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La chaîne opératoire de la sidérurgie ancienne 1998 Instrumentum

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... Jusqu'au métal, l'ensemble des opérations métallurgiques influence l'héritage chimique du minerai. La chaîne opératoire des procédés sidérurgiques anciens pour les filières directe et indirecte a été régulièrement documentée depuis plus de trente ans (Fluzin, 1983 ;Tylecote, 1987 ;Serneels, 1998 ;Fluzin et al., 2000 ;Pleiner, 2000 ;Ploquin, 2004 ). Notre but n'est donc pas ici d'en donner un exposé exhaustif 5 , mais plutôt de bien cerner l'évolution de l'héritage chimique du minerai à travers les différentes étapes de la chaîne opératoire. ...
... Le fait que certains éléments ne se réduisent pas lors de l'étape de réduction et se retrouvent dans le produit fini constitue la base des raisonnements qui seront développés. L'épuration par martelage de la loupe n'étant jamais parfaite, des inclusions issues de la réduction seront toujours présentes dans l'objet fini (Crew, 1991 ;Doswald, 1994 ;Dillmann, 1998 ;Fluzin & Leclère, 1998 ;Serneels, 1998 ;Dieudonné-Glad et al., 2001). ...
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This provenance study concerns the trade understanding in the Middle Ages of iron objects originally from specific ironmaking processes linked to the use of manganese rich ores. We were particularly interested in the case studies of the Ariège (French Pyrenees) and the Lombardy (Italian Alps) areas, two separate geographic areas that held a major place in the medieval economy of their region. This work deals with three specific historical questions. The first part is to clarify the trade routes and diffusion of ferrous materials within the iron production Ariège area, and nearby, during the 13th-15th centuries. The aim is thereby to contribute to the comprehension of its iron market's organisation. A second aim is to determine the supply of ferrous reinforcements used in one of the most important medieval Gothic buildings in Europe, the Popes' Palace of Avignon (14th c.) (Provence), localized at the confluence of the exporting areas of products from Lombardy and Ariège. Finally, it is to verify the hypothetical Lombard origin accredited by stylistic and technical analyses to pieces of armour provided by the Wallace Collection. The geographical origin of an ancient ferrous artefact, made by the bloomery process, can be traced by relating the chemical signature of the non metallic slag inclusions (SI) remaining in its metallic matrix and that of iron products, slag samples and ores from a given supplying iron production area. To this aim, a method using major and trace elements compositional analyses is necessary. In the first stage, the ores and slag samples composition, from the Ariège and Lombardy areas, on a macroscopic scale and the SI composition on a microscopic scale have been extensively determined (EDS, ICP-MS, INAA, LA-ICP-MS, confocal SR-µXRF). In particular, compositional micro-analysis has been used to quantify trace elements in SI, especially confocal microscopic X-ray fluorescence under synchrotron radiation for SI smaller than 30 µm. Due to the complexity of the high dimensional data set acquired, an ad-hoc multivariate statistical method was developed. In a first stage, the method consists in selecting discriminant elements and then, in applying a specific logarithmic transformation to the raw data. In a second stage, the methodology refers on the linear discriminant analysis applied to the log ratios that define the iron-making areas and objects of unknown origin. This procedure was subsequently applied for the study of the iron market in Ariège and the supply of ferrous artefacts in the Popes Palace medieval building. The obtained results emphasize the complexity of the iron market in Ariège in the 13th-15th centuries. Moreover, the presence of iron from Ariège in the St-Etienne's collegiate church building in Capestang has been demonstrated. Results highlighted at the minimum six supply origins for the construction iron used in the Pope's Palace. The most probable supplies which have remained unknown to date seem to be iron from Ariège and possibly from the Dauphine Alps. The analyses led on armour samples permit to reconsider the historical hypothesis of a Lombard provenance of some “Spanish morions”.
... Pour obtenir du fer, il faut procéder à un traitement de ces minerais (Serneels 1998, Mangin 2004). Les oxydes de fer doivent être chauffés en présence de carbone. ...
Thesis
Située au sud-est du bassin du lac Tchad, le Guéra n’a jusqu’à présent bénéficié d’aucun travail de recherche archéologique. Pourtant, cette région possède un riche patrimoine métallurgique. Croisant informations orales et données archéologiques, la présente étude est une contribution à l'histoire de la production ancienne du fer. À cette fin, nous cherchons à déterminer les impacts techniques, économiques et humains de cette activité. Pour bien conduire cette étude, nos interrogations se sont portées sur l’identité des métallurgistes qui ont travaillé le fer dans cette région, leurs parcours migrations et leur mise en place dans le Guéra. Nous avons également essayé de décrire et de caractériser les techniques de réduction mise en place, de quantifier le volume de production des déchets métallurgiques et de dater la sidérurgie dans le Guéra.
... D'une manière générale, pour la filière directe qui prévaut en Europe avant le XIVe siècle, on distingue : extraction du minerai, concentration du minerai, réduction dite directe du minerai pour produire une masse de fer spongieuse gorgée d'inclusions et de porosités. Les étapes suivantes sont toutes des phases de post-réduction et de forgeage : épuration de cette masse de fer spongieuse, forgeage de barres de fer destinées au commerce, possiblement forgeage de nouvelles formes de barres destinées à des commerces spécialisés ou non, forgeage d'objets en série (clous par exemple) et/ ou forgeage d'objets diversifiés en fonction des demandes, recyclage, répara-tion… (Fluzin, 1983 ;Serneels, 1998 ;Mangin, 2004b). La détermination de ces phases métallurgiques est maintenant en grande partie permise, bien que des approfondissements sur des caractères discriminants ou ubiquistes sont encore en cours notamment au sujet de la variabilité des procédés techniques et de certaines étapes liées à l'épuration et à la fa- (Pagès et alii, 2008 ;Baron et alii, 2011 ;Pagès et alii, 2011 ;Sarreste, 2011 ;Piétak et alii, 2012). ...
... However, 14 C dating of iron requires special pretreatment to overcome potential contamination due to different factors. Numerous studies led by archaeometallurgists (Fluzin 1983;Tylecote 1987;Serneels 1998;Pleiner 2006) provided important knowledge of the direct iron-making process used to obtain iron in antiquity, which allowed identifying the sources of contamination: the age of the wood used to produce the charcoal, the recycling of older metals, and the cementing with other materials containing carbon. Another major limitation is related to the low carbon content of the ancient iron, heterogeneously distributed within the metallic matrix. ...
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The large number of iron-laden wrecked ships discovered off Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer (south of France) since the 1990s has enriched our knowledge of both maritime trade in the Mediterranean and the ferrous bars used during antiquity. This exceptional corpus has spawned numerous studies in the fields of archaeology, history, and archaeometallurgy, but, despite a relatively well-documented context, the chronology of wrecks is still to be clarified. Until recently, the chronology of the corpus was mainly supported by the archaeological remains found in the cargo of the wrecks, resulting in a chronological range from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD. However, the ¹⁴ C dating of an iron bar from Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, older by more than a century from the expected chronological range, has revived discussions about the chronology of all the wrecks. Thanks to the development of a new protocol for dating ferrous alloys, based on an extensive study of the ferrous material, 34 samples of iron extracted from 13 ferrous bars constituting the cargo of seven ships could be ¹⁴ C dated. The ¹⁴ C results and the archaeological and historical data were subjected to Bayesian analysis to build a chronological framework for the antique shipwrecks of Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer. It appears that all these ships could belong to a larger phase than the one deduced from archaeological remains alone. Consequently, this study helps to support a new vision of the trade between the northeastern Mediterranean and western Europe.
... This conceptual tool has also proveu its utility for assessiug other technologies, such as ceramics, bone, metal and skin (e.g. Balfet 1992; Serneels 1998; Gosselain 2002; Halasz-Csiba 2002). In addition, it has demonstrated its applicability in administrative contexts, in teaching, in computer analysis, in data and archive processing, even in cooking (e.g. ...
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The concept of the chaîne opératoire is a practical one when considering complex lithic technology. The concept was conceived through the development of the anthropology of techniques and the psychological sciences. For more than five years, Palaeoeskimo lithic technology in Nunavik (Eastern Arctic) was examined following this concept, which integrated the entire artifact story from raw material procurement to final discard of tools, offering many behavioral insights. The application of the French analytical methodology to Dorset collections provided relevant results, as illustrated in this contribution dealing with microblade production. Through this analysis, we explain how the constraints linked to raw material availability and the Arctic environment in particular stimulated an important behavioral adaptation, evidenced by this lithic technology. The subsequent question of whether this adaptive flexibility would complicate recognition of patterned cultural behavior is also addressed.
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Peña del Castro is located Northeast of the province of León (Spain), on the geological fault separating the plateau and the high mountains in the area. Several archaeological works were implemented between 2013 and 2015, resulting in the unearthing of an Iron Age settlement. A long occupation sequence from early Iron Age to Roman times has been documented, although the best represented period would be the second half of I century B.C. The fast destruction of the settlement during the change of Era allowed the recovery of various remains of the inhabitants’ daily life in their primary locations. This article would outline the most representative metal tools recovered during the survey and excavation works in order to obtain a better understanding of the productive activities performed in the settlement
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