Article

V šesti jazycích: Nad knihou Pražská škola v korespondenci

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Abstract

This article refers to recent literature on the history of the Prague Linguistic Circle, primarily focusing on an extensive edition of correspondence-The Prague School in Correspondence: Letters 1924-1989, edited by Vladimír Petkevič and Marie Havránková. The author compares the state of knowledge of the history of the Prague Linguistic Circle and the Moscow Linguistic Circle, concluding that the Russian material has previously only been partially published and annotated, and that the most recent publications on the history of the Prague Linguistic Circle will serve as a model to compete against and imitate.

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... По словам Галина Тиханова, рождавшаяся на глазах современников Центральная Европа «развивалась на стыке национального энтузиазма и культурного космополитизма, выходящего за рамки местной инкапсуляции и моноглоссии» [Tihanov, 2004, p. 67] 5 . Отсылая к концепции «travelling theory» Эдварда Саида [Said, 2000], Тиханов отмечает «огромную важность изгнания и эмиграции для рождения современной литературной теории в Восточной 4 Некоторые соображения были уже высказаны в моей рецензионной статье [Pilščikov, 2015]. 5 «...developed at the intersection between national enthusiasms and a cultural cosmopolitanism that transcended local encapsulation and monoglossia». ...
Article
The article discusses the multilingual correspondence of the Prague Linguistic Circle in connection with the typology of scholarly associations, on the one hand, and “cultural polyglottism” of the Prague School, on the other. The author provides addenda to the academic edition Pražská škola v korespondenci: Dopisy z let 1924–1989 (Prague: Karolinum, 2014). Special attention is paid to Roman Jakobson’s Czechoslovak years.
Chapter
First, mobility must be taken in a highly literal sense. Boarding a plane, venturing on a ship, climbing onto the back of a wagon, crowding into a coach, mounting on horseback, or simply setting one foot in front of the other and walking: these are indispensable keys to understanding the fate of cultures. The physical, infrastructural, and institutional conditions of movement – the available routes; the maps; the vehicles; the relative speed; the controls and costs; the limits on what can be transported; the authorizations required; the inns, relay stations and transfer points; the travel facilitators – are all serious objects of analysis. Only when conditions directly related to literal movement are firmly grasped will it be possible fully to understand the metaphorical movements: between center and periphery; faith and skepticism; order and chaos; exteriority and interiority. Almost every one of these metaphorical movements will be understood, on analysis, to involve some kinds of physical movement as well. Second, mobility studies should shed light on hidden as well as conspicuous movements of peoples, objects, images, texts, and ideas. Here again it would be well to begin with the literal sense: moments in which cultural goods are transferred out of sight, concealed inside cunningly designed shells of the familiar or disguised by subtle adjustments of color and form. From here it is possible to move to more metaphorical notions of hiddenness: unconscious, unrecognized, or deliberately distorted mobility, often in response to regimes of censorship or repression. © Stephen Greenblatt, Ines Županov, Reinhard Meyer-Kalkus, Heike Paul, Pál Nyíri, Friederike Pannewick 2010.
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A novel type of electro-optic diffractive element is presented which can satisfy the requirements for a high space-time bandwidth deflector while providing for two-dimensional random access beam steering control. The basic device consists of a multichannel array of phase modulators fabricated using Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) operating as a programmable diffractive optical element. Two-dimensional deflection control can be readily obtained by crossing two one-dimensional arrays. This device is useful for wavelengths in the visible to mid-IR range and is based on PLZT ceramic materials which can be readily mass-produced. It possesses the versatility and multifunctionality of liquid crystal based optical phased array systems while allowing for very fast switching speeds with good thermal stability. We present a brief comparison of this novel deflector with other scanning technologies and outline the benefits and trade-offs of the PLZT-based device. Experiments on 16- and 32-channel arrays with full wave voltages less than 400 volts demonstrate continuous lateral beam steering control of a HeNe laser beam. We also demonstrate full deflection control with a minimum number of control lines using a modified deflector arrangement. And we present measurements showing sub- microsecond switching speeds from such PLZT-based phase modulators. Mature versions of this type of scanner will find use in a wide variety of applications including 2-D and 3-D laser displays, laser communications, and LIDAR systems.