at 50 years of age or younger also presented with biallelic germline mutations in MYH. These data suggest that screening of MYH should be considered not only in patients with multiple polyps but also in patients with early-onset CRC.
Article
We summarize the genetic and clinical features of the colorectal adenomas and cancers that occur in MYH-associated polyposis (MAP). MAP results from biallelic germline mutations in the base excision repair gene, mutY homologue (MYH). MAP has a phenotype that is often indistinguishable from classical or attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), but the former is inherited as a recessive condition, whereas the latter is a dominantly inherited disease caused by germline mutations of the APC gene. MYH mutations seem to act by increasing the frequency of somatic APC mutations. MAP tumors may then progress to cancer along a distinct genetic pathway. MAP occurs in several different ethnic groups, the mutation spectrum appearing to differ among groups. It remains unknown, however, as to why carriers of MYH mutations specifically develop tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. In general, carriers of biallelic MYH mutations should be treated and followed up as for FAP patients with a similar phenotype. Relatives of MAP patients should be counseled as for any other recessive condition, although it remains possible that carriers of single mutations are at a modestly increased risk of colorectal cancer.
Article
To determine the frequency, mutation spectrum and phenotype of the recently described autosomal recessive MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), we performed a systematic search for MUTYH (MYH) mutations by sequencing the complete coding region of the gene in 329 unselected APC mutation-negative index patients with the clinical diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or attenuated FAP (AFAP). Biallelic germline mutations in MUTYH were identified in 55 of the 329 unselected patients (17%) and in another 9 selected index cases. About one-fifth (20%) of the 64 unrelated MAP patients harboured none of the 2 hot-spot missense mutations Y165C and/or G382D. Including 7 affected relatives, almost all MAP patients presented with either an attenuated (80%) or with an atypical phenotype (18%). Fifty percentage of the MAP patients had colorectal cancer at diagnosis. Duodenal polyposis was found in 18%, thyroid and stomach cancer in 1 case, other extraintestinal manifestations associated with FAP were not observed. In 8 families, vertical segregation was suspected; in 2 of these families, biallelic mutations were identified in 2 generations. Monoallelic changes with predicted functional relevance were found in 0.9% of the 329 patients, which is in accordance with the carrier frequency in the general population. In conclusion, biallelic MUTYH mutations are the underlying genetic basis in a substantial fraction of patients with adenomatous polyposis. The phenotype of MAP is best characterised as attenuated or atypical, respectively. Colorectal surveillance starting at about 18 years of age is recommended for biallelic mutation carriers and siblings of MAP patients, who refuse predictive testing.
Article
MYH is a member of the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway and mutations of this gene predispose to the development of colorectal neoplasia in an autosomal recessive transmission pattern. Our objective was to determine the significance of MYH mutations in a series of Canadian patients with multiple adenomas. We screened for germline MYH mutations (by dHPLCO) in 20 clinic-based multiple adenoma patients who were adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation-negative. Suspected mutations were confirmed by sequence analysis. Six of 20 (30%) patients carried pathogenic biallelic MYH mutations, 1 Y165C homozygote and 5 compound heterozygotes of other sequence variants. We identified three novel variants, Q377X, 1314delA, and P281L, which are likely pathogenic. Twenty-nine relatives of the Y90X/1103delC compound heterozygous carrier were also screened for germline MYH mutations, and 1 homozygous and 14 heterozygous carriers were identified. Among patients with multiple adenomas, biallelic MYH mutations account for approximately 30% of APC mutation negative cases and two thirds of these carry mutations other than the "common" Y165C and G382D variants. Clinical screening algorithms which focus only on the Y165C and G382D alleles are inadequate since additional pathogenic mutations may be identified by screening the entire gene.
Article
Biallelic germline mutations in the base excision repair gene MYH have been reported in patients with multiple colorectal adenomas and cancer and in sporadic FAP patients not showing a detectable APC germline mutation. In this study, the prevalence of the common Y165C and G382D germline variants of the MYH gene was examined in 70 FAP/AAPC patients with no detectable APC mutation and a family history compatible with recessive inheritance. In addition, 141 normal-population adenoma patients (mean number of adenomas, 2.8; range, 1-9) and 52 clean colon controls were studied. The entire coding region of the MYH gene was analyzed in Y165C or G382D heterozygous patients. Since the same second mutational event (a 3 bp deletion in exon 14, 1395delGGA) was detected in 3 patients, the prevalence of this variant was also examined in all groups. In all, 14 of 70 patients in the FAP/AAPC group (20%; 95% CI = 11.7-31.6%) had biallelic germline MYH variants and 3 were heterozygotes (4.3%). None of the 141 normal-population adenoma patients carried biallelic germline MYH variants (95% CI = 0.06-4.1%) and 3 were heterozygotes (2.1%). In the control group, no MYH variants were detected. These results indicated that MYH-associated polyposis (MAP) is present in about 20% of Italian FAP/AAPC patients, in whom no germline APC mutation is detectable and showing a family history compatible with recessive inheritance, and in a small fraction of patients with colorectal adenomas in the general population. In addition, our data suggest that mutation 1395delGGA is a subpolymorphic MYH mutational event in some Caucasian populations.
MYH mutations in patients with attenuated and classic polyposis and with young-onset colorectal cancer without polyps
  • L Wang
  • Lm Baudhuin
  • La Boardman
  • Kj Steenblock
  • Gm Petersen
  • Kc Halling
Wang L, Baudhuin LM, Boardman LA, Steenblock KJ, Petersen GM, Halling KC, et al. MYH mutations in patients with attenuated and classic polyposis and with young-onset colorectal cancer without polyps. Gastroenterology. 2004;127(1):9–16.
Inactivation of the type II TGF-beta receptor in colon cancer cells with microsatellite instability
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  • J Wang
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Markowitz S, Wang J, Myeroff L, Parsons R, Sun L, Lutterbaugh J, et al. Inactivation of the type II TGF-beta receptor in colon cancer cells with microsatellite instability. Science. 1995;268(5215):1336-8.