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Update of the Odonata fauna of Georgia, southern Caucasus ecoregion

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A total of 63 odonate taxa were recorded in Georgia during nationwide surveys in June–July 2014, and June and July–August 2015, corresponding to at least 85 % of the country’s Odonata fauna. For the majority of species information from Georgia is provided in English language for the first time. Selysiothemis nigra is a new addition to the country’s list. The occurrence of Chalcolestes parvidens is confirmed and previous records from Georgia listed as Lestes viridis are doubted and believed to pertain to parvidens. The second and third records only for L. macrostigma are presented. Individuals intermediate between Enallagma cyathigerum cyathigerum and E. c. risi are reported from Georgia for the first time. As to Georgian Lestes virens, the infraspecific taxonomy is critically discussed, with special reference to Central Asian forms described as ssp. marikovskii. It is recommended to avoid any further splitting into inadequately defined subspecies, as the variability of eastern forms from Central Europe towards Central Asia can be better described as clinal variation within the ssp. vestalis. In consequence, the name marikovskii is regarded as a junior synonym of vestalis: Lestes virens vestalis Rambur, 1842 = L. virens marikovskii Belyshev, 1961, syn. nov. The diversity of taxa within the Calopteryx splendens complex in the Caucasus region is considered to comprise in fact three subspecies in Georgia: ssp. intermedia, spp. tschaldirica, and ssp. mingrelica. Despite of transition zones and hybridisation each subspecies represents in toto a spatially clearly delimited unit. In ssp. intermedia androchrome females frequently occurred in the Kakheti region in the east of Georgia. The distinct female colour form ‘feminalis’ of Calopteryx virgo is illustrated for the first time and the availability of the name Calopteryx virgo var. feminalis Bartenev, 1910 is critically discussed. For a number of species thefirst information from Georgia is provided since their discovery over a century ago, such as Coenagrion armatum, Aeshna serrata, and Onychogomphus assimilis; for Coenagrion lunulatum and C. scitulum the first data since over 75 years are presented. Coenagrion ponticum was recorded throughout the country and at least at two sites found to reproduce syntopically with C. puella. New information is provided for the little known Coenagrion vanbrinkae, including a formerly unknown pink colour morph of reproductive females. The infraspecific taxonomy of Ischnura elegans is critically discussed, with special reference to the taxa pontica Schmidt, 1938 and ebneri Schmidt, 1938. In addition, new records of Pyrrhosoma nymphula and Coenagrion pulchellum, both being rare in the Caucasus region, are given. The presence of distinct Gomphus schneiderii in Georgia is confirmed as well as the continuous presence of Gomphus ubadschii at the Rioni River over 80 years after its description under the homonym »Gomphus flavipes var. lineatus var. n.«. Onychogomphus assimilis and O. flexuosus were found to be abundant in the eastern half of the country suggesting that Georgia is an important global stronghold for both threatened species. Males of Caliaeschna microstigma exhibited a distinctive tendency for reduced ante-humeral stripes, leaving only a small bluish patch at the posterior part in some males. Vital populations of Libellula pontica, endemic to the East Mediterranean, were found and the species is assumed to be well established in the Kakheti region in the East of the country.
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Update of the Odonata fauna of Georgia, southern Caucasus ecoregion
279
Odonatologica 44(3) 2015: 279-342
1
st
December 2015
Update of the Odonata fauna of Georgia,
southern Caucasus ecoregion
Asmus Schröter
1
, Malte Seehausen
2
, Bernd Kunz
3
, André Günther
4
,
omas Schneider
5
& Reinhard Jödicke
6
1
Rasenweg 10, 37130 Gleichen, Germany; <notulae@osmylus.com>
2
Museum Wiesbaden, Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 2, 65185 Wiesbaden, Germany;
<malte.seehausen@museum-wiesbaden.de>
3
Hauptstraße 111, 74595 Langenburg, Germany; <libellen@berndkunz.de>
4
Naturschutzinstitut Freiberg, B.-Kellermann-Str. 20, 09599 Freiberg, Germany;
<andre.guenther@ioez.tu-freiberg.de>
5
Arnold-Knoblauch-Ring 76, 14109 Berlin-Wannsee, Germany;
<thomas.rs@gmx.de>
6
Am Liebfrauenbusch 3, 26655 Westerstede, Germany;
<reinhard.joedicke@ewetel.net>
Received 20
th
June 2015; revised and accepted 18
th
September 2015
Abstract. A total of 63 odonate taxa were recorded in Georgia during nationwide surveys
in June–July 2014, and June and July–August 2015, corresponding to at least 85 % of the
country’s Odonata fauna. For the majority of species information from Georgia is provided
in English language for the rst time. Selysiothemis nigra is a new addition to the coun-
try’s list. e occurrence of Chalcolestes parvidens is conrmed and previous records from
Georgia listed as Lestes viridis are doubted and believed to pertain to parvidens. e second
and third records only for L.macrostigma are presented. Individuals intermediate between
Enallagma cyathigerum cyathigerum and E. c. risi are reported from Georgia for the rst time.
As to Georgian Lestes virens, the infraspecic taxonomy is critically discussed, with special
reference to Central Asian forms described as ssp. marikovskii. It is recommended to avoid
any further splitting into inadequately dened subspecies, as the variability of eastern forms
from Central Europe towards Central Asia can be better described as clinal variation within
the ssp. vestalis. In consequence, the name marikovskii is regarded as a junior synonym of
vestalis: Lestes virens vestalis Rambur, 1842 = L. virens marikovskii Belyshev, 1961, syn. nov.
e diversity of taxa within the Calopteryx splendens complex in the Caucasus region is con-
sidered to comprise in fact three subspecies in Georgia: ssp. intermedia, spp. tschaldirica,
and ssp. mingrelica. Despite of transition zones and hybridisation each subspecies represents
in toto a spatially clearly delimited unit. In ssp. intermedia androchrome females frequently
occurred in the Kakheti region in the east of Georgia. e distinct female colour form ‘femi-
nalis’ of Calopteryx virgo is illustrated for the rst time and the availability of the name Calo-
pteryx virgo var. feminalis Bartenev, 1910 is critically discussed. For a number of species the
A. Schröter, M. Seehausen, B. Kunz, A. Günther,
T. Schneider & R. Jödicke
280
Odonatologica 44(3) 2015: 279-342
rst information from Georgia is provided since their discovery over a century ago, such as
Coenagrion armatum, Aeshna serrata, and Onychogomphus assimilis; for Coenagrion lunu-
latum and C. scitulum the rst data since over 75 years are presented. Coenagrion ponticum
was recorded throughout the country and at least at two sites found to reproduce syntopi-
cally with C. puella. New information is provided for the little known Coenagrion vanbrinkae,
including a formerly unknown pink colour morph of reproductive females. e infraspecic
taxonomy of Ischnura elegans is critically discussed, with special reference to the taxa pontica
Schmidt, 1938 and ebneri Schmidt, 1938. In addition, new records of Pyrrhosoma nymphula
and Coenagrion pulchellum, both being rare in the Caucasus region, are given. e presence
of distinct Gomphus schneiderii in Georgia is conrmed as well as the continuous presence
of Gomphus ubadschii at the Rioni River over 80 years aer its description under the hom-
onym »Gomphus avipes var. lineatus var. n.«. Onychogomphus assimilis and O. exuosus
were found to be abundant in the eastern half of the country suggesting that Georgia is an
important global stronghold for both threatened species. Males of Caliaeschna microstigma
exhibited a distinctive tendency for reduced ante-humeral stripes, leaving only a small bluish
patch at the posterior part in some males. Vital populations of Libellula pontica, endemic to
the East Mediterranean, were found and the species is assumed to be well established in the
Kakheti region in the East of the country.
Key words. Dragonies, damselies, Anisoptera, Zygoptera, new records
Introducon
e Caucasus ecoregion is one of the most biologically diverse and rich ar-
eas in the world (M et al. 2004). During the Pleistocene glacia-
tions and climatic changes, several parts of the region served as important
refugiae resulting in e.g., the highest number of endemic vascular plant spe-
cies in temperate latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (M et al. 2000).
e Caucasus-Anatolian-Hyrcanian Temperate Forests are included in the
prestigious Global 200 list“ (Ecoregion 78) of priority ecoregions as the
earths biologically richest habitats (O D 2002). Due to its
geographical position and topography Georgia plays a key role in terms of
species diversity. Georgia is a small mountainous country situated at the
southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus range. e southern part of the
country is characterised by the so called Lesser Caucasus as a part of the
Anatolian-Iranian fold mountain range. Both the Greater and Lesser Cau-
casus ranges are running parallel in West–East direction and are divided by
the subtropical Transcaucasian depression (F 1973). Based on its geo-
graphic position at the eastern shore of the Black Sea and a high geomorpho-
logical diversity, Georgia oers an amazing variety of dierent landscapes
and micro climates at a small scale (J 1964; F 1973) and
Update of the Odonata fauna of Georgia, southern Caucasus ecoregion
281
Odonatologica 44(3) 2015: 279-342
is overlapping and bordering area of several biogeographic units. Compris-
ing ca 70 000 km², the territory of Georgia does not even reach the size
of Bavaria but includes such contrasting habitats as semi-deserts, lowland
and mountain steppes as well as perhumid evergreen broad-leaved temporal
rainforest, alternating with glaciated peaks exceeding 5 000 m a.s.l.. Georgia
shows a distinct climatic dichotomy formed by the Likhi range (also called
Surami range), a bridge ridge in North–South direction, reaching a height of
almost 2 000m a.s.l. and connecting the Greater and Lesser Caucasus. is
range is a watershed and functions as an eective climate barrier by forming
a topographical triangle which traps moist air masses and cyclones coming
from the Black Sea, forcing them to ascend and to release the moisture as
rain. It developed during the Tertiary age and divides the Transcaucasian
depression, which previously stretched from the Black Sea to the Caspian
Sea, into two parts: the perhumid Rioni river basin in the West, which is the
so called Colchic lowland with, according to L (1977), the warmest
winters within the territory of the former Soviet Union (Cfa in the Köppens
climate classication), and the semihumid continental Kura river basin in
the East (BS and BW in the ppens climate classication; cf. S
2003; K et al. 2006). e gradient of mean annual precipitation of
the Transcaucasian depression from West to East within Georgia ranges
from locally over 4 000mm at the western slopes of the Adjarian moun-
tains to lesser than 350mm at the semi arid southeastern bordering area to
Azerbaijan (B 1959; J 1964; F 1973; L 1977;
S 2003). According to B (1959) the precipitation rate of the Col-
chic lowland in the Rioni river basin was by far the highest of all humid low-
land areas within the borders of the former Soviet Union. is distinctive
climate regime with gradually decreasing precipitation from West to East
fundamentally inuenced the spatial distribution of vegetation in Georgia
(L R 2002; N 2013) and is also reected
by the distribution pattern of several odonate species as shown in this study.
e rst odonate records from the territory of today’s Georgia dated back
to the times of the Russian Empire (e.g., K 1846; H 1863; S
1869; E1873; S 1884, 1887; R 1899; B1909, 1910,
1912a, 1916, 1919) whereas especially the latter author continued odonato-
logical research into the beginnings of the subsequent Soviet age. Most papers
A. Schröter, M. Seehausen, B. Kunz, A. Günther,
T. Schneider & R. Jödicke282
Odonatologica 44(3) 2015: 279-342
however contained only a small number of odonate species and the majority
of Georgian dragony records are published as scattered individual data with-
in larger faunistic inventories of the entire Caucasus region. Only few arti-
cles dealing entirely or predominantly with the Georgian Odonata fauna have
been published during the Soviet period (B 1925, 1929a, b, 1930a,
b; S 1953, 1964, 1975; A  S 1967; B
1987). Recent data from Georgia are especially rare and aer gaining political
independence in 1991 besides S (2010) – of which we recommend
a cautious use only (cf. S 2011) only three short articles dedicat-
ed to the Odonata fauna of Georgia have been published at all (R
1992; S 2010a; R M  C G 2015).
e odonatological exploration of Georgia thus remains on a very low
level and the country’s dragony fauna is less intensively studied than that
of several neighbouring countries such as Turkey or Armenia, whose odo-
nate fauna were subject to recent (partly) systematical surveys (K
2006; Tet al. 2004; A T2013). is applies to a lesser
extent also to Azerbaijan (D 2004; S  S2014).
us, the knowledge on all Georgian dragony species remains scanty and
of anecdotal nature. Several regions of the country, especially the mountain-
ous areas, such as the territories of the historical provinces of Tusheti and
Khevsureti (today part of Mzcheta-Mtianeti and Kakheti provinces, respec-
tively), literally remained terra incognita with regards to Odonata and have
never been visited by any odonatologist. For a brief summary of the current
state of odonatological research in Georgia we refer to S (2010a).
e results presented in the following were obtained during a country-
wide survey which was intended as initial study of a planned continuous
comprehensive project aiming to restart and trigger odonatological research
in Georgia; further objectives of the project are a national distribution atlas
and an up-to-date national Red List.
Material and methods
e three weeks expedition with 17 participants from Georgia, Germa-
ny and Switzerland took place from 20-vi till 10-vii-2014. From 05-vi–
11-vi-2015 and 27-vii–04-viii-2015 additional data were collected by MS
and TS, respectively. At least 3120 km were covered by minibus. e route
Update of the Odonata fauna of Georgia, southern Caucasus ecoregion 283
Odonatologica 44(3) 2015: 279-342
was GPS-tracked and primarily dened by the attempt to cover habitats of
all major climate and altitude zones frequented by dragonies. Sampled lo-
calities were additionally recorded by hand-held GPS (Garmin). Initial se-
lection of the destinations was inuenced by selected globally threatened
species, range restricted species and/or species of special biogeographical or
taxonomical interest; several old historical sites were therefore visited in a
targeted manner. e chosen time period was considered as ideal compro-
mise in view of varying phenology and dierent altitudes to cover late ying
spring species as well as summer species. Our search strategy was generally
focussed on both adults and exuviae, aiming to authenticate all taxa by pho-
tographs, exuviae and/or voucher specimens. In the cases of Cordulegastri-
dae and Gomphidae, larvae were selectively sought aer. Specimens will
be deposited in the collections of the Georgian National Museum (GNM),
Senckenberg Museum für Naturkunde Frankfurt, Germany (SMF), Muse-
um Wiesbaden, Germany (MWNH), as well as in private collections of par-
ticipants. Temperature, conductivity, and pH value were measured in situ.
For determination of temperature and conductivity a Hanna Conductivity
TesterHI98311 was used; for the determination of the pH value universal
indicator paper was employed.
List of localities with Odonata records
Indicated are (in that order) the administrative unit on the level of regions,
description of the localities with Georgian toponyms, coordinates, altitude
in meters above sea level, date(s), and – if available – conductivity [µS/cm],
temperature [°C] and pH value of the aquatic habitat.
Loc. 1. Tbilisi (თბილისი), scrubland at the northern slope of Sololaki ridge below Nari-
qala fortress (ნარიყალა), 41.6883°N, 44.7934°E, 500 m a.s.l., 20-vi-2014; 05-vi-2015, 10-
-vi-2015, 11-vi-2015
Loc. 2. Tbilisi (თბილისი), gorge of Tsavkisistsqali river (წავკისისწყალი), also called
Leghvtakhevi ლეღვთახევი), 41.6828°N, 44.7899°E, 580 m a.s.l., 21-vi-2014, 22-vi-2014,
3-vii-2014, 4-vii-2014, 10-vii-2014, 05-vi-2015, 10-vi-2015, 11-vi-2015; corresponds to loc.1
in S (2010a)
Loc. 3. Tbilisi (თბილისი), gravelroad to the waterfall along the northern slope of Tsavki-
sistsqali gorge (წავკისისწყალი), 41.6843°N, 44.7910°E, 600 m a.s.l., 21-vi-2014, 22-vi-
-2014, 3-vii-2014, 4-vii-2014, 10-vii-2014, 05-vi-2015, 10-vi-2015, 11-vi-2015; corresponds
to loc. 1 in S (2010a)
A. Schröter, M. Seehausen, B. Kunz, A. Günther,
T. Schneider & R. Jödicke
284
Odonatologica 44(3) 2015: 279-342
Loc. 4. Tbilisi (თბილისი), Kus lake (კუს ტბა), 41.7004°N, 44.7543°E, 696 m a.s.l., 21-vi-
-2014
Loc. 5. Tbilisi (თბილის), Mtatsminda ridge (თაწმინდა) south of Kus lake (კუ
ტბა), 41.6977°N, 44.7524°E, 800 m a.s.l., 21-vi-2014; corresponds to loc. 3 in S
(2010)
Loc. 6. Tbilisi (თბილისი), Vere river (ვერე) at the northwestern outskirts of Tbilisi,
41.7171°N, 44.6947°E, 560 m a.s.l., 21-vi-2014
Loc. 7. Tbilisi (თბილისი), southwestern shore of Lisi lake (ლისის ტბა), 41.7431°N,
44.7280°E, 628 m a.s.l., 21-vi-2014, 08-vi-2015; 2000–2400 µS/cm
Loc. 8. Kvemo Kartli (ქვემო ქართლი), Vere river (ვერე) west of Betania Monastery
(ბეთანიის მონასტერი), 41.6901°N, 44.6022°E, 760 m a.s.l., 22-vi-2014; 810 µS/cm,
19.7°C, pH 7.7
Loc. 9. Kvemo Kartli (ქვემო ქართლი), scrubland and meadows south of Vere river (ვერე),
41.6854°N, 44.6074°E, 980 m a.s.l., 22-vi-2014
Loc. 10. Kvemo Kartli (ქვემო ქართლი), rivulet in the oodplain of Iori river (იორი) 3km
S Ujarma (უჯარმა), 41.7613°N, 45.1607°E, 750 m a.s.l., 23-vi-2014; 1400 µS/cm, 20.0°C,
pH 8.0
Loc. 11. Kakheti (კახეთი), Mukhrovani salty lake (მუხროვანის მლაშე ტბა) ca 2 km
south of Ujarma (უჯარმა), 41.7725°N, 45.1486°E, 810 m a.s.l., 23-vi-2014; 4000 µS/cm,
25.6°C, pH 8.3
Loc. 12. Kakheti (კახეთი), western tributary of Iori river (იორი) ca 1 km north of Ujar-
ma fortress (უჯარმის ციხე), 41.8203°N, 45.1374°E, 865 m a.s.l., 23-vi-2014; 400 µS/cm,
17.0°C, pH 7.6
Loc. 13. Kakheti (კახეთი), ponds in the oodplain of Iori river (იორი) close to the dam
bridge road (S 38), 41.8457°N, 45.1375°E, 865 m a.s.l., 23-vi-2014
Loc. 14. Kakheti (კახეთი), small pond and meadows in the oodplain of Iori river (იორი)
close to the dam bridge road (S 38), 41.8466°N, 45.1335°E, 875 m a.s.l., 23-vi-2014
Loc. 15. Kakheti (კახეთი), waterlled tracks on muddy path at the western bank of Iori river
(იორი), 41.8441°N, 45.1341°E, 870 m a.s.l., 23-vi-2014
Loc. 16. Kakheti (კახეთი), Gombori river (გომბორი) and ponds in the oodplain east of
Sasadilo (სასადილო), 41.8641°N, 45.1473°E, 920 m a.s.l., 23-vi-2014; 1170 µS/cm, 25.0°C,
pH 7.8 (Gombori river)
Loc. 17. Kakheti (კახეთი), scrubland around Ujarma fortress (უჯარმის ციხე), 41. 8113°N,
45.1540°E, 890 m a.s.l., 23-vi-2014
Loc. 18. Kvemo Kartli (ქვემო ქართლი), Khrami river (ხრამი) at the bridge on road S 6
near Nakhiduri (ნახიდური), 41.4714°N, 44.7031°E, 405 m a.s.l., 24-vi-2014; 300 µS/cm,
20.0°C, pH 7.4
Loc. 19. Kvemo Kartli (ქვემო ქართლი), Mashavera river (მაშავერა) east of Rachisubani
(რაჭისუბანი) around pedestrial suspension bridge, 41.4429°N, 44.5998°E, 450 m a.s.l., 24-
-vi-2014; 550 µS/cm, 21.0°C, pH 7.4
Update of the Odonata fauna of Georgia, southern Caucasus ecoregion
285
Odonatologica 44(3) 2015: 279-342
Loc. 20. Kvemo Kartli (ქვემო ქართლი), spring and stream along northern bank of Masha-
vera river (მაშავერა) east of Rachisubani (რაჭისუბანი), 41.4433°N, 44.6013°E, 455 m
a.s.l., 24-vi-2014; 1600 µS/cm, 20.0°C, pH 7.8
Loc. 21. Kvemo Kartli (ქვემო ქართლი), Bolnisistsqali river (ბოლნისისწყალი) at the
bridge at Tsughrughasheni Monastery (წუღრუღაშენი ეკლესია), 41.3813°N, 44.5251°E,
575 m a.s.l., 24-vi-2014; 510 µS/cm, 23.0°C, pH 7.8
Loc. 22. Kvemo Kartli (ქვემო ქართლი), Bolnisistsqali river (ბოლნისისწყალი) near Po-
ladauri (ფოლადაური; Azer. Çatax), 41.3353°N, 44.5043°E, 670 m a.s.l., 24-vi-2014, 9-vii-
-2014; 420 µS/cm, 20.0°C, pH 7.6
Loc. 23. Kakheti (კახეთი), stream heavily polluted by household waste water alongside
road S 70 N Telavi (თელავი), 41.9765°N, 45.5670°E, 360 m a.s.l., 25-vi-2014; 1000 µS/cm,
24.6°C, pH 7.3
Loc. 24. Kakheti (კახეთი), pond in the oodplain of Alazani river (ალაზანი) northeast of
Telavi(თელავი), 41.9929°N, 45.5778°E, 350 m a.s.l., 25-vi-2014
Loc. 25. Kakheti (კახეთი), rivulet and ditch alongside road S 70 ca 6 km west of Eniseli
(ენისელი), 42.0012°N, 45.5991°E, 345 m a.s.l., 25-vi-2014; 600 µS/cm, 25.0°C, pH 7.4
Loc. 26. Kakheti (კახეთი), springs alongside Bursa river (ბურსა) at the bridge of road
S43 south of Kvareli (ყვარელი), 41.9298°N, 45.8254°E, 360 m a.s.l., 25-vi-2014; 150 µS/
cm, 25.0°C, pH 7.0
Loc. 27. Kakheti (კახეთი), surroundings of the rivers Lagodekhiskhevi (ლაგოდეხისხევი)
and Shromiskhevi (შრომისხევი) within Lagodekhi national park (ლაგოდეხის
ნაკრძალი), 41.8600°N, 46.2900°E, 730 m a.s.l., 26-vi-2014
Loc. 28. Kakheti (კახეთი), shrubland in the oodplain of Alazani river (ალაზანი) west of
bridge on road S 5, 41.6751°N, 46.0795°E, 205 m a.s.l., 27-vi-2014
Loc. 29. Kakheti (კახეთი), shponds south Alazani river (ალაზანი) west of bridge on road
S 5, 41.6705°N, 46.0767°E, 210 m a.s.l., 27-vi-2014; 2 050 µS/cm, 28.0°C, pH 8.2
Loc. 30. Kakheti (კახეთი), rivulet between Kardenakhi (კარდენახი) and Sabatsmin-
da Church (კარდენახის საბაწმინდა), 41.6703°N, 45.8792°E, 450 m a.s.l., 27-vi-2014;
1800µS/cm, 30.0°C, pH 7.9
Loc. 31. Kakheti (კახეთი), slope with shrubland and orchards at Kardenakhi (კარდენახი),
41.6688°N, 45.8841°E, 470 m a.s.l., 27-vi-2014
Loc. 32. Kakheti (კახეთი), rivulet beside road 39 ca 6 km north of Gamarjveba
(გამარჯვება), 41.5206°N, 45.9889°E, 585 m a.s.l., 27-vi-2014; 2 460 µS/cm, 29.0°C, pH 8.0
Loc. 33. Kakheti (კახეთი), dam and southeastern shore of Dali reservoir (დალის ტბა/
დალის წყალსაცავი), 41.2829°N, 45.8970°E, 290 m a.s.l., 27-vi-2014; 1070 µS/cm, 28.0°C,
pH 7.8 (Dali reservoir)
Loc. 34. Kakheti (კახეთი), Iori river (იორი) and oodplain south of Dali reservoir (დალის
თბა/ დალის წყალსაცავი), 41.2758°N, 45.8931°E, 270 m a.s.l., 27-vi-2014
Loc. 35. Kakheti (კახეთი), western shore of Kochebi lake (კოჭების ტბა) east of Dedoplists-
qaro (დედოფლისწყარო), 41.4430°N, 46.1410°E, 782 m a.s.l., 27-vi-2014; >20000 µS/cm,
25.0°C, pH 8.2
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Loc. 36. Kakheti (კახეთი), clay pit beside the road to Davit Gareja monastery
(დავითგარეჯის სამონასტრო კომპლექსი) ca 2 km southeast of Sagarejo (საგარეჯო),
41.7061°N, 45.3733°E, 580 m a.s.l., 28-vi-2014; 440 µS/cm, 23.0°C, pH 7.3
Loc. 37. Kakheti (კახეთი), rivulet southeast of the clay pit beside the road to Davit Gareja
monastery (დავითგარეჯის სამონასტრო კომპლექსი) ca 2 km southeast of Sagarejo
(საგარეჯო), 41.7017°N, 45.3792°E, 570 m a.s.l., 28-vi-2014
Loc. 38. Kakheti (კახეთი), spring ponds in the oodplain of Iori river (იორი) ca 3 km
southeast of Sagarejo (საგარეჯო), 41.6762°N, 45.3874°E, 535 m a.s.l., 28-vi-2014; 340 µS/
cm, 27.0°C, pH 7.2
Loc. 39. Kakheti (კახეთი), reedy spring brook, inow of Jikurebi lake (ჯიქურების ტბა),
41.5974°N, 45.3253°E, 778 m a.s.l., 28-vi-2014
Loc. 40. Kakheti (კახეთი), southwestern shore of Sakhare lake (სახარე ტბა), a salty lake of
high salinity, 41.5760°N, 45.3188°E, 825 m a.s.l., 28-vi-2014; >20000 µS/cm
Loc. 41. Kakheti (კახეთი), partly dried out muddy ponds for lifestock watering alongside
road to Davit Gareja monastery (დავითგარეჯის სამონასტრო კომპლექსი), 41.4811°N,
45.3243°E, 707 m a.s.l., 28-vi-2014; 1660 µS/cm, 32.0°C, pH 8.3
Loc. 42. Kakheti (კახეთი), scrubland at Davit Gareja monastery (დავითგარეჯის
სამონასტრო კომპლექსი), 41.4486°N, 45.3753°E, 710 m a.s.l., 28-vi-2014
Loc. 43. Kakheti (კახეთი), small brook alongside gravel road in the oodplain of Iori river
(იორი) 4 km southeast of Sartichala (სართიჩალა), 41.6949°N, 45.2132°E, 660 m a.s.l., 28-
-vi-2014; 1700 µS/cm, 23.0°C, pH 7.9
Loc. 44. Mtskheta-Mtianeti (მცხეთა-მთიანეთი), Jvari lake (ჯვარის თბა) east of Jvari
monasteri (ჯვარი, ჯვრის მონასტერი), 41.8386°N, 44.7395°E, 575 m a.s.l., 29-vi-2014
Loc. 45. Mtskheta-Mtianeti (მცხეთა-მთიანეთი), spring mire alongside the Georgian Mili-
tary Road (საქართველოს სამხედრო გზა) ca 2.5 km north of Pasanauri (ფასანაური),
42.3730°N, 44.6791°E, 1120 m a.s.l., 29-vi-2014, 07-vi-2015; corresponds to loc. 8. in B-
 (1987)
Loc. 46. Mtskheta-Mtianeti (მცხეთა-მთიანეთი), shrubland alongside the Georgian Mili-
tary Road (საქართველოს სამხედრო გზა) ca 6 km south of Ananuri castle (ანანური),
42.1421°N, 44.7691°E, 850 m a.s.l., 29-vi-2014
Loc. 47. Mtskheta-Mtianeti (მცხეთა-მთიანეთი), eastern bank of Aragvi river (არაგვი),
42.0072°N, 44.7590°E, 595 m a.s.l., 29-vi-2014
Loc. 48. Shida Kartli (შიდა ქართლი), Prone river (ფრონე) at the bridge on road (E 60),
42.0585°N, 43.8846°E, 650 m a.s.l., 30-vi-2014
Loc. 49. Shida Kartli (შიდა ქართლი), Kura river (მტკვარი) alongside road S 8 between
suspension bridge and discharging brook, 41.9607°N, 43.5110°E, 725 m a.s.l., 30-vi-2014,
07-vii-2014
Loc. 50. Samtskhe-Javakheti (სამცხე-ჯავახეთი), brook running through wet and fen-like
meadows at the eastern edge of Bakuriani (ბაკურიანი), 41.7542°N, 43.5391°E, 1 675 m
a.s.l., 01-vii-2014
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Loc. 51. Samtskhe-Javakheti (სამცხე-ჯავახეთი), oxbow lakes of Kura river (მტკვარი)
north of Aspindza (ასპინძა), 41.5836°N, 43.2433°E, 1055 m a.s.l., 02-vii-2014
Loc. 52. Samtskhe-Javakheti (სამცხე-ჯავახეთი), southwestern shore of Madatapa lake
(მადათაფას ტბა), 41.1821°N, 43.7582°E, 2115 m a.s.l., 02-vii-2014, 01-viii-2015
Loc. 53. Samtskhe-Javakheti (სამცხე-ჯავახეთი), discharge of Madatapa lake (მადათაფას
ტბა) at Epremovka (ეფრემოვკა), 41.1889°N, 43.7474°E, 2105 m a.s.l., 02-vii-2014, 01-vii-
-2015
Loc. 54. Samtskhe-Javakheti (სამცხე-ჯავახეთი), southern shore of Khanchali lake
(ხანჩალის ტბა), 41.2425°N, 43.5599°E, 1930 m a.s.l., 02-vii-2014
Loc. 55. Samtskhe-Javakheti (სამცხე-ჯავახეთი), Kvabliani river (ქვაბლიანი) at conu-
ence with Potskhovi river (ფოცხოვი), 41.6454°N, 42.8541°E, 1025 m a.s.l., 03-vii-2014
Loc. 56. Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), small pond near Goderdzi pass
(გოდერძის უღელტ), 41.6343°N, 42.5087°E, 2115 m a.s.l., 03-vii-2014
Loc. 57. Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), swampy meadow alongside gravel
road, 41.6464°N, 42.4746°E, 1565 m a.s.l., 03-vii-2014
Loc. 58. Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), oodplain of Chorokhi river
(ჭოროხი) at the estuary mouth in the Black Sea, 41.5916°N, 41.5808°E, 3 m a.s.l., 04-vii-
-2014
Loc. 59. Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), Charnali river (ჭარნალი) south
of conuence with Chorokhi river (ჭოროხი), 41.5762°N, 41.6267°E, 20 m a.s.l., 04-vii-2014
Loc. 60. Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), small stream within orchards east
Ombolo (ომბოლო), 41.5736°N, 41.6374°E, 25 m a.s.l., 04-vii-2014
Loc. 61. Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), Boloko river (ბოლოქო) south of
Zeda-Tkhilnari (ზედა თხილნარი), 41.5415°N, 41.6422°E, 185 m a.s.l., 04-vii-2014
Loc. 62. Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), Western tributary to Boloko river
(ბოლოქო) ca 1 km north of Zeda-Tkhilnari (ზედა თხილნარი), 41.5467°N, 41.6423°E,
135 m a.s.l., 04-vii-2014
Loc. 63. Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), tributari to Boloko river
(ბოლოქო) north of the school building, 41.5511°N 41.6418°E, 115 m a.s.l., 04-vii-2014
Loc. 64. Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), northern tributary to Kintrishi
river (კინტრიში) near Chakhati (ჭახათი), 41.8052°N, 41.9328°E, 215 m a.s.l., 05-vii-2014
Loc. 65. Guria (გურია), channel north of Natanebi river mouth (ნატანები), 41.9125°N,
41.7730°E, 1 m a.s.l., 05-vii-2014
Loc. 66. Guria (გურია), brackish lagoon south of Shekvetili (შეკვეთილი), 41.9136°N,
41.7696°E, 1 m a.s.l., 05-vii-2014
Loc. 67. Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), northern tributary of Chakvistskali
river (ჩაქვისწყალი) at Khala (ხალა), 41.7079°N, 41.7884°E, 55 m a.s.l., 05-vii-2014
Loc. 68. Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), Chakvistskali river
(ჩაქვისწყალი) at Khala (ხალა), 41.7079°N, 41.7884°E, 55 m a.s.l., 05-vii-2014
A. Schröter, M. Seehausen, B. Kunz, A. Günther,
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Loc. 69. Guria (გურია), Grigoleti lake (გრიგოლეთის თბა) north of the mouth of Supsa
river (სუფსა), 42.0284°N, 41.7460°E, 1 m a.s.l., 06-vii-2014
Loc. 70. Guria (გურია), southwestern shore of Paliastomi lake (პალიასტომის ტბა),
42.0810°N, 41.7160°E, 1 m a.s.l., 06-vii-2014
Loc. 71. Guria (გურია), southern shore of Narionali lake (დიდი ნარიონალის ტბა), an
oxbow of Rioni river (რიონი), 42.0959°N, 42.2114°E, 15 m a.s.l., 06-vii-2014
Loc. 72. Guria (გურია), Khevistsqali river (ხევისწყალი) north and south of the bridge
along road E 692 (S12), 42.0979°N, 42.2545°E, 20 m a.s.l., 06-vii-2014
Loc. 73. Imereti (იმერეთი), southern bank of Rioni river (რიონი) at gravel pit alongside
road E 692 (S 12) west of Sajavakho (საჯავახო), 42.1035°N, 42.2806°E, 10 m a.s.l., 06-vii--
2014, 07-vii-2014
Loc. 74. Imereti (იმერეთი), banks of Rioni river (რიონი) east and west of bridge on E 692
(S 12) south of Samtredia (სამტრედია), 42.1199°N, 42.3323°E, 10 m a.s.l., 06-vii-2014, 31-
-vii-2015, 02-vii-2015
Loc. 75. Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), stream and springs ca 1 km east
Tsqavroka (წყავროკა), 41.8510°N, 41.8929°E, 65 m a.s.l., 07-vii-2014
Loc. 76. Guria (გურია), Supsa river (სუფსა) at a small bridge ca 13 km north of Ozurgeti
(ოზურგეთი), 41.9986°N, 42.0946°E, 55 m a.s.l., 07-vii-2014
Loc. 77. Samtskhe-Javakheti (სამცხე-ჯავახეთი), southwestern tributary of Borjomula riv-
er (ბორჯომულა) ca 3 km south of Borjomi (ბორჯომი), 41.8203°N, 43.3975°E, 930m
a.s.l., 08-vii-2014
Loc. 78. Samtskhe-Javakheti (სამცხე-ჯავახეთი), open areas and meadows alongside road
1 km northwest of Sadgeri (სადგერი), 41.8218°N, 43.4031°E, 1015 m a.s.l., 08-vii-2014
Loc. 79. Samtskhe-Javakheti (სამცხე-ჯავახეთი), Chitakhevi river (ჩითახევი) south of
Mtsvane Monastery (მწვანე მონასტერი), 41.8030°N, 43.3183°E, 850 m a.s.l., 08-vii-2014
Loc. 80. Samtskhe-Javakheti (სამცხე-ჯავახეთი), Kvabishkhevi river (ქვაბისხევი) in the
village of the same name at the bridge on road S 8, 41.7744°N, 43.2498°E, 880 m a.s.l., 08-
-vii-2014
Loc. 81. Samtskhe-Javakheti (სამცხე-ჯავახეთი), stretch of Zoreti river (ზორეთი) ca
0.8–2km north of the Kura river (მტკვარი), 41.7699°N, 43.2358°E, 930 m a.s.l., 08-vii-2014
Loc. 82. Kvemo Kartli (ქვემო ქართლი), Khrami river (ხრამი) west of bridge on road
E001(S 7) ca 10 km south of Marneuli (მარნეული), 41.4056°N, 44.8293°E, 340 m a.s.l.,
09-vii-2014
Loc. 83. Tbilisi (თბილისი), northeastern shore of Gldani lake (გლდანის ტბა), 41.8130°N,
44.8408°E, 555 m a.s.l., 04-vii-2014
Loc. 84. Tbilisi (თბილისი), ditch at northeastern shore of Gldani lake (გლდანის ტბა),
41.8136°N, 44.8415°E, 555 m a.s.l., 04-vii-2014
Loc. 85. Kakheti (კახეთი), small side channel of river Lagodekhiskhevi (ლაგოდეხისხევი)
within Lagodekhi national park (ლაგოდეხის ნაკრძალი), 41.8483°N, 46.2950°E, 635 m
a.s.l., 26-vi-2014
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Loc. 86. Tbilisi (თბილისი), sh ponds northwest of Kalajalari (ყარაჯალარი) 41.6373°N,
44.9445°E, 362 m a.s.l., 09-vi-2015; 1350 µS/cm
Loc. 87. Kvemo Kartli (ქვემო ქართლი), northwestern shore of Jandari reservoir
(ჯანდარის ტბა; Azer. Candargöl) 41.4453°N, 45.2019°E, 292 m a.s.l., 06-vi-2015; 590 µS/
cm
Loc. 88. Kvemo Kartli (ქვემო ქართლი), channel alongside road north of Jandari
(ჯანდარი) 41.4810°N, 45.1446°E, 318 m a.s.l., 06-vi-2015
Loc. 89. Tbilisi (თბილისი), small water supply to Lisi lake (ლისის ტბა), 41.7462°N,
44.7248°E, 628 m a.s.l., 08-vi-2015
Loc. 90. Tbilisi (თბილისი), Lochini river (ლოჭინი) at the sh ponds northwest of Kala-
jalari (ყარაჯალარი), 41.6365°N, 44.9483°E, 368 m a.s.l., 09-vi-2015; 1 350 µS/cm
Loc. 91. Kvemo Kartli (ქვემო ქართლი), Mashavera river (მაშავერა) near Kveshi fortress
(ქვეშის ციხე), 41.442917°N, 44.458167°E, 555 m a.s.l., 27-vii-2015
Loc. 92. Kvemo Kartli (ქვემო ქართლი), marshy meadow north of Iakublo reservoir
(ფარავანი), 41.382444°N, 44.106194°E, 1450 m a.s.l., 27-vii-2015
Loc. 93. Samtskhe-Javakheti (სამცხე-ჯავახეთი), meadow near Paravani (ფარავანი),
41.455428°N, 43.847047°E, 2092 m a.s.l., 27-vii-2015
Loc. 94. Samtskhe-Javakheti (სამცხე-ჯავახეთი), marshy meadows with little ponds south-
east of Khanchali lake (ხანჩალის ტბა), 41.241292°N, 43.516914°E, 2081 m a.s.l.), 03-viii-
-2015.
Loc. 95. Samtskhe-Javakheti (სამცხე-ჯავახეთი), Paravani river (ფარავანი) east of
Khertvisi fortress (ხერთვისის ციხე), 41.490833°N, 43.334833°E, 1215 m a.s.l, 27-vii-2015
Loc. 96. Imereti (იმერეთი), forest stream west of Khashuri (ხაშური), 42.023861°N,
43.458917°E, 930 m a.s.l., 28-vii-2015
Loc. 97. Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), small lake west of “Green Lake“
(მწვანე ტბა), 41.67595°N, 42.496444°E, 2065 m a.s.l., 29-vii-2015
Loc. 98. Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), stream east of Goderdzi pass,
41.631894°N, 42.568039°E, 1820 m a.s.l., 29-vii-2015, 30-vii-2015
Loc. 99. Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), stream west of Goderdzi pass,
41.637053°N, 42.379003°E, 906 m a.s.l., 04-viii-2015
Results
Altogether, 63 odonate taxa were recorded at 99 sampling sites (Fig. 1) cor-
responding to at least 85 % of the Georgian Odonata fauna. Selysiothemis
nigra is a new species for the country and intermediates between Enallagma
cyathigerum cyathigerum and E. c. risi were reported from Georgia for the
rst time. Except for Lindenia tetraphylla and Anax ephippiger, all taxa were
authenticated by photographs, voucher specimens and/or exuviae/larve.
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List of recorded species and taxa
Roman numerals indicate abundance classes of adults: I = single, II = 25,
III = 610, IV = 1120, V = 2150, VI = 51100, VII = 101500, VIII = 501
1000, IX= 100110000, X= >10000. Capital letters indicate the following
abbreviations: A = individual; C = copula, tandem; L = larvae; indicated
only if not collected; O = ovipositing; T = teneral, emergence; U = exuviae,
indicated only if not collected.
Zygoptera
Lestidae
1. Chalcolestes parvidens (Artobolevskii, 1929)
2014: loc. 65 – AT VI. 2015: loc. 74 – AOT II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 65 – adults 8 4.
2. Lestes barbarus (Fabricius, 1798)
2014: loc. 16 – AT II; loc. 41 – A I; loc. 49 – A III; loc. 51 – A II; loc. 54 – AT II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 16 – exuviae 1 1; loc. 51 – adults 1.
3. Lestes dryas Kirby, 1890
2014: loc. 13 A II; loc. 49 A VI; loc. 50 ATU VI; loc. 51 A II; loc. 52 A III; loc. 53
A I; loc. 54 – AT X. 2015: loc. 52 A VIII; loc. 92 A IV; loc. 93 A VII; loc. 94 A VI;
loc.97 – A VI.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 13 adult 1; loc. 50 adult 1, exuviae 21 15; loc. 51 adults 2 1.
Figure 1. 
regions (grey shaded areas).
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4. Lestes macrostigma (Eversmann, 1836)
2015: loc. 7 – A I; loc. 87 – AC III.
Specimens: 2015: loc. 87 – adults 1 1.
5. Lestes sponsa (Hansemann, 1823)
2014: loc. 52 – AT I; loc. 54 – AT II. 2015: loc. 52 – A VIII; loc. 97 – A VI.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 52 – adult 1; loc. 54 – adult 1.
6. Lestes virens vestalis Rambur, 1842
2014: loc. 51 – A I.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 51 – adult 1.
Subspecic assignation acccording to the following diagnosis (RJ) (Fig. 2):
Figure 2. Lestes
virens vestalisloc: light basis of lat-
al-
tal margin; ml
pp: pro pleuron with stripe alongside notopleural suture and downwards on bor-
ds: green dorsal stripe
with predominantly blackish middorsal carina; ahs: almost open ante-humeral
stripe; fo2ies2: green
ps: green pleural stripe
not reaching metapleural suture; ips: interpleural suture; ep2: yellow streak at
caudal end of pleural stripe not reaching interpleural suture; ps3: blackish stripe
alongside metapleural suture; fo3: pigmented metapleural fossa, lessening gap
S1: irregular blackish

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An immature male with light yellowish coloration and bright shining green
markings, some melanisation but no trace of pruinosity. Head Dorsal
parts of head capsule and anteclypeus metallic green, except light bases of
antennae and lateral ocelli (loc) and two bilateral tiny streaks at occipital
rear. Prothorax Pronotum completely green, except outer margins of
anterior (al) and posterior lobe and lateral margins of middle lobe (ml)
yellow. Propleuron (pp) with an extensive, blackish-green stripe alongside
noto pleural suture. Synthorax Middorsal carina blackish, except yellow
frontal part of ca
/

of its total length. Ante-humeral stripe (ahs) grey-
ish, wide open only in its frontal section, otherwise narrow; partly inter-
rupted by melanisation of lower half of humeral fossa (fo2). Pleural stripe
(ps) not reaching metapleural suture. Upper half of mesinfraepisternum
(ies2) entirely green. Metapleural suture (ps3) broadly melanised from met-
infraepisternum to metapleural fossa (fo3), thus forming a blackish band
mainly extending to metepimeron. Abdomen S1 with a sublateral, ir-
regular, blackish-green spot; S9+10 with extensive blackish pigmentation of
ventral halfs of segments. Measurements [mm] Abdomen length 25.5;
Hw length 18.0.
7. Sympecma fusca (Vander Linden, 1820)
2014: loc. 8 – A II; loc. 27 – A I; loc. 51 – AT III; loc. 79 – A I.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 51 – adults 2.
Calopterygidae
8. Calopteryx splendens intermedia Selys, 1890
2014: loc. 2 AO VII; loc.8 – A I; loc. 10 – A VI; loc. 12 A III; loc. 18 ATU V; loc. 19 –
AIV; loc. 20 – A V; loc. 21 – A III; loc. 22 – ACL V; loc. 23 – A III; loc. 25 – ACO V; loc.28
A III; loc. 34 ACO VII; loc. 36 A I; loc. 37 A III; loc. 37 A I; Loc. 43 ACO IX;
loc.47 – A III; loc. 48 – A II; loc. 49 – A I; loc. 74 – A III; loc. 82 – A II. 2015: loc. 2 – AT III;
loc.88 – AT II; loc. 90 – A V, loc. 91 – A IV.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 2 – adults 13 8, exuviae 4 4; loc. 12 adults 5 3; loc. 18 – exu-
viae 2; loc. 21 – exuvia 1; loc. 22 – exuviae 7 6, larva 1; loc. 25 – adults 7 6, exuvia
1; loc. 36 – adult 1; loc. 43 – exuviae 2 9; loc. 47 – exuvia 1. 2015: loc. 88 – adult 1;
loc. 90 – adults 2.
9. Calopteryx splendens tschaldirica Bartenev, 1909
2014: loc. 49 – A V; loc. 51 – A III; loc. 55 – AT IV; loc. 80 – A II. 2015: loc. 95 – A IV.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 49 – adults 12 4, exuviae 2.
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10. Calopteryx splendens mingrelica Selys, 1869
2014: loc. 65 – A IV; loc. 73 – A II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 73 – adult 1.
11. Calopteryx virgo festiva (Brullé, 1832)
2014: loc. 25 AO V; loc. 60 AO V; loc. 67 A I; loc. 68 A I; loc. 76 A I. 2015: loc. 96
– A II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 25 – adults 5 3; loc. 60 – adults 3 3; loc. 67 – exuviae 1 4.
Euphaeidae
12. Epallage fatime (Charpentier, 1840)
2014: loc. 2 – ACOT VI; loc. 6 – A II; loc. 8 – AC IV; loc. 18 – AT V; loc. 20 – A III; loc. 22 –
ACO IV; loc. 82 – A II. 2015: loc. 2 – A V; loc. 3 – A I; loc. 91 – A III.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 2 – adults 4 1, exuviae 3 2; loc. 18 – 1; loc. 22 – adults 1, exu-
viae 1. 2015: loc. 2 – adult 1 1, exuviae 24.
Coenagrionidae
13. Coenagrion armatum (Charpentier, 1840)
2014: loc. 52 – ACOTU VII; loc. 53 – A V.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 52 – adults 2 1.
14. Coenagrion lunulatum (Charpentier, 1840)
2014: loc. 52 – ACOT X; loc. 53 – ACOT VI; loc. 54 – A IV. 2015: loc. 52 – A IV.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 52 – adults 9 4, exuviae 3 5.
15. Coenagrion ponticum (Bartenev, 1929)
2014: loc. 25 – A II; loc. 32 – A II; loc. 53 – A II; loc. 54 – A I; loc. 60 – A II; loc. 65 – A V.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 25 adults 2; loc. 32 adult 1; loc. 53 adults 2; loc. 54 adult
1; loc. 60 – adults 1 1; loc. 65 – adults 2 1.
16. Coenagrion puella (Linnaeus, 1758)
2014: loc. 2 ACO V; loc. 11 A II; loc. 13 ACO VI; loc. 15 ACO IV; loc. 16 A III;
loc.19 – A III; loc. 20 – ACO IV; loc. 21 – A II; loc. 22 – ACO V; loc. 26 – A I; loc. 32 – AII;
loc. 43 A III; loc. 45 – ACO V; loc. 48 – AO III; loc. 49 – A I; loc. 50 – A II; loc. 51 – A II;
loc. 55 – A I; loc. 60 – A IV; loc. 78 – A II. 2015: loc. 2 – A II; loc. 45 – A III; loc. 89 – A.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 2 – adults 6 1; loc. 11 – adults 2; loc. 15 – adults 4 1; loc. 45 –
exuviae 4 1; loc. 47 – exuvia 1; loc. 48 – adult 1; loc. 60 – adults 2; loc. 78 – adult 1.
2015: loc. 2 – adult 1; loc. 45 – adults 2 1.
17. Coenagrion pulchellum (Vander Linden, 1825)
2014: loc. 53 – A II. 2015: loc. 97 – A V.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 53 – adult 1. 2015: loc. 97 – adults 4 1.
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18. Coenagrion scitulum (Rambur, 1842)
2014: loc. 10 – A I; loc. 13 – A II; loc. 36 – ACO V. 2015: loc. 7 – A I.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 10 – adult 1; loc. 13 – adults 1 1.
19. Coenagrion vanbrinkae Lohmann, 1993
2014: loc. 25 – A II; loc. 32 – ACO IV; loc. 45 – ACOT VII. 2015: loc. 45 – A VI.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 25 – adult 1; loc. 32 – adults 4 2; loc. 45 – adults 14 2, exuviae
2 6. 2015: loc. 45 – adults 8 2, exuvia 1.
20. Enallagma cyathigerum (Charpentier, 1840)
2014: loc. 11 A III; loc. 35 A II; loc. 36 ACO IV; loc. 41 A I; loc. 44 A III; loc. 52
– AV; loc. 53 – A I; loc. 54 – AT III; loc. 58 – A I; loc. 69 – A I; loc. 83 A II. 2015: loc. 52
– AVIII.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 11 adults 5 1; loc. 35 adults 2; loc. 41 adult 1; loc. 52
adults 2; loc. 53 – adult 1.
21. Erythromma viridulum (Charpentier, 1840)
2014: loc. 7 A II; loc. 11 A II; loc. 29 ACO IV; loc. 34 ACO VII; loc. 51 ACOT V;
loc.69 – A V; loc. 71 – ACO IX. 2015: loc. 7 – A I; loc. 86 – A I; loc. 87 – A IV.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 7 – adult 1. 2015: loc. 7 – adult 1.
22. Ischnura elegans (Vander Linden, 1820)
2014: loc. 4 A III; loc. 7 A IV; loc. 11 ACO V; loc. 13 ACO V; loc. 19 AI; loc. 20
ACO V; loc. 24 – A I; loc. 25 – ACO V; loc. 26 – A I; loc. 29 – ACO V; loc. 32 – A III; loc. 32 –
A II; loc. 34 – A III; loc. 36 – AC II; loc. 38 – AC VI; loc. 41 – A II; loc. 43 – A I; loc. 47 – AII;
loc. 51 – ACOT VI; loc. 58 – A VII; loc. 65 – A III; loc. 66 – A V; loc. 69 – A II; loc. 70 – A II;
loc. 71 – A V; loc. 72 – A II; loc. 82 – A II; loc. 83 – A III. 2015: loc. 7 – A V; loc. 86 – AT V;
loc. 87 – A III; loc. 88 – A II; loc. 90 – A III.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 4 adult 1; loc. 19 – adult 1; loc. 47 – exuviae 1 1; loc. 51 adults
2; loc. 69 – adults 2; loc. 71 – adult 1. 2015: loc. 87 – adults 1 1.
23. Ischnura pumilio (Charpentier, 1825)
2014: loc. 15 – A II; loc. 16 – A II; loc. 20 – A III; loc. 25 – AO II; loc. 26 – ACO V; loc. 29
AIV; loc. 32 – ACO IV; loc. 36 ACO VI; loc. 38 – AT V; loc. 41 – ACO II; loc. 45 ACOTV;
loc. 47 – A II; loc. 51 – A III; loc. 58 A II; loc. 72 – AC III; loc. 75 – A II; loc. 83 – A II; loc.84
– A III. 2015: loc. 7 – A II; loc. 45 – A II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 15 – adult 1; loc. 16 – adult 1; loc. 26 – adults 2 1; loc. 83 adults
2. 2015: loc. 7 – adults 2 1; loc. 45 – adults 1 1.
24. Pyrrhosoma nymphula (Sulzer, 1776)
2014: loc. 45 – A IV; loc. 50 – A II. 2015: loc. 45 – ACOT VII.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 45 – adult 1; loc. 50 – adult 1. 2015: loc. 45 – adults 2 2, exuviae
5 1.
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Platycnemididae
25. Platycnemis dealbata Selys in Selys & Hagen, 1850
2014: loc. 2 – A III; loc. 10 – A V; loc. 13 – AC IV; loc. 15 – A I; loc. 18 – AC VI; loc. 19 – AIII;
loc. 20 ACO VI; loc. 21 A IV; loc. 22 A II; loc. 23 A IV; loc. 25 ACO VIII; loc.28
AV; loc. 29 ACO VII; loc. 32 ACO V; loc. 33 A IV; loc. 34 ACO IV; loc. 35 – A I;
loc.37 – A II; loc. 38 – A IV; loc. 43 – ACO VIII; loc. 48 – AC II; loc. 49 – A IV; loc. 51 – A I;
loc. 82 ACO V; loc. 84 – A II. 2015: loc. 86 – A V; loc. 88 – A II; loc. 90 A II; loc. 91 – A III.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 2 – adult 1; loc. 13 – adult 1; loc. 18 – adults 1 1; loc. 2 –exuvia
1; loc. 22 – adult 1; loc. 25 – adults 4 1, exuvia 1; loc. 43 – adult 1, exuviae 8 14;
loc. 82 – adults 2. 2015: loc. 86 – adults 2 2; loc. 90 – exuvia 1 .
26. Platycnemis pennipes (Pallas, 1771)
2014: loc. 2 – ACOT V; loc. 10 – A II; loc. 18 – AC V; loc. 19 – A II; loc. 20 – ACO V; loc.21
– A IV; loc. 48 – A IV; loc. 49 – A VI; loc. 51 – A II; loc. 58 – AT VI; loc. 59 – AC II; loc. 72 –
AV; loc. 73 – AC II; loc. 74 – A II; loc. 75 – A IV; loc. 84 – A II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 72 – exuviae 3 5.
Anisoptera
Aeshnidae
27. Aeshna anis Vander Linden, 1820
2014: loc. 5 – A III; loc. 9 – AC II; loc. 29 – A I.
28. Aeshna cyanea (Müller, 1764)
2014: loc. 45 – AT II. 2015: 2015: loc. 97 – A II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 45 – adult 1, exuviae 1 3. 2015: loc. 97 – adults 2.
29. Aeshna isoceles (Müller, 1767)
2014: loc. 4 A II; loc. 13 A II; loc. 15 A I; loc. 25 – AO IV; loc. 34 A II; loc. 36 A I.
2015: loc. 2 – A I; loc. 7 – A I.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 25 – adult 1.
30. Aeshna juncea (Linnaeus, 1758)
2014: loc. 45 – T IV; loc. 78 – A I. 2015: loc. 97 – A III.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 45 – adults 1 2, exuviae 9 11. 2015: loc. 97 – adults 2.
31. Aeshna mixta Latreille, 1805
2014: loc. 8 A III; loc. 9 – A III; loc. 16 AT II; loc. 28 – A II; loc. 29 A II; loc. 31 – A I;
loc. 78 – A II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 8 – adults 2.
32. Aeshna serrata Hagen, 1856
2015: loc. 52 – AC VII.
Specimens: 2015: loc. 52 – adults 2 2.
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33. Anax ephippiger (Burmeister, 1839)
2014: loc. 31 – A IV.
34. Anax imperator Leach, 1815
2014: loc. 2 – AO II; loc. 4 – A III; loc. 5 – A II; loc. 7 – A I; loc. 9 – A I; loc. 13 AT II; loc.14 –
AII; loc. 16 A II; loc. 17 A I; loc. 25 AO III; loc. 27 A I; loc. 28 AO I; loc.29 AII; loc. 36
AO II; loc. 39 A I; loc. 51 A II; loc. 58 A II; loc. 71 A III. 2015: loc. 3 A I; loc. 86 A II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 25 – exuviae 1 1; loc. 51 – exuvia 1; loc. 71 – exuviae 3 7.
35. Anax parthenope Selys, 1839
2014: loc. 4 – A II; loc. 7 A II; loc. 9 A II; loc. 13 – AO II; loc. 25 – AC II; loc. 29 ACOIII;
loc. 34 – A II; loc. 36 – A I; loc. 40 – A I; loc. 52 – A III; loc. 53 – A I; loc. 54 – A II; loc. 58 –
AII; loc. 83 – A II. 2015: loc. 3 – A I; loc. 86 – A II; loc. 87 – A IV.
Specimens: 2015: loc. 87 – adult 1.
36. Caliaeschna microstigma (Schneider, 1845)
2014: loc. 2 – ACO III; loc. 8 – A I; loc. 22 – A II; loc. 43 – A III; loc. 61 – A II; loc. 63 – A II.
2015: loc. 2 – A IV; loc. 96 – A II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 2 – adults 3, exuviae 53 48; loc. 12 – exuviae 3 2; loc. 22 –exu-
viae 2; loc. 43 – exuviae 3 1; loc. 47 – exuvia 1; loc. 61 – exuviae 1 1; loc. 63 – exu-
viae 1 2; loc. 67 – exuviae 2. 2015: loc. 2 – adults 2, exuviae 11 11.
Gomphidae
37. Gomphus schneiderii Selys, 1850
2014: loc. 8 – A I; loc. 10 – A II; loc. 22 – A III; loc. 23 – A I; loc. 25 – A II; loc. 37 – A I; loc.43
– A IV; loc. 48 – A I. 2015: loc. 88 – AT V.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 18 – exuviae 2 1; loc. 21 exuviae 1 1; loc. 22 – adult 1, exuviae
13 14; loc. 43 – exuviae 29 27; loc. 47 – exuviae 3 4; loc. 48 – exuviae 1 1; loc.49
– exuviae 7 6; loc. 55 – exuvia 1. 2015: loc. 88 – adults 1 1, exuvia 1.
38. Gomphus ubadschii Schmidt, 1953
2014: loc. 73 – AT V; loc. 74 – AT IV. 2015: loc. 74 – AOT II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 73 – adult 1, exuviae 21 13; loc. 74 – adults 1 1, exuviae 3 3.
2015: loc. 74 – adult 1, exuviae 3.
39. Lindenia tetraphylla (Vander Linden, 1825)
2014: loc. 3 – A I; loc. 5 – A I; loc. 51 – A I; loc. 58 – A II.
40. Onychogomphus assimilis (Schneider, 1845)
2014: loc. 8 – A IV; loc.14 – A I; loc. 21 – A I; loc. 22 – ACOT V.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 8 adult 1; loc.14 – adult 1, exuviae 7 7; loc. 18 – exuviae 7 7;
loc. 21 – exuviae 88 98; loc. 22 adults 1 1, exuviae 251 303; loc. 47 – exuviae 1
1; loc. 49 – exuviae 1 2.
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41. Onychogomphus exuosus (Schneider, 1845)
2014: loc. 3 – A V; loc. 5 – A II; loc. 6 – A III; loc. 9 – A I; loc. 17 – A II; loc. 33 – A I; loc. 38
– A I; loc. 40 – A I; loc. 42 – A III; loc. 43 – A I; loc. 46 – A I; loc. 82 – A II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 3 – adults 4 2; loc. 43 – adult 1; loc. 82 – adults 1.
42. Onychogomphus forcipatus albotibialis Schmidt, 1954
2014: loc. 2 – ACOT VI; loc. 3 – A II; loc. 4 – A II; loc. 6 – A I; loc. 8 – A III; loc. 12 A II;
loc.16 – A III; loc. 18 – AT III; loc. 19 – AT V; loc. 21 – AT VI; loc. 22 – AT III; loc. 25 – AI;
loc. 26 – A I; loc. 28 – A I; loc. 32 – A I; loc. 34 – A I; loc. 37 – A I; loc. 38 – A I; loc. 40 – AI;
loc. 43 A III; loc. 47 AT IV. 2015: loc. 2 AT III; loc. 3 A II; loc. 86 AT I; loc. 90
ATIII; loc. 91 – A II; loc. 96 – A I.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 2 – adults 1 1, exuviae 18 11; loc. 8 – exuvia 1; loc. 12 – adult
1; loc. 19 – adult 1, exuvia 1; loc. 21 – exuviae 10 15; loc. 22 – adult 1 , exuviae 6
5; loc. 43 – exuvia 1; loc. 47 – exuvia 1; loc. 48 – exuviae 11 13 ; loc. 72 – exuviae 6
2; loc. 73 – exuviae 3 1; loc. 76 – exuviae 2; loc. 82 – exuviae 3. 2015: loc. 2 – exuviae
102 117; loc. 90 – adults 1 1, exuvia 1.
Cordulegastridae
43. Cordulegaster insignis charpentieri (Kolenati, 1846)
2014: loc. 2 – A II; loc. 9 – A I. 2015: loc. 2 – A I; loc. 3 – AT II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 2 – exuviae 3. 2015: loc. 2 – adult 1, exuvia 1.
44. Cordulegaster mzymtae Bartenev, 1929
2015: loc. 98 – A III; loc. 99 – A III.
Specimens: 2015: loc. 98 – adults 4 2; loc. 99 – adults 4.
45. Cordulegaster picta Selys, 1854
2014: loc. 80 – A I; loc. 81 – A III; loc. 85 – A II. 2015: loc. 96 – A V.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 12 exuvia 1; loc. 22 exuvia 1; loc. 85 larvae 3. 2015: loc. 96
– adults 2.
46. Cordulegaster spec.
Specimens 2014: loc. 61 – exuviae 2 1, 12 larvae; loc. 62 – exuviae 2, 3 larvae; loc. 63 –
exuvia 1; loc. 64 – exuviae 1; loc. 67 – exuviae 2.
Libellulidae
47. Libellula depressa Linnaeus, 1758
2014: loc. 16 A II Loc. 25 – ACO II; loc. 26 A I; loc. 27 AI; loc. 29 – A I; loc. 30 – AI;
loc.32 – AO II; loc. 34 – A I; loc. 36 – A I; loc. 38 – A I; loc. 43 – A I; loc. 50 – A II; loc. 53 –
AII; loc. 57 – A I; loc. 78 – A II; loc. 84 – A II. 2015: loc. 2 – AIII; loc. 45 – A III.
2015: loc.53 – A II; loc. 97 – A V.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 16 adults 2; loc. 25 exuvia 1; loc. 45 exuviae 1 1; 2015:
loc.2 – adult 1.
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48. Libellula quadrimaculata Linnaeus, 1758
2014: loc. 13 – A III; loc. 45 – AU III; loc. 52 – ACO VII; loc. 53 A III; loc. 54 – A III; loc.56
– A I. 2015: loc. 45 – AO IV. 2015: loc. 52 – A VI; loc. 94 – A II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 13 – exuvia 1. 2015: loc. 45 – adult 1.
49. Libellula pontica Selys, 1887
2014: loc. 23 – A I; loc. 25 – ACO V; loc. 43 – A V. 2015: loc. 86 – A II; loc. 90 – A II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 25 – adults 6 3; loc. 43 – adults 3, exuviae 2 1 . 2015: loc. 86 –
adult 1.
On 26-vi-2014, at loc. 25, about 230 eggs were taken from a female
caught during copulation. e eggs were incubated in water at ambient
temperature. In the morning of 09-vii-2014 the rst larva was observed
and in the evening a total of 57 larvae were hatched. On 12-vii about 130
larvae were hatched and the last fresh larvae were found on 05-viii-2014.
Forty-seven eggs did not hatch, so that the hatchability was amounted to
nearly 80 %.
50. Orthetrum albistylum (Selys, 1848)
2014: loc. 4 – A II; loc. 7 – AC IV; loc. 11 – A I; loc. 13 – AT III; loc. 19 – T II; loc. 28 – AIV;
loc. 29 AOT V; loc. 34 AT V; loc. 43 T I; loc. 58 ACOT X; loc. 71 A IX; loc. 72
AIII; loc. 73 – A II; loc. 74 – A II; loc. 82 – O I; loc. 83 – A V; loc. 84 – A II. 2015: loc. 7 – AI;
loc.86 – A IV; loc. 87 – A VI; loc. 88 – A I.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 7 – exuvia 1; loc. 13 – adult 1; loc. 29 – exuvia 1; loc. 58 – exuviae
16 21; loc. 83 – adult 1. 2015: loc. 86 – adult 1.
51. Orthetrum brunneum (Fonscolombe, 1837)
2014: loc. 2 AOLU V; loc. 3 A II; loc. 6 A III; loc. 7 A II; loc. 8 A II; loc. 10 A I;
loc.11 A V; loc. 12 – A II; loc. 13 A I; loc. 14 – AC II; loc. 16 AT II; loc. 17 – A I; loc.19
AT III; loc. 20 – A III; loc. 21 – AOU III; loc. 22 – A V; loc. 23 – ACO V; loc. 24 – A II; loc.25
ACOU IV; loc. 26 AO III; loc. 27 – A I; loc. 29 – A II; loc. 30 AT VI; loc. 32 – ACOTUV;
loc. 36 – A III; loc. 38 – AT V; loc. 39 – A IV; loc. 41 – A II; loc. 43 – ACOU IV; loc. 44 – AII;
loc. 47 – A I; loc. 48 – A II; loc. 51 – AT V; loc. 80 – A I; loc. 81 – A II; loc. 82 – AO II; loc.83
– A III; loc. 84 – A V. 2015: loc. 2 – AOT IV; loc. 86 – A III; loc. 89 – A I; loc. 90 – A II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 2 larvae 10, exuvia 1, adults 2 1.; loc. 13 exuvia 1; loc. 16
– exuvia 1; loc. 21 – exuvia 1; loc. 32 – exuviae 3 1; loc. 43 – exuviae 3 3; loc. 84
adults 2. 2015: loc. 2 – adult 1; loc. 86 – adults 2 1; loc. 90 – exuvia 1.
52. Orthetrum cancellatum (Linnaeus, 1758)
2014: loc. 4 – A II; loc. 6 – A II; loc. 7 – A III; loc. 11 – AT V; loc. 21 A I; loc. 28 – A II; loc.29
– A II; loc. 34 – A III; loc. 51 – AT III; loc. 52 – A II; loc. 58 – A II; loc. 83 – A II.
2015: loc. 7 – AT II; loc. 86 – A II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 7 – exuviae 2 1.
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53. Orthetrum coerulescens anceps (Schneider, 1845)
2014: loc. 2 A III; loc. 3 – A II; loc. 7 – AT III; 11 AT II; loc. 12 A III; loc. 13 – A II; loc.16
AT II; loc. 17 A I; loc. 19 – A IV; loc. 20 – A II; loc. 21 A II; loc. 22 – AT V; loc.23 – AIV;
loc. 25 – ACTUO VI; loc. 26 – A I; loc. 28 – A II; loc. 29 – AT IV; loc. 32 – A IV; loc.33 – AV;
loc. 34 – A VII; loc. 37 – A III; loc. 38 – A II; loc. 41 – A I; loc. 43 – AT III; loc.45 – ATU VI;
loc. 47 – A I; loc. 48 – A II; loc. 51 – ACOTU VII; loc. 60 – A I; loc. 71 – A III; loc.73 – A II;
loc. 75 ATU III; loc. 82 A II; loc. 84 A III. 2015: loc. 3 A I; loc. 45 AT II; loc. 86
ATII; loc. 90 – A II; loc. 95 – A II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 2 – adults 2 1; loc. 25 – adult 1, exuvia 1; loc. 33 – adults 1 1;
loc. 45 exuviae 15 18; loc. 51 – exuviae 1; loc. 58 – exuviae 2 2; loc. 75 – exuviae 3.
2015: loc. 45 – exuvia 1.
54. Orthetrum sabina (Drury, 1773)
2014: loc. 29 – ACO IV.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 29 – adult 1.
55. Selysiothemis nigra (Vander Linden, 1825)
2014: loc. 33 – A II; loc. 34 – A II. 2015: loc. 87 – A II.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 33 – adult 1.
56. Sympetrum danae (Sulzer, 1776)
2015: loc. 94 – A II.
Specimens: 2015: loc. 94 – adult .
57. Sympetrum aveolum (Linnaeus, 1758)
2014: loc. 45 – AU VI; loc. 49 – ATU VI; loc. 50 – ATU VI; loc. 54 – T VIII; loc. 55 – A I.
2015: loc. 52 – A VII; loc. 53 – A III; loc. 92 – A V; loc. 93 – A VII; loc. 94 – A V.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 45 – adult 1. loc. 50 – exuviae 22 14.
58. Sympetrum fonscolombii (Selys, 1840)
2014: loc. 9 A IV; loc. 10 A I; loc.11 A II; loc. 14 A I; loc. 16 T I; loc. 22 AU V;
loc.14 AT III; loc. 33 A III; loc. 34 A II; loc. 35 A III; loc. 36 ACO V; loc. 38
ACOV; loc. 39 – ACO IV; loc. 40 – A II; loc. 41– A III; loc. 44 – AT II; loc. 50 – A I; loc. 51
– A III; loc. 54 – A III; loc. 55 – A II; loc. 58 – A II; loc. 69 – A II; loc. 72 – A V; loc. 83 – A II.
2015: loc. 7 – A II; loc. 87 – A II; loc. 88 – A II;
Specimens: 2014: loc. 2 – exuvia 1; loc. 13 – exuvia 1. 2015: loc. 88 – adult 1.
59. Sympetrum meridionale (Selys, 1841)
2014: loc. 12 – A I; loc. 27 – A II; loc. 29 – AT V; loc. 43 – A I.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 27 – adult 1; loc. 58 – exuvia 1.
60. Sympetrum pedemontanum (Müller in Allioni, 1766)
2014: loc. 21 – A I; loc. 45 – A I. 2015: loc. 92 – A VII.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 21 – adult 1; loc. 45 – adult 1.
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61. Sympetrum sanguineum (Müller, 1764)
2014: loc. 13 – T II; loc. 16 – A II; loc. 19 – A I; loc. 21 – A II; loc. 25 – A II; loc. 45 – TU III;
loc. 49 – AT II; loc. 50 – T II; loc. 51 – AT III; loc. 58 – A I; loc. 78 – A I.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 51 – adult 1, exuvia 1.
62. Sympetrum striolatum (Charpentier, 1840)
2014: loc. 5 – A IV; loc. 8 – A II; loc. 9 – A III; loc. 12 – A III; loc. 13 – AT II; loc. 14 – A III;
loc. 15 A I; loc. 16 A III; loc. 17 A II; loc. 19 A III; loc. 20 T III; loc. 21 AT III;
loc.22 – A III; loc. 25 – T III; loc. 26 – T II; loc. 27 – A III; loc. 28 – A I; loc. 29 – A II; loc. 31
– A III; loc. 42 – A I; loc. 44 – A I; loc. 48 – T IV; loc. 51 – AT VII; loc. 58 – T V; loc. 62 – AI;
loc. 82 – A I. 2015: loc. 1 – AT V; loc. 2 – AT II; loc. 3 – AT III.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 20 – exuviae 3 1; loc. 25 – adult 1; loc. 51 – exuviae 4 2.
2015: loc. 2 – adult 1.
63. Sympetrum vulgatum decoloratum (Selys, 1884)
2014: loc. 51 – AT V. 2015: loc. 94 – A I; loc. 97 – A I.
Specimens: 2014: loc. 51 – adults 1 2, exuviae 3; loc. 53 – adult 1.
Discussion
Notes on selected species
Chalcolestes parvidens
All specimens (8 4) of Chalcolestes clearly belonged to parvidens as well
as several further individuals which could be clearly identied based on
photographs. is species is also known from Azerbaijan (D 2004;
S S 2014) and northeastern Turkey, where it is scarce
(K 2006; M  K 2008; S  S
2013). Yet it hasnt been found in Armenia (Tet al. 2004; A
T 2013).
B (1987) reported a single male of Chalcolestes from Pizunda (Ab-
khazia), situated at the Black Sea coast about 180 km north of our locality,
which he assigned to the nominate taxon of Chalcolestes viridis Lestes v.
viridis«) without any further indication. is record is doubtful as Geor-
gia is most likely not situated within the sympatric zone of both species
(J 1997; O et al. 2007). We therefore assume that all Georgian
Chalcolestes in fact pertain to parvidens. e same goes for old records list-
ed under Lestes viridis without further taxonomic indication (B
1930a).
Update of the Odonata fauna of Georgia, southern Caucasus ecoregion
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According to present knowledge C. parvidens seems to be uncommon in
Georgia. However it appears that the majority of available records of Chalco-
lestes cf. parvidens are located close to the Black Sea coast, suggesting that
the species might become increasingly scarce in the inland. e same pat-
tern can be observed in Azerbaijan with regard to the Caspian Sea, suggest-
ing that in the Transcaucasus C.parvidens prefers maritime climate, which
might explain its absence in landlocked Armenia (T et al. 2004).
Lestes macrostigma
Our two data represent only the second and third Georgian records of
Lestes macrostigma since its discovery near Veli in Abkhazia (S
1953). One of our two new sites was a shallow reedy lake with brackish
water (loc.7) typically for the species (J 1997; B et al. 2009)
whereas the second site (loc. 87) referred to a large reservoir lake with fresh
water. Other data of L. macrostigma available from the Transcaucasus are
limited and mainly old. Besides a historical record from the Russian city
Tuapse, not far from today’s Georgian border (B 1930a) and two
old Armenian records (A 1948, 1964), only one site each is cur-
rently known from Armenia and Azerbaijan (D 2004; A
T2013). In Turkey this species is only known from the western part
of the country and has never been found at the eastern Black Sea coast and
the provinces bordering Georgia (B et al. 2009). However, these poor
data do most likely not reect real frequency and abundance of species in
the region. Georgia oers numerous habitats which potentially meet the ec-
ological requirements of L. macrostigma, especially in Tbilisi and Kakheti
regions. It can therefore be assumed that this inconspicuous spring species
has rather been overlooked due to its phenology than being actually rare.
Lestes virens in Georgia: taxonomical status with reference to ssp.
marikovskii Belyshev, 1961
Lestes virens is apparently rare and localized in Georgia and only a handful
of records are available (B 1925, 1929b, 1930a). It seems to be rare
or scattered as well in the neighbouring countries Armenia (A
T2013), Turkey (K 2006) and Azerbaijan (J 1997: 85;
S S2014). e status of Western and Central Asian
A. Schröter, M. Seehausen, B. Kunz, A. Günther,
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populations of L. virens as well as the nature of several other European and
Maghrebian populations and taxa allied to this species remains unclear
(J 1997: 85 .; S et al. 2003; D 2006; S
2010b).
e following assessment on the taxonomical status of the Georgian male
collected on 02-vii-2014 at loc. 51 with reference to material of Lestes vi-
rens from adjacent Eastern Turkey and Central Asia was provided by RJ. All
comments on L. virens specimens of other proveniences than the Georgian
locality refer to the coll. Jödicke and coll. Schröter, respectively, to be depos-
ited in SMF, unless otherwise indicated.
A taxonomical assignment of the Georgian specimen is as dicult as it
is with all Asian virens forms. e virens complex is considered to be poly-
typic, consisting of dierent taxa on species and subspecies level (e.g., D-
 2006). e complex-specic phenomenon of successive melanisation,
colour change from bright to coppery green or copper red, and, in males,
development of pruinosity during maturation and ageing is not discussed in
this context, as the Georgian male is in an immature state.
Typical L. virens virens (Charpentier, 1825) is a West European insect with
a bicoloured Pt the distal third is whitish in the Portuguese holotype
and reduced green markings (H 1993), which strongly resembles
L.barbarus. e whitish sector becomes smaller to the East: In Catalonia it
is reduced to
/
of Pt length and to
/
in southwestern France or Sicily. An-
other phenotype from southern France, Corsica, Sardinia, and the Maghreb
has reduced green markings as well but no trace of a whitish Pt section. is
form has traditionally been subsumed under the name L. virens virens. S-
 et al. (2003) discovered that this latter form consists, at least in North
Africa, of two dierent species, which are phenotypically undiscernible, but
dierent regards genetics and adult life cycle: one starts reproduction with-
out prereproductive diapause, the other is late reproducing due to a long
estivation before maturation. However, S et al. (2003) have intro-
duced the new species name numidicus for the late form, although typical
ssp. virens was known for its long ying season until mid November (e.g.,
F R P C1984). In fact, the early repro-
ducing form from Algeria was actually unknown so far and thus in need of
a new name, while the given name numidicus to denote the late form must
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be judged to enter into synonymy of virens (J 2003). e existence
of two dierent phenological cycles have not been reported from Europe so
far, but might explain extreme early and late oviposition dates in Sardinia
(BK unpubl.).
S (1939) pooled all darker virens forms from Central Europe and
Asia Minor as a distinct subspecies and and saved the [oldest] available
name vestalis Rambur, 1842 for its denomination. e transition zone of
ssp. virens and ssp. vestalis is only roughly known and runs from the Tyrrhe-
nean Sea over the mouth of the Rhône River to the Gironde (J 1997:
85); there is no information about a possible overlap or a clear separation
of characters in that zone. In typical L. virens vestalis all green markings are
signicantly more extended. is applies to all characters mentioned in the
description above but most signicant are: (1) a bridge between dorsal and
pleural stripes, which shortens the ante-humeral stripe in its caudal section;
(2) the pleural stripe reaches the metapleural suture; (3) a coppery-black-
ish stripe alongside the upper edge of propleuron; (4) in males: melanisa-
tion mainly along the metapleural suture, on the prothorax and on S1 (sides
of tergum only) and S9+10 (complete) as basis for an extensive pruinosity.
However, these characters dont apply to all Central and Eastern European
populations, as the extension of metallic green tends to decrease successive-
ly to the South. For instance, series from the Peloponnes, Greece, are hetero-
geneous, with some specimens showing all true vestalis characters, others
being much paler and thus resembling the western nominotypical subspe-
cies, and also intermediate specimens. is is why the uttermost southeast
of Europe was not included to the range of typical ssp. vestalis (J
1997: 79f., 82).
e same dilemma is typical of series from Asia. e easternmost records
of L. virens stem from the Altai Mts., Russia (B 1964, 1973: 516). Its
eastern range also includes the Kazakh desert southeast of Lake Balkhash
(B ; B H 2007), the mountains of Tajikistan
and Kyrgyzstan (B  H 2007; S 2010b) and
northeastern Afghanistan (S 1961). Most Asian populations are
paler than typical vestalis; even a northerly population in West Siberia (Inya
River 100 km east of Novosibirsk) shows a distinct tendency to a gap be-
tween the pleural stripe and the metapleural suture and a slight tendency to
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completely open ante-humeral stripes. However, specimens from southern
Ural resemble the darkest vestalis phenotype known from northwestern Eu-
rope, e.g., Lower Saxony. e palest coloration is known from arid southern
Kazakhstan. A series from several localities in this region around the Ili and
Karatal River has been described as L. virens marikovskii (B 1961);
the author gave no detailed description but pointed out their small dimen-
sions. One syntype female attained to coll. Jödicke: with an abdomen length
of 25.5 mm and a Hw length of 19.0 mm it is not small. With its signi-
cantly reduced metallic green it is even paler than the palest individuals in
southeastern Europe and thus strongly resembles ssp. virens. Only the dis-
tinctive stripe over the propleuron, the darker head dorsum, the narrower
ante-humeral stripe and the more extensive patch on mesinfraepisternum
dier from the western taxa. In one respect, the metallic green is even more
reduced in the Kazakh female than in ssp. virens, i.e., the yellow streak at the
caudal end of the pleural stripe (Fig. 2: ep2) runs down from the humeral
fossa to the interpleural suture. is is a unique character seen in the virens
complex so far and is only shared with a series collected in about 500 km
distance in adjacent Kyrgyzstan (S 2010b).
e Georgian male (Fig. 2) is placed in between the dark and pale extremes
known from Asia. With its maximum extent of green on head dorsum, pro-
notum, propleuron, and mesinfraepisternum it resembles ssp. vesta lis. Its
anterior lobe of the pronotum is even darker than in typical vesta lis, where
the green is reduced to a broad median and two slimmer lateral stripes. On
the other hand, its ante-humeral stripe is almost open, and its pleural stripe
does not extend to the metapleural suture, which points at marikovskii. A
comparison between the Georgian male and 12 specimens from southeast-
ern Anatolia, Turkey, which have been collected only ca 400km south of the
Georgian locality and are deposited in ZSM (Zoologische Staatssammlung
München, Germany), demonstrates a great similarity. Within the Turkish
series there is some variability in the pigmentation of the ante-humeral
stripe in its distal end and in the extension of the pleural stripe towards the
humeral suture, also a slight tendency to smaller spots on the mes infra-
episternum. Unfortunately, there are no notes on the pigmentation of the
anterior lobe of pronotum but a photo of one male shows a complete green
pigmentation like the Georgian male. e only signicant dierence is that
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all 11 Turkish males, although being in a slightly advanced state of maturity,
have only traces of black pimentation alongside the metapleural suture. Such
a pigmentation type is unusual in vestalis and easterly populations; the most
extensive black band on the metepimeron has been seen in a male from Les-
bos, Greece. A Kyrgyz series (see S 2010b) is paler than the male
from Georgia and the specimens from southeastern Turkey. ey dont have
any green bridge across the ante-humeral stripe and their pleural stripe does
not reach the metapleural suture. eir metallic green is also more reduced
at occipital ridge, anterior lobe of pronotum, propleuron (stripe split into
two parts), and mesinfraepisternum. Kyrgyz specimens therefore look more
alike the marikovskii syntype but are smaller on an average.
e name marikovskii remained almost unused aer B (1973) but
has been picked up again by S et al. (2003) for »all populations be-
tween central Asia and central Europe«, by Cet al. (2007) for the
population of Kazakhstan and by S (2010b) to preliminarily de-
note the »distinct Central Asian populations by pragmatic reasons«. How-
ever, we have neither a dierential diagnosis, nor a geographic denition
of a possible ssp. marikovskii so far. is failure makes a usage of this name
so unsatisfying, even for the populations in Central Asia. It would make no
sense to dene ssp. marikovskii as the southeasternmost subspecies and ac-
cept a huge transition zone between Central Europe and Central Asia with
undenable virens forms as ever. Having seen so many virens phenotypes
we are convinced that any splitting in subspecies will not be a construc-
tive solution for a better understanding of all eastern forms. e tendency
of ssp. vestalis to become generally paler from North to South in Europe
also applies to the range in Asia: Here our preliminary analysis of all vi-
rens specimens kept in coll. Jödicke strongly suggests a clinal variation of all
characters separating the darkest and palest phenotypes. is cline would
run from Northwest with an Atlantic climate (mild winter, moderate sum-
mer) to Southeast with a continental climate (severe winter, hot summer).
Such a hypothesis is supported by the observation that specimens collected
in high altitude are generally darker than those from moderate altitude. A
further support comes from the fact that most characters may show a vivid
variation within a syntopic series. is especially applies to the most widely
used vestalis characters in identication keys: the green bridge across the
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ante-humeral stripe to connect the dorsal and pleural stripes and the ex-
tent of the pleural stripe as far as the pleural suture. We therefore suggest to
maintain the original denition of ssp. vestalis by S (1939) and to
understand the variability within this subspecies as a consequence of clinal
variation. In this tenor, the Georgian male and all other Asiatic forms be-
long to ssp. vestalis. e name marikovskii consequently drops into synon-
ymy of vestalis. It would be appreciated to test the cline by means of genetic
analyses across the Eurasian region.
Calopteryx splendens taxa complex
e intriguing and bewildering number of regional forms of Calopteryx
splendens (Harris, 1780) in the Caucasus region and both validity and scien-
tic content of many related infraspecic taxa has been, and still is, subject
of discussion (B 1930b; D et al. 1987; S et al. 2009;
S D 2014). At least ve taxa have been established to ac-
commodate the variety of C. splendens forms occurring in Georgia (B-
 1912b, 1930b; S 1953, 1975). In this study three taxa are dis-
tinguished for Georgia and treated on a subspecic level in the species list.
Besides the comparatively distinctive ssp. intermedia Selys, 1887, these are
ssp. mingrelica Selys, 1868 and ssp. tschaldirica Bartenev, 1909. Calopteryx s.
intermedia has by far the largest range of all taxa of the C. splendens complex
and, according to genetic studies, is one of the three core subspecies(be-
sides C. s. waterstoni Schneider, 1984 and C. s. xanthostoma [Charpentier,
1825]), which radiated independently in separated phylogeographic glacial
refugia (S 2008).
According to D et al. (1987), populations of ssp. mingrelica and
ssp. tschaldirica might in fact be the result of a genetic ow between ssp.
waterstoni Schneider, 1984, with entirely hyaline wings, from the northeast-
ern corner of adjacent Turkey, and the darkest regional form ssp. amasi-
na. On this account all individuals presented in our study assigned to ssp.
mingrelica or ssp. tschaldirica might alternatively be considered as hybrids
with wing spots of all kind of variation, extending between the two extreme
types waterstoni (entirely uncoloured hyaline wings) and intermedia (wings
fully coloured except bases). ey could therefore be subsummed formally
under Calopteryx splendens ssp. [trans intermedia ad waterstoni].
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However, even though the members of this complex are connected by
clines of dierent steepness, D et al. (1987) give support to treat ssp.
mingrelica and ssp. tschaldirica as regional subspecies. Here, we follow this
line of arguments despite ongoing hybridisation in the contact zones. Ac-
cording to our experience, on Georgian territory the three taxa form rec-
ognizable entities that can suciently be dened on the base of phenotype
and regional range.
Two other taxa were described as occurring in Georgia, ssp. cartvelica Bar-
tenev, 1930 and ssp. cecilia Bartenev, 1912 (sub C. intermedia cecilia). Ac-
cording to Bartenev the small range of the exclusively Georgian ssp. cartveli-
ca was centred in the historical region of Kartli (central-to-eastern Georgia,
including the capital area) and replaced to the East by ssp. cecilia. However
Figure 3. Two males of Calopteryx splendens intermedia from Georgia. The ex-
tension of the dark wing spot decreases gradually from east to west: The upper


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according to Bartenev’s description and our data obtained in this area, both
taxa clearly belong to the Selysian intermedia with large dark wings spots
covering the apices in males. e wing spots seem to dier marginally only,
if at all, in their extension, exceeding the nodus rather clearly (ssp. cecilia)
or ending at or before it (ssp. cartvelica). In Georgia, as a rule the extension
of the wing spots towards the base in ssp. intermedia gradually seemed to
reduce slightly from the East towards the West, besides some variation on
an individual level within populations. Specimens from beyond the Likhi
range at the upper parts of the Colchic depression might even be transition
types of mingrelica (Fig. 3).
In her compilation of Georgian odonate data S (1975) syno-
nymised C. intermedia cecilia with C. splendens cartvelica. On account of
our data we go one step further and in turn synonymise ssp. cartvelica with
ssp. intermedia and thus consider all Georgian populations of C. splendens
showing invariably entirely coloured wing apices as pertaining to this taxon.
is conclusion was (at least implicitly) also drawn by K (2006: 5),
who did not consider ssp. cartvelica in the list of the splendens taxa occur-
ring in the Caucasus region.
B (1912c) interestingly reported ssp. cecilia from the capital area
from where later also the type series of ssp. cartvelica was collected, indicat-
ing that the author’s trust in his own concept of these two taxa was rather
limited. e same applies to a later study of the same author, in which he
tried to give an up-to-date review on the issue but in the bottom line raised
more new questions than providing answers and objective facts (B
1930b).
Calopteryx splendens intermedia
is most widespread and abundant subspecies of C. splendens in Georgia
appears to be the only member of the C. splendens complex over large parts
of the lower regions of the eastern half of the country. Males have shiny
coloured dark blue to almost blackish wing spots covering the wing apices.
e basal border is always clear cut but the extension varies on both an
individual level and between populations. In toto they did not dier from
populations in southern Turkey usually ascribed to ssp. intermedia (AS un-
publ.). We understand all populations with large wing spots constantly cov-
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ering the entire wing apices as ssp. intermedia. e character »wing spot in
the FW starts more than 10 cells before the nodus« (K 2006) can
therefore no longer be maintained.
At two sites in the Alazani valley, in the Kakheti region in the East of the
country, we found androchrome females of C. s. intermedia that have never
been reported before from Georgia. Besides one single individual at loc.23,
we encountered such females more frequently at loc. 25, where an estimated
2 % of all females were androchrome. In all other parts of Georgia only fe-
males with more or less clear wings were observed and collected. Single fe-
males showed a light greenish or brownish tinting of whole wings but never
an androchrome colouration. ese results are rather unexpected since e.g.,
in southern Turkey androchrome females are very common. Along Turkey’s
southeastern coast locally all females are androchrome, e.g., near Adana
(D 2006) or between Alanya and Anamur (AG unpubl.).
Calopteryx splendens mingrelica
Males of C. splendens at the Black Sea coast showed deep blue wing spots
not entirely covering the wing apices, leaving at least a small part hyaline.
In 1868, based upon 2 from Mingrelia, a historical province in the sub-
tropical Colchic depression of western Georgia situated just a few kilo meters
north to the site from where our data were obtained, Selys described the tax-
on mingrelica. e wing spots of both males did not exceeded the nodi but,
indicatively, were heterogeneous in view of the apices, with narrow hyaline
outer edges in one male: »la partie terminale opaque des ailes ne commence
quun peu après le nodus (chez un exemplaire le bout des ailes est légèrement
hyaline(S1868: 106) [e opaque terminal wing part begins shortly
aer the nodus (in one specimen the wing tip is slightly transparent)].
Other data on ssp. mingrelica from the Georgian territory are scarce and
historical only (S 1868; B 1930b). To current knowledge, ssp.
mingrelica is conned to the western half of the Transcaucasian depression
and most probably does not cross the Likhi range (B 1912b, 1930b;
D et al. 1987). However as long as the nature of alleged ssp. inter-
media populations with individuals showing clearly reduced wing spots (in
this study preliminarily assigned to ssp. intermedia, see above) at the eastern
border of the Colchic depression towards the western foothills of the Likhi
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range remains unclear, also the course of the eastern limit of ssp. mingrelica
has to be le open.
Calopteryx splendens tschaldirica
At the middle and upper course of the Kura river and its tributaries within
the region of Samtkhe-Javakheti and bordering areas to the Shida-Kartli re-
gion, we encountered a distinctly small and dainty form of C. splendens with
comparatively narrow wings. Males had broadly hyaline wing apices and
small rather diuse blue spots not reaching the wing hind margin (Fig. 4).
While the wing spots faded out distally, their proximate border was distinc-
tively clear cut and straight. e matt blue wing spots strongly varied in size
and markedness and several males appeared to have almost entirely hyaline
wings with traces of a blue tinge only. e length of the males abdomen was
roughly a centimetre shorter than in average males of ssp. intermedia from
the adjacent capital area (31 mm; n = 8, vs 40mm in ssp. intermedia, n = 11).
ese males perfectly matched both the description and the distribution of
ssp. tschaldirica Bartenev, 1909, described from specimens collected in 1909
within the former Kars Oblast (Карсская область) of the Russian Empire,
on today’s Turkish territory (Ardahan and Kars provinces) at the source of
Figure 4. Male of Calopteryx splendens tschaldirica-

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the Kura river around Tschildir lake (”Чилдыр”; Turk. Çıldır Gölü) (B-
 1909). We therefore assign this form to ssp. tschaldirica, which is in
perfect accordance with descriptions and illustrations given by D
et al. (1987), who revealed the true nature and status of this taxon that had
been unclear for decades. is was probably due to individual unjustied
changes of its taxonomical status by Bartenev himself, who in 1912 treated
it as a ssp. of the Selysian taurica (B 1912: 80; cf. S 1853).
As stated by D et al. (1987), available data suggest that ssp.
tschaldiri ca is an altitudinal form centred on the volcanic plateau of the Ar-
menian highland from where it penetrates into the lower regions towards
the East along the course of the Kura, being replaced by ssp. intermedia
roughly west of Mzcheta. e western limit of its Georgian range remains
rather unclear; however, ssp. tschaldirica obviously does not enter deeply
into Adjaria and the Colchic lowland, where it is largely replaced by ssp.
mingrelica. What regards alleged ssp. tschaldirica reported from northeast
of Batumi by B (1930a), see D et al. (1987).
Calopteryx virgo festiva: on the availability of the name Calopteryx virgo
var. feminalis Bartenev, 1910
Calopteryx virgo has been rst mentioned from today’s Georgian territory
by E (1837) in a report on his expedition across the Colchic low-
land. He described the species as being abundant at brooks in forests of
Mingrelia (sub Agrion colchicum). Only a short time later C. virgo was re-
peatedly reported from Mingrelia by S (1868), who stated that it cor-
responded to Brullés taxon festiva. According to our data, Georgian C. virgo
indeed generally correspond to ssp. festiva in all characters described by
B (1832), with all blackish wings in males and conspicuously dark
winged females (B 1912b). e species appeared to be scarce and
localised in Georgia and to be strictly conned to the lowlands in smaller
abundances only. In adjacent Azerbaijan it seems to be very rare (S-
  S2014) and it has never been recorded in Armenia so far
(T et al. 2004; A  T 2013).
At loc. 60 we discovered a small population of C. virgo festiva with con-
spicuously dierent looking females, which had brightened, entirely trans-
lucent fore wings and two third translucent hind wings with contrasting
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dark tips and white pseudopterostigmata (Fig. 5). In single females the con-
trast of this colour pattern was even more pronounced than shown on the
photo and the basal borders of the dark tips were sharper delimited. ese
females were comparatively large (up to 54 mm total length) and, they strik-
ingly resembled females of C. haemorrhoidalis, a western Mediterranean
endemic. However, we also observed single typical coloured females ying
syntopically with this form at loc. 60.
In his publication on dragonies of the former Kuban oblast, B
(1910: 35) introduced the name »var. feminalis novbased on females
collected at Goryachy Klyuch (Горячий Ключ) on the nortwestern foot-
hills of the Caucasus range, north of Sochi, Russia. We here give the original
quotation of the Latin description: »alae anteriores pelucentes concolores,
posteriores triente apicali fasciâ introrsum rectilineatim atque argute termi-
natâ adumbratae« [forewings unicolour translucent, the outer third of the
hind wings with a straight-lined and clearly conned tinted band]. Barte-
nev’s description thus perfectly matched our haemorrhoidalis-like Georgian
females. Moreover, in the introduction Bartenev decidedly stated the simi-
larity of his newly described female colour form of C. virgo to C. haemor-
rhoidalis females. We are therefore sure that our females correspond to Bar-
tenev’s feminalis type females he collected some 300 km north of our site,
within the same climatic and natural unit along the humid subtropical east-
ern shore of the Black Sea.
e nomenclatural status of feminalis can be derived from the fact that
Bartenev introduced the name in combination with the term »var. nov..«.
He therefore clearly intended to denote a new, female-linked variety dened
upon the female only. Such third variety name in binominal taxa should be
regarded as subspecic if published before 1961 unless it is unambiguously
clear that it was proposed for an infrasubspecic entity (Code Art. 45.6.4.
ICZN; International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999). is
infrasubspecic rank in our opinion became unambiguous in 1930, when
the author used the heading »Calopteryx virgo festiva var. feminalis Bart«
in his compilation of the Odonata of the Western Caucasus (B
1930a). is agrees with the etymological aspect of the feminalis name. e
latter implicitly means ‘relating to females only’ as feminalis is an adjective,
newly created by Bartnenev, and composed according to the modular prin-
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ciple: femina – ‘woman/femaleand -(a)lis referring to(linguistic exper-
tise and translation kindly provided by H. Fliedner). us we can accept
that the infrasubspecic rank of feminaliswas implicit although not ex-
plicited already in the original (1910) paper and therefore has no nomen-
clatural status, making this name unavailable.
To our knowledge this female colour form has never been illustrated be-
fore and our data represent the rst detailed information on it since over a
century. e males of the population with feminalis-type females did not
deviate in any character from other Georgian populations of C. virgo festiva.
It is very likely that feminalis-types occur also along the adjacent Turkish
Black Sea coast. However, obviously this phenomenon occurs also outside
Caucasus region and in the cases of erratic records of alleged single females
of C. haemorrhoidalis as, e.g., the Bulgarian specimen presented by B-
 (1994: 62) almost certainly this female colour form of C. virgo
festiva was involved.
e only other reference in English language in which the name feminalis
was mentioned is the key to Turkish Odonata by K (2006: 10, 17).
Based on unpublished data by H.J. Dumont the author assumed that male
specimens with a whitish underside of S10 and a black one of S9 (instead of
S910 red as in typical C. virgo festiva) from Rize and Trabzon, deposited in
the RMNH, pertain to »subspecies feminalis« and, putting things into per-
spective, the author added: »information on the distribution of this subspe-
cies is scarce«. In the key feminalis is listed as a subspecies of C. virgo and set
apart from C. virgo festiva based on the male characters of the ventral abdo-
men tip. is assumption was incorrect as the description (B 1910)
strictly refers to the female and does not mention characters for males, us-
ing the name feminalis for an infrasubspecic variety of females exclusive-
ly. However, nature and status of the Turkish males of C. virgo mentioned
by K (2006) have yet to be le open. According to M et al.
(2011) males of C. virgo with both characters syntopically occur widely in
the region, disproving the existence of a second subspecies along the north-
eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey.
e similarity of these feminalis-type females to females of C. haemorrhoi-
dalis (Fig.5) raises the question whether this phenomenon is due to pure
evolutionary coincidence or a causal connection might be involved here.
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According to genetic analysis C. haemorrhoidalis and C. virgo are sister taxa
(M et al. 2000). is suggests that females of the feminalis type from the
Colchis at the eastern shore of the Black Sea might represent an atavistic an-
cestral female type with alleles inherited from the last common ancestor of
C. virgo and the Western Mediterranean C. haemorrhoidalis. According to
G B (2006: 206) in southern France single females of C. virgo
meridionalis can also look similar to C. haemorrhoidalis females.
Our records of the feminalis type of C. virgo festiva thus seem to be the
only ones on Georgian territory so far. However, in his compilation of odo-
nate data of the Western Caucasus B (1930a) combined all hitherto
known records of C. virgo festiva under the heading Calopteryx virgo festiva
var. feminalis Bart”, including records from Kobuleti on Georgian territory
and – particularly questionable from Mingrelia reported by S (1887).
Especially SelysMingrelian specimens have hardly been at Bartenev’s dis-
posal, which is why this statement can be rejected.
Figure 5. Female of Calopteryx virgo fesva of the colour form feminalis resem-
bling female C. haemorrhoidalis-

photograph by Stefan Kohl)
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Figure 6. Pair of Coenagrion armatum -

Figure 7. Stands of common spikerush Eleocharis palustris agg. at the southwest-
ern shore of Madatapa Coenagrion arma-
tum
A. Schröter, M. Seehausen, B. Kunz, A. Günther,
T. Schneider & R. Jödicke
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Coenagrion armatum
Our records of this species are one of the most signicant results of the ex-
pedition (Fig. 6). Our data represent the rst conrmation of C. armatum
on Georgian territory for over a century since this isolated regional popula-
tion in the mountain steppe of the Javakheti volcanic plateau in the Arme-
nian highland has been discovered by B (1909). He reported the
species from three of the shallow lakes of the plateau: Akhmaz lake (1 on
20-vi-1907), Madatapa lake (1 on 21-vi-1907), and Khanshali lake (9 6
on 19-vi-1907). e two latter localities correspond to loc. 52 and 54 in our
list. We could nd the species only at the Madatapa lake, yet in the range of
hundreds of individuals, a high abundance as compared to Bartenev’s single
male. Individuals found at the discharge (loc. 53) of Madatapa lake were
considered part of the lake population.
Located above 2000 m a.s.l. and with a surface of over 880 ha, Madatapa
lake had clear water. e sampled section at the southwestern edge of the
lake (loc. 52; cf. Fig. 7) was almost completely overgrown with both sub-
merged and emerged vegetation, namely Potamogeton natans, P. gramineus,
P. lucens, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Poligonum amphibium. A dense belt
of Carex acuta and C. vesicaria stretched 2050 m from the embankment
into the shallow water. With increasing distance to the shore this broad belt
of tall sedges was interrupted and merged into large patches of Eleocharis
palustris agg. in at least knee-deep water, interspersed with Sagitta ria sagitti-
folia, Utricularia vulgaris, and Lemna trisulca.
Helophytic vegetation of specic structure and density has previously
been reported to be a key factor for C. armatum in many sites of this spe-
cies (e.g., B K 2008; W et al. 2009), which can
be conrmed here. Whilst C. lunulatum also frequented the Eleocharis-
patches, C. armatum appeared to be separated from the tall sedge belt by
an invisible fence and obviously only Eleocharis fullled its microhabitat
requirements of vegetation structure. Regarding this and in view of altitude,
vegetation structure and the surrounding landscape character of an open
mountain steppe, the conditions resembled the second known southern
disjunct mountain population of C. armatum which was found in 2009 in
the Kyrgyz Tian Shan at a synclinal high valley (S 2010b). Both
the Georgian and Kyrgyz populations are geographically isolated from the
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main range of this transpalaearctic boreal species by vast deserts and semi-
deserts. From this we can assume that, apart from microhabitat vegetation
structure, treeless mountain steppe with continental climate above 2 000 m
a.s.l. might be the common denominator for the existence of southern relict
populations of C. armatum. e area examined by us and dened as loc. 52
covered only a small fraction of the extensive riparian vegetation along the
embankment of the large Madatapa lake. It can be assumed that the overall
local population of C. armatum in fact moves in the range of thousands or
tens of thousands. In view of the background of records recently report-
ed from the adjacent Armenia at about only 20 km distance (A
T2013; D R 2015), the Georgian population possibly
functions as source population for a network of smaller populations stretch-
ing into Armenia and – quite likely – Eastern Turkey, where the species has
been anticipated to occur by K (2006).
Coenagrion lunulatum
Coenagrion lunulatum was discovered in Georgia on the Javakheti volcanic
plateau of the Armenian highland by B (1909). Over a century lat-
er we conrm the occurrence of this species at two lakes already mentioned
by B (1909), where it turned out to be the most abundant odonate
species. Only four days later, on 06-vii-2014, the same species was also en-
countered at nearby Tabatskuri lake by R M C
G (2015). B (1912c) mentioned two other males collected by
K.A. Satunin on 23-viii-1906 on the Black Sea coast at Kobuleti, which, in
view of the phenology and geographical position, is more than doubtful. In
the Mediterranean, this Eurosiberian species is strictly conned to moun-
tainous areas (B et al. 2009), why a late August record of C.lunula-
tum from the subtropical Black Sea coast of the Colchic depression is er-
roneous with absolute certitude. All other few records available referred to
lakes of the Javakheti volcanic plateau or its slopes (B 1909, 1913).
us we assume that in Georgia, like C. pulchellum, also C. lunulatum is
generally conned to higher altitudes of Samtskhe-Javakheti region and
Georgian sites are part of a larger regional population including the adjacent
Armenian and Turkish parts of the high plateau (K  P
2006; A  T 2013).
A. Schröter, M. Seehausen, B. Kunz, A. Günther,
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Coenagrion ponticum
We encountered Coenagrion ponticum throughout the country, from sea
level to over 2000 m a.s.l, in the eastern Kakheti region as well as in the
south-central part and at the Black Sea coast in the very West. At two of
the six sites the species bred syntopically with C. puella. is is in contrast
to previous assumption that C.ponticum should be restricted to coastal ar-
eas of the Black Sea, being separated ecologically from C. puella by alti-
tude (B 1993). According to our current knowledge no clear pattern
of ecological separation of the two species could be recognized in Georgia.
e same seems to apply to adjacent Turkey (M 2011). Whilst in
Armenia only C. puella has been found yet (Tet al. 2004; A
T2013), C. ponticum has also been reported from middle altitudes
in Azerbaijan (D 2004). Together with our Georgian records, this
conrms the earlier suggestion of L (1993) that the species is de-
nitively not conned to the Black Sea region. us distribution pattern and
ecological dierentiation of C. ponticum relative to its regional congeners
C. puella and C. australocaspicum (for the latter see D 2004) remain
puzzling. e same applies to taxonomical and phylogenetical relationship
of C. ponticum, about which a wide range of opinions and concepts exist.
B (1993) in his thorough morphological analysis considered C. ponti-
cum to be a member of the puella group that includes C. puella, C. interme-
dia, and C. syriacum. L (1993) called this puella group, established
by B (1993), into question and doubted its monophyletic status. In
addition, S (1986) had already doubted the close relationship to
C. puella due to shape and position of the dorsal branches of the males up-
per appendages and considered C.ponticum to be closer to C. pulchellum
or at least emphasized a possible close relationship (cf. B 1987, sub
C.syriacum).
We have the impression that, besides the male appendages, Georgian
C. ponticum phenotypically appear to be rather close to C. pulchellum.
Males of C. ponticum showed extended black colour pattern on thorax (nar-
rowed blue ante-humeral stripes with distinctive necking at the distal half)
and abdomen (especially tergites 46), leading to a dark overall appearance
rather resembling more to the average colour type of C. pulchellum in Cen-
tral and Northern Europe than to C. puella (cf. Fig. 8). is was especial-
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ly obvious at sites where C. ponticum and C. puella occurred syntopically;
males of C.ponti cum were quite easily distinguished from males of its con-
gener even in the eld. Both species, C. ponticum and C. pulchellum, appar-
ently meet locally on the Javakheti volcanic plateau of the Armenian high-
land, although in very low abundances only. e overall similar appearance
of C. ponticum and C. pulchellum has been already outlined by B
(1929a) in his tabular comparison of the two species and in the last pas-
sage of his paper. erein he withdrew his own records from the Black Sea
coast, previously assigned to C. pulchellum, and stated that all older records
of C. pulchellum (and C. puella) from there most likely referred to C. ponti-
cum. erefore, alleged C. pulchellum with distinctively uninterrupted ante-
humeral stripes reported from Mingrelia by S (1869) appear in a new
light. On page 106, »Agrion pulchellum, Vander Linden« is annotated with
the comment: »Les dix exemplaires reçus appartiennent à la variété chez
laquelle la raie antéhumérale bleue () ou verdàtre () est entière comme
chez l’Agrion puella, L. et non interrompue en point d’exclamation. Cette
variété est au contraire peu fréquente en Europe«. is description clearly
Figure 8. Male of Coenagrion poncum

A. Schröter, M. Seehausen, B. Kunz, A. Günther,
T. Schneider & R. Jödicke
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points to C.ponticum, which was still unknown at that time and which in
Georgia invariably showed uninterrupted but clearly necked ante-humeral
stripes, sometimes reduced to a thin streak at the necking area at the distal
half, which came close to the exclamation markpattern mentioned by Selys
(Fig. 8 and above comment). Also S (1975) made the general re-
mark that western Georgian C. pulchellum might possibly be mistaken for
C. ponticum (sub »C. puella syriaca Mort.«).
Coenagrion pulchellum
Apparently Coenagrion pulchellum is rare in Georgia and hitherto only
one reliable record was available (B 1925), taken near the town of
Bakuriani at about 1600 m a.s.l. at the northern slopes of the Javakheti vol-
canic plateau. Data compiled by S (1975) referring to C. pulchel-
lum are partly misleading due to redundancy and circular reference. As ref-
erence for the site “BakurianiA (1948) is referred to who in
turn specied this site as Sakochaviwith reference to B (1925)
whereas Akramowskis specied information “Sakochavi” is subsequently
quoted as alleged second site by Shengelia. In fact both sites are the same
single one as the small lake near Bakuriani from where B (1925)
obtained his data on C. pulchellum is called “Sakochavi” (საკოჭავი). A fur-
ther record given by S(1975) from Kumisi lake, a reservoir lake at
477 m a.s.l. in hot semi-arid open landscape northwest of Rustavi intensively
used for shing by the local population (AS unpubl.), referred to larvae col-
lected by T. Kakauridze. Due to lack of knowledge of discriminating traits a
proper identication of larvae of the genus Coenagrion has to be considered
as impossible at that time. Even recent larval data in this area would appear
highly problematic from a today’s perspective as larvae of at least two of the
members of the C. puella species group potentially present in Georgia are
yet undescribed. is record therefore should be le unconsidered.
Older records of alleged C. pulchellum from the Black Sea coast near Ko-
bu leti published by Bartenev have later on been withdrawn by the author
himself (B 1929a, cf. 1930a). e already discussed C. pulchellum
specimens with uninterrupted ante-humeral stripes from Mingrelia report-
ed by S(1868: 106) with the outermost probability belonged to C. ponti-
cum as well. us, in Georgia C. pulchellum seems to be conned to higher
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altitudes of the Samtskhe-Javakheti region and mountain ranges of adjacent
Autonomous Republic of Adjara. Moreover it seems to be rare throughout
the Caucasus region and is apparently absent in Azerbaijan and rare in Tur-
key (K 2006; B et al. 2009; M et al. 2011) and Arme-
nia. ere it was recorded near Arpi lake at only about 20 km distance to
our loc. 53 on the Armenian highland plateau where, like in Georgia, it is
usually found in low abundances only (A  T 2013).
Coenagrion scitulum
Coenagrion scitulum is fairly common in the western part of Turkey but
becomes increasingly rare towards the East and is one of the least recorded
odonates in the Caucasus region (S B 2012). From Ar-
menia only one population is currently known (A  T2013).
e only two Georgian records were obtained in the 1920s by B
(1929b). e C. scitulum data provided by S (1975) are mislead-
ing due to redundancy and circular reference. Of the three mentioned sites,
Tbilisi, “Lisi lakeand “Cherepashye lake, the reference “Tbilisi” is cited
aer A (1948), who in turn referred to B’s (1929b)
“Lisi lake” (loc. 7 in our study) and “Cherepashye lake” (loc. 4 in our study),
both situated in the outskirts of Tbilisi. us, C. scitulum has actually been
found before at two sites only, the Lisi and the Cherepashye lakes by Barte-
nev, summed up under “Tbilisi” by Akramowski.
e three sites we add here were discovered more or less randomly besides
the road suggesting that this rather inconspicuous Coenagrion species has
probably been overlooked and at least in the eastern half of Georgia might
be less rare than expected.
Coenagrion vanbrinkae
is little known species is said to replace the closely related Coenagrion
ornatum (Selys, 1850) in the eastern part of Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Georgia, Iran, Syria, and Lebanon (L 1993, T et al. 2004;
K  2006; S M 2009; S
S2014; S D 2015; this study). Based on our
examination of 12 and 5 , Georgian populations of what has previous-
ly been assigned to C.ornatum in fact correspond to C. vanbrinkae sensu
A. Schröter, M. Seehausen, B. Kunz, A. Günther,
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L  (1993). Compared to C. ornatum specimens from Germany and
Greece, size and shape of male upper appendages diered, showing a dif-
ferent position and direction of the spine which caused a dierent shape of
the female pronota as well. ese dierences were rather subtle but consist-
ent. Recently examined specimens from Armenia and Azerbaijan agreed as
well to C. vanbrinkae (Tet al. 2004; SS2014).
As these morphological dierences are minor only, the taxonomic status
of C. vanbrinkae is debated (B K 2014). Due to lack of
genetic data, limited reference material and limited knowledge about the
morphological variation within C. ornatum s. str., which might be stronger
than the quite uniform series from Germany and Greece suggested, we cant
assess whether these dierences justify full species rank. For pragmatic rea-
sons however we list it under C. vanbrinkae.
Figure 9. Female of Coenagrion vanbrinkae-

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We found C. vanbrinkae at three localities whereas loc. 45 corresponds to
the only previously known Georgian site or its immediate environments
(B 1912a; B 1987; both sub C. ornatum).
At loc. 45 several females showed a distinctive pink colour form, includ-
ing several sexually active individuals (Fig. 9), which has not been reported
yet for C. ornatum. However, such a pink colour form of obviously mature
females has also been observed in Moroccan C. mercuriale (J.-P. Boudot and
S. Ferreira pers. comm.).
Enallagma cyathigerum
At least two males collected at loc. 35, a lake with high salinity (conductiv-
ity >20000 S]), show characteristics of the taxon risi Schmidt, 1961, which
is reported from Georgia for the rst time. According to O. Kosterin (pers.
comm.) our Georgian specimens represent the »intermediate between E. c.
cyathigerum and E. c. risi Schmidt, 1961«, possibly as result of introgression
with the nominate taxon (cf. K Z 2010). Enallagma c. risi
is found in the arid zones of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the West across
Central Asia to northeastern China in the East, where it typically occurs
in saline water bodies, whereas the nominate taxon prefers lakes at higher
altitudes in more humid climate (K 2004). In the transition zones
of rather humid mountain climate and forest-steppe, gene ow between the
two taxa widely occurs. is might well also be the case in the Caucasus
region and in Georgia in particular, which due to high geomorphological
diversity is characterised by a tight intermeshing of vegetation and climate
zones.
In this regard it appears to be noteworthy that B (1929a) described
»Enallagma cyathigerum var. rotundatum var. nov.« based on specimens col-
lected in the West Caucasus (Russia). According to Bartenev, rotun datum
should clearly dier from nominotypical cyathigerum from other localities
in the Transcaucasus, e.g., along the Georgian Military road. Although Bar-
tenev’s description of rotundatum is rather poor it might well be a senior
synonym of Schmidts risi and in consequence rotundatum would be the
valid name of the taxon (cf. K 2004). e locus typicus of Bartenev’s
rotundatum was a group of subalpine mire lakes not immediately brought
in accordance with the favourable habitat of E. c.risi elsewhere. According to
A. Schröter, M. Seehausen, B. Kunz, A. Günther,
T. Schneider & R. Jödicke
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Odonatologica 44(3) 2015: 279-342
O. Kosterin (pers. comm.) this issue is currently worked on and a rotunda-
tum topotype is under investigation.
Ischnura elegans
According to the distribution of infraspecic taxa of Ischnura elegans as out-
lined by S(1967), the areal of ssp. pontica Schmidt, 1938 should in-
clude Georgia. Both the description of ssp. pontica and S’s (1967)
elaborations in German language are unclear, confused, and partly contra-
dictory. With regard to Georgian specimens of I. elegans his denition of spp.
pontica remained incomprehensible to us. He personally reduced his taxon
pontica ad absurdum by stating that males of ssp. pontica are indistinguishable
from ssp. tuberculata, which in turn was said to be distributed from Finland
to Bavaria (p. 211). According to the author, females of all infraspecic taxa
of I. elegans generally do not dier structurally (p. 194). Several specimens of
I. elegans, which had been assigned to ssp. pontica by S (1954) were
now considered as pertaining to ssp. ebneri Schmidt, 1938 (p. 207f.) whereas
in the introduction Schmidt explicitly downgraded ssp. ebneri to a »Forma
atavistica« (p. 189), which should be found in disjunct populations from
Hokkaido (Japan) over Crete (Greece), southern Italy to Bonn (Germany)
(p. 208). Moreover, on the same page he stated that the denition of infraspe-
cic taxa of I. elegans have been made primarily for the purpose to support
the ‘Reinigsche Eliminationshypothese(R1938, 1939) he believed in
at that time (S1954). is hypothesis however is not applicable to
Odonata and other insects and has later on been thoroughly refuted (M
1967). us Schmidt’s infraspecic taxa of I. elegans have to be considered
just as a means to an end and not grounded on a scientic base. We therefore
are arguing to neglect them at all. For similar reasons, with regard to Azeiri
I.elegans S  S (2014) refrained from infraspecic sub-
division (see also K 2006: 11; B et al. 2009: 64). As the infra-
specic taxonomy situation is far from clear, a major revision is needed.
Pyrrhosoma nymphula
Besides our two ndings presented here loc. 45 corresponded to the site
mentioned in B (1987) or at least to its immediate environments
only one record from the historical Black Sea province Mingrelia (S
Update of the Odonata fauna of Georgia, southern Caucasus ecoregion
325
Odonatologica 44(3) 2015: 279-342
1869: 106, sub Agrion minium, Harris) and one recent record from south of
Borjomi are available (R1992). is record was taken close to our
loc. 50. us P. nymphula is obviously not only one of the rarest odonate spe-
cies of the country but its Georgian populations are apparently geograph-
ically isolated as the species is neither known from Azerbaijan nor from
Armenia (D 2004; Tet al. 2004; A T2013). In
Turkey P. nymphula is scarce as well and conned to the western half of the
country (K 2006; B et al. 2009).
Aeshna isoceles
Georgian A. isoceles showed extended yellow lateral thorax stripes and
well developed ante-humeral stripes, corresponding to ssp. antehumeralis
(Schmidt, 1950). However several other Aeshna species are known to show
extended yellow colouration with decreasing latitude (S 1887; A
1966; S 2010b, 2012). is tendency is thus probably just due to
warmer climate and therefore could hardly warrant a taxonomic status un-
less genetic dierences would appear (K 2006).
Aeshna serrata
e rst conrmation of A.serrata on Georgian territory for over a cen-
tury since its discovery by B (1909) at the same site, Madatapa lake
(loc.52). Our reconrmation of a thriving population of this aeshnid ap-
pears to be one of the most interesting results of the project. e main range
of A. serrata is situated along the belt of steppes, forest steppes and open
landscape of temperate Asia (P 1985, 1987; K  Z 2010)
and, with several isolated outposts and disjunct populations, appears to be
highly fragmented especially at its western edge (B  D 2009).
Besides single records from Armenia (A 1948, 1964) and an
old record from Van area in Turkey (M 1914) no data are available
from adjacent countries of the southern Caucasus ecoregion. However, a fe-
male reported from the Iranian West Azerbaijan province (R et al.
2013) may indicate that this species might in fact be more widespread in the
region. Targeted research at further lakes of the Javakheti volcanic plateau
of southern Georgia and adjacent areas of Armenia and Turkey might well
reveal further popula tions.
A. Schröter, M. Seehausen, B. Kunz, A. Günther,
T. Schneider & R. Jödicke
326
Odonatologica 44(3) 2015: 279-342
In view of size and morphology, Georgian specimens were virtually identical
to those from around the Baltic Sea. Compared to this European population,
however, the apparent absence of androchrome females at Madatapa lake site is
noteworthy (K 2010: 123; W M2014: 325).
Caliaeschna microstigma
Single males of C. microstigma from the same population demonstrate a
considerable tendency to reduced ante-humeral stripes. Several males had
only a small bluish patch le at the posterior parts of the stripes. Morpho-
logically neither adults nor exuviae however deviated from Turkish or Greek
individuals (AS unpubl.).
Gomphus schneiderii
e rst record for Georgia dates back to S (1887), who mentioned this
species from Mingrelia. In accordance with R (1992) we conrm
the presence of true Gomphus schneiderii for Georgia. All individuals col-
lected and photographed in view of morphology and colouration were typi-
cal G. schneiderii and showed no signs of transition towards the closely re-
lated G. vulgatissimus (cf. D K et al. 2013). ey were virtually identi-
cal to specimens from southern Turkey (AS unpubl.). e same applied for
all collected exuviae. We therefore assume that in Georgia only G. schnei-
derii occurs. e same seems to apply for adjacent Armenia, where only
G.schnei derii is known so far (T et al. 2004). However especially with
regard to several older records the overall picture on the status of both spe-
cies in the region remains puzzling. B (1930a) considered a male
from Maikop at the foothills of the Russian West Caucasus as »Gomphus
vulgatissimus trans ad Schneideri Selys«. In this assignment he also included
records from Mingrelia reported by S (1887), which seems to be fairly
curious as Bartenev hardly had these Mingrelian specimens at his disposal.
On the other hand, a male and female collected 1911 near Sighnaghi in the
Kakheti region of eastern Georgia were claimed to pertain to G. vulgatissi-
mus (B 1912a). Moreover a single male of G. vulgatissimus was re-
cently reported from Azerbaijan where also G. schneiderii is known to oc-
cur (S S2014). Reasons for this rather inconsistent
picture may be manifold. Restricted general knowledge about discriminat-
Update of the Odonata fauna of Georgia, southern Caucasus ecoregion
327
Odonatologica 44(3) 2015: 279-342
ing characters and the true nature of G. schneiderii at that time may have
played a role (K 2006: 51). Given correct determination, also single
migrants of Gomphus vulgatissimus may have been involved here and it ap-
pears to be possible that at least the contact zone of both species might run
through the eastern part of the Transcaucasian depression.
Gomphus ubadschii
is rare and little known gomphid (Data Decient according to IUCN Red
List criteria; cf. B  K 2014) was rediscovered at Rioni river
(loc. 73, 74), which drains the Colchic depression and ows into the Black Sea
near Poti, over 80 years aer a female of this species had been collected there
by B(1929a: »Poti, 22.VI.1928«, sub »Gomphus avipes var. lineatus
var. n.«). Two measured exuviae turned out to be rather large compared to
reference material of G. ubadschii from Asia Minor. With abdomen lengths
of 32 mm () and 34 mm () two adult specimens from loc.74 (dried in ac-
etone) were however rather in the lower range according to data provided by
S  M (1996: range for 3137 mm, 3240mm).
Due to high relief intensity of the Caucasus range and the high denuda-
tion rate the major rivers of Georgia transport huge loads of sediment. e
Rioni river is only 327 km long but transports annually about 8.3 million
tons of sediment that are accumulated along its course and raised to massive
sandy embankments (F 1973). At loc. 73 and 74 we found G. ubadschii
emerging at such embankments. Gomphus ubadschii could most likely be
found at several further stretches of the lower course of the Rioni river be-
tween Kutaisi and the river delta at the Black Sea coast near Poti.
is Georgian population of G. ubadschii at the Rioni river is remarkable
in several aspects. It is the northernmost occurrence of the species in the
Western Palaearctic and geographically isolated as the species has neither
been recorded in Armenia nor in Azerbaijan. e scattered Turkish records
are situated in the western half of the country (K   P 2006;
B et al. 2009). Moreover the Rioni river basin has perhumid sub-
tropical climate, which is in contrast to further populations elsewhere be-
tween Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and the deserts of Central Asia. erefore it
appears to be curious that in Georgia G. ubadschii has not yet been found
outside the perhumid subtropical Rioni basin; long stretches of several oth-