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Coping with failure: The effects of self-esteem and coping on changes in self-efficacy

Self-efficacy in tennis
Andrew M. Lane,
University of Wolverhampton, UK
Liz Jones,
Brunel University, UK
Matthew J. Stevens
University of Wolverhampton, UK
Revision Resubmitted November 14th 2001
Self-efficacy in tennis
Self-efficacy in tennis
The present study investigated the relationship between self-esteem, coping strategies and
changes in self-efficacy following defeat in a tennis tiebreak competition. Ninety-one
national standard junior tennis players participated in a tennis tiebreak competition.
Participants completed the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965), the Modified
COPE (Crocker & Graham, 1995), and a 6-item Self-efficacy scale designed to assess
confidence to achieve success in tennis tiebreak competition. All measures were completed
shortly before competition. Participants completed the same Self-efficacy items following
defeat and prior to the next tiebreak competition. Players completed two tiebreak
competitions yielding 59 losing players. Prior to data analysis, Self-esteem scores were coded
as either a High Self-esteem group (n = 35) or a Low Self-esteem group (n = 24) based on a
median split. Repeated measures ANOVA to compare changes in Self-efficacy scores by
Self-esteem groups indicated that Self-efficacy reduced significantly more in the Low Self-
esteem group. Further analysis revealed that maladaptive coping strategies such as
“Behavioral disengagement” and “Self-blame” were associated with low Self-esteem. It is
suggested that interventions to reduce the potentially debilitating effects of failure on self-
efficacy should focus on utilization of adaptive coping strategies, particular among
individuals reporting low Self-esteem.
Key words: Self-worth, tennis, self-confidence, psychological skills, coping
Self-efficacy in tennis
Coping with failure: the effects of self-esteem and coping on changes in self-efficacy among
national standard junior tennis players
Self-efficacy has been described as the guardian angel of successful performance
(Terry, 1989). There has been a great deal of research support for a positive relationship
between self-efficacy and performance in a number of different contexts including sport
(Bandura, 1997; Moritz, Feltz, Fahrbach, & Mack, 2000; Stajkovic & Luthans, 1998). Self-
efficacy is defined as the levels of confidence individuals have in their ability to execute
courses of action or attain specific performance outcomes (Bandura, 1977, 1986, 1997).
Personal efficacy expectations are proposed to influence initiating behavior and how much
effort will be applied to attain a successful outcome in the face of difficulties and setbacks
(Bandura, 1977, 1986, 1997). Meta-analysis results for self-efficacy and sport performance
relationships lend support to its predictive power (Moritz et al., 2000).
Bandura (1977, 1986, 1997) suggested that self-efficacy judgments derive from the
cognitive processing of information from four principle sources; 1) performance
accomplishments (Feltz, Landers, & Raeder, 1979, George, 1994), 2) vicarious experiences
(George, Feltz, & Chase, 1992, Gould & Weiss, 1981), 3) verbal persuasion (Feltz &
Riessinger, 1990), and 4) emotional arousal (Feltz, 1982, Feltz & Mugno, 1983).
Performance accomplishments are proposed to be the most dependable source of self-
efficacy. Performances perceived successful are proposed to raise self-efficacy, whereas
performances perceived unsuccessful are proposed to lower self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997). It
is important to recognize the cognitive nature of self-efficacy. The cognitive appraisal of
information from the four sources is proposed to influence self-efficacy and not the objective
information per se.
One variable proposed to influence the appraisal process is self-esteem. Previous
research has found that self-esteem plays an important role in the formation of psychological
Self-efficacy in tennis
states such as self-efficacy (Campbell, 1990; Brown & Mankowski, 1993; Dodgson & Wood,
1998; Kernis, Brockner, & Frankel, 1989; Moreland & Sweeney, 1984). Research has found
that individuals low in self-esteem tend to respond to experiences in a balanced way; positive
events lead to positive psychological states and negative events lead to negative ones. By
contrast, high self-esteem individuals tend to embrace positive events but disregard or offset
the potentially debilitating effects of negative events, and this is associated with maintaining
positive psychological states (Brown & Dutton, 1995; Brown & Mankowski, 1993;
Campbell, 1990; Dodgson & Wood, 1998).
The cognitive patterns associated with self-esteem are proposed to explain these
differential effects. Taylor and Brown (1988) suggested that individuals high in self-esteem
are able to access more positive thoughts about themselves after failure. Hence, they maintain
a positive focus. By contrast, low self-esteem individuals are unable to utilize this strategy, as
they doubt the number of positive attributes that they possess. It is proposed that both groups
tend to desire success, but high self-esteem individuals are more likely to reject and dismiss
the negative implications of failure, while low self-esteem individuals tend to attribute
negative events such as poor performance internally (Dodgson & Wood, 1998). Thus,
although self-efficacy derives from sources that are based on performance (Bandura, 1997),
self-esteem is proposed to moderate the accessibility of retrieving performance
accomplishments from memory following failure.
The notion that individuals with low self-esteem suffer greater negative consequences
to failure suggests they use ineffective coping strategies. Coping has been defined as “a
process of constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external
and/or internal demands or conflicts appraised as taxing or exceeding ones resources”
(Lazarus & Folkman, 1984, p. 141). Empirical evidence shows athletes use a variety of
Self-efficacy in tennis
strategies to cope with environmental demands (Crocker & Isaak, 1997; Giacobbi &
Weinberg, 2000; Gould, Eklund, & Jackson, 1993).
Coping strategies can be either problem-or emotion-focused (Folkman & Lazarus,
1985). Problem-focused coping involves efforts to alter or manage the stressor. These
strategies include problem solving, planning, and increasing effort. Emotion-focused coping
involves regulating the emotional responses that arise as a result of the stressor. Examples of
emotion-focused coping strategies include behavioral withdrawal, wishful thinking, denial,
and venting of emotions.
Although stressors often elicit both emotion-focused and problem-focused coping, it
is proposed that problem-focused coping strategies are a more common approach when
situations are perceived as attainable and controllable (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985). Emotion-
focused coping strategies are proposed to predominate in situations perceived as beyond the
control of the individual.
Research investigating the relationship between coping and self-esteem has shown
that individuals reporting high self-esteem tend to rely more on problem-focused coping than
those reporting low self-esteem (Terry, 1994). Although processes through which individual
differences influence coping have not been fully established, there is some evidence that
individuals high in self-esteem make more adaptive choices in stressful situations (Taylor &
Brown, 1988). In testing their COPE measure, Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub (1989) found
positive relationships between self-esteem and the problem-focused strategies such as active
coping, planning, and positive re-interpretation. Carver et al. (1989) found low self-esteem
was associated with using emotion-focused strategies such as denial and behavioral
It is important to note that this theory has been tested in general psychology and has
not been investigated in a sporting context. For athletes, failure to succeed in an important
Self-efficacy in tennis
competition can have catastrophic effects on self-efficacy. Thus, it is suggested that athletes
must be able to access coping strategies that enable efficacy to be maintained following
Collectively, the influence of self-esteem on changes in self-efficacy has not been
investigated in sport. The purpose of the present study was twofold. The first purpose was to
examine the relationship between self-esteem and changes in self-efficacy following defeat.
The second purpose was to examine the relationship between self-esteem and coping
strategies. We hypothesized that individuals low in self-esteem will report significantly
greater reductions in self-efficacy than individuals high in self-esteem. Further, given the
nature of self-esteem, it is hypothesized that individuals high in self-esteem will employ more
adaptive coping strategies, while low self-esteem individuals will use more maladaptive
coping strategies.
Participants were 91 (Male: N = 40; Female N = 51) national standard tennis players
ranging in age from 11 to 21 years (M = 16.23 years; SD =3.22 years). They were moderately
experienced players (M = 7.29 years; SD = 2.45), with 24 having competed internationally.
Self-esteem. Rosenberg’s Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) was used to assess
self-esteem. Respondents completed the scale by indicating their agreement with each of the
10 items (e.g. “On the whole I am satisfied with myself”, “I certainly feel useless at times”)
on a 4-point scale (4 = strongly agree, 1 = strongly disagree). After reversing the scoring for
5 negatively worded items, a total Self-esteem score was obtained by summing the 10
responses. The range of scores using this procedure was 10-40 with higher scores indicating
higher Self-esteem. In the present study, the alpha coefficient was .82, hence indicating an
internally reliable scale.
Self-efficacy in tennis
Coping. Crocker and Graham’s (1995) modified version of the COPE (MCOPE) was
used to assess coping strategies. Nine subscales were based on the original COPE measure
(Carver et al., 1989): Seeking social support for Instrumental reasons; Seeking social support
for emotional reasons; Behavioral disengagement; Planning, Suppression of competing
activities; Venting of emotions; Humor; Active coping; and Denial. Based on empirical
research (Madden, Summers, & Brown, 1990), Self-blame, Wishful thinking, and Increasing
effort subscales were added. Participants responded to the 48 items of the MCOPE (4 items to
each scale) on a 5-point Likert scale indicating the degree to which they utilized each coping
Initial investigations of the internal consistency of the MCOPE have shown alpha
coefficients exceeding 0.60 for all subscales except denial (0.42). Giacobbi and Weinberg,
(2000) reported internal consistency coefficients above 0.60 for all subscales. In the present
alpha coefficients were: Seeking social support for instrumental reasons, alpha = .71; Seeking
social support for emotional reasons, alpha = .68; Behavioral disengagement, alpha = .73;
Self-blame, alpha = .78; Planning, alpha = .73; Suppression of competing activities, alpha
= .74; Venting of emotions, alpha = .71; Humor, alpha = .72; Increasing effort, alpha = .77;
Wishful thinking, alpha = .76; Active coping, alpha = .71; Denial, alpha = .73. Thus all alpha
coefficients were above the .70 criterion for acceptable consistency (Tabachnick & Fidell,
1996) except Seeking social support for emotional reasons, which was close.
Self-efficacy. We used suggestions made by Bandura (1997) and evidence from
Moritz et al. (2001) as a guide to develop the self-efficacy for tennis tiebreak competition.
Moritz et al. (2001) showed that the strongest self-efficacy and performance when there is
concordance between the measure of self-efficacy and performance. This suggests that
perceptions of self-efficacy should be directed at the competences required in delivering
performance. In order to do this, researchers should conduct a thorough examination of
Self-efficacy in tennis
competencies underpinning performance. In the present study, tennis coaches (N = 2) and
tennis players (N = 6) were asked to describe competencies needed to win a tiebreak
competition. This led to a six-item Self-efficacy questionnaire, namely;
1) ‘How confident are you in winning the tie-break?;
2) “How confident are you of winning your service points?”
3) “How confident are you getting more than 60% first serves in?”
4) “How confident are you of winning the return points?”
5) “How confident are you of winning the rally points?”
6) “How confident are you of winning the important points?”
Items were rated on a 10-point Likert scale anchored by ‘no confidence in ability to
execute the task’ (1) to ‘absolutely certain’ (10). Self-efficacy perceptions for the six items
were combined resulting in one single Self-efficacy score giving a range from 6-60. The
Cronbach alpha coefficient for pre-game Self-efficacy scores was .82 and .92 for post-game
Self-efficacy scores.
Self-efficacy questionnaires scores were subjected to Confirmatory Factor Analysis
(CFA) (Bentler, 1995; Tabachnick & Fidell, 1996). Bentler (1995) argued that structural
equation modeling provides a rigorous test of theoretical proposals made by researcher about
the dataset. In the present study, it was hypothesized that Self-efficacy items loaded onto a
single factor (self-efficacy toward tennis tiebreak competition). It was further hypothesized
that the relationship between Self-efficacy items and the hypothesized factor would be
invariant across time.
Confirmatory factor analysis of Self-efficacy scores yielded support for the single
factor model before the first tiebreak competition (Robust Confirmatory Fit Index: RCFI
= .914). CFA for the Self-efficacy scores before the second tie break competition showed
support for the single factor model (RCFI = .969). To test the invariance of relationships
Self-efficacy in tennis
between Self-efficacy items and the factor, multisample CFA was used. It should be noted
that this was not a multsample analysis, but a test-retest design. Equality constraints were
placed on relationships between the item and the factor. Results indicated support for
factorial invariance (CFI = .917) with Lagrange Multiplier Results showing no significant
differences between the relationship between items and the factor.
Informed consent for participation was given and confidentiality was assured to each
participant. A tiebreak competition was set-up by the second author who is also a tennis
coach. Players were drawn against a similarly ranked opponent (players were matched
against either the same, one higher or one lower rated opponent of the same gender). It was
anticipated that matching of ability would create a realistic, competitive task that would
subsequently produce an incentive for meaningful performance.
Players completed the Self-esteem questionnaire and MCOPE before warming-up.
After warming-up, players completed the first Self-efficacy questionnaire and then played a
tiebreak following normal tennis rules. After the first tiebreak, players were informed that
they would compete against a similarly rated opponent in another tiebreak and completed a
second Self-efficacy questionnaire. The second tiebreak was then played. Following two
matches, this yielded 59 players who lost a tiebreak. Data from losing players went forward
to the next stage of analysis.
As previous research (Crocker & Graham, 1995) has found gender differences
between ways of coping, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and coping scores, data were compared
by gender. If significant differences emerged, gender would be used as a covariate in
subsequent analyses. If there were no significant differences, data for males and females
would be merged into a single file.
Self-efficacy in tennis
Based on a median split, participants were divided into a low Self-esteem group (N =
24, M = 23.33, SD = 2.13) and a high Self-esteem group (N = 35, M = 31.63, SD = 3.36).
The difference in Self-esteem scores between groups was significant with a large effect size (t
= 9.19, p < .001, Effect size = -2.84).
To test Hypothesis 1, a repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to investigate
differences in Self-efficacy over time by Self-esteem group (High/Low). For Hypothesis two,
a Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to investigate differences in
coping strategies adopted by high and low Self-esteem participants.
Insert Figure 1 about here
MANOVA to compare Self-efficacy, Self-esteem, and coping scores by gender
indicated no significant multivariate effect (Hotellings T = .29, 15, 43, p > .05). Further
analysis indicated no significant univariate differences (p > .05)1. Thus, data were merged to
form a single file. Descriptive statistics for Self-efficacy and coping scores are contained in
Table 1. Effect sizes are reported using the pooled standard deviation method (see Thomas &
Nelson, 1996). Thomas and Nelson (1996) argued that an effect size of > 0.8 is large, around
0.5 is moderate, and < 0.2 is small.
A comparison of Self-efficacy scores over time by Self-esteem groups is depicted
graphically in Figure 1. Repeated measures ANOVA results indicated a significant
interaction effect (F 1,56 = 6.56, p < .05) for the influence of Self-esteem on changes in Self-
efficacy over time. Results indicated that there was a significantly greater decrease in Self-
efficacy scores following defeat in the low Self-esteem group (see Figure 1). Self-efficacy
1 Researchers interested in examining gender differences should contact the first author
Self-efficacy in tennis
reduced by 23.49% in the low Self-esteem, and by 11.37% in the high Self-esteem group.
There was a significant main effect for differences in Self-efficacy by Self-esteem (F 1,56 =
4.00, p < .05) groups. As Table 1 indicates there was no significant difference between rated
Self-efficacy before the first tiebreak competition with a difference emerging post-
competition. ANOVA results indicated that Self-efficacy reduced significantly over time (F
1,56 = 32.49, p < .01, Table 1). However, it has been suggested that it is not meaningful to
interpret main effects when there is a significant interaction, as it implies an interaction does
not exist (Pedhazur & Pedhazur-Schmelkin, 1991).
Insert Table 1 about here
MANOVA to compare Coping scores by Self-esteem groups indicated a significant
multivariate effect (Hotellings’ T² = 57.37, F 12,46 = 4.19, p < .001). Univariate follow-up
analysis indicated that the low Self-esteem group reported significantly lower scores on
Seeking social support for instrumental reasons, Planning, and Effort, with higher scores on
Behavioral disengagement, Self-blame and Humor. Discriminant function analysis was used
to show the strength of the association between Self-esteem and Coping scores. A direct
discrimination function analysis was performed using subscales scores of the MCOPE as
predictors of high Self-esteem group and low Self-esteem group. Analysis showed that 50
participants (85%) could be correctly classified as being either high Self-esteem or Low Self-
esteem on the basis of MCOPE scores [X2 (N = 59) = 20.48, p < .05].
The aim of the study was to examine the influence of Self-esteem on changes in self-
efficacy following defeat. A second purpose was to examine the relationship between self-
esteem and coping strategies. Although this line of investigation has received a great deal of
Self-efficacy in tennis
research attention in general psychology, it has received little attention in sport psychology.
Management of self-efficacy is proposed to be an important part of the work of coaches and
applied sport psychologists, something that is particularly relevant to tennis (Weinberg,
Grove, & Jackson, 1992). Given the reciprocal relationship between performance and self-
efficacy, management of self-efficacy is especially important following defeat. It is generally
agreed that applied interventions should be founded on a basis of theory and research.
Theoretically driven research to identify factors that influence how players cope with defeat
would provide an empirical basis for the development of intervention strategies designed to
manage confidence.
In support of the first Hypothesis (see Figure 1), results show that the reduction in
Self-efficacy was significantly greater in the Low Self-esteem group following failure.
However, it should be noted that although the reduction in Self-efficacy was smaller in the
low Self-esteem group (11.37% as opposed to 23.49%), Self-efficacy still reduced
significantly following defeat. This result emphasizes the impact of failure on self-efficacy.
In support of the second Hypothesis, results demonstrated significant differences in MCOPE
scores between Self-esteem groups. Low Self-esteem was associated with a tendency to use
coping strategies such as Behavioral disengagement, Self-blame and Humor.
Findings showing that Self-efficacy scores reduced significantly following defeat is
consistent with self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1997). We suggest that identifying the role of
self-esteem in the processing of efficacy-related information might serve to further clarify
applying the conceptual framework proposed by Bandura (1997) to sport. Consistent with
self-efficacy theory, it is suggested that cognitive appraisal of performance that is important
(Bandura, 1997). However, we suggest that self-esteem influences the appraisal process, and
particularly, the ability to retrieve performance accomplishments stored in the memory. This
approach is consistent with previous research showing that individuals high in self-esteem are
Self-efficacy in tennis
able to reject negative events and focus on positive attributes, while individuals with low self-
esteem tend to internalize failure (Brown & Mankowski, 1993; Dodgson & Wood, 1998).
When an individual with low self-esteem encounters failure, it reinforces the negative self-
perceptions, and losing tends to be attributed to stable internal causes.
The second purpose of the present study investigated the association between self-
esteem and coping styles. In the present study, individuals reporting high Self-esteem
indicated a tendency to adopt more problem-focused strategies. As Table 1 shows, high Self-
esteem individuals reported higher scores on Seeking social support for instrumental reasons,
Planning, and Increasing effort, a finding consistent with previous research (Carver et al.,
1989). Seeking social support for instrumental reasons was defined as “seeking advice,
assistance, or information”(Carver et al., 1989, p.269). The authors noted that there are
conceptual differences between seeking social support for ‘instrumental reasons’ and for
‘emotion reasons’ (which involves seeking moral support, sympathy or understanding), while
acknowledging that they might often co-occur. Recent research has questioned the
independence of social support scales based on the strength of their association (Eklund,
Grove, & Heard, 1998). The present study provides support for maintaining separate social
support variables when investigating relationships between coping and self-esteem. The
results show that individuals low in Self-esteem are more likely to seek out social support for
emotional reasons, while those high in Self-esteem are more likely to seek social support for
instrumental reasons.
The results also lend support to the notion that individuals high in Self-esteem tend to
perceive situations as controllable and react with a strategy aimed at changing the cause of
the problem (Dodgson & Wood, 1989). By contrast, individuals reporting lower Self-esteem
tend to perceive difficult tasks as beyond their control and consequently tend to resort to
using emotion-focused strategies reduce the negative feelings associated with the stressor.
Self-efficacy in tennis
Findings from the present study indicating low self-esteem was associated with using
behavioral disengagement and wishful thinking as coping strategies can be used to illustrate
how failure can influence self-efficacy. To disengage from a potentially stressful situation is
likely to increase the possibility of experiencing failure, and failure is proposed to reduce
self-efficacy. General psychology literature suggests that low self-esteem individuals tend to
choose to exit a situation as a way of avoiding further humiliation (Baumeister, 1993).
In the present study, low self-esteem individuals reported significantly higher scores
on ‘wishful thinking’. It is suggested that although these individuals desire positive outcomes
(they utilized strategies such as “I daydreamed about a better performance” and “I have
fantasies or wishes about how things might turn out”), they lack the belief that they are
capable of achieving such an outcome. In a situation where failure has been experienced, or is
perceived to be inevitable, it is proposed that low self-esteem individuals do not believe that
they can overcome the challenge. Their fragile self-concept is associated with a tendency to
doubt their positive abilities and to focus upon their negative ones, even to the point of
overgeneralization (Carver & Ganellan, 1983). What they desperately want to achieve
becomes difficult due to the perceived demands of the task outweighing the perception of
The esteem literature has provided evidence to suggest that low self-esteem
individuals hold fragile, negative self-conceptualizations. This perception is difficult to
change as these individuals are caught between wanting to enhance their self-perception but
feel the need for self-consistency (Baumeister, 1993). Applying a direct intervention to
enhance self-esteem might not be advantageous. The athlete’s frailties could be further
revealed and a downward negative spiral in self-efficacy could result. Indirect interventions
may be more appropriate, for example, teaching individuals how to cope with stressful
situations could potentially reduce the amount of negative cognitions/emotions they
Self-efficacy in tennis
experience each time they enter a difficult achievement context. For example, problem-
focused strategies, where cognitions are directed toward the task, are more likely to produce
positive outcomes than strategies that disengage the performer from the activity.
It is important to acknowledge the limitation of the self-efficacy measure used in the
present study. The self-efficacy measure was not subjected to a rigorous validation procedure
(Anastasi & Urbina, 1997). Although the self-efficacy measure showed evidence of face
validity, factorial validity, and internal consistency, it was not subjected to a test of
concurrent validity. Concurrent validity is proposed to be an important stage in questionnaire
validation as it informs on the meaning of the construct under investigation (Anastasi &
Urbina, 1997).
Although the importance of showing evidence of concurrent validity should not be
underestimated, identification of an appropriate self-efficacy measure to use as the criterion
measure is problematic. Recent research has emphasized the importance of developing self-
efficacy measures that assess the important behaviors of interest (Bandura, 1997; Moritz et
al., 2001). Bandura (1986, 1997) argued that researchers should follow theoretical guidelines
regarding specificity of self-efficacy assessment and correspondence with criterial tasks.
Thus, the absence of an existing validated tennis-specific measure of self-efficacy precluded
a test of concurrent validity. It could be argued that we could have used a general measure of
self-confidence such as the scale used in the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2;
Martens, Vealey, Burton, Bump, & Smith, 1990). Moritz et al. (2001) included the CSAI-2 in
their meta-analysis. It should be noted that the CSAI-2 does not specify behavioral outcomes
specific to tennis. Further, the self-confidence scale on the CSAI-2 comprises items such as ‘I
feel at ease’ and ‘I feel calm’ which assess perceptions of calmness rather than self-efficacy.
Thus, we argue that although a test of concurrent validity is desirable, it is difficult when
developing self-efficacy measure in specific contexts. We argue that there is a need for
Self-efficacy in tennis
further research to cross-validate the self-efficacy scale used in the present study to a new
sample of tennis players.
In conclusion, findings from the present study lend support for the notion that self-
efficacy is malleable, and that performance accomplishments influence self-efficacy.
Findings suggest that self-esteem influences the interpretation of defeat, whereby individuals
high in Self-esteem protect self-efficacy more than individuals low in Self-esteem. Further,
results indicate that individuals high in self-esteem use more adaptive coping strategies.
Future work should extend examination of relationships between self-esteem, coping, and
changes in self-efficacy in different samples.
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Self-efficacy in tennis
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Self-efficacy in tennis
Table 1
Preferred Coping Strategies and Self-Efficacy Levels for Losing Tennis Players (N = 59)
High self-esteem
M SD t
Pre tie-break Self-efficacy for
tiebreak 1
37.47 6.83 40.82 7.12 1.68 -.48
Pre tie-break Self-efficacy for
tiebreak 2
28.67 7.37 36.18 8.47 2.49** -1.32
Coping strategies .
Seeking social support for
instrumental reasons
12.07 2.46 13.78 2.47 -2.45* -.69
Seeking social support for emotional
13.00 3.21 12.76 3.09 0.27 .08
Behavioral disengagement 9.67 2.77 6.79 2.28 4.31** 1.11
Self-blame 15.73 2.12 14.28 2.20 2.36* .67
Planning 13.07 2.89 15.08 2.36 -2.91** -.75
Suppression of competing activities 12.20 1.82 13.95 3.56 -1.85 -.66
Venting of emotions 12.80 3.88 10.87 3.72 1.82 .51
Humor 11.87 4.45 9.61 3.77 2.06* .54
Increasing effort 15.80 2.34 17.42 2.35 -2.44* -.69
Wishful thinking 14.67 3.13 12.01 2.83 3.27** .88
Active coping 14.73 2.15 15.59 2.30 -1.34 -.39
Denial 9.67 2.82 9.38 2.29 0.42 .11
Hotellings’ T² = 57.37, F12,46 = 4.19, p < .001
** p < .01
* p < .05
Self-efficacy in tennis
Figure 1
Interaction between Self-efficacy and Self-esteem after Failure
Before tie-break 1 Before tie-break 2
High self-esteem
Low self-esteem
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