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Basketful benefits of papaya

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Papaya (Carica papaya linn) is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From the times immemorial, the whole Papaya plant including its leaves, seeds, ripe and unripe fruits and their juice is used as a traditional medicine. The fruit has a large oval shape, yellowish-green skin and yellow flesh. Nowadays, Papaya is considered as a Nutraceutical fruit due to its multi-faceted medicinal properties. The prominent medicinal properties of Papaya include Anti-fertility, Uterotonic, Diuretic, Anti-hypertensive, Hypolipidemic, Anti-helmintic, Wound-healing, Anti-fungal, Anti-bacterial, Anti-tumor and Free radical scavenging activities. Phytochemically, the whole plant contains enzymes (Papain), carotenoids, alkaloids, monoterpenoids, flavonoids, minerals and vitamins. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit. This tasty fruit of Papaya is popular among family members of all ages for the delicious dishes derived from it.
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Parle Milind et al. IRJP 2 (7) 2011 6-12
IRJP 2 (7) July 2011 Page 6-12
INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF PHARMACY ISSN 2230 8407
Available online http://www.irjponline.com
Review Article
BASKETFUL BENEFITS OF PAPAYA
Parle Milind * and Gurditta
Pharmacology Division, Dept. Pharm. Sciences (Accredited by NBA), Guru Jambheshwar University of
Science and Technology (A Grade NAAC Accredited University), Hisar (Haryana), INDIA.
Article Received on: 18/05/11 Revised on: 20/06/11 Approved for publication: 12/07/11
* Parle Milind, mparle@rediffmail.com
ABSTRACT
Papaya (Carica papaya linn) is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From the times
immemorial, the whole Papaya plant including its leaves, seeds, ripe and unripe fruits and their juice is used as a traditional medicine. The
fruit has a large oval shape, yellowish-green skin and yellow flesh. Nowadays, Papaya is considered as a Nutraceutical fruit due to its multi-
faceted medicinal properties. The prominent medicinal properties of Papaya include Anti-fertility, Uterotonic, Diuretic, Anti-hypertensive,
Hypolipidemic, Anti-helmintic, Wound-healing, Anti-fungal, Anti-bacterial, Anti-tumor and Free radical scavenging activities.
Phytochemically, the whole plant contains enzymes (Papain), carotenoids, alkaloids, monoterpenoids, flavonoids, minerals and vitamins. In
the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit. This tasty fruit of Papaya
is popular among family members of all ages for the delicious dishes derived from it.
KEYWORDS: Carica papaya linn., Papaya, Nutraceutical, Wound-healing.
INTRODUCTION
Papaya, a juicy and tasty fruit, belonging to family
Caricaceae is scientifically known as Carica papaya L. It
is grown in various parts of the world, including India,
tropical America and Europe. Papaya tree is basically a
short lived Indian tree. In the historic times, it was
considered as an exotic fruit because of its buttery taste
and appearance. Papaya was the first genetically
modified fruit consumed by human beings for its
nutritional and medicinal properties.
BOTANICAL CLASSIFIC ATION OF PAPAYA
Domain
Flowering plant
Kingdom
Plantae
Subkingdom
Tracheobionta
Class
Magnoliopsida
Subclass
Dilleniidae
Division
Magnoliophyta
Superdivision
Spermatophyta
Phyllum
Steptophyta
Order
Brassicales
Family
Caricaceae
Genus
Carica
Botanical name
Carica Papaya Linn
CULTIVARS OF PAP AYA
Variety
Characteristics
Kamiha
Genetically engineered fruit, well known for its
round shape, carry more flesh, more resistant to
viruses
Mexican red
Reddish to red-orange in color, more elongated in
shape and have red flesh
Mexican yellow
Yellowish in color, have yellowish flesh
Solo
Most common variety, this variety doesnt
produce any male tree, reddish-orange flesh, pear
shaped
Sunrise solo
Pear-shaped fruit, smooth skin, reddish orange
color, sweet, sugar content high
Sunset solo
Small to medium sized, pear-shaped, orange red
skin
Vista solo
Medium to large depending on climate, high
quality
Waimanalo solo (X-77)
Round fruit with neck, cavity star-shaped
HISTORY
Papaya is native to tropical America. It was found in
Southern Mexico and throughout the Andes of South
America. The Spanish carried it to Europe and the
Pacific Islands. Papaya was called as the fruit of the
Angles by Christopher Columbus. By the mid 17th
century, Papaya was distributed pantropically. Papaya
was introduced to Hawaii in 18th century, and Hawaii
remains the only state in the USA to produce Papaya
commercially. A small industry had developed in Florida
in the first part of 20th century, but declined rapidly due
to a virus viz Papaya-ringspot- virus that affected Papaya
fruit. In fact, the recent decline of the Hawaii industry
was caused primarily by the same pathogen (Papaya-
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ringspot-virus) that destroyed plants in Florida.
However, the disease was overcome by biotechnologists
at the University of Hawaii, who inserted a gene into the
Sunrise cultivar that conferred protection against virus.
This made Papaya the first genetically modified fruit
crop used for human consumption. Since1998, most of
the Papaya acreage in Hawaii has been changed to
genetically modified cultivar.
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION
Cultivation of Papaya is done almost in all parts of
world. It is indigenous to tropical America and cultivated
on large scale, in Sri Lanka, Tanzania, India, Hawaii,
Florida, Philippines, South Africa and Australia. In India,
Papaya is cultivated in Maharashtra, Bengal, Bihar,
Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar
Pradesh.
BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION
PLANT
Papaya plant is a large, single-stemmed herbaceous
perennial tree having 20-30 ft height. The leaves are very
large (up to 2 ½ ft wide), palmately lobed or deeply
incised with entire margins and petioles of 1-3 ft in
length. Stems are hollow, light green to tan brown in
color with diameter of 8 inches and bear prominent leaf
scars.
FRUIT
The fruits are big oval in shape and sometimes called
pepo- like berries, since they resemble melon by having
a central seed cavity. Fruits are borne axillary on the
main stem, usually singly but sometimes in small
clusters. Fruits weigh from 0.5 upto 20 lbs, and are green
until ripe, turning yellow or red-orange. Flesh is yellow-
orange to salmon (pinkish-orange) at maturity. The
edible portion surrounds the large, central seed cavity.
Individual fruits mature in 5-9 months, depending on
cultivar and temperature. Plants begin bearing fruits in 6-
12 months.
FLOWERS
Papaya plants are dioecious or hermaphroditic,
producing only male, female or bisexual
(hermaphroditic) flowers. Papayas are sometimes said to
be trioecious meaning that separate plants bear either
male, female, or bisexual flowers. Female and bisexual
flowers are waxy, ivory white, and borne on short
peduncles in leaf axils along the main stem. Flowers are
solitary or small cymes of 3 individuals. Ovary position
is superior. Prior to opening, bisexual flowers are
tubular, while female flowers are pear shaped. Since,
bisexual plants produce the most desirable fruit and are
self-pollinating; they are preferred over female or male
plants.
A male Papaya is distinguished by the smaller flowers
borne on long stalks. Female flowers of Papaya are pear
shaped, when unopened whereas, bisexual flowers are
cylindrical.
POLLINATION
Bisexual flowered plants are self-pollinating, but female
plants must be cross pollinated by either bisexual or male
plants.
PHYTOCONSTITUENTS OF PAPAYA
Carica papaya contains many biologically active
compounds1. Two important compounds are Papain and
Chymopapain, which aid in digestion. Papain is also
used to treat arthritis. The concentration of the
compounds varies in the fruit, latex, leaves and roots2,3
(See Table 4). In addition, phytochemicals from male
and female trees differ in the quantity of the compounds.
For example, phenolic compounds tend to be higher in
male trees than female trees. The quantity of fresh
Papaya latex and dry latex (crude papain) varies with the
sex of the tree and the age of the tree. Female and
hermaphrodite trees yield cruder papain than male trees
and older fruits yield more papain than younger fruits.
However, the activity of the papain is higher in the
extracts from the younger fruits than the older fruits.
Furthermore, fresh papaya fruit contains 87.67%
moisture content1.
PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
Anti-fertility activity
The anti-fertility effects of Carica papaya were
investigated by feeding adult and pregnant rats with
different components of the fruit. No attempt was made
to force-feed the animals and the results indicated that
the unripe fruit interrupted the oestrus cycle and induced
abortion. This effect vanished, as the fruit became stale
or over riped. Chloroform extract of Carica papaya
seeds induced long term azoospermia in langur monkey.
The extract gradually decreased the sperm concentration
and sperm motility after 30-60 days of treatment.
Azoospermia was observed after 90 days of treatment
and continued during the whole treatment period.
Treatment withdrawal resulted in a gradual recovery in
these parameters and 150 days later they reverted to the
Fresh Papaya with Embedded Seeds
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pretreatment values4. Papaya also showed the anti-
implantation and abortifacient effects5.
Uterotonic activity
Papaya latex extract was tested on rat uterine
preparations in vitro at various stages of the estrous cycle
and gestation periods. Rat uterine contractile activity was
remarkably increased by different doses of Papaya latex
extract in pro-estrus and estrus stages compared to meta-
estrus and di-estrus stages of the estrous cycles. The
crude Papaya latex contains a uterotonic principle,
comprising of a combination of enzymes, alkaloids and
other substances, which evoked sustained contractions of
the uterus by acting mainly on the alpha adrenergic
receptor population of the uterus at different stages6.
Nephro-protective activity
The elevation in serum concentration of urea and
creatinine are indicative of renal injury. Nephro-
protective effect of aqueous extract of the unripe seeds of
Carica papaya in CCl4 induced renal injury in wistar rats
was observed in a dose-related manner7.
Anti-inflammatory activity
Ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves showed anti-
inflammatory effect on rats using carrageenan induced
paw oedema, cotton pellet granuloma and formaldehyde
induced arthritis models8.
Anti-hypertensive activity
Papaya leaves decoction can be used as an anti-
hypertensive agent. A study on villagers of Agboville
Department located at 80 km of Abidjan (West Africa),
showed the hypotensive activity of Papaya plant when
administered orally9.
Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity
Study showed that oral treatment with 0.1 mg/kg/day of
glibenclamide and 100-400 mg/kg/day of aqueous seed
extract of Carica papaya induced significant, steady and
progressive hypo-glycemic and hypo-lipidemic effect10.
Anthelmintic activity
Aqueous extract of the seeds of papaya showed
anthelmintic property against Ascaris lumbricoides and
Ascaridia galli11.
Wound-healing activity
Diabetic wounds are slow, non-healing wounds that can
persist for weeks despite adequate and appropriate care.
Such wounds are difficult and tough to manage. Carica
papaya extract showed wound-healing properties after its
topical application in streptozotocin-induced diabetic
rats. The wound size reduced as early as day 5 in diabetic
animals that were treated with topical mupirocin12.
Another interesting investigation showed that aqueous
extract of Carica papaya leaves had wound-healing
potential in rats. Traditionally, Papaya is an herbal
treatment in developing countries for burns, soft tissue
wounds and skin infection13.
Anti-amoebic activity
The seeds of Papaya demonstrated in-vitro anti-amoebic
activity14.
Anti-fungal activity
Carica papaya seeds extract and papain enzyme
possesses anti-fungal activity15.
Anti-bacterial activity
The seeds of Carica papaya were found to possess
bacteriostatic activity against several enteropathogens
such as bacillus subtilis, enterobacter cloacae,
escherichia coli, salmonella typhi, staphylococcus,
proteus vulgaris, pseudomonas aeruginosa and klebsiella
pneumoniae. Among the gram-positive and gram-
negative bacteria tested, the gram negative bacteria were
more susceptible to the extracts. The fact that the extracts
were active against both gram-negative and gram-
positive bacteria tested indicates a broad spectrum of
activity16.
Anti-tumor activity
Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaf had the anti-
tumor effect on the proliferative responses of solid and
haematopoietic tumor cell lines. Carica papaya extract
inhibited the proliferative responses of solid tumor cell
lines derived from cervical carcinoma, breast
adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, lung
adenocarcinoma, pancreatic epithelioid carcinoma and
mesothelioma in a dose-dependent manner17.
Free-radical scavenging activity
Flavonoids are the naturally occurring phenolic
compounds present in Papaya and are the potent free
radical scavengers18. The high potential of phenolics to
scavenge free radicals may be due to many phenolic
hydroxyl groups19. Aqueous extract of Carica papaya
leaves showed anti-oxidant activity20.
Anti-sickling activity
Sickle cell disease (SCD) results from a mutation in
hemoglobin inside the red blood cells, where a glutamic
acid at position 6 is replaced by valine. Recent studies
showed that unripe Papaya fruit extract has anti-sikling
activity21. Another study showed the potent anti-sickling
property of Carica papaya leaf extract in a dose-
dependent manner22.
Diuretic activity
The roots of Papaya tree possess diuretic property23.
PAPAYA: AS A FOLKLORE MEDICINE
From the times immemorial, the whole Papaya plant
including its leaves, barks, roots, ripe and unripe fruits
and their juices are used as a traditional medicine (See
Table 6). Papaya is a good source of vitamins A, C, E,
and K, as well as folate and fibre (See Table 5). In
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addition, it is fat-free, cholesterol-free and low in
sodium. An average serving fruit dish (1/2 Papaya) has
only 70 calories.
SAFETY PROFILE
The available literature does not reveal any adverse/toxic
effect upon consumption of Papaya fruit over a long
period of time except that it causes infertility. However,
the leaves and roots of Carica papaya contain
cyanogenic glucosides, which form cyanide leading to
fatal consequences.
STRANGE FACTS
CONCLUSION
Papaya (Carica papaya linn) is well known for its
exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties
throughout the world. The whole Papaya plant including
its leaves, seeds, ripe and unripe fruits and their juice is
used as a traditional medicine. Nowadays, Papaya is
considered as a Nutraceutical fruit due to its
multifarious medicinal properties. The available
literature does not reveal any adverse/toxic effects upon
consumption of Papaya fruit over a long period of time
except that it causes infertility. Clinical trials need to be
carried out to exploit the therapeutic utility of Papaya in
combating various diseases.
DISHES CONTAINING PAPAYA
1) Fresh fruit
2) Papaya juice
3) Papaya snacks/desserts
4) Soap (skin smoothner)
5) Papaya milk shake
6) Papaya medicine
7) Pies
8) Jams
9) Jellies
10) Ice-creams
Indian Papaya
REFERENCES
1. Ashaye OA, Babalola AO, Aina JO and Fasoyiro SB. Chemical
and organoleptic characterization of pawpaw and guava leathers.
World J Agric Sci 2005; 1(1): 50-51.
2. Ayoola PB and Adeyeye A. Phytochemical and nutrient
evaluation of Carica papaya (pawpaw) leaves. IJRRAS 2010;
5(3).
3. Oloyede OI. Chemical profile of unripe pulp of Carica papaya.
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 2005; 4(6): 379-381.
4. Lohiya NK, Manivannan B, Mishra PK, Pathak N, Sriram S,
Bhande SS, Panneerdoss S. Chloroform extract of carica Papaya
seeds induces long term reversible azoospermia in langur
monkey. Asian J Androl 2002 Mar; 4(1): 17-26.
5. Pokharkar RD, Saraswat RK and Kotkar S. Survey of plants
having antifertility activity from western ghat area of
Maharashtra state. Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology
2010; 4(2): 71-75.
6. Cherian T. Effect of papaya latex extract on gravid and non-
gravid rat uterine preparations in vitro. Journal of
Ethnopharmacology 2000; 70(3): 205-212.
7. Olagunju JA, Adeneye AA, Fagbohunka BS, Bisuga NA, Ketiku
AO, Benebo AS, Olufowobi OM, Adeoye AG, Alimi MA and
Adeleke AG. Nephro-protective activities of the aqueous seed
extract of Carica papaya linn. in carbon tetrachloride induced
renal injured wistar rats: a dose and time- dependent study.
Biology and Medicine 2009; 1(1): 11-19.
8. Owoyele BV, Adebukola OM, Funmilayo AA and Soladoye AO.
Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Carica
papaya leaves. Inflammopharmacology 2008; 16: 168-173.
9. Koffi N, Solange TM, Emma AA and Noel ZG. Ethnobotanical
study of plants used to treat arterial hypertension, in traditional
medicine, by abbey and krobou populations of agboville (Cote-
dIvoire). European Journal of Scientific Research 2009; 35(1):
85-98.
10. Adeneye AA and Olagunju JA. Preliminary hypoglycemic and
hypolipidemic activities of aqueous seed extract of Carica
papaya Linn. In wistar rats. Biology and Medicine 2009; 1(1): 1-
10.
11. Akhtar MS, Iqbal Z, Khan MN and Lateef M. Anthelmintic
activity of medicinal plants with particular reference to their use
in animals in Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. ELSEVIER 2000; 38:
99-107.
12. Nayak BS, Pereira LP and Maharaj D. Wound healing activity of
Carica papaya L. in experimentally induced diabetic rats. Indian
J Exp Biol 2007; 45: 739-743.
13. Mahmood, AA, Sidik K and Salmah I. Wound healing activity of
Carica papaya L. aqueous extract in rats. International Journal of
Molecular Medicine and Advance Science 2005; 1(4): 398-401.
14. Sarker SK, Begum N, Mondal D, Siddique A and Rashid A. In
vitro study of antiamoebic effect of methanolic extract of mature
seeds of Carica papaya on trophozoites of Entamoeba
histolytica. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2010; 5: 45-47.
15. Nwinyi, Chukwuemeka O and Anthonia AB. Antifungal effects
of pawpaw seeds extracts and papain on post harvest Carica
papaya L. fruit rot. Afr J Agric Res 2010; 5(12): 1531-1535.
16. Doughari JH, Elmahmood AM and Manzara S. Studies on the
antibacterial activity of root extracts of Carica papaya L. Afr J
Microbiol Res 2007; 37-41.
17. Otsuki N, Dang N H, Kumagai E, Kondo A, Iwata S and
Morimoto C. Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves exhibits
anti-tumor activity and immunomodulatory effects. Journal of
Ethnopharmacology 2010; 127: 760-767.
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18. Imaga NA, Gbenle GO, Okochi VI, Adenekan S, Emmanuel TD,
Oyeniyi B and Ekeh FC. Phytochemical and antioxidant nutrient
constituents of Carica papaya and Parquetina nigrescens
extracts. Scientific Research and Essays 2010; 5(16): 2201-2205.
19. Olabinri BM, Olaleye MT, Bello OO, Ehigie LO and Olabinri
PF. In vitro comparative antioxidative potentials of mango and
pawpaw leaf extract. International Journal of Tropical Medicine
2010; 5(2): 40-45.
20. Srikanth G, Babu M, Kavitha CHN, Rao MEB, Vijaykumar N
and Pradeep CH. Studies on In-vitro antioxidant activities of
Carica papaya aqueous leaf extract. RJPBCS 2010; 1(2): 59-65.
21. Oduola T, Adeniyi FAA, Ogunyemi EO, Bello IS and Idowu
TO. Anti-sickling agent in an extract of unripe pawpaw(Carica
papaya): Is it real? Afr J Biotech 2006; 5(20): 1947-1949.
22. Imaga NOA, Gbenle GO, Okochi VI, Akanbi SO, Edeoghon SO,
Oigbochie V, Kehinde MO and Bamiro SB. Anti-sickling
property of Carica papaya leaf extract. African Journal of
Biochemistry Research 2009; 3(4): 102-106.
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medicines as diuretics: A review of the scientific evidence.
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Table 1: INDIAN SYNONYMS OF CARICA PA PAYA
Language
Region
Names
Hindi
Haryana, Delhi
Papaya, Papita
Bengali
West Bengal
Papaya, Papita, Pepe
Tamil
Tamil Nadu
Pappali
Malayalam
Kerala
Omakai
Punjabi
Punjab
Papita
Marathi
Maharashtra
Papai
Gujarati
Gujarat
Papaya
Rajasthani
Rajasthan
Eerankari
Oriya
Orrisa
Amrut bhanda
Kannada
Karnataka
Pharangi
Telugu
Andhra Pradesh
Boppayi pandu
Table 2: INTERNATIONAL
SYNONYMS OF CARICA PAPAYA
Country
Names
U.K
Papaya, pawpaw, papaw
India
Papita
Holland
Mummy apple, tree melon
Australia
Paw paw
Brazil
Mamao
France
Papaya
Cuba
Fruta Bomba
Table 3: DIFFERENT SPECIES OF PAPAY A
Carica baccata
Carica microcarpa
Carica candamarcensis (mountain Papaya)
Carica monoica
Carica candicans (mito)
Carica nana
Carica caudate
Carica omnilingua
Carica cauliflora
Carica palandensis
Carica cestriflora
Carica papaya
Carica chilensis
Carica parviflora
Carica crassipetala
Carica pentagona
Carica cundinamarcensis
Carica pubescens
Carica dodecaphylla
Carica pulchra
Carica glandulosa
Carica quercifolia
Carica goudotiana
Carica sphaerocarpa
Carica heterophylla
Carica spinosa
Carica horovitziana
Carica spruce
Carica longiflora
Carica stipulate
Carica Mexicana
Carica weberbaueri
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Table 4: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CARI CA PAPAYA
Sr. No.
Phytoconstituents
Plant Part
1
1
Enzymes:
papain a nd chymopapain, glutamine cyclotransferase, peptidase A and B and
lysozymes
Unripe fruits (latex)
2
2
Carotenoids:
β carotene, crytoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin
Fruits
3
3
Alkaloids:
Carpinine, carpaine, pseudocarpaine, vitamin C and E, choline, carposide
Leaves, Heartwood
4
4
Monoterpenoids:
4-terpineol, linalool, linalool oxide
Fruits
5
5
Flavonoids:
quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol
Shoots
6
6
Minerals:
calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese
Leaves, Fruits
7
7
Vitamins:
thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol
Shoots
Leaves
8
8
Glucosinolates:
benzyl isothiocyanate, benzylthiourea, β-sitosterol, papaya oil, caricin and an
enzyme myrosin
Seeds
9
9
Carposide, and an enzyme myrosin
Roots
Table 5: NUTRITION AL FACTORS
Elements
Amount (per 100 g)
Energy
163kJ(39kCal)
Carbohydrates
9.81 g
Sugar
5.90 g
Dietary fibre
1.8 g
Fat
0.14 g
Protein
0.61 g
Vitamin A
55 µg (6%)
Beta-carotene
276 µg (3%)
Thiamine (Vit. B1)
0.04 mg (3%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)
0.05 mg (3%)
Niacin (Vit. B3)
0.338 mg (2%)
Vitamin B6
0.1 mg (8%)
Vitamin C
61.8 mg (103%)
Calcium
24 mg (2%)
Iron
0.10 mg (1%)
Magnesium
10 mg (3%)
Phosphorus
5 mg (1%)
Potassium
257 mg (5%)
Sodium
3 mg (0%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults
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Table 6: TRADITION AL USES OF PAPAYA
v Unripe Papaya is commonly used as a contraceptive in Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka.
v Papaya contains a natural pain reliever. Papaya paste was used for the relief of burns, cuts, rashes and stings.
v The papains presence in Papaya makes it helpful against heartburn a nd indigestion. It ca n prevent heartburn, when
mixed with a little honey and taken before meals.
v The fruits proteolytic enzymes and other compounds, including a substance called carpaine, are effective against
intestinal worms and other parasites.
v Papaya seeds reverse infertility of rats.
v Papaya latex is a very effective meat tenderizer.
v Papain has been employed to dissolve membranes in diphtheria.
v It reduces swelling, fever and adhesions after surgery.
v Chemopapain is sometimes injected in cases of slipped spinal discs or pinched nerves.
v The ripe fruit, when eaten fresh, improves digestion and is reported to have a complimentary laxative effect.
v It is used as a disinfectant and as an anti-ulcer medicine.
v It can be used in celiac disease and crohns disease.
v Latex, the milk like juice from unripe Papaya is rich in papain. Studies showed that it helps in removing freckles
(melanin clusters on face).
v The Papaya seeds are also used as vermifuges.
v Leaves are used for dressing wounds and injuries.
v Papain helps in thinning of the blood and inhibits clotting.
Indian Papaya Tree
Unripe (green) Papita
... Papaya Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity leaves have shown the highest ascorbic acid content with the concentration of 85.6 mg/100 g followed by 45.8 mg/ 100 g in ripe papaya, 37.8 mg/100 g in unripe papaya, and 14.4 mg/100 g in its seeds [34]. Biological enzymes, viz., papain and chymopapain, are in abundance in the leaves of papaya [35]. The concentration of papain in papaya leaf extract varies from 0.054 to 0.002 mg/mL [35] and due to which very powerful digestive action even higher than pepsin is seen, important phytochemical constituents of leaves along with their functional properties and structures. ...
... Biological enzymes, viz., papain and chymopapain, are in abundance in the leaves of papaya [35]. The concentration of papain in papaya leaf extract varies from 0.054 to 0.002 mg/mL [35] and due to which very powerful digestive action even higher than pepsin is seen, important phytochemical constituents of leaves along with their functional properties and structures. ...
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The prevalence of viral infections, cancer, and diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate around the world, and these diseases are now considered to be the most serious risks to human well-being in the modern period. There is a widespread practice in Asian countries of using papaya leaves (C. papaya L.) as herbal medicine, either alone or in combination with prescribed medications, to treat a variety of ailments. The importance of conducting the necessary descriptive studies in order to determine the safety of papaya leaf consumption is also emphasized in the context of their application in the health-care sector. Electronic databases such as Google Scholar, Scopus, and PubMed were used to gather information on papaya leaves, their therapeutic potential, and clinical evidence-based studies. The literature was gathered from publications on papaya leaves, their therapeutic potential, and clinical evidence-based studies. The anti-dengue, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects of papaya leaves discussed in this article are supported by evidence from preclinical, in-vivo, in-vitro, and clinical trial studies, as well as from other sources. Leaves have been investigated for their mechanism of action as well as their potential to be used in the development of novel herbal products for the health business. According to the reports gathered, only a small number of research demonstrated that leaf extract at high concentrations was hazardous to certain organs. The collective literature reviewed in this review provides insights into the use of papaya leaves as a cure for epidemic diseases, highlighting the phytochemical composition and pharmacological attributes of papaya leaves, as well as the results of various pre-clinical and clinical studies that have been conducted so far on the subject. The review clearly demonstrates the successful medical evidence for the use of papaya leaf extracts in the health-care system as a supplemental herbal medication in a variety of clinical settings.
... It originated from the lowlands of Central, North, and East America 19 . Papaya is a plant in which almost all parts, including leaves, sap, seeds, roots, stems, and fruit, can be used 20 . The active ingredients found in papaya leaves include alkaloids, carpaine, dehydrocarpaine, flavonols, tannins, nicotine, and prunasin (cyanogenic glycosides) 18,21 . ...
... The active ingredients found in papaya leaves include alkaloids, carpaine, dehydrocarpaine, flavonols, tannins, nicotine, and prunasin (cyanogenic glycosides) 18,21 . In addition, it also contains minerals in the form of calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese, as well as vitamins in the form of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol 20 . ...
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The phytochemical compounds contained in papaya leaves are known to have a galactopoietic effect. This study aims to analyze the effect of ethanol extract of Carica papaya leaves on β-casein gene expression, β�casein levels, total protein, and milk volume. This in vivo was an experimental study including a posttest control group that was conducted on one control group and three treatment groups. Each group consisted of six lactating rats. The control group rats were given ordinary food, while the treatment group rats, D1, D2, and D3, were given ethanol extract of Carica papaya leaves with the dose of 0.95 mg, 1.9 mg, and 3.8 mg/200 g Body weight (BW)/day, respectively, from day 1 to day 13 of lactation. On day 14, all of the rats were sacrificed. Breastmilk volume taken from all breasts of lactating rats was measured individually in milliliters, β-casein gene expressions in the mammary tissues were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), while serum β-casein levels were measured using ELISA, and total protein was measured using bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay. Statistical analysis was carried out using one-way ANOVA, Tukey test, and Games-Howell test at 95% confidence level. Milk volume, β-casein gene expression, β-casein levels, and total protein levels of all treatment rat groups were significantly higher than the control group (p
... The fermenting agent myrosin, resin, alkaloids, rutin, tannins, saponins, ascorbic acid, carpaine and dehydrocarpaines, are some of the elements of its leaf that might be potentially utilised as having immunomodulatory and dramatic cancer-fighting abilities against a broad spectrum of malignancies; it gains a status as a tumor-destroying agent. In papaya a broad spectrum of phytochemicals including Carotenoids (in fruits and seeds), enzymes (in the latex), phenolics (in fruits, leaves, and shoots), alkaloids (in leaves), glucosinolate (in seeds and fruits) are found Parle et al., 2011). Lycopene, betacarotenoid, Benzyl isothiocyanate, Betacryptoxanthin, Benzylglucosinolate, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, Quercetin, and other phytochemicals contained in C. papaya. ...
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Papaya (Carica papaya L.) belongs to the family Caricaceae comprising 31 species in four genera is a tropical plant. It is rich in nutrients like Vit A, C, B1 etc.which give protection against heart diseases and colon cancer. The chemical constituents are present in different parts of papaya plant and have varied useful medicinal and pharmaceutical uses like antimicrobial property, anthelmintic property, antioxidant activities, wound healing activity, anti – cancer activity, anti-hypertensive activity, antifungal activity etc. It is rich source of papain enzyme which is effective against cancer and has several industrial uses as well. Along with the enormous advantages and uses, there are toxic and side effects of papaya also like the pollen of papaya causes allergy to the people and it has abortifacient properties as well. Therefore, there is a need to extract these bioactive compounds to utilize them for the welfare of the humans and intake of papaya as fruit salads, fruit juice, leaf extract, decoction prepared through papaya leaves, etc. should be a part of our diet.
... It originated from tropical America and was introduce to India in 16th century. The plant is known by its weak and usually unbranched soft stem providing copious white latex and crowded by terminal cluster of large and long stalked leaves 6 . Papaya is a known tropical fruit rich in dietary antioxidants (vitamin C, tocopherols, total phenols, and -carotene) 7 and bioactive phytochemicals with antioxidant activity (benzyl isothiocyanate) 8 . ...
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The increasing resistance of microorganism to antibiotics and toxicity of some antibiotics drugs has resulted in the search for more effective therapy from new organic molecules from plants with antibacterial and antifungal properties. This study is important to see the increasing resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics. It is also carried out to see the effect of pawpaw seed extracts and latex on fungi and bacteria. The pawpaw latex and seed oil extract were analyzed for their antimicrobial activities. The pawpaw seed oil extract and latex had marked bactericidal effect against clinical isolates (B. subtilis, E. coli, S. aureus) and fungicidal effect against the isolates (Microsporumspp, Trichonphytonspp and Epidermophytonspp). The bactericidal and fungicidal effects of the extract were dose dependent. Minimum inhibitory concentration for the bacteria isolates (S. aureus and E. coli) were 2.5mg/ml and 1.0mg/ml while B. subilis showed no inhibition with latex but was inhibited by the seed oil extract at 1.50mg/ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the fungi was higher in the seed extract than the latex with the exception in C. albicans. The result obtained showed that pawpaw seed oil extract and latex have some antimicrobial properties. The scientific implications of these results are fully discussed.
... Papaya fruits are very popular due to their high nutritive, medicinal and other multiple uses such as meat tenderizer (extracted papain), raw materials for cosmetics, soft drinks and food canning industries and it is one of the high value fruit crops (Munoz et al., 2000;Josef, 2008;Mello et al., 2008;Ming et al., 2008;Serrano and Cattaneo, 2010). Moreover, papaya helps the human body to properly digest food and important to control premature aging (Sepiah, 1993;Milind and Gurditta, 2017). ...
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The experiment was conducted to evaluate the adaptability of newly released papaya varieties at Chano Mille research site of Arba Minch Agricultural Research Center during 2019-2020 cropping seasons. The three hermaphrodite papaya varieties namely; Braz-HS1, Koka-HM1 and Meki-HL1 were used for the study and laid-out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in three replications. Data on yield and yield components were collected and analyzed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) through Statistical Analytics System software. The ANOVA results revealed that there were significant variations among papaya varieties for the studied parameters. Significantly, the highest number of fruits plant-1, number of leaves and fruit yield were obtained from Braz-HS1 papaya variety. The fruit yield of Braz-HS1 variety was 46% higher than that of Koka-HM1. In general, Braz-HS1 papaya variety performed (in terms of number of fruits and fruit yield) better than the rest two varieties. Thus, Braz-HS1 papaya variety could be recommended for the papaya growers in the study area and vicinity with similar agro-ecology. Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. Tech. 11(2): 69-71, Dec 2021
... lon cancer. It is also one of the best sources for beta-carotene which inhibits stimulation produced by free radicals which cause certain forms of malignancy. It is observed that it helps in the inhibition of diabetic and heart disease [ Sastri, B. N .et al., 1950]. C. Papaya contains many biological compounds such as digestive enzymes chymopapain [Milind, P .et al., 2011]. Alkaloids are also present in papaya which can be used as a heart depressant. Papaya leaf juice is also much benefited for cancer, tumors, skin diseases, nervous pains, asthma, and elephantoid growths. The root of papaya is used for the treatment of uterus cancer syphilis infection. It is also useful for the removal of mineral concentr ...
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C. Papaya. Linn (Papaya) is a well-known tropical and subtropical fruit that finds excellent nutritional and medicinal value and in fact, the whole parts of the plant i.e., fruit, roots, bark, peel, seeds, and pulp possess medicinal characteristics. Its fruit is not only delicious and energetic but also contains a higher amount of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C and E and minerals deposits such as Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, and dietary fibers. It contains beta-carotene, calcium, alkaloid, fats, tannin, flavonoids, glycosides, phytates, steroids, tannin as papain and chymopapain which are commonly found in milk sap. Papaya is successfully used to treat the cardiovascular system and acts against many heart diseases particularly heart attacks, heart strokes, inhibits the diabetic disease, prevents intestines cancer in a human. Beta-carotene naturally occurs in papaya that prevents the mutation induced by free radicals in the body.
... fruits, leaves, seeds and latex. [2] Extraction Method for Biflavones Powdered drug (100 g) of Carica papaya was extracted separately in the soxhlet extraction apparatus using ethanol (95%) for 12 Hours. The resultant alcoholic extract was then air-dried and stored in vacuum desiccators. ...
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Carica papaya Linn. (family- Caricaceae) also known as Papaya is a tropical fruit cultivated on a large scale in India and other parts of the world. Not only the fruit, but the whole plant parts possess numerous medicinal properties. It provides many health benefits due to the high content of phyto-constituents present in it. Papaya possesses numerous pharmacological activities like anti-inflammatory, anti-hypersensitivity, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic, free radical scavenging, wound healing, antitumour, antibacterial, antifungal, diuretic, uterotonic, anti-sickling, anthelmintic, anti-amoebic, antifertility, etc.[1,2,3] The present study focuses on the pharmacognostic evaluation of ripened Carica papaya fruit extract. The fruit pulp was collected and dried from the ripe fruits. The dried fruit pulp was extracted successively with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and hydroalcohol by Soxhlation. Dry extract namely CPEAF, CPEE, CPXE, CPHAE, CPCE and CPPEE, thus obtained were analyzed for presence of different phytoconstituents.
... Papaya, scientifically known as Carica papaya, is a lozenge-shaped fruit crop that can be found in a variety of colors, including orange-red, yellow-green, and yellow-orange, and that has a creamy orange flesh [13]. It contains a high concentration of three potent antioxidant vitamins (C, A, and E); as well as minerals ( magnesium and potassium;) The B vitamin pantothenic acid, as well as folate and fiber, are essential [14]. Despite its appearance, the papaya's black seeds are edible and also have a strong, spicy flavor. ...
... The nutritional substances reported to be present in papaya leaves[74,[76][77][78]. ...
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Carica papaya (papaya) leaf extract has been used for a long time in a traditional medicine to treat fever in some infectious diseases such as dengue, malaria, and chikungunya. The development of science and technology has subsequently made it possible to provide evidence that this plant is not only beneficial as an informal medication, but also that it has scientifically proven pharmacological and toxicological activities, which have led to its formal usage in professional health care systems. The development of formulations for use in nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals has caused this product to be more valuable nowadays. The use of good manufacturing practice (GMP) standards, along with the ease of registering this product facilitated by policies of the national government, will absolutely increase the value of papaya leaf extract as a vital nutraceutical and cosmeceutical products in the near future. In this article, we review the potential of papaya leaf extract to be a high-value commodity in terms of its health effects as well as its industrial benefits.
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is a tropical fruit that is widely produced and obsessively consumed, both for its delicious flavor and for its numerous medicinal benefits. is a tropical fruit that ranges in colour from orange red to yellow orange. The entire plant was used as medicine, including the fruit, leaves, roots, peel, bark, seed, and pulp. Papaya is the common name for this plant, and Papita is the Hindi name for it. It is now cultivated all over the world and used as an attractive tree in gardens. It was first introduced to India in the 17th century. Due to the presence of phenolics, flavonoid, and alkaloids as the active ingredients, papaya is recognised for its antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antifertility, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective properties, among others. phytochemicals that are important Many commercial goods made from diverse plant components are available on the market and are used for a variety of applications. This review discusses the fruit's origins and briefly examines its nutritional and pharmacological properties.
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Increasingly, public debate on ban of use of synthetic chemicals for pest control has been unabated, due basically to the hazards posed by such chemicals to the ecosystem and environment. Biological control using natural products presents as alternative and a viable means of control of pests. Effects of extracts from Carica papaya. L (seed and papain) on mycelial reduction of the most occurring fungal pathogen causing pawpaw fruit rot were investigated. Different fungi isolated were Rhizopus spp, Aspergillus spp and Mucor spp. The aqueous seed extract and papain exhibited remarkable mycelial inhibition with mean zones of inhibitions between (0.23 - 1.73 mm). Using ANOVA at 5% (P < 0.05) there seem to be no significant difference in activity between the extracts (aqueous seed extract and papain).The importance of these findings is hinged on non-chemical means of shelf life elongation of harvested pawpaw fruit in Africa.
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Medicinal plants (a.k.a. Phytomedicines) are parts of a plant or the whole plant that possess healing properties. Folk medicine reportedly uses Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) and Parquetina nigrescens L. (Asclepiadaceae) as a herbal remedy for the management of sickle cell anemia. This study was carried out to screen the leaf extracts of P. nigrescens and C. papaya L. (Caricaceae) for possible antioxidant phytochemicals, proximate nutrient constituents, amino acid composition and mineral content present in the samples using standard chemical and chromatographic procedures. Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of folic acid, vitamin B 12 , alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, tannins and anthraquinones. This study also showed that each of these plants extracts contained flavonoids and the antioxidant vitamins A and C. Some of the previously established antisickling amino acids were also present in the plants. Cyanogenic glycosides were absent from both plant extracts, indicative of the non-toxic effects of these plants when taken orally. These results indicate that the previously reported antisickling properties of these herbs may be due to their inherent antioxidant nutrient composition, thus supporting the claims of the traditional healers and suggests a possible correlation between the chemical composition of these plants and their uses in traditional medicine.
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The influence of concentration on hydroxyl radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracts of Mango and Pawpaw leaves were assessed in vitro. The polyphenol extract from Mango leaves failed to scavenge hydroxyl radical at all the concentrations (50-250 μg mL-1) while Pawpaw leaves failed to scavenge hydroxyl radical at three different concentrations out of five concentrations investigated (50-250 μg mL-1). The polyphenol extract from Pawpaw leaves was a poor scavenger of hydroxyl radical in vitro (4.2% maximum scavenging activity). The polyphenol extracts of Mango and Pawpaw leaves exhibited weak antioxidant activities in vitro at all the concentrations investigated. Mango leaves had the highest total phenolic concentration (128 mg mL-1) at the maximum extraction time (50 min). At 50 min extraction time both the aqueous extracts of the two plants demonstrated maximum antioxidants activity (86.95% for aqueous extract of Mangifera indica and 89.70% for Pawpaw aqueous extract). A non-significant moderate positive correlation was observed between total phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica and that of Pawpaw leaves (r= 0.592; p= 0.05 for Mangifera indica; r = 0.469; p = 0.05 at 20 min extraction time).
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Sickle cell disease (SCD) results from a mutation in the hemoglobin inside the red blood cells, where a glutamic acid at position 6 is replaced by a valine. Many phytomedicines have been identified as potential antisickling agents, stemming from reported usage as ethnomedicines by the local folk. This research examined methanolic leaf extracts of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) for possible in vitro antisickling and membrane-stabilizing activities involving the use of positive (p-hydroxybenzoic acid 5 μ μ μ μg/ml) and negative (normal saline) controls for the antisickling experiments and osmotic fragility test on Hb ss red blood cells obtained from non-crisis state sickle cell patients. Fragiliograms indicated that the plant extract reduced hemolysis and protected erythrocyte membrane integrity under osmotic stress conditions. Pretreatment of SS cell suspensions with C. papaya leaf extract inhibited formation of sickle cells under severe hypoxia, with only 0 - 5% sickle cells at 40 min compared with untreated SS cell suspensions which had over 60% sickle cells. These results indicate the feasibility of C. papaya as an attractive potential candidate for SCD therapy.
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Investigations into antisickling and reversal of sickling activities of an aqueous extract of unripe pawpaw (Carica papaya) were carried out on blood from sickle cell patients (Haemoglobin SS, HbSS) using 2% sodium metabisulphite in a sickling test. The minimum concentration of the extract that achieved maximum antisickling in vitro and the fraction of the extract where the antisickling agent resides were determined. Our findings confirmed both antisickling and reversal of sickling activities of the extract. It was established that 1.0 g of unripe pawpaw in 1.0 ml of physiological saline was the minimum concentration that achieved maximum antisickling. Solvent partitioning of the extract with ethyl acetate and butanol revealed that the antisickling agent in the extract of unripe pawpaw resides in the ethyl acetate fraction as this fraction prevented sickling of Hb SS red cells and reversed sickled Hb SS red cells in 2% sodium metabisulphite whereas the butanol and aqueous fractions had none of these properties. We concluded that extract of unripe pawpaw really has antisickling agent and that this antisickling agent lies in the ethyl acetate fraction of the extract.
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The bioactive compounds of root extracts of Carica papaya L. were extracted, using water and organic solvents, and were investigated for antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacteria using the cup plate agar diffusion method. The aqueous extracts did not show significant activity, but the organic extracts had significant activity with the methanol extracts demonstrating the highest activity against the test bacteria. The extracts demonstrated higher activities against all the gram-negative bacteria than the gram-positive bacteria tested, with the highest activity (14 mm zone of inhibition) demonstrated against Salmonella typhi. Increase in temperature enhanced the activity of the extracts, while alkaline pH decreased the activity. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the extracts ranged between 50-200 mg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analyses showed that the extracts contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and phenols. Carica papaya may be used for the treatment of gastroenteritis, uretritis, otitis media, typhoid fever and wound infections.
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Three samples of Carica papaya leaves (Green, Yellow and Brown) were collected randomly from Ogbomoso town, Oyo state, Nigeria and analyzed for the phytochemical composition, vitamins and mineral constituents. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of bioactive compound saponins, cardiac glycoside alkaloids and absence of tannins in the three samples. Results showed that the plant leaves contained the vitamins, (mg/100g), thiamine (B 1): green leaves 0.94, yellow leaves 0.41, brown leaves 0.52; riboflavin (B 2): green leaves 0.13, yellow leaves 0.04, brown leaves 0.06; ascorbic acid (C): green leaves 16.29, yellow green 9.62, brown leaves 11.26. Mineral analysis showed highest values (mg/kg) of Ca, 8612.50; Mg, 67.75; Na, 1782.00; K, 2889.00; Mn,9.50 in the green leaves, and Fe, 147.50 in yellow leaves as compared to other elements examined. Thus green pawpaw leaf gave a source of essential nutrients while yellow pawpaw was a source of iron. Therefore pawpaw leaves can be manipulated in the herbal treatment of various diseases and as a potential source of useful elements for drugs formulation.
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The free radical scavenging activity of the aqueous leaf extraction of Carica papaya was studied by using different anti oxidant models ofscreening.e.g lipid peroxide(rat brain and liver),1,1-diphenyle hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis -(3-ethyle benzothiazoline -6-sulphonate) (ABTS), nitric oxide, super oxide and hydroxyl radical model. The extract showed good dose dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the in vitro models. IC50 values were found to be 198,141,185,244, 323, 461 and 922 μg/ml respectively in DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxyl ion, lipid peroxidation (liver and brain) inhibition assays. However the extract showed only moderate scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical and anti lipid peroxidation potential, which was performed using rat liver and brain homogenate. The results were observed in a concentration dependent manner. All the above in vitro studies clearly indicate that aqueous extract of Carica papaya has a significant antioxidant activity.
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