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The functions of tomato lycopene and its role in human health

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... Among the common carotenoids, lycopene stands as the most potent antioxidant, as demonstrated by in vitro experimental systems (Di Paola et al, 2005). The antioxidant potency of lycopene carotenoids is greater than alpha-tocopherol, α-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, ß-carotene and lutein (Levy and Sharoni, 2004). Mixtures of carotenoids are more effective than single compounds (Levy and Sharoni, 2004 ). ...
... The antioxidant potency of lycopene carotenoids is greater than alpha-tocopherol, α-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, ß-carotene and lutein (Levy and Sharoni, 2004). Mixtures of carotenoids are more effective than single compounds (Levy and Sharoni, 2004 ). This synergistic effect was more pronounced when lycopene or lutein was present. ...
... This synergistic effect was more pronounced when lycopene or lutein was present. The superior protection of mixtures may be related to the specific positioning of different carotenoids in cell membranes (Levy and Sharoni, 2004). In the present study, 100% natural lycopene with added phytonutrients such as phytoene, phytofluene, ß-carotene, phytosterols, and vitamin E was used. ...
... It is commonly used as food (tomato-based food: tomato paste, tomato sauce, tomato soups, etc.). Generally the tomato fruit and tomato-based products provide to the human body about 85% of lycopene, while the remaining 15% is usually obtained from the consumption of watermelon, apricot, peach, papaya and red berries [74]. ...
... In addition to lycopene, tomato contains lycopene cyclase (the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of lycopene to β-carotene). The number of the mechanisms of action that have been proposed for the control of adenocarcinoma, as well as adenoma, is various, including: inhibition of growth factor-induced cell proliferation, interferences in the progression of the cell cycle from the G0/G1 to the S phase, modulation of the COX pathway, down-regulation of 5alpha-reductase type 1, pro-apoptotic activity (potentially due to alpha-tomatine) [80], inhibition of the synthesis of the androgen receptor (which leads to a PSA reduction), and antioxidant activity [74,[76][77][78]81]. The latter property consists of the high capacity of lycopene (compared to other carotenoids) to capture oxygen radicals otherwise responsible for DNA damage [76]. ...
... The Scientific Committee on Food of the European Commission has considered the use of lycopene synthetic preparations unacceptable as food, because of their high sensitivity to oxygen and light, which form degradation products with mutagenic activity [74]. Moreover, lycopene induces phase and metabolism enzymes and, even if helpful for the elimination of carcinogens and toxins from the body, particular attention must be devoted to the concomitant use of pharmaceutical products [74]. ...
... The quantity of lycopene in a product varies from 2 mg/1 in bottled water to 130 mg/ kg in ready-to-eat cereals (Rath S, Olempska-Beer Z, 2007). The presence of antioxidant in a product is believed to prevent the degradation of the other food components in the same •Anti-carcinogenic activities [29] •Skin protection [29] β-Carotene (red-orange) [56] •Antioxidant (Manjunath J., Shetty, P.R., Geethalekshm I., 2018) •Chemo-prevention effects [23] Anthocyanin (red/blue/purple/green) C •Avoid coronary heart diseases [13] •Strong in bactericidal [13] •Antiviral and fungistatic activities [13] •Protect body against free radicals [13] •Decrease the risk of heart diseases and cancer [13] Chlorophylls (green) ...
... The quantity of lycopene in a product varies from 2 mg/1 in bottled water to 130 mg/ kg in ready-to-eat cereals (Rath S, Olempska-Beer Z, 2007). The presence of antioxidant in a product is believed to prevent the degradation of the other food components in the same •Anti-carcinogenic activities [29] •Skin protection [29] β-Carotene (red-orange) [56] •Antioxidant (Manjunath J., Shetty, P.R., Geethalekshm I., 2018) •Chemo-prevention effects [23] Anthocyanin (red/blue/purple/green) C •Avoid coronary heart diseases [13] •Strong in bactericidal [13] •Antiviral and fungistatic activities [13] •Protect body against free radicals [13] •Decrease the risk of heart diseases and cancer [13] Chlorophylls (green) ...
... Consumption of the tomatoes or tomatoes products in a single serving per daily can protect the DNA from damage that causes in the pathogenesis of cancer [14,43]. Antioxidants that exist inside of lycopene can act as skin protection due to its efficiency to scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce photo-oxidative damage that causes to the skin ageing and skin cancer [29]. ...
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Natural plant pigments have attracted researchers to investigate the application of these dyes in food products. Besides, public awareness of the adverse effects of synthetic dye also increased the demand for natural pigments. Various colours can be obtained from different plants. Interestingly, these pigments are not only beneficial in the appearance of final food products, but they are very advantageous to the plant itself, food and human nutrition. Hence, this article reviews the state-of-the-art establishment of plant pigment application in food products. This review starts with a brief explanation of plant pigment usage in food, followed by clarifications on the functions of six primary plant dyes and the extraction of the natural pigments. The importance of natural pigments is shared. A highlight of future challenges facing the food industry in utilizing natural pigment is also discussed.
... Lycopene (LPN) is a red-colored carotenoid that has a variety of therapeutic properties like inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, antioxidant activity, inducing phase II, interference with growth factor stimulation, control of transcription and restoration of gap junctions. Lycopene has also a unique antioxidant activity via its physical and chemical quenching ability of singlet oxygen [10]. However; the direct evaluation of this anti-oxidant role in OLP wasn't assessed. ...
... • Salivary samples were taken at the same time of day (10)(11)(12) am) and at least 2 hrs after the last food or drink intake. ...
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Objectives: This trial is designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of oral lycopene (LPN) compared to prednisolone (PSN) in oral lichen planus (OLP) symptomatic patients. Materials and Methods: 40 patients suffering from atrophic/erosive OLP were included in this double-blinded randomized clinical trial. Patients were equally and randomly assigned into 2 groups: LPN was administered in 10 mg/day (Group 1, n=20) and PSN was given as 40 mg/day (Group 2, n=20); for 8 successive weeks. Outcome measures included the visual analogue scale and clinical scoring. The un-stimulated salivary MDA was also assayed at baseline, then at weeks: 2, 4 and 8 after therapy. Results: In both groups, the reduction of pain and clinical scores was statistically significant (p<0.05) at weeks (2, 4 and 8) after administration as well as the mean expression levels of salivary MDA (p<0.05). A non-significant difference was recorded between both groups at each time point (p≥0.05). Conclusions: Prednisolone and oral lycopene are similarly effective in the treatment of symptomatic OLP patients.
... Tomato consumption has recently been demonstrated to possess health benefits (Levy and Sharoni, 2004;Hsu et al., 2008;Eunmi et al., 2012), because of its rich content of bioactive phytonutrients such as lycopene, βcarotene, vitamins E and C, phenolics, organic acids *Corresponding author. E-mail: nkhatasmith@yahoo.co.uk. ...
Article
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Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is processed into different products including tomato sauce. The aim of this study was to determine the quality attributes of homemade tomato sauce during storage at 6 and 30°C for 8 weeks. At 4 weeks, there were no significant changes in sensory attributes during storage at both 6 and 30°C. There were significant differences (P˂0.05) of sensory attributes after 6 weeks. Sauce stored at 30°C had higher microbial load than at 6°C. Both sensory mean scores and pH were inversely related to microbial growth. Therefore, the shelf-life of homemade tomato sauce could be increased at low temperature (6°C).
... The most health promoting benefits and nutritional value of tomatoes have been attributed mostly to the significant amount of lycopene content. Various investigations suggest that lycopene plays a significant role in the prevention of different health issues such as chronic diseases, cardiovascular disorders, digestive tract tumors and inhibiting prostate carcinoma cell proliferation in humans (Levy and Sharoni, 2004). Little investigations have been found in the literature dealing with the contents of lycopene and carotene in tomato fruits as a response to growing conditions particularly variations in solar radiation and temperature. ...
... In recent years, functional foods and nutraceuticals have attracted much attention, particularly with respect to protective dietary intake. Many epidemiological studies have described that consumption of large quantities of vegetables and fruits reduces the risk of many types of human disease (Rao and Agarwal 2000; Levy and Sharoni 2004). It is well known that the antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables differs with varieties and agronomic 185Veberic et al. 2005; Mikulic Petkovsek et al. 2007; Usenik et al. 2008). ...
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The aim of this research was to evaluate the color, firmness, and total phenolic (TP) content in tomatoes according to cultivar and growing conditions. Cultivars with oval, elongated, round, and cherry-shaped fruits of determinate tomato were grown in Mediterranean (Dragonja Valley) and continental regions. Experiments in the continental region were conducted outdoors (Ljubljana-field) and under a low tunnel (Ljubljana-tunnel). Results indicated that the color and firmness were significantly influenced by the typology of the cultivars and by the maturity stage associated with the climatic conditions. Oval, elongated, and cherry fruits had darker and more intensely red fruit skins, with significantly higher a* and lower L* values than round fruits. The firmness of oval and elongated fruits was also higher than the firmness of round fruits. Fruits harvested in Dragonja Valley and the Ljubljana-tunnel location reached a higher level of maturity and were classified in the red maturity class (a*/b* > 0.95), compared to the fruits from the Ljubljana-field location, where tomatoes were classified in the light red maturity class (0.65 > a*/b* > 0.95). Variation in total phenol (TP) content was evaluated in regards to different microclimatic conditions of the Ljubljana locations, outdoors and under the low tunnel. TP content, expressed as chlorogenic acid, ranged from 1.89 mg 100 g -1 to 3.28 mg 100 g -1 fresh weight (fw) in field-grown tomatoes and from 2.31 mg 100 g -1 to 4.90 mg 100 g -1 in tunnel-grown tomatoes. Cherry tomato had a significantly higher content of TP, ranging from 8.60 mg 100 g -1 fw in field-grown fruits to 10.39 mg 100 g -1 fw in tunnel-grown fruits. Although the differences between TP content in tomato fruits, regarding the microclimatic environment, were not statistically significant, the increase in TP content in tunnel-grown tomato fruits could be a plant response mechanism to thermal stress.
... Tomato contains different types of pigments including lycopene (a non-provitamin A), one of the major constituents responsible for remarkable antioxidant activity that helps in reduction of risks of cancer and heart diseases (Rao and Agarwal, 1999). Most of the lycopene content in food items is derived from tomato followed by other sources like watermelon, guava and pink grape fruit (Lin and Chen, 2003;Levy and Sharoni, 2004). Currently, worldwide productivity of tomato is facing the challenges of biotic and abiotic stress factors. ...
... Los consumidores son cada vez más exigentes en cuanto a la calidad organoléptica y demandan frutos más nutritivos que vistosos. Además, investigaciones recientes ponen de manifiesto la significación que para la salud humana tienen las sustancias con actividad antioxidante presentes en sus frutos: vitamina C, caroteno y, sobre todo, licopeno, las cuales participan en los procesos de protección del organismo humano frente a las enfermedades propias del estilo de vida moderno (2). Es por ello que la mejora de la calidad de este cultivo adquiere cada vez mayor importancia. ...
Article
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El presente trabajo muestra la evaluación de la presencia de mancha solar en frutos de tomate durante dos años de cultivo. Se estudiaron cuatro variedades de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivadas en época óptima de siembra. Los resultados demuestran la incidencia de mancha solar en los frutos de las variedades evaluadas: síntomas de hombro amarillo (YS), desorden del hombro amarillo por debajo de la piel roja del fruto amarillo (YSD) y tejido interno blanco (IWT). Solo una variedad presentó alta intensidad y severidad de YS, Severino Corbarese con 80,8 %. YSD fue el síntoma más frecuenteen los dos años estudiados, seguido de IWT. El único factor climático que difirió en los dos años fue la radiación global y las precipitaciones. La incidencia y severidad de este desorden fue genotipo dependiente, pero la interacción con estos factores ambientales pudiera ser el detonante de su aparición. Estos resultados recomiendan la necesidad de realizar estudios genéticos más detallados en el germoplasma caracterizado como susceptible o tolerante, de manera que permitan encontrar una explicación clara de sus causas y desarrollo.
... Epidemiological studies have shown that the increased consumption of lycopenerich food is associated with lower risk of cancer (Giovannucci, 1999). Furthermore, results suggest that lycopene plays a role in the prevention of different health issues, such as chronic diseases, cardiovascular disorders, digestive tract tumors, and can also inhibit prostate carcinoma cell proliferation in humans (Levy and Sharoni, 2004). In tomatoes, the changes in content, chemical composition, and antioxidative properties during ripening depend on environmental factors such as temperature, light, water availability and nutrient availability (Cano et al., 2003;Jimenez et al., 2002), the agricultural techniques, cultivars, plant growth regulators and ripening stage (Kotíková et al., 2011;Ozgen et al., 2012). ...
Article
Due to their health benefits, high concentrations of antioxidative compounds in vegetables and fruit are important for end-consumers. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of continuous red light and short periods of daily ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the postharvest quality of green tomatoes. Green tomatoes were exposed for 30 min to UV radiation, continuous red light or a combination of both for up to 20 d. Non-treated (control) fruit ripened within 15 d while fruit exposed to red light and a combination of red light with UV radiation required five days less to reach the same maturity level. In addition, the exposure to red light alone or in combination with UV raised concentrations of lycopene, ß-carotene, total flavonoids and phenolics. This possibility to steer the concentrations of health-promoting antioxidants through light treatments is a safe method to increase fruit quality according to customer wishes and demands.
... Later it can be regarded as functional food (Jack 1995) as its consumption has a favorable effect on human health (Canene-Adams et al. 2005). Tomato is the most important lycopene source of human, 85% of lycopene consumed originate from tomato (Levy and Sharoni 2004). According to epidemiologic studies, it is suggested that tomato consumption relates to the reduced occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and different cancer types due to carotenoid (Giovannucci 1999) polyphenolic (Vallverdú-Queralt 2012) and vitamin C contents (Adalid et al. 2010). ...
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Tomato is one of the most important and frequently consumed vegetable species in Hungary, as well as a significant vitamin source throughout the year. Due to its antioxidant content, tomato consumption is related to the reduced occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and certain cancer types. In our study, four Hungarian tomato accessions [RCAT030275 (Cegléd), RCAT031012 (Veresegyház), RCAT031095 (Cigánd), RCAT054422 (Jánoshalma)] and a commercial cultivar (Hellfrucht) were investigated according to antioxidant capacity [ferric reducing power (FRAP), total phenol content (TPC) and radical scavenging activity (DPPH)], lycopene and ascorbic acid content. A two year (2013-2014) open field trial was carried out in the certified organic area of SZIE Soroksár Experimental and Educational Station. Our results showed that no significant differences were between the landraces and the variety in DPPH values, while TPC values were higher in both years in the landraces, especially in RCAT031095, and RCAT054422. The lycopene content of RCAT031012, RCAT031095 and RCAT054422 was also higher in both years than those of Hellfrucht. The results demonstrate that small-scale production of the investigated landraces could be marketable.
... Recent studies have shown that ingested lycopene is metabolized in the body. Several metabolites have now been identified and characterized (Joseph Levy and Yoav Sharoni, 2004). Various researches show that lycopene can be used for the treatment of prostrate cancer. ...
Article
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A modern life style keeps people away from healthy diet. For healthy dietary habits one should increase the consumption of food products which are helpful in the prevention of illness. Fruits and vegetables are main source of natural antioxidant components. Antioxidants give protection against harmful free radicals and reduce rate of cancer and heart disease. The most efficient carotenoid antioxidant is Lycopene. Lycopene a natural pigment in papaya protects the body by neutralizing the negative effects of oxidants. Researches show that lycopene can be absorbed more efficiently by the body after it has been processed into juice, sauce, paste, or ketchup. In fresh fruit, lycopene is enclosed in the fruit tissue whereas in processed fruits it is more bio-available and increases the surface area for digestion. The present study is aimed at extracting Lycopene from Papaya and conducting Antioxidant studies using DPPH method.
... Among vegetables and other fruits, tomato contains the highest amount of lycopene. 85% of consumed lycopene originates from tomato or tomatobased products (Levy & Sharoni, 2004). Lycopene, together with other bioactive compounds of tomato, is capable of reducing the risk for oxidative stress related diseases (Abete et al., 2013). ...
Article
The goal of our work is to identify a combination of methodologies, which is proven to be capable to the multidimensional evaluation of the phytonutrient content of the investigated tomato landraces for fresh consumption. Flavor and phytonutrient levels in modern tomato varieties have shown significant decrease in the last decades. Several authors suggest re-introducing old varieties, gene bank accessions and/or landraces to reverse these trends. We use a combination of the leave-one-out cross-validation methodology of sum of ranking difference (SRD) values and significant differences by post hoc Wilcoxon matched pairs test to evaluate various tomato landraces and a commercial variety. Our statistical analysis provides a theoretical best variety to measure against. This defined procedure clearly identifies significant differences among the phytonutrient profiles allowing for grouping by favorable characteristics. The tomato is used here due to the complex collection of phytochemicals, antioxidants, and phytonutrients effecting nutrition and consumer preference.
... It was reported, lycopene plays a role in the prevention of different health issues, cardiovascular disorders, digestive tract tumors and in inhibiting prostate carcinoma cell proliferation in humans (Levy and Sharoni, 2004). ...
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p>From the selected area of Dharan, Sunsari, Nepal, conventional and organic tomatoes were grown and tested with different parameters. Conventional tomatoes contained less value of Mg, Ca, K, Cu and Mn, but more value of Fe than organic tomatoes, where as Pb and Ni were not detected.The Zn was found to be same in both tomatoes sample. The sizes of conventional tomatoes were reportedly bigger than organic tomatoes. The viscosity and surface tension of organic tomatoes juice were reported to be higher than in conventional tomatoes juice. The refractive index value was found to be lower in conventional tomatoes juice than in organic tomatoes juice. The vitamin C value was found to be higher in conventional tomatoes juice than in organic tomatoes juice. The comparative study of color, juice containing capacity, storage capacity and firmness of organic and conventional tomatoes of Dharan,Sunsari,Nepal has also been included. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(1): 91-97 </p
... Among economically important vegetables, the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most widely cultivated. It is consumed widely throughout the world and has been demonstrated to possess health benefits due to its rich content of phytonutrients [1,2] and great importance in metabolic activities of the human body [3]. In developing countries, fresh tomatoes have for a long time been produced for both domestic and export markets, with an increasing demand for processing [4]. ...
Article
Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) are one of the biggest vegetable crops in the world, supplying a wide range of vitamins, minerals and fibre in human diets. In the tropics, tomatoes are predominantly grown under sub-optimal conditions by subsistence farmers, with exposure to biotic and abiotic stresses in the open field. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) is one of the major pests of the tomato, potentially causing up to 100% yield loss. To control whitefly, most growers indiscriminately use synthetic insecticides which negatively impact the environment, humans, and other natural pest management systems, while also increasing cost of production. This study sought to investigate the effectiveness of agronet covers and companion planting with aromatic basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) as an alternative management strategy for whitefly in tomatoes and to evaluate the use of these treatments ontomato growth and yield. Two trials were conducted at the Horticulture Research and Training Field, Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya. Treatments comprised a combination of two factors, (1) growing environment (agronet and no agronet) and (2) companion planting with a row of basil surrounding tomato plants, a row of basil in between adjacent rows of tomato, no companion planting. Agronet covers and companion cropping with a row of basil planted between adjacent tomato rows significantly lowered B. tabaci infestation in tomatoes by 68.7%. Better tomato yields were also recorded in treatments where the two treatments were used in combination. Higher yield (13.75 t/ha) was obtained from tomatoes grown under agronet cover with a basil row planted in between adjacent rows of the tomato crop compared to 5.9 t/ha in the control. Non-marketable yield was also lowered to5.9 t/ha compared to 9.8 t/ha in the control following the use of the two treatments in combination. The results of this study demonstrate the potential viability of using companion cropping and agronet covers in integrated management of B. tabaci and improvement of tomato yield.
... Hence, the decrease in cellular cyclin D1 level by lycopene provides a mechanistic clarification for the anticancer activity of the carotenoid. [32] ROS have great potential to oxidative damage of the vital cellular constituents such as proteins and cause alterations in the signal transduction pathways that control the expression of genes required to execute cell death. Protein metabolic perturbations in the tissue of host may also favor the growth of tumor. ...
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Objective: This study aims to evaluate the role of Lycopersicon esculentum in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced and phenobarbital (PB)-promoted hepatocellular carcinoma. Materials and Methods: The hepatocarcinogenesis was induced in male Wistar albino rats by DEN (single injection, 200 mg/kg, i.p.); 2 weeks later, 0.05% w/v of PB was administered through drinking water for 16 weeks. The treatment group rats received a similar dosage as above along with enzymatic extract of L. esculentum (250 mg/kg body weight p.o.) at 3rd week onward. The carcinogenesis was evaluated by estimating biochemical markers such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin, DNA and RNA levels, liver protein, and cancer biomarkers as alpha.fetoprotein (AFP). Results: Treatment with enzymatic extract of L. esculentum significantly reduced DEN/ PB.mediated elevation of ALT, AST, ALP, and bilirubin levels. A significant decrease in the levels of DNA, RNA, and AFP and increase in liver protein were observed when L. esculentum.treated rats were compared with DEN/PB.treated rats. Conclusion: The present study suggests that L. esculentum possesses chemopreventive activity against DEN-induced and PB-promoted liver cancer.
... Cdk activity is modulated in both a positive and negative manner by cyclins and Cdk inhibitors, respectively. It is known that growth factors affect the cell cycle apparatus primarily during G1 phase, and that the D-type cyclins are the main elements acting as growth factor sensors (Pestell et al., 1999;Sherr and Roberts, 1999;Levy and Sharoni, 2004). ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to characterize the morphometry of the femoral nerve in aging rats with metabolic syndrome compared to controls. Systolic blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose were measured, and myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in the femoral nerves were quantitatively assessed under electron microscopy. Aging rats exposed to a regimen of metabolic syndrome developed elevation of plasma glucose concentration, mild hypertension and polyneuropathy characterized by a decrease in myelin fiber area, axon diameter, myelin sheath thickness and myelin fiber loss in the femoral nerve. The histogram of size distribution for myelinated fibers and axons from the aging rats of the control group was bimodal. For aging MS animals, the histogram turned out to be unimodal. The ultrastructure of unmyelinated fibers and of Schwann cells in 18-month-old rats was well preserved. Granules of lipofuscin were seen in unmyelinated fiber axons of 18-month-old rats with MS. The damage percentage of the large myelinated fibers has increased significantly in 18-month-old and 18-month-old (MS) rats in relation to the controls. No significant difference was observed among the groups for the g-ratio. Comparing the three groups, the number of neurotubules and neurofilaments in myelinated fibers of 18-month-old rats with MS was significantly smaller than for the groups of 18-month-old and 14-month-old rats. The overall changes seen in the femoral nerve from aging rats seem minor compared to the changes in the aging rats with MS, suggesting that long-term MS accelerates the progressive modifications in peripheral nerves that develop in old age.
... Therefore, tomato products and their quality can be well characterized by the content of these elements. Human gets 85% of the lycopene from tomatoes and their products (Levy, Sharon, 2004). That is the reason why tomatoes are used in functional food products (Shi et al., 2002), and sometimes they can be used as functional food (Canene-05). ...
Conference Paper
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Investigation was carried out at the Institute of Horticulture Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. Tomatoes were growth using two different farming systems (organic and conventional) in no heated greenhouses in the natural soil. The study object was tomato cultivar 'Vilina' and two tomato hybrids 'Benito' and 'Tolstoi'. Tomato fruit quality and physiological parameters were evaluated: there was established the amount of dry matter, soluble solids, lycopene and β—carotene, also skin and flesh firmness and color coordinates (CIE L*, a*, b*, C, h°). Our research showed that higher dry matter and soluble solids content was found in organically growth tomato of all investigated cultivars compared with conventional growth tomato, but determined differences were not statistically significant. An average amount of lycopene in organic fruits was significant higher compared with conventional ones. A comparison of 13-carotene in organic and conventional tomato showed that significant higher amount was established only in organic fruits of hybrid 'Tolstoi'. Average data of fruit firmness revealed that conventional tomato fruits had stronger skin and flesh compared with organic ones, but difference was not significant. It was established significant increase in tomato fruit color tone (by 4.78 units) and pureness (by 2.46 units) in conventional tomato, meanwhile organic tomato fruits distinguished with significant higher value of color index a* (redness) by 4.18 units.
... It has a variety of therapeutic properties like inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, antioxidant activity, inducing phase II enzymes, interference with growth factor stimulation, regulation of transcription, and restoration of gap junctions. 14,15 According to the study conducted by Saawarn et al, 16 lycopene 8 mg/day reduces the symptoms of OLP. ...
Article
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Introduction: Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory, auto-immune, mucocutaneous disease of which the etiology is unknown. In Greek "lichen" means tree moss and "planus" means flat. It affects the skin, mucous membrane, nails, and hair. It is seen in 1 to 2% of the population. As the exact caus-ative factor for oral lichen planus (OLP) is a matter of conflict, the failure to achieve proper or specific treatment for it may be reason for its incomplete regression. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of OLP but because of their adverse effects various other agents have been tried in the treatment of OLP.
... However, one study has reported significantly decreased levels of lycopene in patients with atrophic and erosive OLP, [43] and its role in the disease pathology needs further investigation. Further, by virtue of its AO and anticancer properties, [44] it may be useful in the prevention of malignant transformation in the OLP. ...
Article
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Without pigments, we are nothing. Life presents us with a kaleidoscope of colors. From the green grass of home to a forest's ruddy autumn hues, we are surrounded by living colors. Living things obtain their colors, with few exceptions, from natural pigments. In addition to their role in coloration, natural pigments carry out a variety of important biological functions. Of the various classes of pigments in nature, the carotenoids are among the most widespread and important ones, especially due to their varied functions. Lycopene is a red plant pigment found in tomatoes, apricots, guavas, watermelons, papayas, and pink grapefruits, with tomatoes being the largest contributor to the dietary intake of humans. Lycopene exhibits higher singlet oxygen quenching ability. Due to its strong color and nontoxicity, it is a useful food coloring agent. Moreover, it plays a multifunctional role as a nonsurgical aid in the treatment of oral diseases like leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, lichen planus, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and also prevents the destruction of periodontal tissues. This review article focuses mainly on the role of lycopene in the prevention of various oral diseases.
... The health promoting benefits of tomatoes and tomato products have been attributed mostly to the significant amount of lycopene contained. The results of various studies suggest that lycopene plays a role in the prevention of different health issues, cardiovascular disorders, digestive tract tumors and in inhibiting prostate carcinoma cell proliferation in humans [10]. ...
... Therefore, tomato products and their quality can be well characterized by the content of these elements. Human gets 85% of the lycopene from tomatoes and their products (Levy, Sharon, 2004). That is the reason why tomatoes are used in functional food products (Shi et al., 2002), and sometimes they can be used as functional food (Canene-Adams et al., 2005;Viškelis et al., 2005). ...
Article
The study is based on the field experiment, carried out between 2009-2012 in Żyznów, in randomized blocks with 3 replications. The factors of experiment were, firstly the varieties of sweet potato: Carmen Rubin, Goldstar, White Triumph, and secondly the three various cultivation technologies: a) traditional farming method without protection, b) cultivation with use of PE-foil, c) cultivation with use of PP-non-woven fabric. The level of fertilization was kept on the constant level. The cultivation with use of protection caused brightening of the apical part, both the stolon parts, compared with the cultivated in traditional ways. The specific genetic features of different varieties of sweet potato were influencing the browning of flesh of cooked and raw potatoes.
... Therefore, tomato products and their quality can be well characterized by the content of these elements. Human gets 85% of the lycopene from tomatoes and their products (Levy, Sharon, 2004). That is the reason why tomatoes are used in functional food products (Shi et al., 2002), and sometimes they can be used as functional food (Canene-Adams et al., 2005;Viškelis et al., 2005). ...
Article
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In 2009–2011 there was investigated the effect of Asahi SL on crop and chemical composition of some potato cultivars: Denar, Irys, Satina. Studies were carried out in field experiment station in the central-eastern part of Polish on the soil of light loamy sand content. The experiment was set by the means of randomized sub-blocks in dependent system. The primary factors were: sub-blocks with Asahi SL; control group with distilled water. The secondary factors were three potato cultivars. Growth regulator Asahi SL contributed to the increase in the total yield and commercial tuber yield by modifying the structure. Asahi SL caused the increase of total and commercial crop of tubers as well as phenolic compounds content. The content of starch and vitamin C did not change, and levels of soluble, reductive sugars and sacharose decreased under this synthetic growth regulator influence. Among investigated varieties the most prolific was very early cultivar – Denar, the least prolific – middle early Satina. The highest levels of starch, soluble and reductive sugars as well as vitamin C was characterized Satina cultivar, the highest concentration of sacharose – Irys, and the phenolic compounds – Denar. The reaction of investigated varieties towards Asahi SL application – regarding the soluble, reductive sugars, sacharose, vitamin C and phenols – was differentiated . It was found positive interaction of this preparation with the crop and its quality. The most prolific cultivar appeared to be Denar, the richest in analyzed compounds – Satina.
... Many researchers have concluded that the antioxidant properties of lycopene are responsible for their ability to act against many diseases [5] including cancer. Tomatoes and tomato products provide about 85% of lycopene to human [6]. Lycopene is a factor antioxidant which is found predominately in all trans configuration. ...
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This study examines a kinetic model estimating the geranyl geranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) concentration in the carotenoid pathway in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicun). Kinetics of bioformation of carotenoids in tomatoes of different cultivars (Cherry-Nasmata, VAR-10, and 4-lobes) at different ripening stages and conditions was used to evaluate the GGPP concentration in the kinetic model. Physicochemical parameters, lycopene and beta-carotene contents were assessed and compared under the two ripening conditions using standard laboratory procedures. The solid contents in the three cultivars of tomato were in the range of 5.61% to 6.85% and 5.83% to 7.16% at field and ambient temperature ripening, respectively; the pH values were all in the acidic region. Highest lycopene and beta-carotene concentrations were observed in 4-lobes cultivar at field ripening. The obtained data from the empirical and kinetic modeling showed the exponential models as first-order kinetics for both lycopene and beta-carotene bioformation in Cherry-Nasmata and 4-lobes cultivars. This suggests that beta-carotene bioformation depends on the pathway of lycopene in the tomato cultivars. The quality parameters of the tomato cultivars showed that ripening conditions influenced the quality of tomato contents. Also the GGPP concentrations of some of the tomatoes were successfully estimated using the kinetic model.
... higher carotenoid in T 3 treatment as compared to T 2 -T 1 treatments and was minimum with T 1 treatment. The chemical fruit qualities (vitamin C, lycopene, and carotenoid) of tomato are very important ingredients of the human diet as these act as antioxidants in the human body, which removes free radicals formed during food digestion 34,35 . Fertilization is an essential element for crop growth and development that plays an indispensable role in accumulating nutrients and aromatic volatiles 36 . ...
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India produces around 19.0 million tonnes of tomatoes annually, which is insufficient to meet the ever-increasing demand. A big gap of tomato productivity (72.14 t ha–1) between India (24.66 t ha–1) and the USA (96.8 t ha–1) exist, which can be bridged by integrating trellis system of shoot training, shoot pruning, liquid fertilizers, farmyard manure, and mulching technologies. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted on tomato (cv. Himsona) during 2019–2020 at farmers' fields to improve tomato productivity and quality. There were five treatments laid in a randomized block design (RBD) with three replications; T1 [Farmer practice on the flatbed with RDF @ N120:P60:K60 + FYM @6.0 t ha−1 without mulch], T2 [T1 + Polythene mulch (50 microns)], T3 [Tomato plants grown on the raised bed with polythene mulch + FYM @ 8.0 t ha−1 + Single shoot trellis system + Side shoot pruning + Liquid Fertilizer (LF1—N19:P19:K19) @ 2.0 g l–1 for vegetative growth + Liquid Fertilizer (LF2—N0: P52: K34) @ 1.5 g l–1 for improving fruit quality], T4 [Tomato plants grown on the raised bed with polythene mulch + FYM @ 8.0 t ha−1 + Single shoot trellis system + Side shoot pruning + LF1 @ 4.0 g l–1 + LF2 @ 3.0 g l–1], and T5 [Tomato plants grown on the raised bed with polythene mulch + FYM @ 10.0 t ha−1 + Single shoot trellis system + Side shoot pruning + LF1 @ 6.0 g l–1 + LF2 @ 4.5 g l–1]. The results revealed that tomato plant grown on the raised beds with polythene mulch, shoot pruning, trellising, liquid fertilizers, and farmyard manure (i.e., T5) recorded higher shoot length, dry matter content, and tomato productivity by 20.75–141.21, 18.79–169.4, and 18.89–160.87% as compared to T4–T1 treatments, respectively. The T5 treatment also recorded the highest water productivity (28.39 kg m–3), improved fruit qualities, net return (10,751 USD ha–1), benefit–cost ratio (3.08), microbial population, and enzymatic activities as compared to other treatments. The ranking and hierarchical clustering of treatments confirmed the superiority of the T5 treatment over all other treatments.
... It can be grown in most soil types from the tropical to the arctic circle areas (Foolad, 2004). Tomato is rich in phytonutrients (Levy and Sharoni, 2004), a common source for providing vitamins A and C and can reduce prostate cancer risk (Campbell et al., 2004). ...
... 18 Recent research suggests that mixtures of antioxidants are more effective than the single compounds and the synergistic effect is more pronounced when lycopene lutein is present. 19 ...
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Purpose: Several epidemiologic studies have suggested a role of tomato products in decreasing the risk of the development of diseases related to oxidative stress (cancer and other chronic diseases). Oxidative stress may result in periodontal tissue damage either directly or indirectly. Lycopene, a powerful antioxidant and the main carotenoid in tomato products possesses the greatest quenching ability of singlet oxygen among the various carotenoids and is effective in protecting blood lymphocytes from NOO-radical damage. Hence, the aim of the present study is to compare the effect of systemically administered lycopene as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. Materials and methods: Twenty systemically healthy patients were involved in a randomized, double-blind, parallel study and based on their clinical signs were divided into two groups of mild to moderate periodontitis (A) and moderate gingivitis (B). The subjects under the groups A and B were randomly distributed between the two treatment groups: test group (n = 5), 4 mg lycopene/day for 2 weeks with oral prophylaxis (full mouth scaling and root planing (SRP) completed within 24 hours) and controls (n = 5), receiving only oral prophylaxis. Pre- and post-therapeutic periodontal parameters were evaluated. Results: In group A, statistically significant improvement in CAL was reported in test group as compared to control group. In group B, the difference between pretreatment and post-treatment bleeding on probing scores was found to be statistically non-significant in both groups. Conclusion: Results show that lycopene is a promising treatment modality as an adjunct to full mouth SRP of the oral cavity in patients with moderate periodontal disease. Clinical significance: Modulation of the free radical production seems to be essential for the inhibition of tissue destruction, and treatment with antioxidants, like lycopene, which is the most potent among them will block the production of free ROS or its effects might prove to be therapeutically valuable.
... It has a variety of therapeutic properties like inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, antioxidant activity, inducing phase II enzymes, interference with growth factor stimulation, regulation of transcription, and restoration of gap junctions. 14,15 According to the study conducted by Saawarn et al, 16 lycopene 8 mg/day reduces the symptoms of OLP. ...
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Introduction: Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory, auto-immune, mucocutaneous disease of which the etiology is unknown. In Greek "lichen" means tree moss and "planus" means flat. It affects the skin, mucous membrane, nails, and hair. It is seen in 1 to 2% of the population. As the exact caus-ative factor for oral lichen planus (OLP) is a matter of conflict, the failure to achieve proper or specific treatment for it may be reason for its incomplete regression. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of OLP but because of their adverse effects various other agents have been tried in the treatment of OLP.
... It has a variety of therapeutic properties like inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, antioxidant activity, inducing phase II enzymes, interference with growth factor stimulation, regulation of transcription, and restoration of gap junctions. 14,15 According to the study conducted by Saawarn et al, 16 lycopene 8 mg/day reduces the symptoms of OLP. ...
... The activity of hepatic tissue was further studied by estimation of DNA, RNA, normal serum protein, and cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein [57]. Earlier, it was proved by investigators that there is a significant elevation of DNA and RNA levels and a decrease in normal serum protein in cancer cells in response to a carcinogen like DEN+CCl 4 [58][59][60]. In the present study, harmaloltreated animals showed a significant decrease in DNA and RNA level and restoration of normal serum protein when compared to DEN+CCl 4 group further validating the anti-cancer property of the alkaloid. ...
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Background Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) promoted by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) forms DNA adducts inducing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Plant alkaloid, harmalol, is being used as a therapeutic agent against HCC due to its accessibility and efficacy by apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation of cancer epithelial cells. Result Seven groups of Swiss albino mice were taken. Different stages of liver tissues and serum from various experimental groups were collected before and after harmalol treatment. The investigation was carried out by enzyme assay, bilirubin level in the blood, DNA, RNA, normal serum protein of liver tissue, and alpha-feto protein estimation of serum. Gross morphological assessment of liver, histological, and different apoptosis markers viz. p53, caspase3, and cytochrome C expression were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot. Harmalol (10 mg/kg B.W. per week, I.P.) for 9 weeks showed a significant reduction in hepatocellular foci, nodules, and carcinoma ultimately retaining the normal morphology. It further induces ROS-dependent apoptosis through mitochondrial cytochrome C release that induces p53 by caspase3 activation. Conclusion The investigation will eventually help to develop more effective chemotherapeutic drugs from the natural source.
... Spiny bitter gourd or Gac fruit has high levels of lycopene and β-carotene in red aril of its fruits (Aoki et al., 2002;Vuong, 2014). Lycopene plays a ro le in the p rev en tio n o f sev eral d iseases su ch as cardiovascular disorders and digestive tract tumors and in inhibiting prostate carcinoma cell proliferation in humans (Levy & Sharoni, 2004). The seed membrane of the Gac fruit also contains a significant amount of oil, which is essential for the absorption and transport of β-carotene (Vuong & King 2003). ...
... Among diff erent vegetables, tomato captures about 60% of total fresh vegetables produced in the world. Tomato is a great source of diff erent vitamins that reduce the risk of diseases such as gastritis, prostate, breast cancer, skin erythema and coronary heart disease (Levy and Sharoni, 2005). Apart from its nutritional signifi cance, huge productivity of tomato is the blessing for landless farmers, laborers, distressed women of developing countries because it assists to increase income and reduce inequality (Mitra andYunus, 2018). ...
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Purpose: Tomato production in the world has increased tremendously within last few decades. Nevertheless, tomato farmers are facing production, market, price and financial uncertainty. Management of these risks is greatly influenced by their attitudes towards risk. So, the objective of this study is to determine the risk attitude and profitability of tomato farmers in Bangladesh. Research Method: Sixty sample respondents of tomato farmers were selected from Mymensingh district. The Safety-First principle was used to estimate risk attitude coefficient while obit regression model was utilized to estimate the factors affecting risk attitudes of tomato farmers. In addition, financial profitability was analyzed from different points of view. Findings: Most of the tomato farmers were risk averse. Results find that only 18% of farmers were risk preferring while 42% of farmers were risk averse. Risk preferences of farmers increase with training and education while risk preference decrease with age and experience. Training and education help to understand the importance of receiving newly introduced technology, timely application of seed, irrigation and fertilizer. Education assists to earn from diversified sources that make them risk preferred. The benefit cost ratio (BCR) of tomato farming was 2.31 indicating that tomato farming is profitable. Research Limitation: A small sample size was used for this study. Therefore, policy makers should be cautious to generalize the results to a wide context of tomato farmers in developing countries. Originality/ Value: Productivity and profitability of tomato farmers can be improved if farmers can manage different risks and uncertainty associated with production practices.
... Lycopene is an efficient singlet oxygen quenching carotenoids. [10] Due to its antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and free radical scavenging properties, it is used in the management of oral cancer or premalignant conditions such as oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and periodontal diseases, including OLP where the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation are increased, and while antioxidant activities are decreased. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effects of lycopene in the management of OLP in terms of elimination of clinical signs and symptoms of the patients. ...
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Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common subacute, chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease of the oral mucosa with unknown etiopathogenesis. Currently, the antioxidants such as retinoids, β-carotenoids, Aloe vera, purslane, turmeric, and lycopene are being successfully used in the treatment of OLP lesions, suggesting the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of OLP. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effects of lycopene in the management of OLP lesions. Materials and Methods: After obtaining written informed consent, 13 patients with symptomatic OLP and proven by biopsy were received capsule lycopene 4 mg/day for 8 consecutive weeks. The assessment was done at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of the interval using Thongprasom clinical sign scores to record the improvement in the clinical sign and symptoms of OLP lesions. Complete remission of the disease was defined as a complete absence of symptoms and clinical sign scores of OLP lesions. Results: Among 13 patients, seven patients were male. The age ranged from 27 to 74 years. At baseline, the mean Thongprasom clinical sign score was 2.77 ± 1.74 that became 0.85 ± 0.37 (69%) after 8 weeks of treatment with lycopene, which was statistically significant (P = 0.005). Complete remission of the lesions was seen in two patients, and partial remission was seen in 11 patients after 8 consecutive weeks of treatment with lycopene. Conclusion: The result of this study was encouraging. In contrast to other management modalities for OLP, lycopene offers a safe, efficacious, and reliable treatment that yields a significant improvement in the signs and symptoms of the patients, which may be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, lycopene can be recommended as a good treatment option in the prevention and management of OPL lesions.
... The small size snacking tomatoes (cherry, grape types) contain high concentrations of sugars and acids, major contributors to tomato flavor, and now comprise about 24% of retail sales of tomatoes in the U.S. [4]. Tomatoes are consumed widely throughout the world and their consumption has recently been demonstrated to possess health benefits because of its rich content of phytonutrients [5,6]. Postharvest recommendations indicate that tomatoes, including cherry tomatoes, should be stored at 10°C or higher to avoid chilling injury [7,8] and even 10°C may be detrimental to tomato flavor quality [9]. ...
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Cherry tomatoes are grown for its edible fruits, which can be consumed either fresh as a salad or after cooking as snacks. Cherry tomato is a store house of antioxidants such as Lycopene, ascorbic acid and phenolics.The study was conducted to undertake the effect of storage conditions on the post harvest quality of Cherry tomato cv. Marilee red (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) harvested at pink stages. The experiment consisted of three post harvest treatments comprising fruits dipped in cold water for five minutes (control), fruits dipped in CaCl 2 @ 2% and fruits dipped in acetic acid @ 5%. Fruits imposed with post harvest treatments were stored at ambient (temperature 25°C ± 2 and relative humidity approx. 75 ± 5%) and cold storage conditions (10°C ± 2). Physico-chemical changes recorded on 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 days of storage. Lycopene, ascorbic acid and total sugar changes recorded on 0, 4, 9, 14 days of storage. The data on physical characteristics (firmness, taste, juiciness, decay, colour, gloss, uniformity, shrivel) were recorded. CaCl 2 was the best treatment followed by control and acetic acid treatment. Significant differences observed among the chemical parameters due to various post harvest treatments and storage conditions. CaCl 2 had highest ascorbic acid, lycopene content and had lowest PLW, moisture content. Acetic acid had highest PLW, titratable acidity, moisture content and lowest TSS, lycopene, total sugar content. Control had highest TSS, total sugar content, lowest titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content at ambient and cold temperatures. TSS and acidity contents increased rapidly initially, but started decreasing gradually afterwards in all storage treatment. CaCl 2 was found highly effective in controlling storage loss as well as in maintaining the quality of the produce during storage. Although the ascorbic acid registered a decrease during storage, it could still contribute significantly towards the dietary intakes.
... Among the common carotenoids, lycopene stands as the most potent antioxidant, as demonstrated by invitro experimental systems [6]. The antioxidant potency of lycopene carotenoids is greater than alphatocopherol, α-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, ßcarotene and lutein [7]. ...
Article
O licopeno, pigmento lipossoluvel de coloracao avermelhada, esta dentre os mais de 600 carotenoides existentes e atualmente tem atraido bastante interesse devido a algumas propriedades farmacologicas relacionadas a saude humana. Definido quimicamente por uma estrutura aciclica com 40 atomos de carbono, o licopeno possui 11 duplas ligacoes conjugadas e 2 duplas ligacoes nao conjugadas com conformacao linear em all-trans, sendo muito eficiente no sequestro de oxigenio singlete e radicais de peroxil tendo com isso poderosa acao antioxidante. O licopeno esta presente em altos niveis no plasma e tecidos humanos com grande variacao na sua distribuicao, podendo ser encontrado no figado, pulmao, mama, prostata e pele. A funcao antioxidante do licopeno e associada aos efeitos das dietas ricas em alimentos fontes (tomate, goiaba vermelha, melancia, mamao e pitanga) na contribuicao da reducao dos riscos da ocorrencia de câncer de prostata e mama, alem de estudos na atuacao contra o câncer de esofago, gastrico, pulmao e beneficios para câncer de pâncreas, colon, reto, cavidade oral e cervical. Alem disso, sao relatados casos em que o consumo de licopeno esta sendo inversamente associado ao risco de infarto do miocardio e outras doencas cardiovasculares. Varios fatores podem interferir na biodisponibilidade do licopeno, dentre eles a quantidade de licopeno no alimento fonte, absorcao intestinal, formas de apresentacao, presenca da matriz alimentar, presenca de outros nutrientes na refeicao, ingestao de drogas, processamento do alimento, alem da individualidade biologica e do estado nutricional do individuo. O licopeno encontra-se em maior quantidade na casca dos alimentos, aumentando consideravelmente durante o seu amadurecimento. A quantidade de licopeno em produtos processados depende da composicao do alimento, da origem e das condicoes de processamento. 10.5216/ref.v6i2.6546
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Epidemiological studies have proved that tomato consumption is associated with the lower risk of developing several diseases (for example certain types of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, macular degeneration, age-related eye disease…). Many of micronutrients and bioactive compounds are mainly present in peel and seeds and are lost during the processing into sauce, puree, paste and juice. The addition of lyophilized and powdered tomato pomace enhances the properties of puree. In this paper we reported the chemical and physico-chemical characterization of a puree enriched with 2% of dry pomace. The comparison of the analytical data of starting puree with the enriched puree showed a significant increase of all micronutrients, without the taste and appearance are compromised or altered negatively. The product obtained is an example of a functional food rich in health promoting phytochemicals, with the significant aspect of recovering a waste fraction of the tomato processing that must be disposed of in a landfill with an increase in costs and environmental impact. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Over the past two and half decades there has been an explosion of progress in a growing number of model self incompatibility (SI) systems on our understanding of the molecular, biochemical and cellular processes underlying the recognition of self pollen and the initiation of a cascade of biochemical and cellular events that prevent self fertilization. These studies are unrevealing the complexity of a trait (SI) whose sole purpose, as far as we know, is to exert a strong influence on the breeding system of plants. Evolutionary interest in floral traits that influence the breeding system and in the forces that shape these traits began with Darwin who devoted one complete book to the subject (Darwin 1876) and significant portions of a second book. The evolution of plant breeding systems is often viewed as the interplay between the advantages and disadvantages of selfing. Evolutionary biologists have long noted that there are three primary advantages to selfing. First, there is an inherent genetic transmission advantage to selfing because a plant donates two haploid sets of chromosomes to each selfed seed and can still donate pollen to conspecifics. Second, selfing can provide reproductive assurance when pollinators are scarce or and third, it often costs less, in terms of energy and other resources, to produce selfed seed (e.g. fewer resources are expended to attract and reward pollinators. Some major questions remain unanswered concerning the evolution of stylar SRNases. Most pressing is the apparent disparity in patterns of diversification seen in the Solanaceae and Plantaginaceae relative to what is observed in the Rosaceae. Thus, we reviewing current publication regarding the evolutionary analysis basic RNases towards comprehensive.
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Fruits and vegetables are a rich source of carotenoids, which provide health bene:ts reducing the risk of several diseases, including certain cancers, cardiovascular and eye diseases, supported by extensive epidemiologic observation. Carotenoids that have been studied in this regard are β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. The rapid and large amount of experimental evidence has established that a diet containing tomato or products based on tomato results in a decrease of several types of cancer. This fact has stimulated extensive laboratory and clinical research as well as much commercial and public enthusiasm. However, evidence is controversial. The work of these authors on antioxidant compounds, especially in structural and bioactivity terms, has led to analyse whether the beneficial effects of lycopene are primarily due to its antioxidant properties or other possible mechanisms may be involved, such as the modulation of gap junctional intercellular communications, hormonal and immune systems, and metabolic pathways. In this paper, structural points of view, the antioxidant activity of lycopene, its content in tomatoes, other bioactive components, the possible mechanisms of action and their impact on prostate, colon, breast and endometrium cancer are discussed, according to case-control, cohort and epidemiological studies.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a greenhouse cover modified with nanoparticles and fluorescent pigments, named CIQA, on the yield and some biochemical variables and the quality of tomato fruits. The study was carried out at the Research Centre of Applied Chemistry located in Saltillo, Coahuila. Two greenhouses were prepared, one with a conventional cover and the other with the modified film. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the temperature inside and outside of the greenhouses were recorded. A tomato crop was established in the greenhouses, the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids was recorded for the plants and the content of Vitamin C and lycopene was recorded for the fruit. The maximum PAR readings were greater outside, followed by the conventional greenhouse and then the CIQA greenhouse. As for the temperature, the highest readings were recorded in the conventional plastic greenhouse, followed by the CIQA film and then the outside. Differences were observed during some samplings regarding the content of carotenoids, Vitamin C and lycopene. This makes it possible to conclude that the CIQA plastic film decreases the radiation and temperature inside the greenhouse, without affecting the quality standards of the fruit and the crop yield.
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Background: Lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous disease which involves 0.2‒4% of the population and has an unknown etiology. There is no definite treatment for the disease and current treatment modalities are palliative in nature. Although the exact cause of lichen planus is not clear, some scientists believe that free radicals and oxidative stress might have a role in causing this condition. The current study was conducted to assess the therapeutic effect of lycopene in treating erosive and atrophic oral lichen planus. Methods: Thirty patients whose disease was confirmed by a pathologist were included in the clinical trial from January to July 2016 in the Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. The first group was treated with topical corticosteroid and 15 mg of systemic lycopene daily for a month and the second group received only topical corticosteroids. We recommended that the patients use the drugs (topical corticosteroids) four times a day, avoiding taking food for one hour after applying the drugs. Pain severity was recorded by numeric rating scale before and after the treatment and disease score was recorded by Thongprasom scale before and after treatment. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the groups. Results: In the case and control groups, pain scores before treatment were 5.4±1.2 and 5.7±0.9, with 3.01±1.8 and 3.2±1.5 after treatment, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P= 0.6, P= 0.4). Disease scores before treatment were 4.1±1 and 4±0.8, with 1.7±1.2 and 1.8±1.5 after treatment, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups (P= 0.7, P= 0.8). Conclusion: In this study the use of systemic lycopene did not increase the effect of topical corticosteroid; in addition, the results showed that the systemic use of 15 mg of lycopene in addition to topical corticosteroid treatment had no significant effect on patients’ pain and disease scores in comparison to topical corticosteroids.
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Lycopene a carotenoid in the same family as beta-carotene, is what gives tomatoes, pink grapefruit, apricots, red oranges, watermelon, and guava their red color. Lycopene is not merely a pigment, it is a powerful antioxidant that has been shown to neutralize free radicals, especially those derived from oxygen, thereby conferring protection against prostate cancer, breast cancer, atherosclerosis, and associated coronary artery disease. It reduces LDL (low-density lipoprotein) oxidation and helps reduce cholesterol levels in the blood. In addition, preliminary research suggests lycopene may reduce the risk of macular degenerative disease, serum lipid oxidation, and cancers of the lung, bladder, cervix, and skin. The chemical properties of lycopene responsible for these protective actions are well-documented. The present study is aimed at extracting Lycopene from Papaya and study its multidimensional applications.
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Winter vegetable production has increased tremendously in Bangladesh. Excessive supply of vegetables reduces the market price that leads to economic loss at farm level. This study assesses the growth and trend of winter vegetables production, yield and area in Bangladesh. Semi-log regression model was used to assess the growth and trend of winter vegetables while Winston Prais transformation was utilized to solve the autocorrelation problem. Yearly time series data of collected from secondary sources was used for this analysis. Data were collected from 1986–87 to 2015–16 years. Data of some major winter vegetables like tomato, rabi brinjal, rabi pumpkin, water gourd, cauliflower, cabbage, radish, bean, green spinach were collected for this study. Results found that growth of tomato, cauliflower and cabbage production was about 5% which was much higher than other winter vegetables. Growth of cultivated area is about 3% per annum for most of the vegetables. Production of winter vegetables increases because of yield and area growth. Government can attempt to increase export of tomato, cauliflower and cabbage. Moreover, yield growth of green spinach and radish is necessary to increase both production and export. J. Bangladesh Agril. Univ. 16(3): 492–502, December 2018
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Background: Gentamicin (GEN) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is widely used in clinical practice in treatment of severe gram negative bacterial infections. Tomato lycopene (LYC) and ginger are powerful antioxidants against free radicals and oxidative attacks. Aim of the work: the aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of tomato LYC and Zingiber officinale ethyl acetate extract (ZOEAE) against GEN induced oxidative stress and apoptosis on kidney of adult albino rats. Material and methods: the study was conducted for 10 days on 72 adult albino rats of both sexes, divided into six main groups; one control (subdivided into 4 subgroups) and five treated groups (8 rats in each subgroup & group). Apart from Group І (control groups) the treated groups are treated as follow: Group ІI (LYC) treated orally with LYC (200 mg /kg/day). Group ІII (ZOEAE) treated orally with ZOEAE (200 mg /kg/day). Group IV (GEN) treated with IP injection of GEN (67.4 mg/kg/day). Group V (GEN + LYC) treated with GEN (67.4 mg/kg/day) along with LYC (200 mg/kg/day). Group VI (GEN + ZOEAE) treated with GEN (67.4 mg /kg/day) along with LYC (200 mg/kg/day). All animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose, their blood and kidney tissues were subjected to biochemical analysis, while the remining kidney tissues were stained for histopathological study. Results: GEN administration for 10 days significantly increased serum urea and creatinine concomitant with marked renal histopathological changes, suggesting nephtotoxicity. Also, it significantly increased renal malondialdehyde and decreased renal reduced glutathione and catalase activity, suggesting free radical formation. GEN also caused DNA fragmentation, suggesting apoptosis. Coadministration with either tomato LYC or ZOEAE produced approximate comprehensive improvements of all studied parameters with the superiority of ZOEAE as regard histopathology. Recommendations: supplementation with antioxidants e.g. LYC and ZOEAE are recommended in GEN treated patients to protect against nephrotoxicity. Keywords: Gentamicin – Lycopene - Ginger- Nephtotoxicity - Apoptosis - Oxidative Stress - DNA fragmentation assay - DNA laddering.
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Abstract In this study, the impact of scion/rootstock combinations on the composition of carotenoids and fruit firmness during three ripening stages was investigated. Two tomato cultivars were assessed as scions: 'Amati F1', and 'Gardel F1', grafted on two rootstocks: 'Body F1' and 'Robusta F1'. To evaluate the effect of grafting and ripening stages on firmness and colour evolution of tomato fruits, the lightness coefficient L* and a*/b* index were monitored in tomatoes, harvested at technological ripening stages (orange to light red and red). The effect of scion/rootstock combinations on the coloration of fruits was more pronounced than on the firmness of fruits. Significantly lower a*/b* ratio and higher L* values were measured on fruits from 'Body F1' rootstock, which could indicate slower ripening compared to 'Robusta F1' rootstock and non-grafted plants. Fruit firmness was only significantly affected by the scion cultivars and ripening stages. In tomato fruit, three carotenoids were detected; lycopene represented the major, beta-carotene the second prevailing and lutein the minor carotenoid. Grafting significantly affected the composition of carotenoids in fruits of 'Amati F1' scion, where a significant increase of lycopene and a decrease of beta-carotene were measured in fruits correlated with a change from orange to red colour. The composition of carotenoids in tomato fruit is usually under genetic control, which was confirmed also in our study. However, our results also indicate that the levels of carotenoids and their composition can additionally be affected by scion/rootstock regulation and ripening stages.
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